Rotavirus is the main cause of gastroenteritis in Canadian children younger than five years of age, resulting in significant morbidity and cost. The present study provides evidence on the cost effectiveness of two alternative rotavirus vaccinations (RotaTeq [Merck Frosst Canada Ltd, Canada] and Rotarix [GlaxoSmithKline, Canada]) available in Canada.
Analysis was conducted through a Markov model that followed a cohort of children from birth to five years of age. Analysis used pertinent data on the natural history of rotavirus and the effects of vaccination. Estimates of heath care costs for children requiring hospitalizations and emergency department visits were derived from the Canadian Immunization Monitoring Program, Active (IMPACT) surveillance, emergency department studies, as well as other Canadian studies. The model estimated the effect of vaccination on costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs).
The incremental cost per QALY gained from the health care system perspective was $122,000 for RotaTeq and $108,000 for Rotarix. From the societal perspective, both vaccination strategies were dominant – both cost saving and more effective. The cost-effectiveness of vaccination is dependent on the mode of administration, the perspective adopted and the cost of the vaccine.
From a societal perspective, a universal vaccination program against rotavirus will be both cost saving and more effective than no vaccination. Becasue the majority of rotavirus infections do not require emergency department visits or hospital admission, from a health care system perspective, a program would not be considered cost effective.
Cost effectiveness; Rotavirus; Vaccination
The World Health Organization estimates that rotavirus diarrhea results in approximately half a million deaths and approximately 2.4 million hospitalizations in developing countries each year. Two live oral rotavirus vaccines, RotaTeq® (RV 5; Merck) and Rotarix® (RV 1; GlaxoSmithKline) with good efficacy against severe rotavirus disease and a reassuring safety profile could substantially impact the burden of rotavirus disease. In April 2009, WHO provided a recommendation for global introduction of these vaccines in national immunization programs of developing countries worldwide. In this article, we review published data on previous candidate rotavirus vaccines and vaccines in current use, with emphasis on their performance in developed versus developing countries. In developed countries, both first and second generation rotavirus vaccines have demonstrated high efficacy against severe rotavirus disease (pooled efficacy = 73% and 85%, respectively). In developing countries, small early trials for the first generation vaccines failed to provide protection against rotavirus disease (pooled efficacy = 20%), however, trials of the second generation vaccines yielded substantial improvements in efficacy in developing countries (pooled efficacy of 51%), leading to a global recommendation for rotavirus vaccine introduction by WHO. Future efforts for these vaccines should focus on optimizing the efficacy and delivery of these vaccines in challenging target populations of Asia and Africa with the greatest burden of severe rotavirus disease.
rotavirus; vaccines; immunization; vaccination; diarrhea; gastroenteritis
The Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial (REST) was a blinded, placebo-controlled study of the live pentavalent human-bovine vaccine, RotaTeq® (Merck & Co. Inc., West Point, PA). REST was noteworthy because its primary objective was to evaluate the safety of RotaTeq® with regard to intussusception, a rare intestinal illness that occurs with a background incidence of approximately 50 cases per 100 000 infant years. The study involved approximately 70 000 infants at over 500 study sites in 11 countries. The study demonstrated that the risk of intussusception was similar in vaccine and placebo recipients and that the vaccine prevented rotavirus gastroenteritis, ameliorated the severity of disease in those who had any disease, and substantially reduced rotavirus-associated hospitalizations and other health care contacts. This report provides an in-depth review of the background, statistical and regulatory considerations, and execution of REST. We describe the rationale and methods used for sample size, continuous safety monitoring, group sequential design, and detailed study execution. The results of the study have been reported elsewhere. The design and conduct of this study may serve as a useful model for planning other future large-scale clinical trials, especially those evaluating uncommon adverse events.
Purpose of Review
Rotaviruses cause life-threatening gastroenteritis in children throughout the world. The burden of disease has resulted in the development of two live, attenuated vaccines that are now licensed in many countries. This review summarizes new data on these vaccines, their effectiveness, and remaining challenges including new data on the rotavirus enterotoxin, a potential antiviral target.
