The invertase from Schwanniomyces occidentalis has been expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, purified and crystallized. The wild-type enzyme was also purified and crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 2.9 Å resolution.
Schwanniomyces occidentalis invertase is an extracellular enzyme that releases β-fructose from the nonreducing termini of various β-d-fructofuranoside substrates. Its ability to produce 6-kestose by transglycosylation makes this enzyme an interesting research target for applications in industrial biotechnology. The enzyme has been expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recombinant and wild-type forms, which showed different glycosylation patterns, were crystallized by vapour-diffusion methods. Although crystallization trials were conducted on both forms of the protein, crystals suitable for X-ray crystallographic analyses were only obtained from the wild-type enzyme. The crystals belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 105.78, b = 119.49, c = 137.68 Å. A diffraction data set was collected using a synchrotron source. Self-rotation function and sedimentation-velocity experiments suggested that the enzyme was dimeric with twofold symmetry.
yeast invertases; fructofuranosidases; glycoside hydrolase family 32
An extracellular β-fructofuranosidase from the yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous was characterized biochemically, molecularly, and phylogenetically. This enzyme is a glycoprotein with an estimated molecular mass of 160 kDa, of which the N-linked carbohydrate accounts for 60% of the total mass. It displays optimum activity at pH 5.0 to 6.5, and its thermophilicity (with maximum activity at 65 to 70°C) and thermostability (with a T50 in the range 66 to 71°C) is higher than that exhibited by most yeast invertases. The enzyme was able to hydrolyze fructosyl-β-(2→1)-linked carbohydrates such as sucrose, 1-kestose, or nystose, although its catalytic efficiency, defined by the kcat/Km ratio, indicates that it hydrolyzes sucrose approximately 4.2 times more efficiently than 1-kestose. Unlike other microbial β-fructofuranosidases, the enzyme from X. dendrorhous produces neokestose as the main transglycosylation product, a potentially novel bifidogenic trisaccharide. Using a 41% (wt/vol) sucrose solution, the maximum fructooligosaccharide concentration reached was 65.9 g liter−1. In addition, we isolated and sequenced the X. dendrorhous β-fructofuranosidase gene (Xd-INV), showing that it encodes a putative mature polypeptide of 595 amino acids and that it shares significant identity with other fungal, yeast, and plant β-fructofuranosidases, all members of family 32 of the glycosyl-hydrolases. We demonstrate that the Xd-INV could functionally complement the suc2 mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and, finally, a structural model of the new enzyme based on the homologous invertase from Arabidopsis thaliana has also been obtained.
The invertase from S. cerevisiae was overexpressed, purified and crystallized, and its preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis is reported at 3.3 Å resolution.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae invertase (ScInv) is an enzyme encoded by the SUC2 gene that releases β-fructose from the nonreducing termini of various β-d-fructofuranoside substrates. Its ability to produce 6-kestose by transglycosylation makes this enzyme an interesting research target for applications in industrial biotechnology. The native enzyme, which presents a high degree of oligomerization, was crystallized by vapour-diffusion methods. The crystals belonged to space group P3121, with unit-cell parameters a = 268.6, b = 268.6, c = 224.4 Å. The crystals diffracted to 3.3 Å resolution and gave complete data sets using a synchrotron X-ray source.
