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1.  Castleman’s disease in a patient with melanoma: the role of VEGF 
BMJ Case Reports  2012;2012:bcr0720114519.
Castleman’s disease is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder characterised by lymph node follicular hyperplasia with abnormal interfollicular vascular growth. The authors report a female patient presenting with erythematous and pruritic skin lesion. A shave biopsy of the lesion revealed a Clark level III melanoma and sentinel lymph node biopsy revealed a microscopic focus. Staging positron emission tomography scan revealed an abnormal soft tissue mass with increased 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in the anterior mediastinum, raising suspicions of malignancy. The patient underwent an elective resection of the mass and histological sections revealed features of Castleman’s disease of the hyaline vascular type. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been associated with the increased vessel density in this condition. VEGF secretion by tumour cells in solid tumours such as melanomas could be a predisposing factor for Castleman’s disease. Future research is needed to find an association between VEGF-secreting solid tumours and the development of lymphoproliferative tumours such as Castleman’s disease.
PMCID: PMC3351633  PMID: 22605002
2.  An unusual unifocal presentation of Castleman’s disease in a young woman with a detailed description of sonographic findings to reduce diagnostic uncertainty: a case report 
BMC Research Notes  2013;6:97.
Castleman’s disease is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder. It typically presents as mediastinal masses and causes a wide range of clinical symptoms. Histologically, Castleman’s disease is classified as either a hyalinic vascular or plasma cell variant. The prognosis mainly depends on the histological type and broadly varies. We herein report our sonographic findings in a patient with Castleman’s disease, including gray-scale ultrasonography, color Doppler ultrasonography, and sonoelastography ultrasonography, which have not been previously reported in the literature. These findings allowed for a preoperative diagnosis and avoidance of overly aggressive therapy.
Case presentation
A 28-year-old European female patient with unicentric Castleman’s disease of hyalinic vascular type (HV) restricted to the axilla was referred to us because of a 4-month history of a painless, solitary mass located in the left axilla. The patient’s medical history was unremarkable.
Castleman’s disease is a pathologic entity of unknown etiology and pathogenesis. In this case report of unicentric HV-type CD, we demonstrate that typical sonographic findings can lead to a preoperative diagnosis of Castleman’s disease. Core needle biopsy usually allows for a final diagnosis and helps to avoid unnecessary operations and overtreatment.
PMCID: PMC3601982  PMID: 23497665
Castleman’s disease; Giant lymph node hyperplasia; Ultrasonography; Core needle biopsy
3.  Castleman’s disease of the spleen 
Castleman’s disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown etiology. Clinically, it occurs as a localized (unicentric) disease or as a systemic (multicentric) disease. Unicentric Castleman’s disease (UCD) presents as a solitary mass and primarily affects the mediastinal, retroperitoneal, and cervical lymph nodes. In contrast to multicentric CD, which involves peripheral lymphadenopathy and numerous systemic symptoms, UCD is not typically associated with generalized symptoms. Three main distinct histologic variants are recognized: hyaline-vascular type, plasma cell type, and mixed type. Extranodal CD is rare. Specifically, UCD exclusively in the spleen is extremely rare, with only 2 cases described in the literature to date. Here, we describe an asymptomatic 75-year-old man with a 5.7 cm × 4.5 cm sized heterogenous enhanced mass located in the spleen. He underwent surgical resection for diagnosis and treatment. A pathologic examination indicated the hyaline-vascular type of CD. In this patient, the preoperative diagnosis was difficult to determine, and therefore, invasive procedures were required.
PMCID: PMC4316113  PMID: 25663790
Castleman’s disease; Hyaline-vascular type; Spleen
4.  A multicentric, hyaline vascular variant of Castleman's disease associated with B cell lymphoma: a case report 
Cases Journal  2009;2:8183.
