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1.  Spontaneous Resolution of Paraparesis Because of Acute Spontaneous Thoracolumbar Epidural Hematoma 
Symptomatic spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma(SSEH) is an uncommon cause of cord compression that commonly is considered as an indication for emergent surgical decompression. We aimed to investigate a patient with a SSEH that completely resolved clinically and radiographically, without surgical treatment. The patient presented three days after the sudden onset of back pain, numbness, and weakness. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) revealed a posterior thoracolumbar epidural hematoma extending from the level of T10 to L2 with significant cord compression. Decompression was recommended but he refused surgery and was managed conservatively. One month later, weakness totally recovered and hematoma was absent on MRI.
PMCID: PMC3372017  PMID: 22737554
Spinal epidural hematoma; Cord compression; Conservative therapy
2.  Spontaneous epidural hematoma of thoracic spine presenting as Brown-Séquard syndrome: report of a case with review of the literature 
Background
Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is an uncommon clinical entity. It produces a severe neurological deficit and prompt decompression is usually the first choice of treatment. Brown-Séquard syndrome is commonly seen in the setting of spinal trauma or an extramedullary spinal neoplasm, but rarely caused by SSEH.
Methods
Case report and literature review.
Findings
A previously healthy man presented with Brown-Séquard syndrome below T5–T6 cord segment secondary to spontaneous epidural hematoma. He opted for conservative treatment, which was followed by rapid resolution.
Conclusions
Although Brown-Séquard syndrome as a presenting feature of SSEH is rare, it does exist in exceptional case, which should be taken into consideration for differential diagnosis. Prompt surgical decompression is an absolute surgical indication widely accepted for patient with progressive neurological deficit. However, SSEH presenting with incomplete neurological insult such as Brown-Séquard syndrome might have a benign course. Successful non-operative management of this problem does not make it a standard of care, and surgical decompression remains the standard treatment for SSEH.
doi:10.1179/107902611X13069205199468
PMCID: PMC3152816  PMID: 21903018
Spinal epidural hematoma; Brown-Séquard syndrome; Thoracic vertebra; Spinal cord; Methylprednisolone; Paraparesis
3.  Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Hematoma in an Infant : A Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is rare in children, especially in infants, in whom only 12 cases have been reported. Because of the nonspecificity of presenting symptoms in children, the diagnosis may be delayed. We report herein a case of SSEH in a 20-month-old girl who initially presented with neck pain, and developed lower extremity motor weakness and symptoms of neurogenic bladder 2 weeks prior to admission. The magnetic resonance imaging showed an epidural mass lesion extending from C7 to T4, and the spinal cord was severely compressed by the mass. After emergency decompressive surgery the neurologic function was improved immediately. Two months after surgery, the neurological status was normal with achievement of spontaneous voiding. We suggest that surgical intervention can provide excellent prognosis in case of SSEH in infants, even if surgery delayed.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.2.84
PMCID: PMC2588330  PMID: 19096698
Spontaneous; Spinal epidural hematoma; Infant; Laminotomy
4.  Spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma due to arteriovenous malformation in a child 
BMJ Case Reports  2011;2011:bcr0220113875.
Spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma (SSEH) is a rare clinical entity, especially in infants, in whom only a few cases have been reported. In a paediatric emergency setting, SSEH should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis for acute extremity weakness and paraesthesia. Epidural vascular malformations are often suspected in these cases but have rarely been demonstrated. The authors report herein a case of SSEH in a 9-year-old boy arising from an epidural vascular malformation. He initially presented with sudden intense cervicodorsal pain followed by hypotonic lower extremities and progressive motor weakness, with no sensory change. The MRI showed an acute extradural haematoma extending from C7 to T4 with compression of the spinal cord. After submission to decompression surgery, he presented full recovery in 1 month. The histopathological analysis revealed a vascular malformation.
doi:10.1136/bcr.02.2011.3875
PMCID: PMC3094776  PMID: 22696725
5.  Complete motor recovery after acute paraparesis caused by spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma: case report 
Background
Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a relatively rare but potentially disabling disease. Prompt timely surgical management may promote recovery even in severe cases.
