The common causes of rhabdomyolysis include trauma, hypoxia, drugs, toxins, infections and hyperthermia. Operative insults, including direct trauma and ischemia, have the potential to cause the development of rhabdomyolysis. Pneumatic tourniquets used during arthroscopic knee surgery to prevent blood loss have led to many complications such as nerve paralysis and vascular injuries. Rhabdomyolysis can also be caused by prolonged pneumatic tourniquet application without a midapplication release, and also from an increased application pressure, but the actual incidence of this is low. In order to prevent rhabdomyolysis, the clinicians must be aware of such risks and follow strict guidelines for the application time, the midapplication release and also the inflation pressure. Vigorous hydration and postoperative patient surveillance are helpful to prevent rhabdomyolysis. We have recently experienced a case of rhabdomyolysis after the arthroscopic knee surgery, and the rhabdomyolysis could have been associated with the use of a pneumatic tourniquet.
Rhabdomyolysis; Tourniquets; Kidney failure, acute
To document any consistent clinical findings in a large cohort of patients with whiplash associated disorder.
Four-year observational study.
Large orthopaedic medicolegal practice in the UK.
1025 consecutive cases of chronic whiplash associated disorder.
Main outcome measures
Observational study of the clinical features of whiplash associated disorder: detailed examination
Three consistent clinical features: neck pain; reduced cervical spine range of motion; and myofascial-entheseal dysfunction. With regards to the myofascial-entheseal dysfunction there were trigger points in the upper, middle or lower trapezius; with or without enthesopathy in the lower or middle trapezius.
On the basis of this large observational experience we propose a clinically-based definition of chronic whiplash associated disorder: a painful syndrome following acceleration-deceleration injury with neck stiffness; and myofascial-entheseal dysfunction.
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication of orthopaedic surgery in the industrialised world; though there may be variability between population groups. This study aims to define the incidence and risk factors for symptomatic VTE following primary elective total hip and knee arthoplasty surgery in a single centre in Eastern Europe.
This prospective study included 499 adult patients undergoing total hip and knee arthroplasty for symptomatic osteoarthritis over a two-year period at the Clinic of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Belgrade.
The overall rate of confirmed symptomatic VTE during hospitalisation was 2.6%. According to the univariate logistic regression, an age greater than 75 years (OR = 3.08; 95%CI = 1.01–9.65), a family history of VTE (OR = 6.61; 95% CI = 1.33–32.90), varicose veins (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 1.03–9.48), and ischemic heart disease (OR = 4.93; 95% CI = 1.61–15.09) were significant risk factors for in-hospital VTE. A family history of VTE and ischemic heart disease were independent risk factors according to multivariate regression analysis. Preoperative initiation of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis (p = 0.03) and a longer duration of thromboprophylaxis (p = 0.001) were protective for postoperative DVT. Though thromboprophylaxis was safe, with very few patients suffering major haemorrhage or heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, there was a general reluctance by our local surgeons to use prolonged thromboprophylaxis.
VTE is common following hip and knee arthroplasty surgery. Orthopaedic patients with a family history of VTE, heart failure and coronary heart disease are at a considerable risk of thromboembolic complications in the postoperative period. There may be a role for preoperative thromboprophylaxis in addition to prolonged postoperative treatment.
Orthopaedic surgery is a high-risk specialty in which errors will undoubtedly occur. Patient safety incidents can yield valuable information to generate solutions and prevent future cases of avoidable harm. The aim of this study was to understand the causative factors leading to all unnecessary deaths in orthopaedics and trauma surgery reported to the National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) over a four-year period (2005–2009), using a qualitative approach.
Reports made to the NPSA are categorised and stored in the database as free-text data. A search was undertaken to identify the cases of all-cause mortality in orthopaedic and trauma surgery, and the free-text elements were used for thematic analysis. Descriptive statistics were calculated based on the incidents reported. This included presenting the number of times categories of incidents had the same or similar response. Superordinate and subordinate categories were created.
A total of 257 incident reports were analysed. Four main thematic categories emerged. These were: (1) stages of the surgical journey – 118/191 (62%) of deaths occurred in the post-operative phase; (2) causes of patient deaths – 32% were related to severe infections; (3) reported quality of medical interventions – 65% of patients experienced minimal or delayed treatment; (4) skills of healthcare professionals – 44% of deaths had a failure in non-technical skills.
Most complications in orthopaedic surgery can be dealt with adequately, provided they are anticipated and that risk-reduction strategies are instituted. Surgeons take pride in the precision of operative techniques; perhaps it is time to enshrine the multimodal tools available to ensure safer patient care.