invertases; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
The yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous synthesizes the carotenoid astaxanthin, which has applications in biotechnology because of its antioxidant and pigmentation properties. However, wild-type strains produce too low amounts of carotenoids to be industrially competitive. Considering this background, it is indispensable to understand how the synthesis of astaxanthin is controlled and regulated in this yeast. In this work, the steps leading to the synthesis of the carotenoid precursor geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP, C20) in X. dendrorhous from isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP, C5) and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP, C5) was characterized. Two prenyl transferase encoding genes, FPS and crtE, were expressed in E. coli. The enzymatic assays using recombinant E. coli protein extracts demonstrated that FPS and crtE encode a farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP, C15) synthase and a GGPP-synthase, respectively. X. dendrorhous FPP-synthase produces geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP, C10) from IPP and DMAPP and FPP from IPP and GPP, while the X. dendrorhous GGPP-synthase utilizes only FPP and IPP as substrates to produce GGPP. Additionally, the FPS and crtE genes were over-expressed in X. dendrorhous, resulting in an increase of the total carotenoid production. Because the parental strain is diploid, the deletion of one of the alleles of these genes did not affect the total carotenoid production, but the composition was significantly altered. These results suggest that the over-expression of these genes might provoke a higher carbon flux towards carotenogenesis, most likely involving an earlier formation of a carotenogenic enzyme complex. Conversely, the lower carbon flux towards carotenogenesis in the deletion mutants might delay or lead to a partial formation of a carotenogenic enzyme complex, which could explain the accumulation of astaxanthin carotenoid precursors in these mutants. In conclusion, the FPS and the crtE genes represent good candidates to manipulate to favor carotenoid biosynthesis in X. dendrorhous.
Phaffia rhodozyma (sexual form, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) is a basidiomycetous yeast that has been found in tree exudates in the Northern Hemisphere at high altitudes and latitudes. This yeast produces astaxanthin, a carotenoid pigment with biotechnological importance because it is used in aquaculture for fish pigmentation. We isolated X. dendrorhous from the Southern Hemisphere (Patagonia, Argentina), where it was associated with fruiting bodies of Cyttaria hariotii, an ascomycetous parasite of Nothofagus trees. We compared internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-based phylogenies of P. rhodozyma and its tree host (Betulaceae, Corneaceae, Fagaceae, and Nothofagaceae) and found them to be generally concordant, suggesting that different yeast lineages colonize different trees and providing an explanation for the phylogenetic distance observed between the type strains of P. rhodozyma and X. dendrorhous. We hypothesize that the association of Xanthophyllomyces with Cyttaria derives from a previous association of the yeast with Nothofagus, and the sister relationship between Nothofagaceae and Betulaceae plus Fagaceae correlates with the phylogeny of X. dendrorhous strains originating from these three plant families. The two most basal strains of X. dendrorhous are those isolated from Cornus, an ancestral genus in the phylogenetic analysis of the host trees. Thus, we question previous conclusions that P. rhodozyma and X. dendrorhous represent different species since the polymorphisms detected in the ITS and intergenic spacer sequences can be attributed to intraspecific variation associated with host specificity. Our study provides a deeper understanding of Phaffia biogeography, ecology, and molecular phylogeny. Such knowledge is essential for the comprehension of many aspects of the biology of this organism and will facilitate the study of astaxanthin production within an evolutionary and ecological framework.
Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is a basidiomycetous yeast that synthesizes astaxanthin, which is a carotenoid with a great biotechnological impact. The ergosterol and carotenoid synthesis pathways are derived from the mevalonate pathway, and in both pathways, cytochrome P450 enzymes are involved.
In this study, we isolated and described the X. dendrorhous CYP61 gene, which encodes a cytochrome P450 involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. This gene is composed of nine exons and encodes a 526 amino acid polypeptide that shares significant percentages of identity and similitude with the C22-sterol desaturase, CYP61, from other fungi. Mutants derived from different parental strains were obtained by disrupting the CYP61 gene with an antibiotic selection marker. These mutants were not able to produce ergosterol and accumulated ergosta-5,8,22-trien-3-ol and ergosta-5,8-dien-3-ol. Interestingly, all of the mutants had a more intense red color phenotype than their respective parental strains. The carotenoid composition was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by RP-HPLC, revealing that the carotenoid content was higher in the mutant strains without major changes in their composition. The expression of the HMGR gene, which encodes an enzyme involved in the mevalonate pathway (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase), was analyzed by RT-qPCR showing that its transcript levels are higher in the CYP61 mutants.
These results suggest that in X. dendrorhous, ergosterol regulates HMGR gene expression by a negative feedback mechanism and in this way; it contributes in the regulation of the carotenoid biosynthesis.
Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous; Astaxanthin; Ergosterol; Sterol C22-sterol desaturase; Cytochrome P450
Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is a basidiomycetous yeast that is relevant to biotechnology, as it can synthesize the carotenoid astaxanthin. However, the astaxanthin levels produced by wild-type strains are low. Although different approaches for promoting increased astaxanthin production have been attempted, no commercially competitive results have been obtained thus far. A promising alternative to facilitate the production of carotenoids in this yeast involves the use of genetic modification. However, a major limitation is the few available molecular tools to manipulate X. dendrorhous.
In this work, the DNA assembler methodology that was previously described in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was successfully applied to assemble DNA fragments in vivo and integrate these fragments into the genome of X. dendrorhous by homologous recombination in only one transformation event. Using this method, the gene encoding astaxanthin synthase (crtS) was overexpressed in X. dendrorhous and a higher level of astaxanthin was produced.
This methodology could be used to easily and rapidly overexpress individual genes or combinations of genes simultaneously in X. dendrorhous, eliminating numerous steps involved in conventional cloning methods.
Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous; Astaxanthin synthase; DNA assembler
The crtYB locus was used as an integrative platform for the construction of specific carotenoid biosynthetic mutants in the astaxanthin-producing yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. The crtYB gene of X. dendrorhous, encoding a chimeric carotenoid biosynthetic enzyme, could be inactivated by both single and double crossover events, resulting in non-carotenoid-producing transformants. In addition, the crtYB gene, linked to either its homologous or a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter, was overexpressed in the wild type and a β-carotene-accumulating mutant of X. dendrorhous. In several transformants containing multiple copies of the crtYB gene, the total carotenoid content was higher than in the control strain. This increase was mainly due to an increase of the β-carotene and echinone content, whereas the total content of astaxanthin was unaffected or even lower. Overexpression of the phytoene synthase-encoding gene (crtI) had a large impact on the ratio between mono- and bicyclic carotenoids. Furthermore, we showed that in metabolic engineered X. dendrorhous strains, the competition between the enzymes phytoene desaturase and lycopene cyclase for lycopene governs the metabolic flux either via β-carotene to astaxanthin or via 3,4-didehydrolycopene to 3-hydroxy-3′-4′-didehydro-β-ψ-caroten-4-one (HDCO). The monocylic carotenoid torulene and HDCO, normally produced as minority carotenoids, were the main carotenoids produced in these strains.
α-Galactosidase from S. cerevisiae has been purified and crystallized in glycosylated and deglycosylated states. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.95 Å resolution from the deglycosylated form.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-galactosidase is a highly glycosylated extracellular protein that catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-galactosidic linkages in various glucids. Its enzymatic activity is of interest in many food-related industries and has biotechnological applications. Glycosylated and in vitro deglycosylated protein samples were both assayed for crystallization, but only the latter gave good-quality crystals that were suitable for X-ray crystallography. The crystals belonged to space group P4212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 101.24, c = 111.52 Å. A complete diffraction data set was collected to 1.95 Å resolution using a synchrotron source.
yeast; α-galactosidases; melibiase; glycoside hydrolase family 27; glycosylation
An exo-β-d-glucosaminidase from T. reesei (Gls93) has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Diffraction data have been collected using synchrotron radiation.
Chitosan is degraded to glucosamine (GlcN) by chitosanase and exo-β-d-glucosaminidase (GlcNase). GlcNase from Trichoderma reesei (Gls93) is a 93 kDa extracellular protein composed of 892 amino acids. The enzyme liberates GlcN from the nonreducing end of the chitosan chain in an exo-type manner and belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 2. For crystallographic investigations, Gls93 was overexpressed in Pichia pastoris cells. The recombinant Gls93 had two molecular forms of ∼105 kDa (Gls93-F1) and ∼100 kDa (Gls93-F2), with the difference between them being caused by N-glycosylation. Both forms were crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals of Gls93-F1 belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 98.27, b = 98.42, c = 108.28 Å, and diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution. Crystals of Gls93-F2 belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 67.84, b = 81.62, c = 183.14 Å, and diffracted to 2.4 Å resolution. Both crystal forms were suitable for X-ray structure analysis at high resolution.