Three histological variants (hyaline vascular, plasma cell, and mixed) and two clinical types (localized and multicentric) of Castleman's disease have been described. The risk of progression to lymphoma is higher in multicentric Castleman's disease and is associated with poorer outcomes and higher mortality rate. Multicentric Castleman's disease often requires systemic therapy. Complete resection of the involved node in localized Castleman's disease is curative, with no reported recurrences.
Case presentation
We report a case of a 66-year-old female with systemic symptoms and bilateral cervical lymph nodes which were initially diagnosed as the hyaline vascular variant of Castleman's disease and two years later after the initial diagnosis she was confirmed to B cell lymphoma. Following the treatment with radiation therapy to the cervical area and combination chemotherapy complete response was achieved.
Although it has rarely been reported, the malignant potential of the Castleman's disease must be kept in mind.
PMCID: PMC2740273  PMID: 19830060
5.  Localized retroperitoneal Castleman’s disease: a case report and review of the literature 
Castleman’s disease, also known as angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia, is a rare disease with two known expansion types, unicentric and multicentric, which play a major role in determining therapy. We focus here on the unicentric type, which can be treated and cured by surgery. To date, approximately 1000 cases of Castleman’s disease have been reported in the literature.
Case presentation
A 50-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our Department of Hematology and Internal Oncology with increasing fatigue as her sole symptom. Diagnostic investigations including laboratory studies, ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed. These revealed an interaortocaval, retroperitoneal tumor mass in her upper abdomen as the only manifestation of the disease. No enlarged lymph nodes were detected. We conducted a laparotomy with radical extirpation of the tumor mass (10×9×5.7cm). Complete tumor resection with clear margins was achieved. A pathological analysis of the resected sample showed atypical lymphoid tissue of small to medium cells with some clearly visible nucleoli, enlarged sinusoidal vessels, pleomorphic calcifications and focally preserved germinal-center-like structures. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the diagnosis of Castleman’s disease: staining for CD3, CD5, CD10, CD20, CD23, CD79 and Ki-67 was strongly positive in the germinal-center-like structures. Histological findings clearly showed the disease to be the hyaline vascular subtype. Staining for cyclin D1 and CD30 was negative. Expression of CD15 was positive in the enlarged sinusoidal vessels. A supplementary clonality analysis was without pathological findings. Tests for human immunodeficiency virus and human herpes virus 8 were negative and results from a bone marrow biopsy were normal. Our patient recovered well from surgery and was discharged from our hospital. To date, no recurrence of the disease has been detected.
Castleman’s disease is a rare disorder that remains a diagnostic challenge. Radical surgical resection is considered to be the gold standard for treating the unicentric variant of this disease.
PMCID: PMC3977947  PMID: 24612848
Castleman’s disease; Hyaline vascular variant; Surgery; Unicentric
6.  Hyaline vascular- type Castleman's disease in the hilum of liver: a case report 
Cases Journal  2010;3:74.
Castleman's disease or angiofollicular lymphoid hyperplasia is a rare benign lymph node hyperplasia usually presenting as an asymptomatic mediastinal mass in children. The disease can present at any extra thoracic site with lymphoid tissue such as retroperitoneal, mesentery, axilla, and pelvis. Hepatic localization castleman disease is very rare in children. Herein, we reported a case of Castleman's disease arising from the lymph node in hilum of liver.
Case presentation
A 5 -year-old girl with chief complaint of abdominal pain for two months which exaggerated in last three days was referred to the hospital. On routine physical examination, only a generalized abdominal pain was noticed. Routine laboratory investigations and Chest X-Ray were normal. Abdominal Sonography revealed a 3.7 × 3.1 cm solid mass in the hilum of the liver. On the MRI images, a lobulated mass in the portal hepatic associated with mass effect on the portal vein was visible. Histological examination revealed expansion of mantle zone in lymphatic nodules accompanied by burnt out germinal centers. This pattern was matched with the diagnosis of the hyaline-vascular type of Castleman disease. The patient underwent a laparotomy. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course.