Live attenuated rotavirus vaccines are used to protect infants against severe rotavirus-induced gastroenteritis and, RotaTeq®, a pentavalent bovine based vaccine, and, Rotarix®, a monovalent human rotavirus, are now currently licensed in many countries. Initial results of the licensed RotaTeq® vaccine have been promising in the United States and results of immunogenicity and efficacy in developing countries are expected soon. However universal vaccine implementation is challenging due to age limitations on administration of these vaccines. Chronic rotavirus infections in immunocompromised children may remain a problem and require the development of new treatments including antiviral drugs. Increasing data on the mechanisms of action of the rotavirus enterotoxin highlight this pleiotropic protein as a good target as well as unique calcium agonist.
Rotavirus is now a commonly occurring vaccine-preventable disease among children in developed countries and hopefully this also will soon be true for developing countries. Future studies will determine if other methods of prevention, such as nonreplicating vaccines and antiviral drugs, will be needed to treat disease in immunocompromised children.
Live; attenuated vaccines; enterotoxin; antivirals; rotavirus
Two live-attenuated rotavirus group A (RVA) vaccines, Rotarix (G1P) and RotaTeq (G1-G4, P), have been successfully introduced in many countries worldwide, including Belgium. The parental RVA strains used to generate the vaccines were isolated more than 20 years ago in France (G4 parental strain in RotaTeq) and the United States (all other parental strains). At present, little is known about the relationship between currently circulating human RVAs and the vaccine strains. In this study, we determined sequences for the VP7 and VP4 outer capsid proteins of representative G1P, G2P, G3P, G4P, G9P, and G12P RVAs circulating in Belgium during 2007 to 2009. The analyses showed that multiple amino acid differences existed between the VP7 and VP4 antigenic epitopes of the vaccine viruses and the Belgian isolates, regardless of their G and P genotypes. However, the highest variability was observed among the circulating G1P RVA strains and the G1 and P components of both RVA vaccines. In particular, RVA strains of the P lineage 4 (OP354-like) showed a significant number of amino acid differences with the P VP4 of both vaccines. In addition, the circulating Belgian G3 RVA strains were found to possibly possess an extra N-linked glycosylation site compared to the G3 RVA vaccine strain of RotaTeq. These results indicate that the antigenic epitopes of RVA strains contained in the vaccines differ substantially from those of the currently circulating RVA strains in Belgium. Over time, these differences might result in selection for strains that escape the RVA neutralizing-antibody pressure induced by vaccines.
Rotavirus is the most common cause of gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. The aim of the study was to assess the health outcomes and the economic impact of a universal rotavirus vaccination programme with RotaTeq, the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, versus no vaccination programme in Spain.
A birth cohort was followed up to the age of 5 using a cohort model. Epidemiological parameters were taken from the REVEAL study (a prospective epidemiological study conducted in Spain, 2004-2005) and from the literature. Direct and indirect costs were assessed from the national healthcare payer and societal perspectives by combining health care resource utilisation collected in REVEAL study and unit costs from official sources. RotaTeq per protocol efficacy data was taken from a large worldwide rotavirus clinical trial (70,000 children). Health outcomes included home care cases, General Practioner (GP)/Paediatrician, emergency department visits, hospitalisations and nosocomial infections.
The model estimates that the introduction of a universal rotavirus vaccination programme with RotaTeq (90% coverage rate) would reduce the rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) burden by 75% in Spain; 53,692 home care cases, 35,187 GP/Paediatrician visits, 34,287 emergency department visits, 10,987 hospitalisations and 2,053 nosocomial infections would be avoided. The introduction of RotaTeq would avoid about 76% of RVGE-related costs from both perspectives: €22 million from the national health system perspective and €38 million from the societal perspective.
A rotavirus vaccination programme with RotaTeq would reduce significantly the important medical and economic burden of RVGE in Spain.