Case presentation
We report a 34-year-old man with a 2-hour history of sudden severe back pain, followed by weakness and numbness over the bilateral lower limbs, progressing to intense paraparesis and anesthesia. A spinal magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed and revealed an anterior epidural hematoma of the thoracic spine. He underwent an emergency decompression laminectomy of the thoracic spine and hematoma evacuation. Just after surgery, his lower extremity movements improved. After 1 week, there was no residual weakness and ambulation without assistance was resumed, with residual paresthesia on the plantar face of both feet. After 5 months, no residual symptoms persisted.
Conclusions
The diagnosis of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma must be kept in mind in cases of sudden back pain with symptoms of spinal cord compression. Early recognition, accurate diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment may result in significant improvement even in severe cases.
doi:10.1186/1471-227X-11-10
PMCID: PMC3160384  PMID: 21794133
6.  Spontaneous cervical epidural hematoma of idiopathic etiology: Case report and review of literature 
Context
Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is a rare idiopathic condition that leads to acute onset of neurological deficits, which if not recognized early can have catastrophic consequences. The definition and pathophysiology of this condition remain controversial. High index of suspicion followed by T2-weighted gradient echo sequences are particularly useful in early diagnosis. Management consists of prompt surgical decompression of the hematoma though a recent trend is toward non-surgical treatment.
Findings
A 70-year-old man presented with acute onset neck pain with a radicular component and rapidly progressive quadriparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a posteriorly located cervical extradural hematoma with cord compression that was promptly evacuated. Functional recovery to near normal function occurred within 24 hours of surgery.
Conclusion
SSEH in its true idiopathic form is a rare pathologic entity. Because of the high risk of poor outcome without treatment, SSEH should be a diagnostic possibility when presentation is even slightly suggestive. Prompt surgical evacuation of the hematoma leads to a favorable neurological outcome, whereas delay in treatment can be disastrous. The role of conservative management needs to be proven and should be tailored on an individual basis.
doi:10.1179/2045772312Y.0000000001
PMCID: PMC3304555  PMID: 22333537
Tetraparesis; Tetraplegia; Paralysis; Myelopathy; Laminectomy; Neurologic manifestations; Progressive; Spinal cord compression; Cervical; Hematoma; Idiopathic spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma
7.  Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Hematomas Associated With Acute Myocardial Infarction Treatment 
Korean Circulation Journal  2011;41(12):759-762.
Many studies have reported spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH). Although most cases are idiopathic, several are associated with thrombolytic therapy or anticoagulants. We report a case of SSEH coincident with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), which caused serious neurological deficits. A 56 year old man presented with chest pain accompanied with back and neck pain, which was regarded as an atypical symptom of AMI. He was treated with nitroglycerin, aspirin, low molecular weight heparin, and clopidogrel. A spinal magnetic resonance image taken after paraplegia developed 3 days after the initial symptoms revealed an epidural hematoma at the cervical and thoracolumbar spine. Despite emergent decompressive surgery, paraplegia has not improved 7 months after surgery. A SSEH should be considered when patients complain of abrupt, strong, and non-traumatic back and neck pain, particularly if they have no spinal pain history.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2011.41.12.759
PMCID: PMC3257462  PMID: 22259609
Acute myocardial infarction; Hematoma, epidural, spinal; Paraplegia; Thrombolytic therapy; Anticoagulants
8.  Pure cervical radiculopathy due to spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma (SSEH): report of a case solved conservatively 
European Spine Journal  2005;15(Suppl 5):569-573.