This pattern was matched with the diagnosis of the hyaline-vascular type of Castleman disease.
PMCID: PMC2845114  PMID: 20193070
7.  Retroperitoneal Castleman’s disease mimicking soft tissue tumour 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2008;69(4):153-154.
Castleman’s disease is a type of non-neoplastic lymphoproliferative disease having lymph nodal hyperplasia. It has two distinct microscopic types: hyaline-vascular type and plasma cell type. Clinically, it may present either as a solitary mass, most commonly in the mediastinum, or as a multicentric form whose features are generalized lymph-adenopathy, splenomegaly and involvement of other organs like the lungs and kidneys. Here we report a case of isolated retroperitoneal Castleman’s disease, which presented as a lump in the iliac fossa in a young female. A clinico-radio-logical diagnosis of retroperitoneal soft tissue tumour was made and the patient underwent complete surgical excision. The exact diagnosis was only obtained at histopathology and there is no evidence of recurrence at six months follow-up.
PMCID: PMC3452467  PMID: 23132970
Retroperitoneal; Castleman’s disease; Isolated; Hyaline vascular
8.  Unicentric castleman's disease located in the lower extremity: a case report 
BMC Cancer  2011;11:352.
Castleman's disease is a rare form of localized lymph node hyperplasia of uncertain etiology. Although the mediastinum is the most common site of involvement, rare cases occurring in lymph node bearing tissue of other localization have been reported, including only a few intramuscular cases. Unicentric and multicentric Castleman's disease are being distinguished, the latter harboring an unfavorable prognosis.
Case Presentation
Here, we present a case of unicentric Castleman's disease in a 37-year-old woman without associated neoplastic, autoimmune or infectious diseases. The lesion was located in the femoral region of the right lower extremity and surgically resected after radiographic workup and excisional biopsy examinations. The tumor comprised lymphoid tissue with numerous germinal centers with central fibrosis, onion-skinning and rich interfollicular vascularization. CD23-positive follicular dendritic cells were detected in the germinal centers and numerous CD138-positive plasma cells in interfollicular areas. The diagnosis of mixed cellularity type Castleman's disease was established and the patient recovered well.
In conclusion, the differential diagnosis of Castleman's disease should be considered when evaluating a sharply demarcated, hypervascularized lymphatic tumor located in the extremities. However, the developmental etiology of Castleman's disease remains to be further examined.
PMCID: PMC3171385  PMID: 21838880
Castleman's disease; unicentric; mixed cellularity type; follicular dendritic cells
9.  A Rare Coexistence of Retroperitoneal Pararenal Castleman's Disease with Focal Nodular Hyperplasia 
Case Reports in Surgery  2013;2013:537593.
Castleman's disease is a distinct form of lymph node hyperplasia divided into a solitary and a multicentric type. The solitary type occurs most commonly in the mediastinum and is usually asymptomatic. We present a patient with Castleman's disease of the hyaline-vascular solitary type located in the retroperitoneum. The patient was a 38-year-old male, who presented to our hospital with fever. The imaging workup revealed a retroperitoneal mass, measuring 4 × 6 cm, located lateral to the aorta, inferior to the left renal artery and vein, and posterior to the left testicular vein. At workup, a solid hepatic lesion, 3 cm in diameter, located in the left lobe of the liver, segment IV, was also identified. Both lesions were surgically excised. The retroperitoneal tumor had the features of angiofollicular hyperplasia (Castleman's disease), hyaline-vascular type, whereas a diagnosis of focal nodular hyperplasia was made for the hepatic lesion. The patient is well at fourty months followup postoperatively. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for unifocal Castleman's disease.
PMCID: PMC3603638  PMID: 23533915
10.  Retroperitoneal Castleman’s disease: advocating a multidisciplinary approach for a rare clinical entity 
Castleman’s disease is a rare and poorly understood disease entity that may resemble more common conditions and represents a clinical challenge to the treating surgeon.