RotaTeq (Merck & Co. Inc./Sanofi Pasteur MSD) is a three-dose, oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine for the immunization of infants from 6 weeks of age for the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis. The primary objective of the present trial was to demonstrate that RotaTeq can be coadministered with meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine (MenCC; NeisVac-C; Baxter Healthcare) to healthy infants without impairing the protective immune responses to MenCC. This was an open-label, randomized, comparative study conducted in Finland. The study was designed to assess concomitant versus sequential administration of RotaTeq and MenCC on the immune response to both vaccines. Healthy infants (n = 247), aged 6 to 7 weeks, were recruited. Coadministration of MenCC with RotaTeq was noninferior to sequential administration for the seroprotection rate against meningococcal serogroup C (the proportion of infants with a serum bactericidal antibody titer using baby rabbit complement of ≥8 was 100% in both groups). The other responses to MenCC (titer of ≥1:128, ≥4-fold increase in titer, and geometric mean titers [GMTs]) and the responses to RotaTeq (IgA and SNA response to G1 to G4 and P1A, GMTs, and ≥3-fold increase in titer) were comparable between groups, including a ≥3-fold IgA increase in >96% of the infants in both groups. Concomitant administration of the first doses of MenCC, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine, inactivated poliovirus vaccine, and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTaP-IPV-Hib), and RotaTeq was associated with a higher rate of vomiting and diarrhea than concomitant administration of MenCC and DTaP-IPV-Hib, but that was not observed after the second concomitant administration. The convenience of concomitant administration of RotaTeq and MenCC may, however, outweigh the additive effect of mostly mild adverse events reported after the individual administration of each vaccine. These results support the coadministration of RotaTeq and MenCC.
Rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe diarrhea disease in infants and young children worldwide and continues to have a major global impact on childhood morbidity and mortality. Vaccination is the only control measure likely to have a significant impact on the incidence of severe dehydrating rotavirus disease. In 1999, a highly efficacious rotavirus vaccine licensed in the United States, RotaShield, was withdrawn from the market after 14 months because of its association with intussusception. Two new live, oral, attenuated rotavirus vaccines were licensed in 2006: the pentavalent bovine-human reassortant vaccine (RotaTeq) and the monovalent human rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix). Both vaccines have demonstrated very good safety and efficacy profiles in large clinical trials in western industrialized countries and in Latin America. Careful surveillance has not revealed any increased risk of intussusception in the vaccinated groups with either vaccine. The new rotavirus vaccines are now introduced for routine use in a number of industrialized and developing countries. These new safe and effective rotavirus vaccines offer the best hope of reducing the toll of acute rotavirus gastroenteritis in both developed and developing countries.
Rotavirus (RV) vaccination programs have been established in several countries using the human-attenuated G1P monovalent vaccine Rotarix™ (GlaxoSmithKline) and/or the human-bovine reassortant G1, G2, G3, G4, P pentavalent vaccine RotaTeq™ (Merck). The efficacy of both vaccines is high (~90%) in developed countries, but can be remarkably lower in developing countries. For example, a vaccine efficacy against severe diarrhea of only 58% was observed in a 2007–2009 Nicaraguan study using RotaTeq. To gain insight into the significant level of vaccine failure in this country, we sequenced the genomes of RVs recovered from vaccinated Nicaraguan children with gastroenteritis. The results revealed that all had genotype specificities typical for human RVs (11 G1P, 1 G3P) and that the sequences and antigenic epitopes of the outer capsid proteins (VP4 and VP7) of these viruses were similar to those reported for RVs isolated elsewhere in the world. As expected, nine of the G1P viruses and the single G3P virus had genome constellations typical of human G1P and G3P RVs: G1/3-P-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1. However, two of the G1P viruses had atypical constellations, G1-P-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N2-T1-E1-H1, due to the presence of a genotype-2 NSP2 (N2) gene. The sequence of the N2 NSP2 gene was identical to the bovine N2 NSP2 gene of RotaTeq, indicating that the two atypical viruses originated via reassortment of human G1P RVs with RotaTeq viruses. Together, our data suggest that the high level of vaccine failure in Nicaraguan is probably not due to antigenic drift of commonly circulating virus strains nor the emergence of new antigenetically distinct virus strains. Furthermore, our data suggests that the widespread use of the RotaTeq vaccine has led to the introduction of vaccine genes into circulating human RVs.
rotavirus; genomics; vaccine; RotaTeq
In 2006, a new rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq) was licensed in the US and recommended for routine immunization of all US infants. Because a previously licensed vaccine (Rotashield) was withdrawn from the US for safety concerns, identifying barriers to uptake of RotaTeq will help develop strategies to broaden vaccine coverage.
We explored beliefs and attitudes of parents (n = 57) and providers (n = 10) towards rotavirus disease and vaccines through a qualitative assessment using focus groups and in-depth interviews.
