Zinc is an essential micronutrient for human health. However, little is known about concentration of this mineral among Iranian population. This study was carried out to determine the current zinc status, evaluate the impact of certain factors like age, sex and Body Mass Index (BMI), and to verify the prevalence of zinc deficiency among Iranian adult population in Shiraz, southern Iran.
Serum samples from 374 randomly selected healthy individuals living in Shiraz, Iran, aged 19-82 years (143 males, 231 females) were collected and the serum zinc concentration was measured by Flame-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. We considered the subjects with serum zinc concentration less than 100 μg/dl as zinc deficient.
The serum zinc levels in females were lower than those of males with no statistically significant difference. Serum zinc concentrations were unrelated to age and BMI. It also did not change among different ages and BMI intervals.
About 42.5% of our cases had serum zinc concentration below the cut off value of 100 μg/dl in the serum. Designing appropriate strategies for overcoming this public health problem is necessary.
Serum zinc; Deficiency; Prevalence; Adolescent; Iran
The present study was undertaken to find out any correlation between serum zinc concentration and HbA1C% in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The study was carried out on 50 newly diagnosed patients of type 2 diabetes and controls in the Department of Biochemistry, Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh. Analyses of blood glucose (fasting and postprandial), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum zinc, urea, and creatinine concentrations were performed by standard methods. Concentrations of fasting and postprandial blood glucose were significantly higher in the diabetic group than controls (P < 0.001) and the mean HbA1c% was also higher in cases (8.32% ±1.58%). The mean serum zinc concentration in cases was found to be significantly lower than controls (79.85 ± 13.4 vs. 109.74 ± 9.72 μg/dL) and P < 0.001 with correlation coefficient r = –0.804. Present study revealed an inverse relationship between HbA1C% and serum zinc concentration in patients with type 2 DM, substantiated by regression analysis.
Assam; serum zinc; HbA1C%; type 2 diabetes mellitus
Zinc is an essential trace element with a prominent role in human nutrition. Zinc deficiency has been linked to growth retardation, hypogonadism in males, and lack of sexual development in females. It ranges from 50% in sub-Saharan Africa to 5% in high income countries. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of zinc deficiency in healthy children in Shiraz, southern Iran.
In this study, 902 children aged 3-18 years old were randomly sampled for serum zinc level. Age, sex, weight, height, BMI, stunting and wasting indices were also recorded. With atomic absorption spectrophotometry method, the serum level of zinc less than 70 µg/dL was considered as deficient.
Mean serum level of zinc was 122.3±55 µg/dL. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was 7.9%. There was no relationship among serum zinc level and age, sex, height, weight or BMI, but mild wasting (weight for age) and mild stunting (height for age) were significantly more prevalent among zinc deficient children compared to children with normal or high level of zinc.
Zinc deficiency in Shiraz is not as prevalent as other areas of Iran. It was significantly more frequent among stunted and wasted (malnourished) children. Difference in soil zinc level, recent wide prescription of zinc supplements by pediatricians and especial pattern of nutrition, considered as possible factors responsible for lower prevalence of zinc deficiency in Shiraz, deserve more investigations.
Zinc; Children; Malnutrition; Deficiency; Iran
OBJECTIVE--To determine whether zinc deficiency in serum or vulvovaginal secretion is a risk factor for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. DESIGN--Prospective and controlled study. SETTING--Department of Dermatology, University of Vienna. SUBJECTS--21 women who had experienced at least three documented episodes of acute vulvovaginal candidiasis within the previous 12 months. Fifteen women without anamnesis of vulvovaginal candidiasis as a control group. INTERVENTIONS--Blood samples were drawn for measurement of plasma zinc levels. Lavage of the vagina and ectocervix was performed with sterile saline solution for measurement of cervicovaginal zinc levels. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Zinc levels of serum and cervicovaginal secretions were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS--We found no significant difference in the mean zinc concentration of plasma and cervicovaginal secretions between the recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and the control group. (p value for serum = 0.71, p value for secretion = 0.80). Zinc levels of plasma and cervicovaginal secretions showed no correlation (patient group: r = -0.05, control group: r = -0.07). CONCLUSION--It is well known that zinc not only exerts a major impact on different immune functions, but also participates in growth and morphogenesis of Candida albicans. Our results could not confirm the previous hypothesis that zinc deficiency of serum is a risk factor in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. It is possible that the local zinc level of cervicovaginal secretions essentially influences antifungal activity of third generation azole antimycotics.