Case presentation
In this report, we describe a case of a 61-year-old Caucasian woman with a symptomatic retroperitoneal mass. The specimen obtained from her resection contained a protuberant encapsulated mass, exhibiting microscopic features consistent with localized, unicentric Castleman’s disease. These characteristics included architectural features and immunohistochemical findings consistent with the hyaline vascular variant of Castleman’s disease.
We report a very rare case of a retroperitoneal hyaline vascular type of Castleman’s disease. We discuss the diagnostic dilemma Castleman’s disease may present to the surgeon, with an emphasis on multidisciplinary management of these patients. We also review current data on pathogenesis, treatment and outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3975995  PMID: 24495409
Angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia; Castleman’s disease; Management; Multidisciplinary care
11.  Castleman's Disease of the Renal Sinus Presenting as a Urothelial Malignancy: A Brief Case Report 
Korean Journal of Pathology  2012;46(5):503-506.
Castleman's disease is a rare benign lymphoproliferative disorder that frequently affects lymph nodes of the mediastinal thorax and the neck. It very rarely affects the renal sinus. We report a case of Castleman's disease arising in the renal sinus in a 64-year-old man. The patient visited the hospital with the chief complaint of hematuria. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a homogeneous mass in the sinus of the left kidney, radiologically interpreted as a malignant urothelial tumor. Subsequently, nephroureterectomy was performed, after which microscopic examination of the specimen revealed a diffuse lymphoproliferative lesion with reactive lymphoid follicles of various sizes and prominent plasma cell infiltration of interfollicular spaces, highlighted by immunohistochemical staining for CD138. The lesion was diagnosed as Castleman's disease of the plasma cell type. Although preoperative diagnosis of Castleman's disease is difficult and the incidence is exceedingly rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of renal sinus tumors.
PMCID: PMC3490114  PMID: 23136580
Giant lymph node hyperplasia; Plasma cell type; Renal sinus; Urothelial malignancy; Kidney
12.  Multicentric Castleman’s disease with voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-positive limbic encephalitis: a case report 
BMC Neurology  2015;15:4.
Castleman’s disease is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder which occurs in localized and multicentric forms and can mimic lymphoma. Despite its well-known association with certain autoimmune diseases, including paraneoplastic pemphigus and myasthenia gravis, Castleman’s disease has not previously been associated with limbic encephalitis.
Case presentation
We report the case of a 47-year old Caucasian man who presented with subacute onset of constitutional symptoms, diffuse lymphadenopathy, and stereotyped spells involving olfactory aura, nausea, disorientation, and unresponsiveness. He was found to have focal dyscognitive seizures of temporal lobe origin, cerebrospinal fluid with lymphocytic pleocytosis, hyponatremia, and serum positive for voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies, consistent with limbic encephalitis. An extensive infectious workup was unrevealing, but lymph node biopsy revealed multicentric Castleman’s disease. His symptoms improved with antiepileptic drugs and immunotherapy.
This case highlights the clinical diversity of voltage-gated potassium channel autoimmunity and expands the association of Castleman’s disease and autoimmune syndromes to include limbic encephalitis. Clinicians should be aware that paraneoplastic disorders of the central nervous system can be related to underlying hematologic disorders such as Castleman’s disease.
PMCID: PMC4320461  PMID: 25648431
Castleman’s disease; Lymphoproliferative; Limbic encephalitis; Voltage-gated potassium channel; VGKC; Paraneoplastic; Seizure