All physicians were familiar with safety concerns about rotavirus vaccines, but felt reassured by RotaTeq's safety profile. When asked about likelihood of using RotaTeq on a scale of one to seven (1 = "absolutely not;" 7 = "absolutely yes") the mean score was 5 (range = 3–6). Physicians expressed a high likelihood of adopting RotaTeq, particularly if recommended by their professional organizations and expressed specific interest in post-marketing safety data. Similarly, consumers found the RotaTeq safety profile to be favorable and would rely on their physician's recommendation for vaccination. However, when asked to rank likelihood of having their child vaccinated against rotavirus (1 = "definitely not get;" 7 = "definitely get"), 29% ranked 1 or 2, 36% 3 or 4, and 35% 5 to 7.
Our qualitative assessment provides complementary data to recent quantitative surveys and suggests that physicians and parents are likely to adopt the newly licensed rotavirus vaccine. Increasing parental awareness of the rotavirus disease burden and providing physicians with timely post-marketing surveillance data will be integral to a successful vaccination program.
Two currently licensed live oral rotavirus vaccines (Rotarix® and RotaTeq®) are highly efficacious against severe rotavirus diarrhea. However, the efficacy of such vaccines in selected low-income African and Asian countries is much lower than that in middle or high-income countries. Additionally, these two vaccines have recently been associated with rare case of intussusception in vaccinated infants. We developed a novel recombinant subunit parenteral rotavirus vaccine which may be more effective in low-income countries and also avert the potential problem of intussusception. Truncated recombinant VP8* (ΔVP8*) protein of human rotavirus strain Wa P, DS-1 P or 1076 P expressed in E. coli was highly soluble and was generated in high yield. Guinea pigs hyperimmunized intramuscularly with each of the ΔVP8* proteins (i.e., (P, P or P) developed high levels of homotypic as well as variable levels of heterotypic neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, the selected ΔVP8* proteins when administered to mice at a clinically relevant dosage, route and schedule, elicited high levels of serum anti-VP8* IgG and/or neutralizing antibodies. Our data indicated that the ΔVP8* proteins may be a plausible additional candidate as new parenteral rotavirus vaccines.
Rotavirus; Vaccine; Subunit vaccine; VP8* protein; P type
The study was done to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a national rotavirus vaccination programme in Brazilian children from the healthcare system perspective. A hypothetical annual birth-cohort was followed for a five-year period. Published and national administrative data were incorporated into a model to quantify the consequences of vaccination versus no vaccination. Main outcome measures included the reduction in disease burden, lives saved, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted. A rotavirus vaccination programme in Brazil would prevent an estimated 1,804 deaths associated with gastroenteritis due to rotavirus, 91,127 hospitalizations, and 550,198 outpatient visits. Vaccination is likely to reduce 76% of the overall healthcare burden of rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis in Brazil. At a vaccine price of US$ 7-8 per dose, the cost-effectiveness ratio would be US$ 643 per DALY averted. Rotavirus vaccination can reduce the burden of gastroenteritis due to rotavirus at a reasonable cost-effectiveness ratio.
Costs and cost analysis; Diarrhoea, Infantile; Gastroenteritis; Morbidity; Rotavirus; Rotavirus vaccines; Vaccination; Brazil
RotaTeq is an oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) that has shown high and consistent efficacy in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis (RGE) in randomized clinical trials conducted mostly in industrialized countries. We projected the effectiveness of RV5 against RGE-related hospitalizations and deaths in six Asian countries by using a simple mathematical model. Model inputs included rotavirus surveillance data collected during 2006–2007 in China, 2001–2002 in Hong Kong, 2005–2007 in India, 2005–2007 in South Korea, 2005–2007 in Taiwan and 2001–2003 in Thailand; the numbers of rotavirus-related deaths in each country; and published rotavirus serotype-specific efficacy of RV5. The model projected an overall effectiveness in the region of 82% to 89% against RGE-related hospitalizations and a substantial reduction in RGE-related deaths, suggesting that RV5 could substantially reduce the burden of rotavirus disease in Asia.