Introduction: Spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma (SSEH) is widely recognised throughout the literature as a cause of myelopathy, radicular compression being very rarely reported. Surgical management is almost always recommended, especially in the cases of spinal cord compression. Conservative treatment is reported as a curiosity and only in the case of spontaneous improvement. This report presents the particular case of a 64-year-old patient undergoing anticoagulant therapy that had a cervical radiculopathy due to a SSEH confirmed by MRI. The patient improved spontaneously and symptoms were solved with unconventional conservative treatment and without stopping the anticoagulant therapy. Conclusions: Spontaneous epidural haematoma must be kept in mind when patients undergoing anticoagulant therapy have a sudden onset of cervicobrachialgia. Even though most spinal surgeons advocate surgical treatment, a conservative approach may lead to a complete recovery and may be considered as a good option in the case of radicular involvement. Discontinuation of the anticoagulant therapy may not always be needed, especially when the clinical syndrome improves spontaneously.
doi:10.1007/s00586-005-0023-6
PMCID: PMC1602183  PMID: 16333682
Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma; Cervicobrachialgia; Anticoagulant therapy; Conservative treatment
9.  Pure cervical radiculopathy due to spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma (SSEH): report of a case solved conservatively 
European Spine Journal  2005;15(Suppl 17):569-573.
Introduction: Spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma (SSEH) is widely recognised throughout the literature as a cause of myelopathy, radicular compression being very rarely reported. Surgical management is almost always recommended, especially in the cases of spinal cord compression. Conservative treatment is reported as a curiosity and only in the case of spontaneous improvement. This report presents the particular case of a 64-year-old patient undergoing anticoagulant therapy that had a cervical radiculopathy due to a SSEH confirmed by MRI. The patient improved spontaneously and symptoms were solved with unconventional conservative treatment and without stopping the anticoagulant therapy. Conclusions: Spontaneous epidural haematoma must be kept in mind when patients undergoing anticoagulant therapy have a sudden onset of cervicobrachialgia. Even though most spinal surgeons advocate surgical treatment, a conservative approach may lead to a complete recovery and may be considered as a good option in the case of radicular involvement. Discontinuation of the anticoagulant therapy may not always be needed, especially when the clinical syndrome improves spontaneously.
doi:10.1007/s00586-005-0023-6
PMCID: PMC1602183  PMID: 16333682
Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma; Cervicobrachialgia; Anticoagulant therapy; Conservative treatment
10.  Chronic spontaneous cervicothoracic epidural hematoma in an 8-month-old infant 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2011;31(3):301-304.
Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is an uncommon cause of cord compression in children, especially in infants. An 8-month-old infant was admitted to our hospital for a 40-day history of paraparesis in the lower extremities. This rapidly progressed to paraparesis with an inability to move the lower extremities. MRI of the cervicothoracic spine revealed an epidural mass with compression of the spinal cord. The infant underwent C7-T3 total laminectomies. The pathology and postoperative MRI confirmed spinal epidural hematoma from a vascular malformation. We present the case to highlight the significance of recognizing this chronic spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma and discuss the diagnosis, treatment options and prognosis.
doi:10.4103/0256-4947.75586
PMCID: PMC3119974  PMID: 21242640
11.  Spontaneous cervical epidural hematoma during pregnancy: case report and literature review 
European Spine Journal  2010;20(Suppl 2):176-179.
Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) during pregnancy is rare and may result in permanent damage if not promptly treated. There were few studies discussing the etiology, presentation and treatment of SSEH during pregnancy. The authors describe a case of spontaneous cervical epidural hematoma during pregnancy, which was diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and managed with surgical evacuation. A retrospective review of a case of spontaneous epidural hematoma of spine during pregnancy was performed. The clinical features, diagnoses, treatments and outcomes of all cases were analyzed. Precise diagnosis without delay and rapid surgical treatment are essential for the management of SSEH during pregnancy.
doi:10.1007/s00586-010-1484-9
PMCID: PMC3111511  PMID: 20563824
Epidural hematoma; Spine; Spontaneous; Pregnancy
12.  Surgical management of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma 
European Spine Journal  2006;15(6):998-1004.
Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is a rare disease entity; its causative factors and the factors determining the outcome are still controversial. We reviewed our clinical experiences and analyzed the various factors related to the outcome for SSEH. We investigated 14 patients (11 men and 3 women) who underwent hematoma removal for SSEH from April 1998 to August 2004. We reviewed age, gender, hypertension, anticoagulant use and the preoperative neurological status using the Japanese Orthopaedics Association score by examining medical records, operative records, pathology reports, and radiographies, retrospectively. We were checking for factors such as the degree of cord compression owing to hematoma and the extent and location of the hematoma. Most patients included in the study were in their twenties or fifties. Four hematoma were located in the cervical region (29%), three were cervicothoracic (21%), four were thoracic (29%) and three were in the lumbar (21%) region and also 12 were located at the dorsal aspect of the spinal cord. In all cases, the neurological outcome improved after the surgical operation. There was a statistically significant difference between the incomplete and complete neurological injury for the preoperative status (P<0.05). The neurological outcome was good in those cases that had their hematoma removed within 24 h (P<0.05). The patients with incomplete neurological injury who had a surgical operation performed within 12 h had an excellent surgical outcome (P<0.01). Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma was favorably treated by the means of a surgical operation. The favorable factors for SSEH operations were incomplete neurological injury at the time of the preoperative status and the short operative time interval.
doi:10.1007/s00586-005-0965-8
PMCID: PMC3489451  PMID: 16758110
Epidural hematoma; Cord injury; Operative time interval; Spine surgery
13.  Spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma during Factor Xa inhibitor treatment (Rivaroxaban) 
European Spine Journal  2011;21(Suppl 4):433-435.
We report on a 61-year-old female patient who developed a spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma (SSEH) after being treated by rivaroxaban, a new agent for the prevention of venous thromboembolic events in orthopaedic surgery. Although the pathogenesis of SSEH is unclear, anticoagulant therapy is a known risk factor. The patient sustained a sudden onset of severe back pain in the thoracic spine, followed by paraplegia below T8, 2 days after proximal tibial osteotomy and rivaroxaban therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the whole spine demonstrated a ventral SSEH from C2 to T8. Whilst preparing for the emergency evacuation of the SSEH, the neurological symptoms recovered spontaneously 4 h after onset without surgery. After monitored bed rest for 48 h the MRI was repeated and the SSEH was no longer present. This rare condition of spinal cord compression and unusually rapid spontaneous recovery has not previously been reported following rivaroxaban therapy.
doi:10.1007/s00586-011-2003-3
PMCID: PMC3369027  PMID: 21874549
Rivaroxaban; Epidural haematoma; Compression; Spinal cord
14.  Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma as the initial presentation of leukemia 
European Spine Journal  2009;18(Suppl 2):220-223.
We present a case of a 55-year-old male with progressive neurological deficits that appeared dramatically. MRI detected a spinal epidural hematoma at the cervicothoracic junction and blood tests showed leukocytosis, mild anemia, and thrombocytosis. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) as the initial presentation of leukemia was diagnosed. Urgent posterior decompression was performed after 28 h from acute onset of backache, and the patient experienced remarkable improvement in neurological findings.
doi:10.1007/s00586-008-0863-y
PMCID: PMC2899559  PMID: 19127372
Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma; Chronic myeloid leukemia
15.  Hemiparesis Caused by Cervical Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Hematoma: A Report of 3 Cases 
Advances in Orthopedics  2011;2011:516382.
We report three cases of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) with hemiparesis. The first patient was a 73-year-old woman who presented with left hemiparesis, neck pain, and left shoulder pain. A cervical MRI scan revealed a left posterolateral epidural hematoma at the C3–C6 level. The condition of the patient improved after laminectomy and evacuation of the epidural hematoma. The second patient was a 62-year-old man who presented with right hemiparesis and neck pain. A cervical MRI scan revealed a right posterolateral dominant epidural hematoma at the C6-T1 level. The condition of the patient improved after laminectomy and evacuation of the epidural hematoma. The third patient was a 60-year-old woman who presented with left hemiparesis and neck pain. A cervical MRI scan revealed a left posterolateral epidural hematoma at the C2–C4 level. The condition of the patient improved with conservative treatment. The classical clinical presentation of SSEH is acute onset of severe irradiating back pain followed by progression to paralysis, whereas SSEH with hemiparesis is less common. Our cases suggest that acute cervical spinal epidural hematoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with clinical symptoms of sudden neck pain and radicular pain with progression to hemiparesis.