13.  Castleman disease 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2012;47(3):163-177.
Castleman and Towne described a disease presenting as a mediastinal mass resembling thymoma. It is also known as "giant lymph node hyperplasia", "lymph node hamartoma", "angiofollicular mediastinal lymph node hyperplasia", and "angiomatous lymphoid hyperplasia". The pathogenesis is unknown, but the bulk of evidence points toward faulty immune regulation, resulting in excessive B-lymphocyte and plasma-cell proliferation in lymphatic tissue. In addition to the mediastinal presentation, extrathoracic involvement in the neck, axilla, mesentery, pelvis, pancreas, adrenal gland, and retroperitoneum also have been described. There are 2 major pathologic variations of Castleman disease: (1) hyaline-vascular variant, the most frequent, characterized by small hyaline-vascular follicles and capillary proliferation; and (2) the plasma-cell variant, in which large lymphoid follicles are separated by sheets of plasma cells. The hyaline-vascular cases usually are largely asymptomatic, whereas the less common plasma-cell variant may present with fever, anemia, weight loss, and night sweats, along with polyclonal hypergamma-globulinemia. Castleman disease is a rare lymphoproliferative disorders. Few cases have been described world widely. In this article we reviewed the classification, pathogenesis, pathology, radiological features and up to date treatment with special emphasis on the role of viral stimulation, recent therapeutic modalities and the HIV-associated disease.
PMCID: PMC3464333  PMID: 23071471
Castleman disease; Hyaline vascular variant; Plasma cell variant; Unicentric; Multicentric Castleman disease; Human immunodeficiency virus
14.  Castleman’s disease in the retroperitoneal space mimicking a paraspinal schwannoma: a case report 
Castleman’s disease is a rare disease characterized by lymph node hyperplasia. Its occurrence in the retroperitoneal space has rarely been reported, making its preoperative diagnosis difficult. Here, we report a case of retroperitoneal Castleman’s disease, which radiologically resembled paraspinal schwannoma.
Case presentation
A 33-year-old Japanese man with epigastric discomfort underwent abdominal ultrasonic examination revealing a solid mass next to the right kidney. Computed tomography demonstrated a well-circumscribed mass with central calcification in the right psoas muscle. Because the mass presented a dumbbell-like shape extending to the intervertebral foramen, neurogenic tumor was suspected. Both iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine and gallium-67 scintigraphies were negative in the mass, whereas thallium-201 mildly accumulated in the tumor, suggesting blood flow to the tumor. Positron emission tomography revealed accumulation of fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose in the tumor at a standard uptake value of 4.7, whereas no other abnormal uptake suggestive of metastatic lesion was noted. On the basis of imaging studies, we mostly suspected paraspinal schwannoma, although malignancy was not completely excluded. Angiography showed feeding vessels from the right lumbar arteries, which were embolized with porous gelatin particles in order to reduce intraoperative bleeding. Surgical resection was performed using a retroperitoneal approach, which revealed the tumor in the swollen psoas muscle. Intraoperative pathological examination of a frozen section revealed no evidence of malignancy; thus, marginal excision of the tumor was performed. The tumor adhered tightly to surrounding muscle tissues, resulting in 940 g of intraoperative blood loss. The pathological examination demonstrated infiltration of lymphocytes surrounding small germinal centers with extensive capillary proliferation. Immunostaining revealed that proliferated lymphocytes were CD3-negative and CD79a-positive.
Although a dumbbell-shaped mass in a paraspinal region is indicative of a schwannoma for orthopedic surgeons, the possibility of Castleman’s disease should be considered if a central low-signal area in fissured and a radial pattern is detected on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Appropriate preparation for massive bleeding during the treatment of Castleman’s disease, including angiography and embolization, would be helpful for performing surgical procedures safely.
PMCID: PMC3663832  PMID: 23702327
Castleman’s disease; Dumbbell shape; Paraspinal schwannoma; Soft-tissue sarcoma
15.  Retroperitoneal unicentric Castleman’s disease with multiple lymph node involvement 
BMJ Case Reports  2011;2011:bcr0320113938.