RotaTeq; effectiveness; asia; hospitalizations; deaths
Group A rotavirus (RV-A) genotypes isolated in Malaysia was studied to estimate the effectiveness of a universal RV-A vaccination in Malaysia. A simple mathematical model was used, with input from a two-year, two-center, prospective study on hospitalization of RV-A gastroenteritis (RVGE) in young children, published data on RV-A hospitalizations and genotypes, mortality on childhood GE and published genotype-specific efficacy data on two RV-A vaccines. Assuming a 95% vaccine coverage, the overall projected effectiveness was 75.7 to 88.1% for Rotateq® and 78.7 to 90.6% for Rotarix® against RVGE-related hospitalizations. The projected annual reduction in RVGE-related deaths was 27 to 32 deaths (from 34 deaths) for Rotateq® and 28 to 32 deaths annually forRotarix®. A universal RV-A vaccine is efficacious in reducing RVGE-related hospitalizations and mortality in Malaysia.
group A rotavirus genotypes; universal vaccination; Malaysia
Rotaviruses are the most important cause of severe acute gastroenteritis worldwide in children <5 years of age. The human, G1P rotavirus vaccine Rotarix™ significantly reduced severe rotavirus gastroenteritis episodes in a Phase III clinical trial conducted in infants in South Africa and Malawi. This paper examines rotavirus vaccine efficacy in preventing severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, during infancy, caused by the various G and P rotavirus types encountered during the first rotavirus-season.
Healthy infants aged 5–10 weeks were enrolled and randomized into three groups to receive either two (10 and 14 weeks) or three doses of Rotarix™ (together forming the pooled Rotarix™ group) or three doses of placebo at a 6,10,14-week schedule. Weekly home visits were conducted to identify gastroenteritis episodes. Rotaviruses were detected by ELISA and genotyped by RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing. The percentage of infants with severe rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by the circulating G and P types from 2 weeks post-last dose until one year of age and the corresponding vaccine efficacy was calculated with 95% CI.
Overall, 4939 infants were vaccinated and 4417 (pooled Rotarix™ = 2974; placebo = 1443) were included in the per protocol efficacy cohort. G1 wild-type was detected in 23 (1.6%) severe rotavirus gastroenteritis episodes from the placebo group. This was followed in order of detection by G12 (15 [1%] in placebo) and G8 types (15 [1%] in placebo). Vaccine efficacy against G1 wild-type, G12 and G8 types were 64.1% (95% CI: 29.9%; 82%), 51.5% (95% CI:-6.5%; 77.9%) and 64.4% (95% CI: 17.1%; 85.2%), respectively. Genotype P was the predominant circulating P type and was detected in 38 (2.6%) severe rotavirus gastroenteritis cases in placebo group. The remaining circulating P types comprised of P (20 [1.4%] in placebo) and P (13 [0.9%] in placebo). Vaccine efficacy against P was 59.1% (95% CI: 32.8%; 75.3%), P was 70.9% (95% CI: 37.5%; 87.0%) and P was 55.2% (95% CI: -6.5%; 81.3%)
Rotarix™ vaccine demonstrated efficacy against severe gastroenteritis caused by diverse circulating rotavirus types. These data add to a growing body of evidence supporting heterotypic protection provided by Rotarix™.
Trial registration number
In August of 2006, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended RotaTeq for routine vaccination of US infants. The hypothesis tested in the present study is that rotavirus vaccines are associated with an increased risk of intussusception adverse events (AEs) characterized by an onset in a biologically plausible a priori identified temporal period post-vaccination (days 3 to 7).
The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) updated as of December 28, 2010 was analyzed.
Following RotaTeq vaccination, a significantly (p<0.001) higher percentage of AEs were classified as serious, permanently disabling, resulted in hospitalizations, or were life-threatening among intussusception AEs in comparison to the total AE reports (removing intussusception AE reports) submitted to VAERS. A significantly greater portion of intussusception AEs in comparison to the portion of total AE reports (removing intussusception AE reports) were reported to VAERS in the onset interval from 3 to 7 days post-RotaTeq vaccination than within the onset interval from 1 to 2 days post-RotaTeq vaccination (78.7% vs. 29.1%, risk ratio=2.7, 95% CI=2.4–3.0, p<0.0001). It was assumed in our onset time-trend analyses of the distribution of AEs following Rota-Teq vaccination that the AE’s should be equally likely to be reported with an onset time for each day, from 1 to 9 days post-vaccination or, alternatively, should follow similar daily proportions as observed for total AEs reports (removing intussusception AE reports). Results of this onset time-trend analyses of the distribution of intussusception AEs reported to VAERS following Rota-Teq vaccination revealed significant differences (p<0.001) from our expectations. Consistent and similarly remarkable trends were observed for intussusception AE reports associated with RotaShield vaccine.