Patient safety; Errors; Orthopaedics; Trauma surgery; Quality improvement
This is a cross-sectional observational study undertaken to explore the current prescription pattern of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the prevalence of NSAID-induced gastrointestinal (GI) risk factors of orthopaedic patients in real clinical practice in Korea. Study cohort included 3,140 orthopaedic outpatients at 131 hospitals and clinics between January 2008 and August 2008. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by each patient and physician. A simplified risk scoring scale (the Standardized Calculator of Risk for Events; SCORE) was used to measure patients' risk for GI complications. The pattern of NSAIDs prescription was identified from medical recordings. Forty-five percents of the patients belonged to high risk or very high risk groups for GI complications. The cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme (COX-2) selective NSAID showed a propensity to be prescribed more commonly for high/very high GI risk groups, but the rate was still as low as 51%. In conclusion, physician's considerate prescription of NSAIDs with well-understanding of each patient's GI risk factors is strongly encouraged in order to maximize cost effectiveness and to prevent serious GI complications in Korea. Other strategic efforts such as medical association-led education programs and application of Korean electronic SCORE system to hospital order communication system (OCS) should also be accompanied in a way to promote physician's attention.
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; GI risk factor; Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors; SCORE; Korea
Diverticulosis is a common disease in the western society with an incidence of 33–66%. 10–25% of these patients will develop diverticulitis. In order to prevent a high-risk acute operation it is advised to perform elective sigmoid resection after two episodes of diverticulitis in the elderly patient or after one episode in the younger (< 50 years) patient. Open sigmoid resection is still the gold standard, but laparoscopic colon resections seem to have certain advantages over open procedures. On the other hand, a double blind investigation has never been performed. The Sigma-trial is designed to evaluate the presumed advantages of laparoscopic over open sigmoid resections in patients with symptomatic diverticulitis.
Indication for elective resection is one episode of diverticulitis in patients < 50 years and two episodes in patient > 50 years or in case of progressive abdominal complaints due to strictures caused by a previous episode of diverticulits. The diagnosis is confirmed by CT-scan, barium enema and/or coloscopy.
It is required that the participating surgeons have performed at least 15 laparoscopic and open sigmoid resections. Open resection is performed by median laparotomy, laparoscopic resection is approached by 4 or 5 cannula. Sigmoid and colon which contain serosal changes or induration are removed and a tension free anastomosis is created. After completion of either surgical procedure an opaque dressing will be used, covering from 10 cm above the umbilicus to the pubic bone. Surgery details will be kept separate from the patient's notes.
Primary endpoints are the postoperative morbidity and mortality. We divided morbidity in minor (e.g. wound infection), major (e.g. anastomotic leakage) and late (e.g. incisional hernias) complications, data will be collected during hospital stay and after six weeks and six months postoperative. Secondary endpoints are the operative and the postoperative recovery data. Operative data include duration of the operation, blood loss and conversion to laparotomy. Post operative recovery consists of return to normal diet, pain, analgesics, general health (SF-36 questionnaire) and duration of hospital stay.
The Sigma-trial is a prospective, multi-center, double-blind, randomized study to define the role of laparoscopic sigmoid resection in patients with symptomatic diverticulitis.
The Orthopaedic Error Index for hospitals aims to provide the first national assessment of the relative safety of provision of orthopaedic surgery.
Cross-sectional study (retrospective analysis of records in a database).
The National Reporting and Learning System is the largest national repository of patient-safety incidents in the world with over eight million error reports. It offers a unique opportunity to develop novel approaches to enhancing patient safety, including investigating the relative safety of different healthcare providers and specialties.
We extracted all orthopaedic error reports from the system over 1 year (2009–2010).
The Orthopaedic Error Index was calculated as a sum of the error propensity and severity. All relevant hospitals offering orthopaedic surgery in England were then ranked by this metric to identify possible outliers that warrant further attention.
155 hospitals reported 48 971 orthopaedic-related patient-safety incidents. The mean Orthopaedic Error Index was 7.09/year (SD 2.72); five hospitals were identified as outliers. Three of these units were specialist tertiary hospitals carrying out complex surgery; the remaining two outlier hospitals had unusually high Orthopaedic Error Indexes: mean 14.46 (SD 0.29) and 15.29 (SD 0.51), respectively.