A 78-year-old woman with B-symptoms was referred for a left adrenal incidentaloma of 5 cm. Imaging revealed features compatible with adrenal cancer. The authors excluded excess production of catecholamines or adrenal steroids. The tumour was removed by en bloc radical left retroperitonectomy with adrenalectomy, nephrectomy, interaortocaval lymphadenectomy and splenectomy. Histology demonstrated periadrenal hyaline vascular Castleman’s disease with local infiltration and 14 positive lymph nodes. The lymphoid infiltrate spilled into the adjacent renal cortex. HHV8 was negative. The Ki67 proliferative index was 30–40% in germinal centres. There was no syn- or metachronous disease on extended imaging including fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-CT and narrow follow-up at 3 years. This is a rare case of unicentric hyaline vascular Castleman’s disease with documented locoregional lymph node involvement. The case exemplifies the transition from unifocal unicentric disease into disseminated disease with involvement of multiple lymph node stations (multicentric disease). The authors demonstrate surgical cure by oncological resection.
PMCID: PMC3089933  PMID: 22696693
16.  Castleman’s Disease of the Porta Hepatis 
Castleman’s disease is an uncommon cause of lymph node enlargement that mostly involves the mediastinum and lung hilum. It is divided into 2 types: localized, which is usually asymptomatic and presents with a mass lesion; and multicentric, which is characterized by chills, anemia, generalized lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. An extrathoracic site of involvement is very uncommon, and may be located in the mesentery of the intestines, axilla, and pelvis. Hepatic localization of this disease is a rare event. Herein, we report our experience with a symptomatic case of Castleman’s disease in the porta hepatis who has been treated successfully by excision of the hilar lymph nodes, but recurred after 2 years with the same clinical picture plus abnormal liver function tests. However, at the time of recurrence ,no lymphadenopathy was detected and liver biopsy showed giant lymphoid follicles with germinal centers. She was treated with steroids and showed a dramatic response.
PMCID: PMC3990119  PMID: 24829655
Castleman’s disease; Liver hilum; Recurrence; Lymphoid nodular hyperplasia
17.  Primary mediastinal Castleman's disease 
Rare Tumors  2010;2(1):e11.
Castleman's disease is a rare entity with an unknown etiology which was first described by Castleman in 1954. It is a lymphoproliferative disorder histologically classified into three types; hyaline-vascular, plasma cell type and mixed type. It might be localized or multicentric and usually involves the mediastinum. We report a case of Castleman's disease discovered accidentally in a case of blunt chest trauma which caused a challenging diagnostic process and management.
PMCID: PMC2994491  PMID: 21139940
acute respiratory distress; Castleman's disease; extra luminal airway obstruction; mediastinal mass.
18.  Irreversible Kidney Damage due to Multicentric Castleman's Disease 
The Libyan Journal of Medicine  2008;3(2):101-103.
Castleman's Disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder accompanied by marked systemic inflammatory response. Morphological diagnosis of CD requires biopsy of the whole of the involved lymph node tissue. Three histologic variants have already been described in CD morphology (hyaline vascular, plasma-cell, and mixed). In this study, we report a case of a multicentric Castleman's disease of the plasma cell variant type with negative Herpes Virus 8. The clinical presentation of this patient was of systemic amyloidosis as a result of both a delayed diagnosis and medical management. Previously described cases of CD with secondary amyloidosis have been of the localized type. Regardless, long-standing clinical remission of CD by cytotoxic drugs and anti-CD20 antibody therapy was achieved, but the nephrotic syndrome remained irreversible.
PMCID: PMC3074288  PMID: 21499466
19.  A case of nodular sclerosis Hodgkin’s lymphoma repeatedly relapsing in the context of composite plasma cell-hyaline vascular Castleman’s disease: successful response to rituximab and radiotherapy 
European Journal of Haematology  2007;79(5):455-461.