The present study significantly associates RotaTeq vaccination with intussusception AEs.
intussusception; post-marketing surveillance; rotavirus; timing; vaccine
Objectives To examine the public health impact of mass vaccination with live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine (RIX4414) in a birth cohort in India, and to estimate the cost effectiveness and affordability of such a programme.
Design Decision analytical Markov model encompassing all direct medical costs. Infection risk and severity depended on age, number of previous infections, and vaccination history; probabilities of use of inpatient and outpatient health services depended on symptom severity.
Data sources Published clinical, epidemiological, and economic data. When possible, parameter estimates were based on data specific for India.
Population Simulated Indian birth cohort followed for five years.
Main outcome measures Decrease in rotavirus gastroenteritis episodes (non-severe and severe), deaths, outpatient visits, and admission to hospital; incremental cost effectiveness ratio of vaccination expressed as net cost in 2007 rupees per life year saved.
Results In the base case, vaccination prevented 28 943 (29.7%) symptomatic episodes, 6981 (38.2%) severe episodes, 164 deaths (41.0%), 7178 (33.3%) outpatient visits, and 812 (34.3%) admissions to hospital per 100 000 children. Vaccination cost 8023 rupees (about £100, €113, $165) per life year saved, less than India’s per capita gross domestic product, a common criterion for cost effectiveness. The net programme cost would be equivalent to 11.6% of the 2006-7 budget of the Indian Department of Health and Family Welfare. Model results were most sensitive to variations in access to outpatient care for those with severe symptoms. If this parameter was increased to its upper limit, the incremental cost effectiveness ratio for vaccination still fell between one and three times the per capita gross domestic product, meeting the World Health Organization’s criterion for “cost effective” interventions. Uncertainty analysis indicated a 94.7% probability that vaccination would be cost effective according to a criterion of one times per capita gross domestic product per life year saved, and a 97.8% probability that it would be cost effective according to a criterion of three times per capita gross domestic product.
Conclusions Across a wide range of assumptions, mass RIX4414 vaccination in India would probably prevent substantial morbidity and mortality at a cost per life year saved below typical thresholds of cost effectiveness. The opportunity costs of such a programme in this or similar settings, however, should be weighed up carefully.
Rotaviruses cause life-threatening gastroenteritis in children worldwide; the enormous disease burden has focused efforts to develop vaccines and led to the discovery of novel mechanisms of gastrointestinal virus pathogenesis and host responses to infection. Two live-attenuated vaccines for gastroenteritis (Rotateq and Rotarix) have been licensed in many countries. This review summarizes the latest data on these vaccines, their effectiveness and challenges to global vaccination. Recent insights into rotavirus pathogenesis are also discussed, including information on extra-intestinal infection, viral antagonists of the interferon response and the first described viral enterotoxin. Rotavirus-induced diarrhea is now considered to be a disease that can be prevented through vaccination, although there are many challenges to achieving global effectiveness. Molecular biology studies of rotavirus replication and pathogenesis have identified unique viral targets that might be useful in developing therapies for immunocompromised children with chronic infections.
Each year rotavirus gastroenteritis results in thousands of paediatric hospitalisations and primary care visits in the Netherlands. While two vaccines against rotavirus are registered, routine immunisation of infants has not yet been implemented. Existing cost-effectiveness studies showed inconsistent results for these vaccines because of lack of consensus on the impact. We aimed to investigate which factors had a major impact on cost-effectiveness and were primarily responsible for the large differences in previously estimated cost-effectiveness ratios.
Based on updated data on health outcomes and cost estimates, we re-assessed the cost-effectiveness of routine paediatric rotavirus vaccination within the National Immunization Program for the Netherlands. Two consensus meetings were organised with national and international experts in the field to achieve consensus and resolve potential controversies.