The Orthopaedic Error Index has enabled identification of hospitals that may be putting patients at disproportionate risk of orthopaedic-related iatrogenic harm and which therefore warrant further investigation. It provides the prototype of a summary index of harm to enable surveillance of unsafe care over time across institutions. Further validation and scrutiny of the method will be required to assess its potential to be extended to other hospital specialties in the UK and also internationally to other health systems that have comparable national databases of patient-safety incidents.
ORTHOPAEDIC & TRAUMA SURGERY; PUBLIC HEALTH
When conservative therapies for low back pain (LBP) are not effective, elective surgery may be proposed to these patients. Over the last 20 years, a new technology, disc replacement, has become increasingly popular because it is believed to maintain or restore the integrity of spinal movement and minimize the side-effects compared to fusion. Although disc replacement may relieve a patient from pain and related disability, soreness and stiffness of the lumbopelvic region seem to be common aftermaths of the surgery. This prospective case series was undertaken to identify and describe potential adverse events of lumbar spinal manipulation, a common therapy for low back pain, in a group of patients with symptoms after disc prostheses.
Eight patients who underwent lumbar spine total disc replacement were referred by an orthopaedic surgeon for chiropractic treatments. These patients had 1 or 2 total lumbar disc replacements and were considered stable according to the surgical protocol but presented persistent, post-surgical, non-specific LBP or pelvic pain. They were treated with lumbar spine side posture manipulations only and received 8 to 10 chiropractic treatments based on the clinical evolution and the chiropractor's judgment. Outcome measures included benign, self-limiting, and serious adverse events after low back spinal manipulative therapy. The Oswestry Disability Index, a pain scale and the fear avoidance belief questionnaire were administered to respectively assess disability, pain and fear avoidance belief about work and physical activity. This prospective case series comprised 8 patients who all had at least 1 total disc replacement at the L4/L5 or L5/S1 level and described persistent post-surgical LBP interfering with their daily activities. Commonly-reported side-effects of a benign nature included increased pain and/or stiffness of short duration in nearly half of the chiropractic treatment period. No major or irreversible complication was noted.
During the short treatment period, no major complication was encountered by the patients. Moreover, the benign side-effects reported after lumbar spine manipulation were similar in nature and duration to those frequently experienced by the general population.
This study is performed to investigate risk factors of hypotension in response to elective carotid stenting. Forty-four lesions of 40 consecutive patients (mean age 70.4 ± 8.2 years) were retrospectively analyzed. Easy Wall stent was applied in 15 lesions and SMART stent in 29 lesions. We investigated correlations between the occurrence rate of postoperative hypotension below 90 mmHg and persisting over three hours and findings of preoperative angiograms, ultrasonograms and clinical characteristics. Postprocedural hypotension occurred in 19 patients (47.5%) and medical treatment (intravenous administration of catecholamines) was required in eleven patients (27.5%). Although there was no permanent neurological deficits related with postprocedural hypotension, transient neurological deficits were found in three patients. Risk factors of prolonged postprocedural hypotension were statistically analyzed. On angiographic characteristics; 1) distance between the carotid bifurcation and the lesion with maximum stenosis (≦10 mm vs. >10 mm: p = 0.031), 2) type of stenosis (eccentric vs. concentric: p = 0.014) On ultrasonographic characteristics; 1) calcifications at the carotid bifurcation (present vs. absent: p< 0.001). Other variables, including age and degree of stenosis, were not associated with postprocedural hypotension after carotid stenting. These angiographic and ultrasonographic variables can be used to identify patients at risk for postprocedural hypotension after carotid stenting. Such identification may help in selection of patients who will benefit from appropriate pharmacological treatment.
stent, postprocedural hypotension, prolonged, carotid artery
OBJECTIVES—To determine whether continued methotrexate treatment increases the risk of postoperative infections or of surgical complications in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) within one year of elective orthopaedic surgery.
DESIGN—A prospective randomised study of postoperative infection or surgical complications occurring within one year of surgery in patients with RA who underwent elective orthopaedic surgery.
SUBJECTS—388 patients with RA who were to undergo elective orthopaedic surgery. Patients who were receiving methotrexate were randomly allocated to groups who either continued methotrexate (group A) or who discontinued methotrexate from two weeks before surgery until two weeks after surgery (group B). Their complication rates were compared with complications occurring in 228 patients with RA (group C) who were not receiving methotrexate and who also underwent elective orthopaedic surgery.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Signs of postoperative infection were recorded, including rubor, discharge, systemic infection, and frequency of wound dehiscence as well as the incidence of any surgical complication requiring a secondary revision procedure that occurred within one year of surgery. The frequencies of flare up activity of RA at six weeks and six months after surgery were also recorded. A flare of rheumatoid disease was defined as an increase in joint pain in two or more joints notified by the patient as well as by an increase in articular index of at least 25% after surgery.