Low concentrations of serum zinc have been reported in HIV infected adults and are associated with disease progression and an increased risk of death. Few studies have been conducted in HIV infected children in Africa. We determined serum zinc levels and factors associated with zinc deficiency in HIV infected Ugandan children.
We measured the baseline zinc status of 247 children aged 1-5 years enrolled in a randomised trial for multiple micronutrient supplementation at paediatric HIV clinics in Uganda (http://ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00122941). Zinc status was determined using inductively coupled atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES). Clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared among zinc deficient (zinc < 10.0 μmol/L) and non deficient children. Logistic regression was used to determine predictors of low serum zinc.
Of the 247 children, 134 (54.3%) had low serum zinc (< 10.0 μmol/L). Of the 44 children on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), 13 (29.5%) had low zinc compared to 121/203 (59.6%) who were not on HAART. Overall, independent predictors of low zinc were fever (OR 2.2; 95%CI 1.1 - 4.6) and not taking HAART (OR 3.7; 95%CI 1.8 - 7.6).
Almost two thirds of HAART naïve and a third of HAART treated HIV infected children were zinc deficient. Increased access to HAART among HIV infected children living in Uganda might reduce the prevalence of zinc deficiency.
A relationship has been reported between trace elements and diabetes mellitus. This study evaluated the role of such a relationship in 83 patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (40 men and 43 women), with a mean duration of diabetes of 3.9 +/- 3.6 years. Patients with nephropathy were excluded. Thirty healthy non-diabetic subjects were studied for comparative analysis. Subjects were subdivided into obese and non-obese. Diabetic subjects were also subdivided into controlled and uncontrolled groups; control was based on fasting blood glucose and serum fructosamine levels. Plasma copper, zinc and magnesium levels were analysed using a GBC 902 double beam atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Plasma zinc and magnesium levels were comparable between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects, while copper levels were significantly elevated (p < 0.01) in diabetic patients. Age, sex, duration and control of diabetes did not influence copper, zinc, or magnesium concentrations. We conclude that zinc and magnesium levels are not altered in diabetes mellitus, but the increased copper levels found in diabetics in our study may merit further investigation of the relationship between copper and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
Zinc deficiency is a potential complication of Crohn's disease and we have searched for evidence of this and assessed the possibility that malabsorption of zinc might be a cause. Serum zinc concentrations in 33 patients suffering from Crohn's disease were significantly lower than in 58 normal control subjects (9 . 18 +/- 2 . 3 mumol compared with 13 . 6 +/- 1 . 73 mumol, P < 0 . 0005). Serum zinc correlated well with serum albumin concentrations and the low serum zinc may simply reflect the low serum albumin. Thus its value as an indicator of zinc deficiency is poor. We studied zinc absorption in seven patients with Crohn's disease and compared it with the results obtained previously in five normal subjects using a new technique involving a short-lived isotope of zinc (69mZn). Plasma appearance curves, constructed after an oral dose of isotope, and disappearance curves, after an intravenous dose, were used in a deconvolution computer programme to calculate zinc absorption. Compared with normal subjects, zinc absorption was considerably impaired in patients with Crohn's disease (range 9--45%, compared with 38--75%). This abnormality is a potential cause of zinc deficiency in patients with Crohn's disease.
Recently, studies suggesting that vitamin D deficiency correlates with the severity and frequency of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and that vitamin D supplementation reduces the risk of developing T1DM have been reported.
In this study, we aimed to assess vitamin D status in Egyptian children and adolescents with T1DM.
This was a case–control study including 80 T1DM diagnosed cases aged 6 to 16 years and 40 healthy children with comparable age and gender as the control group. For all subjects, serum 25 (OH) D levels were measured by ELISA, Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and serum insulin were measured by an electrochemiluminesce immunoassay. Serum glucose, Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were also assessed.