doi:10.4061/2011/516382
PMCID: PMC3170783  PMID: 21991415
16.  Treatment of Spontaneous Cervical Spinal Subdural Hematoma with Methylprednisolone Pulse Therapy 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2011;52(4):692-694.
We report herein a case of hyperacute onset of spontaneous cervical spinal subdural hematoma treated with methylprednisolone pulse therapy that showed good results. A 57-year-old man was admitted for posterior neck pain and paraparesis which occurred an hour ago. MRI revealed a ventral subdural hematoma distributed from the level of C1 down to T3, compressing the spinal cord. Conservative management with methylprednisolone pulse therapy was administered considering the patient's poor general condition. Although emergent surgical decompression is necessary in most cases of spinal subdural hematoma, conservative management with steroid therapy could be effective.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2011.52.4.692
PMCID: PMC3104457  PMID: 21623616
Spinal subdural hematoma; pulse therapy; spinal cord
17.  Early postoperative MRI in detecting hematoma and dural compression after lumbar spinal decompression: prospective study of asymptomatic patients in comparison to patients requiring surgical revision 
European Spine Journal  2010;19(12):2216-2222.
Early postoperative MRI after spinal surgery is difficult to interpret because of confounding postoperative mass effects and frequent occurrence of epidural hematomas. Purpose of this prospective study is to evaluate prevalence, extent and significance of hematoma in the first postoperative week in asymptomatic patients after decompression for lumbar stenosis and to determine the degree of clinically significant dura compression by comparing with the patients with postoperative symptoms. MRI was performed in 30 asymptomatic patients (47 levels) in the first week after lumbar spine decompression for degenerative stenosis. Eleven patients requiring surgical revision (16 levels) for symptomatic early postoperative hematoma were used for comparison. In both groups the cross-sectional area of the maximum dural compression (bony stenosis and dural sac expansion) was measured preoperatively and postoperatively by an experienced radiologist. Epidural hematoma was seen in 42.5% in asymptomatic patients (20/47 levels). The median area of postoperative hematoma at the operated level was 176 mm2 in asymptomatic patients and 365 mm2 in symptomatic patients. The median cross-sectional area of the dural sac at the operated level was 128.5 and 0 mm2 in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients, respectively, at the site of maximal compression. In the symptomatic group 75% of the patients had a maximal postoperative dural sac area of 58.5 mm2 or less, whereas in the asymptomatic group 75% of patients with epidural hematoma had an area of 75 mm2 or more. The size of hematoma and the degree of dural sac compression were significantly larger in patients with symptoms needing surgical revision. Dural sac area of less than 75 mm2 in early postoperative MRI was found to be the threshold for clinical significance.
doi:10.1007/s00586-010-1483-x
PMCID: PMC2997206  PMID: 20556438
Epidural hematoma; Early postoperative MRI; Spinal stenosis; Neural compression
18.  Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Hematoma 
Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is a relatively rare but significant spinal condition. Urgent surgical evacuation of a hematoma is generally indicated to prevent serious permanent neurological deficits. We encountered three cases of spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas associated with motor weakness that were treated successfully by surgical intervention.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.1.40
PMCID: PMC2588288  PMID: 19096655
Spinal epidural hematana; Laminectomy
19.  Misdiagnosis of spontaneous cervical epidural haemorrhage 
European Spine Journal  2008;18(Suppl 2):210-212.