RESULTS—Signs of infection or surgical complications occurred in two of 88 procedures in group A (2%), 11 of 72 procedures in group B (15%), and 24 of 228 (10.5%) procedures in group C. The surgical complication or infection frequency in group A was less than that in either group B (p<0.003) or group C (p=0.026). At six weeks after surgery there were no flares in group A, six flares in group B (8%), and six flares in group C (2.6%). Logistic regression analysis of the overall surgical complication rate in all the patients with RA studied showed that methotrexate, whether continued or discontinued before surgery, did not increase the early complication rate in the patients with RA who underwent elective orthopaedic surgery. Other drugs—penicillamine, indometacin, cyclosporin, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and prednisolone—all did significantly increase the risk of infection or surgical complication after elective orthopaedic surgery. The risk of surgery was also increased in the presence of intercurrent chronic diseases—diabetes, hypertension, bronchiectasis, psoriasis, asthma, and ischaemic heart disease.
CONCLUSION—Continuation of methotrexate treatment does not increase the risk of either infections or of surgical complications occurring in patients with RA within one year of elective orthopaedic surgery. Thus methotrexate treatment should not be stopped in patients whose disease is controlled by the drug before elective orthopaedic surgery.
While several studies have identified an increased incidence of cardiovascular disorders in opiate dependence, neither opiates as a cardiovascular risk factor nor their effect on central arterial function has been considered.
Pulse wave analysis (SphygmoCor, AtCorMedical Pty Limited, Sydney, NSW, Australia) was undertaken on a cohort of controls and opiate dependent patients and the results compared to their lifetime opiate exposure.
Controls (N = 401) were compared with 465 opiate dependent men. The mean (log) ages were different and were found to be 28.80 ± 0.49 years versus 35.02 ± 0.39 years (P < 0.0001), respectively. Of the opiate dependent group, 87.7% were treated with buprenorphine, 8.8% with methadone, and 3.4% with naltrexone. Multiple regression analysis was used to adjust for chronologic age (CA). At CA of 60 years, the modeled age in the controls was 66.40 years, and that in the addicted group was 73.11 years, an advancement of 6.71 years, or 10.10%. Exacerbations of age dependent changes in central arterial stiffness, central pressures, pulse rate, ejection duration, diastolic duration, and subendocardial perfusion ratio by opiate dependence were all noted (P < 0.05). Current heroin dose, heroin duration, and the dose duration interaction were all significantly related to the vascular (or “reference”) age (RA)/CA ratio (all P < 0.006). After multivariate adjustment, the opiate dose duration was independently predictive of RA (P < 0.02). Opiate dose and/or duration were included in a further 25 terms.
These data show that opiate use is not benign for the male cardiovascular system, but has a dose response relationship to central arterial stiffness and thus cardiovascular aging, acting independently and interactively with established cardiovascular risk factors. These findings imply accelerated organismal aging.
arterial stiffness; heroin; opiate dependence; vascular aging; human aging; methadone
To test the hypothesis that perioperative statin use reduces acute kidney injury (AKI) following cardiac surgery
Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from an ongoing clinical trial
Quaternary-care university hospital
Three hundred twenty-four elective adult cardiac surgery patients
Measurements and Main Results
We assessed the association of preoperative statin use, early postoperative statin use, and acute statin withdrawal with the incidence of AKI. Early postoperative statin use was defined as statin treatment within the first postoperative day. Statin withdrawal was defined as discontinuation of preoperative statin treatment prior to surgery until at least postoperative day 2. Logistic regression and propensity score modeling were used to control for AKI risk factors. Sixty-eight of 324 patients (21.0%) developed AKI. AKI patients stayed in the hospital longer (P=0.03) and were more likely to develop pneumonia (P=0.002) or die (P=0.001). Higher body mass index (P=0.003), higher central venous pressure (P=0.03), and statin withdrawal (27.4 vs. 14.7%, P=0.046) were associated with a higher incidence of AKI, while early postoperative statin use was protective (12.5 vs. 23.8%, P=0.03). Preoperative statin use did not affect risk of AKI. In multivariate logistic regression, age (P=0.03), male gender (P=0.02), body mass index (P<0.001), and early postoperative statin use (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.14–0.72, P=0.006) independently predicted AKI. Propensity score-adjusted risk assessment confirmed the association between early postoperative statin use and reduced AKI (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.13–0.70, P=0.005).