Compared to the control group, serum vitamin D levels were not significantly lower in diabetic subjects (24.7 ± 5.6 vs 26.5 ± 4.8 ng/ml; P > 0.05). Among diabetic cases 44(55%) were vitamin D deficient; meanwhile 36(45%) cases had normal vitamin D level (P < 0.01). In addition, 26(32.5%) diabetic cases had 2ry hyperparathyroidism and 54(67.5%) cases had normal parathyroid hormone level; meanwhile, none of the control group had 2ry hyperparathyroidism (P < 0.01). Furthermore, we found a significant difference between vitamin D deficient diabetic cases and those with normal vitamin D level as regards HOMA-IR and diabetes duration (P < 0.01).
Public health message on the importance of vitamin D status; especially in diabetic children and adolescents, should be disseminated to the public.
Vitamin D; Parathyroid hormone; Diabetic; Children
Although zinc sulfate has been used to improve disorders originated from zinc deficiency, its low compliance is due to gastrointestinal complications; therefore, other zinc compounds have been suggested as replacers for zinc deficient people. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the absorption of ethyl and methyl zinc-maltol with that of zinc sulfate to substitute zinc sulfate with those complexes.
Materials and Methods:
After five weeks of being fed by zinc deficient food, zinc deficient rats were divided into four groups randomly receiving medicinal solutions of zinc sulfate, zinc ethyl maltol and zinc methyl maltol using feeding tube method for two weeks while the control was received distilled water. Serum zinc concentration and ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) and LDH (Lactate Dehydrogenase) activity of rats were determined before and after the study. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 11.5. The study was conducted from 2008 to 2010.
Serum zinc concentration and enzyme activity in all groups receiving drug solution increased. The most and least increase were in zinc sulfate and zinc methyl maltol groups, respectively. The difference between zinc methyl maltol and zinc sulfate group was significant (P < 0.05); however, this difference was not significant in the case of zinc ethyl maltol.
Zinc ethyl maltol can be a suitable and preferable substitute for zinc sulfate.
Alkaline phosphatase; Lactate dehydrogenase; zinc ethyl maltol; zinc intestinal absorption; zinc methyl maltol; zinc sulfate
Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is associated with zinc deficiency; zinc supplementation may ameliorate some of its clinical manifestations including the relief of painful crisis.
Subjects and Methods. Serum zinc levels were determined in 71 children with SCA and painful crisis and in equal numbers in steady state. Seventy-one children with AA genotype acted as controls. Qualitative assessment of zinc content of 24-hour dietary recall and the last meal consumed before blood was drawn was taken. Serum zinc was determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume (PCV) were determined using standard methods.
Results. The mean serum zinc concentration in the study was less than international reference range. The controls had significantly higher serum zinc concentrations than the SCA group (42.7 ± 13.6 versus 32.3 ± 14.0 μg/dL, P < .000); this difference was due to the significantly lower values of serum zinc in SCA with painful crisis compared with the remaining two groups F = 30.9, P<.000. There was a positive correlation between serum zinc and haemoglobin concentration only in the control group (r = 0.4; P = .001).
Conclusion. The serum zinc levels in this study were low. Painful crisis in SCA may exert greater demand for zinc utilization in children with SCA thereby resulting in lower serum levels.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the levels of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc/ copper ratio in the serum of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Qom Province, center of Iran.
Serum levels of zinc and copper were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer and serum iron concentration was measured by using an Auto Analyzer. The study group consisted of 60 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and the control group of 100 healthy volunteers from the same area who were not exposed to cutaneous leishmaniasis.
There were no statistically significant differences in age and body mass index between the two groups. Serum Zn (P< 0.001) and Fe (P< 0.05) levels were lower in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis than the control group. We also found serum Cu concentration (P< 0.05) in the patient group was significantly higher than that of the control group. However, zinc/ copper ratio (P< 0.001) was lower in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis than in the control group.
Our data indicated that Zn/Cu ratio was significantly lower in patients with CL as compared to the controls. Earlier reports suggest that, this ratio imbalance could be a useful marker for immune dysfunction in leishmaniasis. There was also strong association of Zn, Cu and Fe with CL. It suggests the use of blood zinc, copper, iron concentration and the copper/zinc ratio (Zn/Cu), as a means for estimating the prognosis of CL.