exo-β-d-glucosaminidases; exochitosanases; Gls93; Trichoderma reesei
To determine whether Saccharomyces cerevisiae can serve as a host for efficient carotenoid and especially β-carotene production, carotenogenic genes from the carotenoid-producing yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous were introduced and overexpressed in S. cerevisiae. Because overexpression of these genes from an episomal expression vector resulted in unstable strains, the genes were integrated into genomic DNA to yield stable, carotenoid-producing S. cerevisiae cells. Furthermore, carotenoid production levels were higher in strains containing integrated carotenogenic genes. Overexpression of crtYB (which encodes a bifunctional phytoene synthase and lycopene cyclase) and crtI (phytoene desaturase) from X. dendrorhous was sufficient to enable carotenoid production. Carotenoid production levels were increased by additional overexpression of a homologous geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) synthase from S. cerevisiae that is encoded by BTS1. Combined overexpression of crtE (heterologous GGPP synthase) from X. dendrorhous with crtYB and crtI and introduction of an additional copy of a truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase gene (tHMG1) into carotenoid-producing cells resulted in a successive increase in carotenoid production levels. The strains mentioned produced high levels of intermediates of the carotenogenic pathway and comparable low levels of the preferred end product β-carotene, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. We finally succeeded in constructing an S. cerevisiae strain capable of producing high levels of β-carotene, up to 5.9 mg/g (dry weight), which was accomplished by the introduction of an additional copy of crtI and tHMG1 into carotenoid-producing yeast cells. This transformant is promising for further development toward the biotechnological production of β-carotene by S. cerevisiae.
The yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous synthesizes astaxanthin, a carotenoid with high commercial interest. The proposed biosynthetic route in this organism is isopentenyl-pyrophosphate (IPP) → geranyleranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) → phytoene → lycopene → β-carotene → astaxanthin. Recently, it has been published that the conversion of β-carotene into astaxanthin requires only one enzyme, astaxanthin synthase or CrtS, encoded by crtS gene. This enzyme belongs to the cytochrome P450 protein family.
In this work, a crtR gene was isolated from X. dendrorhous yeast, which encodes a cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) that provides CrtS with the necessary electrons for substrate oxygenation. We determined the structural organization of the crtR gene and its location in the yeast electrophoretic karyotype. Two transformants, CBSTr and T13, were obtained by deleting the crtR gene and inserting a hygromycin B resistance cassette. The carotenoid composition of the transformants was altered in relation to the wild type strain. CBSTr forms yellow colonies because it is unable to produce astaxanthin, hence accumulating β-carotene. T13 forms pale colonies because its astaxanthin content is reduced and its β-carotene content is increased.
In addition to the crtS gene, X. dendrorhous requires a novel gene, crtR, for the conversion of β-carotene to astaxanthin.
The red carotenoid astaxanthin possesses higher antioxidant activity than other carotenoids and has great commercial potential for use in the aquaculture, pharmaceutical, and food industries. In this study, we produced astaxanthin in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by introducing the genes involved in astaxanthin biosynthesis of carotenogenic microorganisms. In particular, expression of genes of the red yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous encoding phytoene desaturase (crtI product) and bifunctional phytoene synthase/lycopene cyclase (crtYB product) resulted in the accumulation of a small amount of β-carotene in S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) synthase from S. cerevisiae (the BTS1 gene product) increased the intracellular β-carotene levels due to the accelerated conversion of farnesyl pyrophosphate to GGPP. Introduction of the X. dendrorhous crtS gene, encoding astaxanthin synthase, assumed to be the cytochrome P450 enzyme, did not lead to astaxanthin production. However, coexpression of CrtS with X. dendrorhous CrtR, a cytochrome P450 reductase, resulted in the accumulation of a small amount of astaxanthin. In addition, the β-carotene-producing yeast cells transformed by the bacterial genes crtW and crtZ, encoding β-carotene ketolase and hydroxylase, respectively, also accumulated astaxanthin and its intermediates, echinenone, canthaxanthin, and zeaxanthin. Interestingly, we found that these ketocarotenoids conferred oxidative stress tolerance on S. cerevisiae cells. This metabolic engineering has potential for overproduction of astaxanthin and breeding of novel oxidative stress-tolerant yeast strains.