We report the case of an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)- and human immunodeficiency virus-serum negative patient suffering from repeatedly relapsing classical Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (cHL) associated with a histological picture of plasma cell-hyaline vascular (PC-HV) form of Castleman’s disease (CD). The CD30- and CD15- positive, Reed-Sternberg/Hodgkin cells, only occasionally expressed the CD20 molecule, but not leukocyte common antigen and latent membrane protein-1. Single-strand polymerase chain reaction failed to detect human herpesvirus 8 or EBV in the involved tissues. At the time of second relapse in July 2005, the clinical picture was characterized by a palpable right hypogastric mass, disclosed at physical exam, in the absence of other enlarged peripheral lymph nodes, subjective symptoms or laboratory profile alterations. Combined hybrid-(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission-computerized tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) showed increased radionuclide uptake in multiple external iliac lymph nodes [standardized uptake value (SUV) of 7.4] and non-palpable left supraclavicular lymph nodes (SUV of 5.8). Relapsing cHL in the context of mixed PC-HV CD was documented in two of three surgically excised abdominal lymph nodes never previously enlarged or involved by any lymphoproliferative disease. Because of the limited disease extension and failure to induce continuous remission with previous conventional chemoradiotherapy, the patient was treated with six rituximab injections. This immunotherapy induced significant reduction in size of supraclavicular lymph nodes as evident at ultrasound (US) scan (<1 vs. 2.5 cm, post- vs. pretherapy), which was confirmed by the 18F-FDG PET/CT in October 2005, despite no modification in SUV of 4.2. 18F-FDG PET/CT also disclosed no radionuclide uptake by abdominal lymph nodes. Thus, a second course of four additional rituximab injections was given and subsequent 18F-FDG PET/CT indicated persistent, but reduced incorporation of radionuclide compared to the pretherapy value (SUV of 2.7) in the supraclavicular area and confirmed a normal metabolic activity in the iliac external lymph nodes. Because of uncertain persistent disease in the supraclavicular nodal site, involved-field radiotherapy (RT) was delivered in that area as consolidation treatment. After completion of rituximab and RT for 16 and 14 months respectively, US and 18F-FDG PET/CT exams were indicative of complete remission. This case is in concordance with previously published data suggesting that rituximab immunotherapy might be a valid option in the treatment of CD and also have a role in the management of relapsing cHL.
PMCID: PMC2121125  PMID: 17908180
Castleman’s disease; Hodgkin’s lymphoma; rituximab; human herpesvirus-8 infection; interleukine-6
20.  Incidental finding of Castleman’s disease in an asymptomatic young adult 
BMJ Case Reports  2009;2009:bcr06.2009.2039.
Castleman’s disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown aetiology presenting with different clinical manifestations in young adults. There are two main types, unicentric occurring in a younger age group and multicentric occurring in older people. We report the case of 22-year-old man who initially presented with acute appendicitis. During his admission he had a routine chest radiograph which demonstrated a mass lesion, later diagnosed as Castleman’s disease of hyaline vascular type. He underwent a right pneumonectomy for complete excision and made an unremarkable recovery.
PMCID: PMC3029864  PMID: 22162738
21.  A Case of Retroperitoneal Castleman's Disease and an Update on the Latest Evidence 
Case Reports in Surgery  2014;2014:643746.
Castleman's disease is a benign lymphoproliferative condition with three distinct histological subtypes. Clinically it presents in either a unicentric or multicentric manner and can affect various anatomic regions, the mediastinum being the most frequent location. We herein present a rare case of unifocal retroperitoneal mass proved to be hyaline vascular Castleman's disease. We perform a review of the current literature pertaining to such lesions, focusing on the management of the various clinical and histological variants of the disease. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for unifocal Castleman's disease.
PMCID: PMC4238222  PMID: 25431731
22.  The management of Castleman's disease of the mediastinum: a case report 
Cases Journal  2008;1:330.
Castleman's disease or angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia is a rare clinical entity that may present in many sites and with a variety of symptoms. We report here a case of unicentric Castleman's disease (hyaline vascular pattern) located in the mediastinum as a solitary mass. The patient was a Caucasian female 58 years old presented after incidental discovery of the mass in a x-ray. In Castleman's disease surgery is generally recommended for localised lesions to remove the mass as completely as possible reserving other treatment modalities for unresectable cases or multicentric disease.