Early postoperative statin use is associated with a lower incidence of AKI among both chronic statin users and statin-naïve cardiac surgery patients.
acute kidney injury; acute renal failure; cardiac surgery; statin; oxidative stress; obesity
Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) cause significant morbidity and mortality in orthopaedic surgical practice, although the incidence following surgery to the lumbosacral spine is less than following lower limb surgery. Our objective was to compare our rate of thromboembolic complications with those published elsewhere and investigate whether the adoption of additional pharmacological measures reduced the incidence of clinically evident DVT and PE. This retrospective study was undertaken to investigate the incidence of DVT/PE during the 10 years from 1 January 1985 to 31 December 1994, and then to assess the effectiveness of an anticoagulant policy introduced during 1995 using low dose aspirin or LMH in high risk cases. All records for spinal operations were reviewed for thrombo-embolic complications by reference to the Scottish Morbidity Record form SMR1. To ensure that all patients were compliant with the policy, data for the whole of 1995 was omitted and the period 1 January 1996 to 31 December 2003 was taken to assess its effectiveness. Surgery was done with the patient in the kneeling, seated prone position which leaves the abdomen free and avoids venous kinking in the legs. Records of a total of 1,111 lumbar spine operations were performed from 1 January 1985 to 31 December 2004 were reviewed. The overall incidence of thrombo-embolic complications was 0.29%. A total of 697 operations were performed from 1 January 1985 to 31 December 1994 with two cases of DVT and no cases of PE giving thromboembolic complication rate of 0.29%. During the period 1 January 1996 to 31 December 2003, 414 operations resulted in one case of DVT and no cases of PE, a rate of 0.24%. The incidence of symptomatic thrombo-embolic complications in lumbar spinal surgery is low in the kneeling, seated prone operating position, whether or not anticoagulation is used.
Deep venous thrombosis; Pulmonary embolism; Lumbar spine surgery; Kneeling seated prone operating position; DVT prophylaxis; Aspirin
Arthritis is the leading cause of disability in the United States. Osteoarthritis, the most common form of arthritis, is a degenerative joint disease affecting both whites and African Americans similarly. African Americans have a high incidence rate of comorbidities, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and diabetes. Treatment of osteoarthritic pain in patients with comorbidities is often complicated by potential safety concerns. Traditional nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) specific NSAIDs have been shown to increase blood pressure in hypertensive patients taking antihypertensive medications. Patients with CVD risk factors taking low-dose aspirin for secondary prevention may be at increased risk for gastrointestinal bleeding with NSAIDs. Diabetics face an increased risk of renal complications. Because NSAIDs are associated with adverse renal effects, they should be used cautiously in patients with advanced renal disease. Acetaminophen is the most appropriate initial analgesic for African Americans with chronic osteoarthritic pain and concurrent hypertension, CVD risk factors or diabetes, and is recommended by the American College of Rheumatology as first-line treatment. Many of the adverse effects commonly associated with NSAIDs are not associated with acetaminophen. Safety concerns surrounding pharmacologic treatment of osteoarthritis in African Americans are reviewed.
AIM: To investigate whether the guidelines set out by the UK Department of Health on informed consent are being followed nationally in orthopaedic surgery. METHODS: A postal questionnaire of UK orthopaedic consultants was undertaken asking about consenting procedures for an elective and a trauma situation. RESULTS: In 53 of 110 cases, the most junior member of the team takes consent, and patients are not being warned about specific complications and risks associated with surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The guidelines issued by the Department of Health are not being adhered to, and the consenting doctor needs to be aware of the medical and legal responsibilities in taking informed consent.
Risk factors for heart failure (HF) may differ according to ejection fraction (EF). Higher cystatin C, a marker of kidney dysfunction, is associated with incident HF, but prior studies did not determine EF at diagnosis. We hypothesized that kidney dysfunction would predict diastolic HF (DHF) better than systolic HF (SHF) in the Cardiovascular Health Study.
Methods and Results
Cystatin C was measured in 4,453 participants without HF at baseline. Incident HF was categorized as DHF (EF ≥ 50%) or SHF (EF < 50%). We compared the association of cystatin C with risk for DHF and SHF, after adjustment for age, sex, race, medications, and HF risk factors. Over eight years of follow-up, 167 participants developed DHF and 206 SHF. After adjustment, sequentially higher quartiles of cystatin C were associated with risk for SHF [competing risks hazard ratios 1.0 (reference), 1.99 (95% CI 1.14, 3.48), 2.32 (1.32, 4.07), 3.17 (1.82, 5.50), P for trend <0.001]. Risk for DHF was apparent only at the highest cystatin C quartile [hazard ratios 1.0 (reference), 1.09 (0.62, 1.89), 1.08 (0.61, 1.93), 1.83 (1.07, 3.11)].