Spontaneous spinal epidural haemorrhage is a rare condition. The initial clinical manifestations are variable. Nonetheless, most spinal cord lesions result in paraparesis or quadriparesis, but not hemi-paresis, if motor function is involved. We report on a 69-year-old man who presented initially with right-side limb weakness. He was initially misdiagnosed at emergency room with a cerebral stroke and treated inappropriately with heparin. One day after admission, correct diagnosis of acute spinal epidural haematoma was based on the repeated neurological examination and cervical magnetic resonance imaging study. The patient underwent emergency surgical decompression and hematoma removal. The pathogenesis of the haematoma could have been due to hypertension, increased abdominal pressure and anticoagulant therapy. We emphasize that patients with hemi-paresis on initial presentation could have an acute spinal epidural haemorrhage. We also draw the misdiagnosis to the attention of the reader because early recognition of spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma is very important for prompt and appropriate treatment to improve the overall prognosis.
doi:10.1007/s00586-008-0819-2
PMCID: PMC2899547  PMID: 19005691
Spontaneous spinal epidural haemorrhage; Hemi-paresis; Cerebrovascular disease
20.  Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma with hemiparesis mimicking acute cerebral infarction: Two case reports 
Context
Acute hemiparesis is a common initial presentation of ischemic stroke. Although hemiparesis due to spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is an uncommon symptom, a few cases have been reported and misdiagnosed as cerebral infarction.
Design
Case reports of SSEH with acute hemiparesis.
Findings
In these two cases, acute stroke was suspected initially and administration of intravenous alteplase therapy was considered. In one case, the presentation was neck pain and in the other case, it was Lhermitte's sign; brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography were negative for signs of ischemic infarction, hemorrhage, or arterial dissection. Cervical MRI was performed and demonstrated SSEH.
Conclusion
Clinicians who perform intravenous thrombolytic treatment with alteplase need to be aware of this possible contraindication.
doi:10.1179/2045772312Y.0000000014
PMCID: PMC3425883  PMID: 22925753
Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma; Hemiparesis; Tetraparesis; Lhermitte's sign; Cerebral infarction; Intravenous thrombolytic treatment; Magnetic resonance imaging; Computerized tomography; Alteplase
21.  Postoperative spinal epidural hematoma resulting in cauda equina syndrome: a case report and review of the literature 
Cases Journal  2009;2:8584.
Spinal epidural hematoma is a well known complication of spinal surgery. Clinically insignificant small epidural hematomas develop in most spinal surgeries following laminectomy. However, the incidence of clinically significant postoperative spinal epidural hematomas that result in neurological deficits is extremely rare. In this report, we present a 33-year-old female patient whose spinal surgery resulted in postoperative spinal epidural hematoma. She was diagnosed with lumbar disc disease and underwent hemipartial lumbar laminectomy and discectomy. After twelve hours postoperation, her neurologic status deteriorated and cauda equina syndrome with acute spinal epidural hematoma was identified. She was immediately treated with surgical decompression and evacuation of the hematoma. The incidence of epidural hematoma after spinal surgery is rare, but very serious complication. Spinal epidural hematomas can cause significant spinal cord and cauda equina compression, requiring surgical intervention. Once diagnosed, the patient should immediately undergo emergency surgical exploration and evacuation of the hematoma.
doi:10.4076/1757-1626-2-8584
PMCID: PMC2740261  PMID: 19830087
22.  Chronic pure radiculopathy in patient with organizing epidural hematoma around C8 nerve root 
European Spine Journal  2012;21(Suppl 4):450-452.
Spontaneously occurring spinal epidural hematomas are uncommon clinical findings, and the chronic form is the rarest and its most frequent location is the lumbar spine. Pure radicular involvement is far less frequent than myelopathy. We report a case of progressive radiculopathy in a 52-year-old man with spontaneously occurring cervical epidural hematoma (SCEH). The patient had left hand weakness and numbness for 4 months. MRI scan showed small space-occupying lesion around left 8th cervical nerve root. After surgery we confirmed chronic organizing epidural hematoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second reported case in the worldwide literature of pure radiculopathy in a patient with chronic SCEH.
doi:10.1007/s00586-011-2071-4
PMCID: PMC3369032  PMID: 22249307
Spontaneous epidural hematoma; Radiculopathy; Chronic
23.  Primary epidural lymphocyte-depleted Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the thoracic spine – presentation of a rare disease variant 
BMC Neurology  2012;12:64.