Cutaneous leishmaniasis; Zn; Cu; Fe; Zn/Cu ratio; Iran
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) concentrations and the duration of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in children and adolescents. One hundred and sixteen patients with T1DM and 19 healthy controls were examined. Serum TGF-β1 concentrations were measured using the cytometric bead array (CBA). A positive association between the time of diabetes duration and higher serum TGF-β1 concentrations was observed. Similarly, the prevalence of microvascular complications, such as retinopathy and nephropathy, increased with the duration of diabetes. Logistic regression analysis showed that serum TGF-β1 concentrations and the duration of the disease are independent risk factors of microangiopathy development. Higher serum TGF-β1 concentrations were associated with a significant risk of microangiopathy development after 10 years of T1DM duration. In the successive years of the disease, the effect was even stronger. The results of our study indicate that serum TGF-β1 concentrations are one of the factors that may have an impact on the progression of vascular complications in children and adolescents with T1DM.
Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus is the commonest major metabolic disease and most prevalent diseases worldwide.Its related morbidity is due to its micro and macro angiopathic complications.
Aim: The aim of this study was to measure and compare the serum levels of zinc and magnesium in normal individuals and in diabetic patients.
Method: Analysis of minerals was done in plasma by using a Varian Spectra AA 220 model atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
Result: Our observations showed a definite lowering of serum magnesium (p<0.001) and serum zinc levels (p<0.001) were significant in diabetic group.
Conclusion: The cause of diabetic hypomagnesaemia is multifactorial. An altered metabolism, a poor glycaemic control and osmotic diuresis may be contributory factors. Decreased serum zinc levels in diabetes may be caused by an increase in urinary loss. These decreased levels of trace elements cause disturbances in glucose transport across cell membrane lead to insufficient formation and secretion of insulin by pancreas which compromise in the antioxidant defense mechanisms.
Diabetes Mellitus; Antioxidants; Zinc; Magnesium
In the present study, we have decided to evaluate if serum transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) concentrations may have diagnostic value in predicting the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in juvenile patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The study included 81 children and adolescents with T1DM and 19 control subjects. All study participants had biochemical parameters examined, underwent an eye examination, and 24-hour blood pressure monitoring. Moreover, serum concentrations of TGF-β1 were measured. The group of patients with T1DM and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) had statistically significant higher serum levels of TGF-β1 (P = 0.001) as compared to T1DM patients without retinopathy as well as the healthy control subject. The threshold serum TGF-β1 concentrations which had a discriminative ability to predict the presence of DR were calculated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves analysis and amounted to 443 pg/ml. The area under the ROC curve (AUCROC) was 0.80, and its population value was in the range of 0.66 to 0.94. The sensitivity and specificity were calculated to be 72% and 88%, respectively. Our results suggest that TGF-β1 serum concentrations may be an additional parameter in predicting the occurrence of DR in juvenile patients with T1DM.
Since its first discovery in an Iranian male in 1961, zinc deficiency in humans is now known to be an important malnutrition problem world-wide. It is more prevalent in areas of high cereal and low animal food consumption. The diet may not necessarily be low in zinc, but its bio-availability plays a major role in its absorption. Phytic acid is the main known inhibitor of zinc. Compared to adults, infants, children, adolescents, pregnant, and lactating women have increased requirements for zinc and thus, are at increased risk of zinc depletion. Zinc deficiency during growth periods results in growth failure. Epidermal, gastrointestinal, central nervous, immune, skeletal, and reproductive systems are the organs most affected clinically by zinc deficiency. Clinical diagnosis of marginal Zn deficiency in humans remains problematic. So far, blood plasma/serum zinc concentration, dietary intake, and stunting prevalence are the best known indicators of zinc deficiency. Four main intervention strategies for combating zinc deficiency include dietary modification/diversification, supplementation, fortification, and bio-fortification. The choice of each method depends on the availability of resources, technical feasibility, target group, and social acceptance. In this paper, we provide a review on zinc biochemical and physiological functions, metabolism including, absorption, excretion, and homeostasis, zinc bio-availability (inhibitors and enhancers), human requirement, groups at high-risk, consequences and causes of zinc deficiency, evaluation of zinc status, and prevention strategies of zinc deficiency.