Cystatin C levels are linearly associated with incidence of systolic HF, whereas only the highest concentrations of cystatin C predict diastolic HF.
Heart failure; cystatin C; systolic heart failure; diastolic heart failure; estimated glomerular filtration rate; elderly; ejection fraction.
Fractures shaft femur is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with lower extremity injuries.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intramedullary Kirschner wires for the treatment of femoral shaft fracture in children.
Subjects and Methods:
This prospective study was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedic surgery in M. M. Medical College from June 2005 to June 2010. Sixty eight children with a mean age of 7.7 years (range, 2-14 years) were recruited from Emergency and out patient department having closed fracture of femoral shaft. All patients were operated under general anesthesia. All patients were followed for twelve months.
Out of sixty eight patients, sixty four patients underwent union in 42 to 70 days with a mean of 56 days. Touch down weight bearing was started on 2nd post-operative day. Complications found in four patients who had insignificant delayed union which were united next three weeks. Intramedullary Kirschner-wires were removed after an average of five months without any complications. The results were excellent in 94.1% (64/68) and good in 5.8% (4/68).
This technique is simple, quick to perform, safe and reliable and avoids prolonged hospitalization with good results and is economical.
Children; Femoral shaft fractures; Kirschner wires
Two hundred and thirty five consecutive patients with a life threatening complication of peptic ulceration, who either died or required emergency surgery, have been studied over a 36 month period. Seventy eight of these high risk patients died; 25 at home, 19 in hospital without surgery and 34 postoperatively. Ninety eight patients had bleeding ulcers, 132 perforated ulcers and five had both bleeding and perforated ulcers. One hundred and forty one of these 235 patients (60%) were taking a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and the individual agents have been listed. The overall incidence of NSAID use in a hospital control group was 9.9%. The first sign of an ulcer was a life threatening complication in 58.2% of patients taking a NSAID. Nearly 80% of all ulcer related deaths occurred in patients using an anti-inflammatory agent. Patients using these drugs were older, with more pre-existing medical conditions and had larger ulcers than those not taking NSAIDs. The mortality associated with a peptic ulcer complication in patients taking a NSAID was more than twice that in patients with no such drug history. There appears to be a relationship between the development of a life threatening complication of peptic ulceration and NSAID ingestion. Much of the associated mortality and morbidity may be potentially avoidable.
Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of kidney failure in the US. The extent to which elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is associated with increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the absence of albuminuria and retinopathy, the hallmarks of diabetic nephropathy, is uncertain.
HbA1c was measured in 1,871 adults with diabetes followed for 11 years in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Incident CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 after 6 years of follow-up or a kidney disease-related hospitalization. We categorized HbA1c into 4 clinically relevant categories. Retinopathy and albuminuria were measured midway through follow-up.
Higher HbA1c was strongly associated with risk of CKD in models adjusted for demographics, baseline GFR and cardiovascular risk factors. Compared to HbA1c values of <6.00%, HbA1cs of 6.00-7.00%, 7.00%-8.00%, and >8.00% had adjusted relative hazards of CKD of 1.4 (95% CI: 0.97-1.91), 2.5 (1.70-3.66) and 3.7 (2.76-4.90), respectively. Risk of CKD was higher among individuals with retinopathy and albuminuria, the association between HbA1c and incident CKD was observed even among those participants without either abnormality: adjusted relative hazards =1.46 (0.80-2.65), 1.17 (0.43-3.19) and 3.51 (1.67-7.40); p-trend=0.004.
We observed a positive association between HbA1c and incident CKD that was strong, graded, independent of traditional risk factors and present even in the absence of albuminuria and retinopathy. Hyperglycemia is an important indicator of risk of both diabetic nephropathy (with albuminuria or retinopathy) and of less specific forms of CKD.
Understanding the factors that impact on disability is necessary to inform trauma care and enable adequate risk adjustment for benchmarking and monitoring. A key consideration is how to adjust for pre-existing conditions when assessing injury outcomes, and whether the inclusion of comorbidity is needed in addition to adjustment for age. This study compared different approaches to modelling the impact of comorbidity, collected as part of the routine hospital episode data, on disability outcomes following orthopaedic injury.