It was estimated that rotavirus vaccination in the Netherlands could avert 34,214 cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children aged less than 5 years. Notably, 2,779 hospitalisations were averted of which 315 were extensions of existing hospital stays due to nosocomial rotavirus infection. With a threshold varying from 20K€ - 50K€ per QALY and according to the base-case scenario, the full vaccination costs per child leading to cost-effectiveness was €57.76 -€77.71. Results were sensitive to the inclusion of potential vaccine induced herd protection, QALY losses and number of deaths associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis.
Our economic analysis indicates that inclusion of rotavirus vaccination in the Dutch National Immunization Program might be cost-effective depending on the cost of the vaccine and the impact of rotavirus gastroenteritis on children's quality of life.
In Bolivia, in 2008, the under-five mortality rate is 54 per 1000 live births. Diarrhea causes 15% of these deaths, and 40% of pediatric diarrhea-related hospitalizations are caused by rotavirus illness (RI). Rotavirus vaccination (RV), subsidized by international donors, is expected to reduce morbidity, mortality, and economic burden to the Bolivian state. Estimates of illness and economic burden of RI and their reduction by RV are essential to the Bolivian state’s policies on RV program financing. The goal of this report is to estimate the economic burden of RI and the cost-effectiveness of the RV program.
To assess treatment costs incurred by the healthcare system, we abstracted medical records from 287 inpatients and 6,751 outpatients with acute diarrhea between 2005 and 2006 at 5 sentinel hospitals in 4 geographic regions. RI prevalence rates were estimated from 4 years of national hospital surveillance. We used a decision-analytic model to assess the potential cost-effectiveness of universal RV in Bolivia.
Our model estimates that, in a 5-year birth cohort, Bolivia will incur over US$3 million in direct medical costs due to RI. RV reduces, by at least 60%, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, deaths, and total direct medical costs associated with rotavirus diarrhea. Further, RV was cost-savings below a price of US$3.81 per dose and cost-effective below a price of US$194.10 per dose. Diarrheal mortality and hospitalization inputs were the most important drivers of rotavirus vaccine cost-effectiveness.
Our data will guide Bolivia’s funding allocation for RV as international subsidies change.
To determine the cost of rotavirus and all-cause diarrhoea in Vellore, India.
Parents of children <5 years of age accessing clinics, emergency rooms, or hospitals for acute diarrhoea completed a questionnaire detailing healthcare utilisation, medical and non-medical expenditures, and lost income. Faecal samples were screened for rotavirus and medical records were examined. Costs were estimated for inpatient and outpatient resource consumption, stratified by facility.
Total societal costs of a hospitalised diarrhoeal episode were Rs 3278.50 (US$ 80.80) at a large referral hospital and Rs 1648.60 (US$ 40.60) at a smaller community hospital. Costs for rotavirus positive or negative gastroenteritis were similar. Median household expenditures per diarrhoeal episode at the referral and the community hospitals equalled 5.8% and 2.2% of the annual household income, respectively.
Diarrhoeal disease in children constitutes a considerable economic burden. An appropriately priced and effective rotavirus vaccine may provide significant economic savings for the Indian household and healthcare system.
rotavirus; vaccine; cost; India; health economics; diarrhoea; paediatrics
Background Approximately 39% of the global diarrhoea deaths in children aged 5 years may be attributable to rotavirus infection. Two rotavirus vaccines were recently introduced to the market, with evidence of efficacy in the USA, Europe and Latin America. We sought to estimate the effectiveness of these vaccines against rotavirus morbidity and mortality.
Methods We conducted a systematic review of published efficacy and effectiveness trials of rotavirus vaccines. Study descriptors and outcome measures were abstracted into standardized tables and the quality of each study was graded. We performed meta-analyses for any outcome with two or more data points, and used child health epidemiology reference group (CHERG) Rules for Evidence Review to estimate the effect of the vaccine on rotavirus mortality.
Results We identified six papers for abstraction, reporting results from four studies. No studies reported diarrhoea or rotavirus deaths, but all studies showed reductions in hospitalizations due to rotavirus or diarrhoea of any aetiology, severe and any rotavirus infections and diarrhoea episodes of any aetiology in children who received rotavirus vaccine compared with placebo. Effectiveness against very severe rotavirus infection best approximated effectiveness against the fraction of diarrhoea deaths attributable to rotavirus, and was estimated to be 74% (95% confidence interval: 35–90%).
Conclusions Rotavirus vaccines are efficacious against rotavirus morbidity and mortality and have the potential to substantially reduce child mortality in low-income countries if implemented appropriately.