Background
Lymphocyte-depleted Hodgkin’s lymphoma is the rarest form of classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma, accounting for < 1% of all cases. Patients often have advanced-stage disease at the time of presentation with an aggressive clinical course. Even more uncommon is primary extranodal disease and rarely it will be presenting with spinal cord compression.
Case presentation
An 88-year-old Caucasian female presented with a history of upper back pain for several months and new onset bilateral leg numbness and weakness. MRI of the spine showed a dorsal epidural lesion with cord compression at T1-T4 with involvement of the paraspinal muscles. The patient received urgent surgical decompression, with final histopathology showing a lymphocyte-depleted Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Systemic work-up did not show evidence of nodal disease. Following surgery, she received a course of radiotherapy with good outcome.
Conclusion
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of primary lymphocyte-depleted Hodgkin lymphoma presenting as epidural spinal cord compression. Our report, in conjunction with a review of the literature, suggests that surgical intervention is clearly indicated in de novo disease followed by radiotherapy.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-12-64
PMCID: PMC3482592  PMID: 22862748
Spinal cord compression; Primary; Lymphocyte-depleted Hodgkin’s lymphoma
24.  Spinal epidural hematoma related to an epidural catheter in a cardiac surgery patient -A case report- 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2011;61(6):524-527.
The addition of thoracic epidural anesthesia to general anesthesia during cardiac surgery may have a beneficial effect on clinical outcome. However, epidural catheter insertion in a patient anticoagulated with heparin may increase the risk of epidural hematoma. We report a case of epidural hematoma in a 55-year-old male patient who had a thoracic epidural placed under general anesthesia preceding uneventful mitral valve replacement and tricuspid valve annular plasty. During the immediate postoperative period and first postoperative day, prothrombin time (PT) and activate partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were mildly prolonged. On the first postoperative day, he complained of motor weakness of the lower limbs and back pain. An immediate MRI of the spine was performed and it revealed an epidural hematoma at the T5-6 level. Rapid surgical decompression resulted in a recovery of his neurological abnormalities to near normal levels. Management and preventing strategies of epidural hematoma are discussed.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2011.61.6.524
PMCID: PMC3249578  PMID: 22220233
Analgesia; Epidural; Hematoma; Postoperative complications; Spinal
25.  Case Report: Cauda Equina Syndrome Associated With an Interspinous Device 
Background
Although postoperative spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) is not uncommon, hematomas that require surgery are rare. Cauda equina syndrome (CES) may be associated with postoperative SEH. In these cases, early recognition and emergency decompression can prevent further damage and better neurologic recovery.
Case Description
A 41-year-old man underwent two-level discectomy with insertion of an interspinous spacer at L3-4 and L4-5 because of low back pain and radiculopathy. Eight hours after the operation, the patient developed CES. MRI revealed SEH compressing posteriorly at the L3-4 level. On emergency decompression and hematoma evacuation, the interspinous spacer had obstructed the laminotomy site at L3-4 completely, blocking drainage to the drain. The patient experienced complete neurologic recovery by 2 months followup.
Literature Review
Many studies report risk factors for SEH. However, postoperative SEH can also be encountered in patients without these risks. One study reported a critical ratio (preoperative versus postoperative cross-sectional area) correlated with postoperative symptoms, especially in those with CES. The propensity to develop CES is likely dependent on a number of patient-specific factors.
Clinical Relevance
Surgeons should be aware that patients without risk factors may develop acute CES. Wider laminotomy (larger than half of the device size) may help to prevent this complication when one uses the compressible type of device, especially in patients with relatively small lamina.
doi:10.1007/s11999-011-2031-7
PMCID: PMC3348300  PMID: 21870210

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