PMCID: PMC2596111  PMID: 19019227
23.  Extrathoracic castleman’S disease — presenting as a neck mass 
Castleman’s disease, also known as angiofollicular hyperplasia, is a disease of unsettled complexity and morbidity, usually occurs in the mediastinum and less frequently in the neck as a solitary mass and is often associated with other illnesses. Two variants have been recognized, the hyaline vascular type which is mare common and the less common plasma cell type with a third hybrid or intermediate type that shares features with both. It has been described with AIDS and Kaposi’s sarcoma as well as follicular dendritic cell tumours.
We report a case of Castleman’s disease of the hyaline vascular type arising in the left supra-clavicular region in 41 year old male without any associated systemic illness. The neck is an uncommon location for this rare disease.
PMCID: PMC3451106  PMID: 23119691
Giant lymphnode hyperplasia; Hyalin; Plasma cell
24.  Unicentric Castleman's Disease Arising from an Intrapulmonary Lymph Node 
Case Reports in Surgery  2013;2013:289089.
Castleman's disease is an uncommon lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown etiology, most often involving the mediastinum. It has 2 distinct clinical forms: unicentric and multicentric. Unicentric Castleman's disease arising from an intrapulmonary lymph node is rare, and establishing a preoperative diagnosis of this disease is very difficult mainly due to a lack of specific imaging features. We report a case of intrapulmonary unicentric Castleman's disease in an asymptomatic 19-year-old male patient who was accurately diagnosed by preoperative computed tomography (CT). The mass was incidentally found on a routine chest X-ray. A subsequent dynamic CT showed a well-defined, hypervascular, soft-tissue mass with small calcifications located in the perihilar area of the right lower lung. Three-dimensional CT (3D-CT) angiography indicated that the mass was receiving its blood supply through a vascular network at its surface that originated from 2 right bronchial arteries. The clinical history and CT findings were consistent with a diagnosis of unicentric Castleman's disease, and we safely and successfully removed the tumor via video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical lobectomy. This case shows that the imaging characteristics of these rare tumors on contrast-enhanced CT combined with 3D-CT angiography can be helpful in reliably establishing a correct preoperative diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC3691905  PMID: 23841009
25.  Unicentric mixed variant Castleman disease associated with intrabronchial plasmacytoma 
Diagnostic Pathology  2014;9:64.
Virtual slides
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
Castleman disease (CD), described as a heterogeneous lymphoproliferative disorder, can be divided into different subtypes according to clinical appearance (unicentric and multicentric form) and histopathological features (hyaline vascular, plasma cell, mixed type, human herpesvirus 8–associated and multicentric not otherwise specified). Unicentric CD is known to be usually of the hyaline vascular variant, plasma cell and mixed type of this form are quite uncommon. Malignancies are mainly associated with the multicentric form. We report a rare case of unicentric mixed variant CD evolving into intrabronchial, extramedullary plasmacytoma.
Intrabronchial mass with consequential obstruction of the left main bronchus, left lung atelectasis and mediastinal lymphadenomegaly was detected by chest CT in our patient suffering from cough and hemoptysis. Pulmonectomy was performed, histopathological and immunhistochemical analysis of lymph nodes revealed mixed type of CD with interfollicular monotypic plasma cell proliferation. The intrabronchial mass consisted of monotypic plasma cells confirming plasmacytoma. Systemic involvement was not confirmed by further tests.
Although malignancies more often present in multicentric CD that usually belongs to the plasma cell subtype, this case confirms the neoplastic potential of the rarest, unicentric mixed variant of CD.
PMCID: PMC3994877  PMID: 24649966
Castleman disease; Unicentric; Mixed variant; Extramedullary plasmacytoma; Intrabronchial plasmacytoma

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