12-month Glasgow Outcome Scale – Extended (GOS-E) outcomes for 13,519 survivors to discharge were drawn from the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry, a prospective cohort study of admitted orthopaedic injury patients. ICD-10-AM comorbidity codes were mapped to four comorbidity indices. Cases with a GOS-E score of 7–8 were considered “recovered”. A split dataset approach was used with cases randomly assigned to development or test datasets. Logistic regression models were fitted with “recovery” as the outcome and the performance of the models based on each comorbidity index (adjusted for injury and age) measured using calibration (Hosmer-Lemshow (H-L) statistics and calibration curves) and discrimination (Area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (AUC)) statistics.
All comorbidity indices improved model fit over models with age and injuries sustained alone. None of the models demonstrated acceptable model calibration (H-L statistic p < 0.05 for all models). There was little difference between the discrimination of the indices for predicting recovery: Charlson Comorbidity Index (AUC 0.70, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.71); number of ICD-10 chapters represented (AUC 0.70, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.72); number of six frequent chronic conditions represented (AUC 0.70, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.71); and the Functional Comorbidity Index (AUC 0.69, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.71).
The presence of ICD-10 recorded comorbid conditions is an important predictor of long term functional outcome following orthopaedic injury and adjustment for comorbidity is indicated when assessing risk-adjusted functional outcomes over time or across jurisdictions.
Orthopaedic injury; Comorbidity; Disability outcomes; Prediction
Background: Hypotension is commonly encountered in association with anaesthesia and surgery. Uncorrected and sustained it puts the brain, heart, kidneys, and the fetus in pregnancy at risk of permanent or even fatal damage. Its recognition and correction is time critical, especially in patients with pre-existing disease that compromises organ perfusion.
Objectives: To examine the role of a previously described core algorithm "COVER ABCD–A SWIFT CHECK", supplemented by a specific sub-algorithm for hypotension, in the management of hypotension when it occurs in association with anaesthesia.
Methods: Reports of hypotension during anaesthesia were extracted and studied from the first 4000 incidents reported to the Australian Incident Monitoring Study (AIMS). The potential performance of the COVER ABCD algorithm and the sub-algorithm for hypotension was compared with the actual management as reported by the anaesthetist involved.
Results: There were 438 reports that mentioned hypotension, cardiovascular collapse, or cardiac arrest. In 17% of reports more than one cause was attributed and 550 causative events were identified overall. The most common causes identified were drugs (26%), regional anaesthesia (14%), and hypovolaemia (9%). Concomitant changes were reported in heart rate or rhythm in 39% and oxygen saturation or ventilation in 21% of reports. Cardiac arrest was documented in 25% of reports. As hypotension was frequently associated with abnormalities of other vital signs, it could not always be adequately addressed by a single algorithm. The sub-algorithm for hypotension is adequate when hypotension occurs in association with sinus tachycardia. However, when it occurs in association with bradycardia, non-sinus tachycardia, desaturation or signs of anaphylaxis or other problems, the sub-algorithm for hypotension recommends cross referencing to other relevant sub-algorithms. It was considered that, correctly applied, the core algorithm COVER ABCD would have diagnosed 18% of cases and led to resolution in two thirds of these. It was further estimated that completion of this followed by the specific sub-algorithm for hypotension would have led to earlier recognition of the problem and/or better management in 6% of cases compared with actual management reported.
Conclusion: Pattern recognition in most cases enables anaesthetists to determine the cause and manage hypotension. However, an algorithm based approach is likely to improve the management of a small proportion of atypical but potentially life threatening cases. While an algorithm based approach will facilitate crisis management, the frequency of co-existing abnormalities in other vital signs means that all cases of hypotension cannot be dealt with using a single algorithm. Diagnosis, in particular, may potentially be assisted by cross referencing to the specific sub-algorithms for these.
Health status is an important predictor of patient outcomes. Consequently, identifying patient predictors of health status is essential. In musculoskeletal orthopaedic care, the majority of work examining the association between patient characteristics and health status has been undertaken among hip/knee cohorts. We investigate these associations comparing findings across four musculoskeletal cohorts (hip/knee; foot/ankle; neck/back; elbow/shoulder).
Patients seeking elective musculoskeletal orthopaedic care were recruited prior to consultation. Questionnaires captured health domain status (bodily pain, physical functioning, and mental and general health) and covariates: demographics; socioeconomic characteristics; and comorbidity. Scores were compared across cohorts. Two path regression analyses were undertaken. First, domain scores were simultaneously examined as dependent variables in the overall sample. Subsequently, the model was assessed stratified by cohort.