Zinc absorption; zinc bio-availability; zinc deficiency; zinc intervention; zinc nutrition; zinc requirement
The association of serum trace elements like selenium, zinc and copper has been found in different types of cancer. This study was conducted to see the serum level of these three trace elements in cancer esophagus patients. Biopsy confirmed cancer esophagus, 24 patients (12 males, 12 females, mean age 54.5±11.65 year with 23 healthy subjects (16 males, 7 females, mean age 44 ±13.82 years) were included in this study. Both control and study group patients were of same socio-economic status and dietary habits. Serum zinc and copper level were estimated using standard absorption spectrometer technique and serum selenium by Hydride generation method.
We observed significant low serum levels of zinc and selenium while high level of serum copper in carcinoma esophagus patients, as compared with normal healthy controls. This shows an association of serum selenium zinc and copper with cancer esophagus.
Cancer esophagus; Serum Zinc; Copper and Selenium; Atomic absorption spectrophotometer; Hydride generation; A.A.S.
Zinc is an essential trace element that plays a vital role in maintaining many biological processes and cellular homeostasis. Dysfunctional zinc signaling is associated with a number of chronic disease states including cancer, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, and diabetes. Cellular homeostasis requires mechanisms that tightly control the uptake, storage, and distribution of zinc. This is achieved through the coordinated actions of zinc transporters and metallothioneins. Evidence on the role of these proteins in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is now emerging. Zinc plays a key role in the synthesis, secretion and action of insulin in both physiological and pathophysiological states. Moreover, recent studies highlight zinc's dynamic role as a “cellular second messenger” in the control of insulin signaling and glucose homeostasis. This suggests that zinc plays an unidentified role as a novel second messenger that augments insulin activity. This previously unexplored concept would raise a whole new area of research into the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and introduce a new class of drug target with utility for diabetes pharmacotherapy.
To evaluate the correlations of the serum concentrations of copper, zinc, and manganese with lipid profile parameters of adult men in Mosul City, Iraq.
The study included 51 apparently healthy adult men as a control group aged 34-62 years (group 1), and 31 hyperlipidemic patients aged 37-60 years (group 2). Trace elements copper, zinc and manganese were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. Concentrations of total cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were determined using enzymatic method. Indirect serum concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were calculated via the Friedewald formula. Data were evaluated as mean and standard deviation by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test.
The results indicated that there is a significant lower level of serum zinc in hyperlipidemic patients compared with the control group, while copper and manganese showed no significant differences between the two groups. A significant negative correlation was found between serum zinc and total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and low/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio; while a significant positive correlation was found between serum zinc and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition, a significant positive correlation between copper and triglyceride existed in the patient group, while the control group showed no such correlation.
Hyperlipidemia may possibly be related to a decrease in the level of serum zinc in hyperlipidemic adult men. The data also supports the concept that zinc supplementation might be useful in improving metabolic complications in subjects with hyperlipidemia.
Lipid profile; Trace elements; Hyperlipidemic patient
Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease with an aberrant response characterized by exaggerated inflammation, involving the release of excess proteolytic enzymes and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Diabetes mellitus is a group of complex multisystem metabolic disorders characterized by a relative or absolute insufficiency of insulin secretion and or concomitant resistance to the metabolic action of insulin on target tissues. Increased production of ROS necessitates elevated requirements for the nutrients involved in antioxidant defenses: Selenium, zinc, and copper. Inflammatory states promote a decrease in the amount of systemic glutathione levels. Catalase is a central antioxidant enzyme constituting the primary defense against oxidative stress.
This study has been designed to evaluate the comparison of glutathione, catalase, and selenium levels in the serum of diabetes mellitus type 2 patients and healthy individuals with and without periodontal disease.
Settings and Design:
This study is a case control study.
Materials and Methods:
The study was designed as a case - control study comprising of 150 subjects, inclusive of both sexes and were divided into three groups of 50 patients each. Group I: 50 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontitis. Group II: 50 subjects who are systemically healthy with the chronic periodontitis. Group III: 50 subjects who are systemically healthy and not suffering from
Serum samples were taken for estimation of glutathione, catalase, and selenium from all groups, and Subjected to biochemical analysis after which atomic absorption spectrophotometry method was used to obtain their levels in serum.
Statistical Analysis Used:
ANOVA and Tukey HSD.