The trehalulose synthase MutB from P. mesoacidophila MX-45 has been crystallized in two different crystal forms and diffraction data have been collected to 1.6 and 1.8 Å, respectively.
The trehalulose synthase (MutB) from Pseudomonas mesoacidophila MX-45, belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 13, catalyses the isomerization of sucrose to trehalulose (α-d-glucosylpyranosyl-1,1-d-fructofuranose) and isomaltulose (α-d-glucosylpyranosyl-1,6-d-fructofuranose) as main products and glucose and fructose in residual amounts from the hydrolytic reaction. To date, a three-dimensional structure of a sucrose isomerase that produces mainly trehalulose, as is the case for MutB, has been lacking. Crystallographic studies of this 64 kDa enzyme have therefore been initiated in order to contribute to the understanding of the molecular basis of sucrose decomposition, isomerization and of the selectivity of this enzyme that leads to the formation of different products. The MutB protein has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Two different crystal forms have been obtained: one diffracts X-rays to 1.6 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation and belongs to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 63.8, b = 72.0, c = 82.2 Å, α = 67.5, β = 73.1, γ = 70.8°, while the other form diffracts to 1.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation and belongs to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 63.7, b = 85.9, c = 119.7 Å, β = 97.7°. A molecular-replacement solution has been found using the structure of the isomaltulose synthase (PalI) from Klebsiella sp. LX3 as a search model.
isomerases; hydrolases; trehalulose synthase
A purified blue-light-absorbing proteorhodopsin D97N mutant protein (BPR_D97N) has been crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method.
Proteorhodopsins (PRs), seven-transmembrane chromoproteins with retinal as a chromophore, are light-driven proton pumps. To elucidate the light-driven proton-pumping mechanism of PRs, a pET28a vector containing the blue-light-absorbing proteorhodopsin (BPR) gene was constructed and the protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The protein was purified by immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). The purified BPR D97N mutant protein (BPR_D97N) was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. Preliminary X-ray diffraction data analysis showed that the crystal belonged to the orthorhombic space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 161.6, b = 168.6, c = 64.7 Å. A complete data set was collected to 3.3 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation on beamline X06 of the Swiss Light Source (SLS). Molecular replacement was unsuccessful. To solve the structure of BPR_D97N by experimental phasing, selenomethionine-substituted protein crystals were prepared. These crystals diffracted to 3.0 Å resolution and a complete data set was collected on beamline BL17U of the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). Heavy-atom substructure determination and phasing by SAD clearly showed that the crystal contained five molecules in the asymmetric unit, with a V
M of 3.26 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 62.3%.
The flavin-dependent enzyme FerB from P. denitrificans has been purified and both native and SeMet-substituted FerB have been crystallized. The two variants crystallized in two different crystallographic forms belonging to the monoclinic space group P21 and the orthorhombic space group P21212, respectively. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.75 Å resolution for both forms.
The flavin-dependent enzyme FerB from Paracoccus denitrificans reduces a broad range of compounds, including ferric complexes, chromate and most notably quinones, at the expense of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide cofactors NADH or NADPH. Recombinant unmodified and SeMet-substituted FerB were crystallized under similar conditions by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with microseeding using PEG 4000 as the precipitant. FerB crystallized in several different crystal forms, some of which diffracted to approximately 1.8 Å resolution. The crystals of native FerB belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.6, b = 110.1, c = 65.2 Å, β = 118.2° and four protein molecules in the asymmetric unit, whilst the SeMet-substituted form crystallized in space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.2, b = 89.2, c = 71.5 Å and two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit. Structure determination by the three-wavelength MAD/MRSAD method is now in progress.
flavoenzymes; quinone reductases; Paracoccus denitrificans
N. tabacum class V chitinase has been crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.2 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source.