1,948 patients: 454 neck/back, 767 hip/knee, 378 shoulder/elbow, 349 foot/ankle. From stratified analyses, significant variability in covariate effects was observed. Worse bodily pain scores were associated with increasing age and female sex among hip/knee, low income among foot/ankle, and overweight/obese for foot/ankle and hip/knee. Worse mental health scores were associated with low income across cohorts except elbow/shoulder, low education within neck/back, and compared to Whites, Blacks had significantly worse scores among foot/ankle, better scores among hip/knee. Worse general health scores were observed for Asians among hip/knee, Blacks among foot/ankle, and South-Asians among elbow/shoulder and neck/back.
The substantial heterogeneity across musculoskeletal cohorts suggests that patient- and cohort-specific approaches to patient counsel and care may be more effective for achieving optimal health and outcomes.
Health status; Patient characteristics; Orthopaedics; Patient education
The macrolide antibiotics clarithromycin and erythromycin may potentiate calcium-channel blockers by inhibiting cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 3A4. However, this potential drug interaction is widely underappreciated and its clinical consequences have not been well characterized. We explored the risk of hypotension or shock requiring hospital admission following the simultaneous use of calcium-channel blockers and macrolide antibiotics.
We conducted a population-based, nested, case-crossover study involving people aged 66 years and older who had been prescribed a calcium-channel blocker between Apr. 1, 1994, and Mar. 31, 2009. Of these patients, we included those who had been admitted to hospital for the treatment of hypotension or shock. For each antibiotic, we estimated the risk of hypotension or shock associated with the use of a calcium blocker using a pair-matched analytic approach to contrast each patient’s exposure to each macrolide antibiotic (erythromycin, clarithromycin or azithromycin) in a seven-day risk interval immediately before admission to hospital and in a seven-day control interval one month earlier.
Of the 7100 patients admitted to hospital because of hypotension while receiving a calcium-channel blocker, 176 had been prescribed a macrolide antibiotic during either the risk or control intervals. Erythromycin (the strongest inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A4) was most strongly associated with hypotension (odds ratio [OR] 5.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3–15.0), followed by clarithromycin (OR 3.7, 95% CI 2.3–6.1). Azithromycin, which does not inhibit cytochrome P450 3A4, was not associated with an increased risk of hypotension (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.8–2.8). We found similar results in a stratified analysis of patients who received only dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers.
In older patients receiving a calcium-channel blocker, use of erythromycin or clarithromycin was associated with an increased risk of hypotension or shock requiring admission to hospital. Preferential use of azithromycin should be considered when a macrolide antibiotic is required for patients already receiving a calcium-channel blocker.
Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life-threatening condition resulting from the release of large quantities of myocyte breakdown products into the circulation, following injury to striated muscles. There are several causes of rhabdomyolysis - traumatic and non-traumatic. We present a 21-year-old male intravenous drug abuser, who was referred to us with fever, altered sensorium and seizures. He developed severe rhabdomyolysis following a mixed meningeal infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This patient’s examination and investigation suggested a combination of factors leading to the severe rhabdomyolysis which proved fatal. The patient’s creatine phosphokinase was elevated to 167,000 U/L, following hyperpyrexia, seizures, meningitis (pneumococcal and tuberculous), pentazocine and alcohol abuse. The increase in mortality rate with the onset of rhabdomyolysis warrants immediate cessation of the insult and aggressive management.
Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) is an extremely rare and potentially devasting disorder, most commonly caused by gluteal muscle compression in extend periods of immobilization. We report a 65-year-old obese man with hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2 and hypercholesterolemia underwent lumbar spine surgery in knee-chest position because of degenerative lumbar stenosis. Perioperative hypotension occurred. After surgery, the patient developed increasing pain in the buttocks of both sides and oliguria with darkened urine. Stiffness, tenderness and painful swelling of patients gluteal muscles of both sides, high creatine phosphokinase level, myoglobulinuria and oliguria led to diagnosis of bilateral GCS, complicated by severe rhabdomyolysis (RM) and acute renal failure. In conclusion, obese patients with vascular risk factors and perioperative hypotension may be at risk for developing bilateral GCS and RM when performing prolonged lumbar spine surgery. Early diagnosis and treatment is important, as otherwise, the further course may be fatal.
Gluteal compartment syndrome; Kidney failure; Lumbar spine; Neurosurgery; Rhabdomyolysis