Rotavirus vaccine; diarrhoea; child; systematic review; meta-analysis
Based on nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the partial VP6 genes, group A rotaviruses can be mainly differentiated into two genogroups. In this study, a method employing reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and degenerate primers was established to assign the VP6 genogroup. VP6 genogroup I and genogroup II could be determined according to the sizes of the amplicons: 380 and 780 bp, respectively. The VP6 genogroup of human reference strains of G1 to G4 and G9 types and RotaTeq vaccine strains could be properly assigned by RT-PCR. Eighty rotavirus-positive fecal samples were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), RT-PCR, and sequencing of the partial VP6 gene for subgroup and genogroup determination. The results correlated well among these three methods, except for seven samples whose subgroups could not be determined by ELISA. VP6 genogroups of another 150 rotavirus strains recovered between 1981 and 2005 were determined by RT-PCR and sequencing, and the same results were obtained by these two methods. Furthermore, an additional 524 rotavirus-positive fecal samples were tested by RT-PCR, and the VP6 genogroups could be easily determined. The RT-PCR assay developed here provided a reliable and convenient method for assigning the VP6 genogroups of human rotaviruses with a wide range of genetic variation.
In developing countries rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhoea and diarrhoeal deaths in children under 5. Vaccination could greatly alleviate that burden, but in Mexico as in most low- and middle-income countries the decision to add rotavirus vaccine to the national immunisation program will depend heavily on its cost-effectiveness and affordability. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of including the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Mexico's national immunisation program.
A cost-effectiveness model was developed from the perspective of the health system, modelling the vaccination of a hypothetical birth cohort of 2 million children monitored from birth through 60 months of age. It compares the cost and disease burden of rotavirus in an unvaccinated cohort of children with one vaccinated as recommended at 2, 4, and 6 months.
Including the pentavalent vaccine in the national immunisation program could prevent 71,464 medical visits (59%), 5,040 hospital admissions (66%), and 612 deaths from rotavirus gastroenteritis (70%). At US$10 per dose and a cost of administration of US$13.70 per 3-dose regimen, vaccination would cost US$122,058 per death prevented, US$4,383 per discounted life-year saved, at a total net cost of US$74.7 million dollars to the health care system. Key variables influencing the results were, in order of importance, case fatality, vaccine price, vaccine efficacy, serotype prevalence, and annual loss of efficacy. The results are also very sensitive to the discount rate assumed when calculated per life-year saved.
At prices below US $15 per dose, the cost per life-year saved is estimated to be lower than one GNP per capita and hence highly cost effective by the WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health criteria. The cost-effectiveness estimates are highly dependent upon the mortality in the absence of the vaccine, which suggests that the vaccine is likely to be significantly more cost-effective among poorer populations and among those with less access to prompt medical care – such that poverty reduction programs would be expected to reduce the future cost-effectiveness of the vaccine.
Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in worldwide young children. Effective vaccines to prevent rotavirus infection are currently available, although their clinical use is still limited, and rotavirus still causes many episodes of infantile gastroenteritis, mainly during the winter season. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of rotavirus infection in children aged <5-years-old who were hospitalised for gastroenteritis. One hundred and sixty-three stool samples from hospitalised children (<5-years-old) complicated with severe diarrhoea, in two hospitals in Jahrom City, Iran were collected from 2009 to 2010. Antigenic prevalence of rotavirus group A was distinguished by enzyme immunoassay. The antigen of group A rotavirus was diagnosed by EIA in 75 of 163 collected samples. The genotype of EIA-positive samples was determined by nested RT-PCR. The frequency of rotavirus genotypes G1, G2, G3, G4 and G9 was 17.33, 13.34, 2.67, 30.66 and 2.67 %, respectively. Also, the frequency of mixed and non-typable genotypes was detected in 2.67 and 30.66 %, respectively. G1/G8 mixed infection was the first of these rotavirus genotypes to be reported in Iran. Detection of high prevalence of group A rotavirus infection in hospitalised children with diarrhoea, and determination of circulating rotavirus genotypes in this region of Iran, provide useful data for formulating effective vaccines; especially for infants less than 5-years-old.
Rotavirus; Prevalence; Molecular genotyping; RT-PCR