The plant chitinases, which have been implicated in self-defence against pathogens, are divided into at least five classes (classes I, II, III, IV and V). Although the crystal structures of several plant chitinases have been solved, no crystal structure of a class V chitinase has been reported to date. Here, the crystallization of Nicotiana tabacum class V chitinase (NtChiV) using the vapour-diffusion method is reported. The NtChiV crystals diffracted to 1.2 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at the Photon Factory. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 62.4, b = 120.3, c = 51.9 Å. The asymmetric unit of the crystals is expected to contain one molecule.
Nicotiana tabacum; defence proteins; class V chitinases
Occurrence of extrachromosomal dsRNA elements has been described in the red-yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, with numbers and sizes that are highly variable among strains with different geographical origin. The studies concerning to the encapsidation in viral-like particles and dsRNA-curing have suggested that some dsRNAs are helper viruses, while others are satellite viruses. However, the nucleotide sequences and functions of these dsRNAs are still unknown. In this work, the nucleotide sequences of four dsRNAs of the strain UCD 67–385 of X. dendrorhous were determined, and their identities and genome structures are proposed. Based on this molecular data, the dsRNAs of different strains of X. dendrorhous were analyzed.
The complete sequences of L1, L2, S1 and S2 dsRNAs of X. dendrorhous UCD 67–385 were determined, finding two sequences for L1 dsRNA (L1A and L1B). Several ORFs were uncovered in both S1 and S2 dsRNAs, but no homologies were found for any of them when compared to the database. Instead, two ORFs were identified in each L1A, L1B and L2 dsRNAs, whose deduced amino acid sequences were homologous with a major capsid protein (5’-ORF) and a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3’-ORF) belonging to the Totiviridae family. The genome structures of these dsRNAs are characteristic of Totiviruses, with two overlapped ORFs (the 3’-ORF in the −1 frame with respect to the 5’-ORF), with a slippery site and a pseudoknot in the overlapped regions. These structures are essential for the synthesis of the viral polymerase as a fusion protein with the viral capsid protein through −1 ribosomal frameshifting. In the RNase protection analysis, all the dsRNAs in the four analyzed X. dendrorhous strains were protected from enzymatic digestion. The RT-PCR analysis revealed that, similar to strain UCD 67–385, the L1A and L1B dsRNAs coexist in the strains VKM Y-2059, UCD 67–202 and VKM Y-2786. Furthermore, determinations of the relative amounts of L1 dsRNAs using two-step RT-qPCR revealed a 40-fold increment of the ratio L1A/L1B in the S2 dsRNA-cured strain compared to its parental strain.
Three totiviruses, named as XdV-L1A, XdV-L1B and XdV-L2, were identified in the strain UCD 67–385 of X. dendrorhous. The viruses XdV-L1A and XdV-L1B were also found in other three X. dendrorhous strains. Our results suggest that the smaller dsRNAs (named XdRm-S1 and XdRm-S2) of strain UCD 67–385 are satellite viruses, and particularly that XdRm-S2 is a satellite of XdV-L1A.
X. dendrorhous; dsRNA; Totivirus; Mycovirus
Red yeast, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma) is the only yeast known to produce astaxanthin, an anti-oxidant isoprenoid (carotenoid) that is widely used in the aquaculture, food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Recently, the potential of this microorganism as a platform cell factory for isoprenoid production has been recognized because of high flux through its native terpene pathway. Addition of mevalonate, the common precursor for isoprenoid biosynthesis, has been shown to be critical to enhance the astaxanthin content in X. dendrorhous. However, addition of mevalonate is unrealistic during industrial isoprenoid production because it is an unstable and costly chemical. Therefore, up-regulating the intracellular mevalonate supply by enhancing the mevalonate synthetic pathway though genetic engineering is a promising strategy to improve isoprenoid production in X. dendrorhous. However, a system to strongly express multiple genes has been poorly developed for X. dendrorhous.