The serum levels of glutathione in diabetic patients with periodontitis were significantly lower with a mean of 61.36 + 8.054 when compared to healthy individuals with and without periodontitis with a mean of 56.93 + 6.874 and 90.36 + 6.564 respectively (P ≤ 0.005). The serum levels of catalase were significantly lower in diabetic patients with periodontitis with a mean of 19.30 + 7.355 when compared to healthy individuals with and without periodontitis with a mean of 20.71 + 6.472 and 36.09 + 5.108 respectively (P ≤ 0.005). The serum levels of selenium were significantly lower in diabetic patients with periodontitis with a mean of 81.41 + 55.419 when compared to healthy individuals with and without periodontitis with a mean of 161.44 + 84.787 and 193.84 + 66.713 respectively (P ≤ 0.005).
The findings from the study suggest that the levels of glutathione, catalase, and selenium are significantly lower in diabetic patients with periodontitis and also in healthy individuals with periodontitis, but are highest in healthy controls, showing that the serum levels are inversely proportional to inflammation and tissue destruction.
Catalase; diabetes mellitus type 2; glutathione; periodontitis; selenium
Zinc absorption was measured in 37 children with malnutrition using the oral zinc tolerance test (22.5 mg elementary zinc) and the results compared with those of a group of healthy control subjects. The increase in plasma zinc was significantly lower in patients with marasmic kwashiorkor than in the control group. The zinc tolerance test was, however, normal in marasmic patients. We conclude that zinc deficiency occurs in some types of protein energy malnutrition, and that malabsorption may aggravate zinc deficiency. It is reasonable to give higher doses of zinc than are usually recommended during oral zinc supplementation in patients with protein energy malnutrition.
Zinc and copper have important effects on T cell mediated immunity and on neutrophil function, but it is not known how the causes or effects, of low serum zinc and high serum copper relate to the clinical picture of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study serum zinc and copper determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and 30 other clinical, immunological, and laboratory parameters in 60 patients with RA were analysed by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. Joint score index, rheumatoid factor titre, seropositivity, haemoglobin, and C reactive protein (CRP) were among the nine independent variables which together predicted 73% of the serum zinc variation. This suggests that there is an association between the immune-inflammatory rheumatoid process and the serum zinc concentration. CRP alone had only a 3% independent predicting value for serum zinc, however. This suggests that metallothionein mediated sequestration in the liver, induced by interleukin 1, is not an important explanatory factor in a cross sectional study of chronic inflammation. Furthermore, serum zinc did not have any predictive value at all for serum copper concentration. This does not support the hypothesis suggesting that serum zinc deficiency leads to high serum copper by inducing gastrointestinal metallothionein and high caeruloplasmin.
There are some reports in which a condition of zinc deficiency and its associated outcomes with a change in concentration of serum copper among the thalassemic patients has been highlighted. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the serum zinc and copper levels in children with beta-thalassemia major.
In this cross sectional study all children under 12 years affected by beta thalassemia major (40 patients) were evaluated for serum zinc and copper levels in Qazvin thalassemia center (Qazvin, Iran) in 2007. Serum measurements for zinc and copper were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
The mean concentrations of serum zinc and copper levels were 67.35±20.38 and 152.42±24.17 µg/dl respectively. Twenty-six (65%) of thalassemic patients had zinc concentration under 70 µg/dl (hypozincemia). None of the thalassemic children had copper deficiency. No significant correlation between serum zinc level with age, weight, height, body mass index, duration of blood transfusion, desferrioxamine dose and ferritin level was observed in thalassemic patients (P=0.3).
This study revealed that hypozincemia is common in thalassemic patients, but in contrast, there is no copper deficiency. Further evaluation in this regard is recommended.
Beta-thalassemia; Zinc; Copper; Children
Objective: Adiponectin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) can be used as early biochemical markers of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Radiologically, non-invasive flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measurements may be used as indicators in the early diagnosis of CVDs. To compare the biochemical markers of atherosclerosis with radiological markers of CVDs (CIMT, FMD, ventricular systolic and diastolic functions) and to assess the relationship of these parameters with metabolic control in diabetic children and adolescents.