Here, we developed a multiple gene expression system using plasmids containing three strong promoters in X. dendrorhous (actin, alcohol dehydrogenase and triose-phosphate isomerase) and their terminators. Using this system, three mevalonate synthetic pathway genes encoding acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, HMG-CoA synthase and HMG-CoA reductase were overexpressed at the same time. This triple overexpressing strain showed an increase in astaxanthin production compared with each single overexpressing strain. Additionally, this triple overexpression of mevalonate synthetic pathway genes together with genes involved in β-carotene and astaxanthin synthesis showed a synergetic effect on increasing astaxanthin production. Finally, astaxanthin production was enhanced by 2.1-fold compared with the parental strain without a reduction of cell growth.
We developed a system to strongly overexpress multiple genes in X. dendrorhous. Using this system, the synthetic pathway of mevalonate, a common substrate for isoprenoid biosynthesis, was enhanced, causing an increase in astaxanthin production. Combining this multiple gene overexpression system with a platform strain that overproduces mevalonate has the potential to improve industrial production of various isoprenoids in X. dendrorhous.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12934-014-0175-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Isoprenoid; Carotenoid; Astaxanthin; Mevalonate; Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous; Phaffia rhodozyma; Metabolic engineering; Cell factory
The yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is used for the microbiological production of the antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin. In this study, we established an optimal protocol for protein extraction and performed the first proteomic analysis of the strain ATCC 24230. Protein profiles before and during the induction of carotenogenesis were determined by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and proteins were identified by mass spectrometry.
Among the approximately 600 observed protein spots, 131 non-redundant proteins were identified. Proteomic analyses allowed us to identify 50 differentially expressed proteins that fall into several classes with distinct expression patterns. These analyses demonstrated that enzymes related to acetyl-CoA synthesis were more abundant prior to carotenogenesis. Later, redox- and stress-related proteins were up-regulated during the induction of carotenogenesis. For the carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes mevalonate kinase and phytoene/squalene synthase, we observed higher abundance during induction and/or accumulation of carotenoids. In addition, classical antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase and the cytosolic superoxide dismutases, were not identified.
Our results provide an overview of potentially important carotenogenesis-related proteins, among which are proteins involved in carbohydrate and lipid biosynthetic pathways as well as several redox- and stress-related proteins. In addition, these results might indicate that X. dendrorhous accumulates astaxanthin under aerobic conditions to scavenge the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during metabolism.
A fructokinase from V. cholerae O395 has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized in the apo form; the crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P21212 and diffracted to 2.45 Å resolution. Fructokinase with ADP and fructose bound has also been crystallized and the crystals diffracted to a resolution of 1.75 Å.
Fructokinase (FK), one of the crucial enzymes for sugar metabolism in bacterial systems, catalyses the unidirectional phosphorylation reaction from fructose to fructose 6-phosphate, thereby allowing parallel entry of fructose into glycolysis beside glucose. The cscK gene from Vibrio cholerae O395 coding for the enzyme FK has been cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified using Ni–NTA affinity chromatography. Crystals of V. cholerae FK (Vc-FK) and its cocrystal with fructose, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and Mg2+ were grown in the presence of polyethylene glycol 6000 and diffracted to 2.45 and 1.75 Å resolution, respectively. Analysis of the diffraction data showed that both crystal forms have symmetry consistent with space group P21212, but with different unit-cell parameters. Assuming the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit, the Matthews coefficient for the apo Vc-FK crystals was estimated to be 2.4 Å3 Da−1, which corresponds to a solvent content of 48%. The corresponding values for the ADP- and sugar-bound Vc-FK crystals were 2.1 Å3 Da−1 and 40%, respectively, assuming the presence of one molecule in the asymmetric unit.
Vibrio cholerae; fructokinase; fructose; ATP
Astaxanthin is a xanthophyll of great interest in animal nutrition and human health. The market prospect in the nutraceutics industries for this health-protective molecule is very promising. Astaxanthin is synthesized by several bacteria, algae and plants from β-carotene by the sequential action of two enzymes: a β-carotene, 3,3'-hydroxylase that introduces an hydroxyl group at the 3 (and 3') positions of each of the two β-ionone rings of β-carotene, and a β-carotene ketolase that introduces keto groups at carbons 4 and 4' of the β-ionone rings. Astaxanthin is also produced by the yeast-like basidiomycete Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. A gene crtS involved in the conversion of β-carotene to astaxanthin has been cloned simultaneously by two research groups. Complementation studies of X. dendrorhous mutants and expression analysis in Mucor circinelloides reveals that the CrtS enzyme is a β-carotene hydroxylase of the P-450 monooxygenase family that converts β-carotene to the hydroxylated derivatives β-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin, but it does not form astaxanthin or the ketolated intermediates in this fungus. A bifunctional β-carotene hydroxylase-ketolase activity has been proposed for the CrtS protein. The evidence for and against this hypothesis is analyzed in detail in this review.
Recombinant human E1 enzyme has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffraction-quality crystals were grown at 291 K using PEG 4000 as precipitant.
Enolase-phosphatase E1 (MASA) is a bifunctional enzyme in the ubiquitous methionine-salvage pathway and catalyzes the continuous reaction of 2,3-diketo-5-methylthio-1-phosphopentane to yield the acireductone metabolite. Recombinant human E1 enzyme has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffraction-quality crystals were grown at 291 K using PEG 4000 as precipitant. Diffraction data were collected to 1.7 Å resolution from SeMet-derivative crystals at 100 K using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belong to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 54.02, b = 57.55, c = 87.32 Å. The structure was subsequently solved by the multi-wavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) phasing method.
enolase-phosphatase E1; methionine salvage
Sucrase activity was studied in 13 strains of Streptococcus mutans representing the five Bratthall serotypes. Sucrose-adapted cells have sucrase activity in the 37,000 × g-soluble fraction of all strains. The enzyme was identified as invertase (β-d-fructofuranoside fructohydrolase; EC 184.108.40.206) because it hydrolyzed the β-fructofuranoside trisaccharide raffinose, giving fructose and melibiose as its products, and because it hydrolyzed the β-fructofuranoside dissacharide sucrose, giving equimolar glucose and fructose as its products. Invertases of c and e strains exhibit two activity peaks by molecular exclusion chromatography with molecular weights of 45,000 to 50,000 and about 180,000; those of serotypes a, b, and d strains exhibit only a single component of 45,000 to 50,000 molecular weight. The electrophoretic mobility of invertases is different between the serotypes and the same within them. Inorganic orthophosphate (Pi) has a weak positive effect on the Vmax of invertases of serotypes c and e cells but a strong positive effect on the invertases of serotype b cells; Pi has a strong positive effect on the apparent Km of the invertases of serotype d cells, but has no effect on the Vmax; Pi has a strong positive effect on both the apparent Km and Vmax of the invertases of serotype a cells. Thus, the invertases were different between all of the serotypes but similar within the serotypes. These findings support the taxonomic schemes of Coykendall and of Bratthall. It was additionally noted that 37,000 × g-soluble fractions of only serotypes b and c but not serotypes a, d, and e cells have melibiase activity, and it could be deduced that serotype d cells lack an intact raffinose permease system.
X-ray diffraction data have been collected from crystals of recombinant sugar cane phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (PRS) and analysis has revealed its quaternary structure, localizing this PRS into the class of enzymes forming an hexameric oligomer of 223 kDa.
Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthases (PRS; EC 220.127.116.11) are enzymes that are of central importance in several metabolic pathways in all cells. The sugar cane PRS enzyme contains 328 amino acids with a molecular weight of 36.6 kDa and represents the first plant PRS to be crystallized, as well as the first phosphate-independent PRS to be studied in molecular detail. Sugar cane PRS was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Using X-ray diffraction experiments it was determined that the crystals belong to the orthorhombic system, with space group P21212 and unit-cell parameters a = 213.2, b = 152.6, c = 149.3 Å. The crystals diffract to a maximum resolution of 3.3 Å and a complete data set to 3.5 Å resolution was collected and analysed.
phosphoribosylpyrophosphate; PRPP synthase; sugar cane