Methods: A total of 55 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) of at least 5-year duration and 30 healthy subjects were included in the study. Serum adiponectin, hsCRP, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and lipid levels were evaluated in the patients and in the controls. CIMT, FMD, ventricular systolic and diastolic functions were assessed by echocardiography.
Results: Mean age of the patients with diabetes was 17.6 years; mean diabetes duration was 10.4 years. Mean serum hsCRP was elevated in children with diabetes (0.21±0.31 vs. 0.10±0.16 μg/mL, p=0.00), while no significant difference from the controls was found in adiponectin levels. Mean CIMT was significantly higher in diabetic children compared to the control group (0.53±0.11 vs. 0.34±0.46 mm, p=0.00). Mean FMD of the diabetic children was significantly lower than that of the controls (6.86±2.85% vs. 12.13±1.99%, p=0.00). Diabetes duration was positively correlated with CIMT and negatively correlated with FMD. Right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) myocardial performance index (MPI) were higher in the patient group (p=0.00).
Conclusions: Our data suggest that in addition to standard echocardiography, tissue Doppler echocardiography, FMD, and CIMT can be used as early-stage radiological markers and hsCRP as an early-stage biochemical marker of atherosclerosis in the routine follow-up of T1DM patients.
Conflict of interest:None declared.
type 1 diabetes mellitus; Adiponectin; C-reactive protein; carotid intima-media thickness; cardiovascular diseases
Associations between Giardia lamblia infection and low serum concentrations of zinc have been reported in young children. Interestingly, relatively few studies have examined the effects of different dietary zinc levels on the parasite-infected host. The aims of this study were to compare the growth performance and zinc status in response to varying levels of dietary zinc and to measure the antibody-mediated response of mice during G. lamblia infection. Male CD-1 mice were fed using 1 of 4 experimental diets: adequate-zinc (ZnA), low-zinc (ZnL), high-zinc (ZnH) and supplemented-zinc (ZnS) diet containing 30, 10, 223 and 1383 mg Zn/kg respectively. After a 10 days feeding period, mice were inoculated orally with 5 × 106
G. lamblia trophozoites and were maintained on the assigned diet during the course of infection (30 days). Giardia-free mice fed ZnL diets were able to attain normal growth and antibody-mediated response. Giardia-infected mice fed ZnL and ZnA diets presented a significant growth retardation compared to non-infected controls. Zinc supplementation avoided this weight loss during G. lamblia infection and up-regulated the host’s humoral immune response by improving the production of specific antibodies. Clinical outcomes of zinc supplementation during giardiasis included significant weight gain, higher anti-G. lamblia IgG antibodies and improved serum zinc levels despite the ongoing infection. A maximum growth rate and antibody-mediated response were attained in mice fed ZnH diet. No further increases in body weight, zinc status and humoral immune capacity were noted by feeding higher zinc levels (ZnS) than the ZnH diet. These findings probably reflect biological effect of zinc that could be of public health importance in endemic areas of infection.
zinc; Giardia lamblia; giardiasis; micronutrients; immune response; IgG; mice
It is well known that some trace elements such as zinc and copper play a significant role in many forms of hair loss. However, the effect of zinc and copper in the pathogenesis of hair loss is still unknown.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the zinc and copper status in each of four types of hair loss.
A study was carried out with 30 health controls and 312 patients who were diagnosed with alopecia areata (AA), male pattern hair loss, female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium (TE) (2008 to 2011; Hallym University Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital). Zinc and copper serum concentrations were evaluated between controls and each of four types of hair loss patients.
In all of the hair loss patients, the mean serum zinc was 84.33±22.88, significantly lower than the control group (97.94±21.05 µg/dl) (p=0.002), whereas the serum copper was 96.44±22.62, which was not significantly different (p=0.975). The analysis of each group showed that all groups of hair loss had statistically lower zinc concentration, but not copper concentrations. However, the ratio of the patients with serum zinc concentration lower than 70 µg/dl was significantly high in only the AA group (odds ratio, OR 4.02; confidence interval, CI 1.13 to 14.31) and the TE group (OR 1.12; CI 1.12 to 17.68).
The data led to the hypothesis of zinc metabolism disturbances playing a key role in hair loss, especially AA and TE, whereas the effect of copper on hair growth and shedding cycles still needs more study.
Alopecia; Copper; Zinc