Bacteria can be selectively imaged in experimentally-infected animals using exogenously administered 1-(2′deoxy-2′-fluoro-β-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-[125I]-iodouracil ([125I]-FIAU), a nucleoside analog substrate for bacterial thymidine kinase (TK). Our goal was to use this reporter and develop non-invasive methods to detect and localize Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
We engineered a M. tuberculosis strain with chromosomally integrated bacterial TK under the control of hsp60 - a strong constitutive mycobacterial promoter. [125I]FIAU uptake, antimicrobial susceptibilities and in vivo growth characteristics were evaluated for this strain. Using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), M. tuberculosis Phsp60 TK strain was evaluated in experimentally-infected BALB/c and C3HeB/FeJ mice using the thigh inoculation or low-dose aerosol infection models. M. tuberculosis Phsp60 TK strain actively accumulated [125I]FIAU in vitro. Growth characteristics of the TK strain and susceptibility to common anti-tuberculous drugs were similar to the wild-type parent strain. M. tuberculosis Phsp60 TK strain was stable in vivo and SPECT imaging could detect and localize this strain in both animal models tested.
We have developed a novel tool for non-invasive assessment of M. tuberculosis in live experimentally-infected animals. This tool will allow real-time pathogenesis studies in animal models of TB and has the potential to simplify preclinical studies and accelerate TB research.
FIAU, (1-(2’-deoxy-2’-fluoro-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodouracil) has been used as a substrate for herpes simplex virus thymidine kinases (HSV-TK and HSV-tk, for protein and gene expression respectively) and other bacterial and viral thymidine kinases for noninvasive imaging applications. Previous studies have reported the formation of a de-iodinated metabolite of 18F-FIAU. This study reports the dynamic tumor uptake, biodistribution and metabolite contribution to the activity of 18F-FIAU seen in HSV-tk gene expressing tumors and compares the distribution properties with its de-iodinated metabolite 18F-FAU.
CD-1 nu/nu mice with subcutaneous MH3924A and MH3924A-stb-tk+ xenografts on opposite flanks were used for the biodistribution and imaging studies. Mice were injected IV with either 18F-FIAU or 18F-FAU. Mice underwent dynamic imaging with each tracer for 65 min followed by additional static imaging up to 150 min post injection for some animals. Animals were sacrificed at 60 or 150 min post injection. Samples of blood and tissue were collected for biodistribution and metabolite analysis. Regions of interest were drawn over the images obtained from both tumors to calculate the time activity curves.
Biodistribution and imaging studies showed the highest uptake of 18F-FIAU in the MH3924A-stb-tk+ tumors. Dynamic imaging studies revealed a continuous accumulation of 18F-FIAU in HSV-TK expressing tumors over 60 min. The mean biodistribution values (SUV±SE) for MH3924A-stb-tk+ were 2.07±0.40, 6.15±1.58, and that of MH3924A tumors were 0.19±0.07, 0.47±0.06 at 60 and 150 min respectively. In 18F-FIAU injected mice, at 60 min nearly 63% of blood activity was present as its metabolite 18F-FAU. Imaging and biodistribution studies with 18F-FAU demonstrated no specific accumulation in MH3924A-stb-tk+ tumors and SUVs for both the tumors were similar to those observed with muscle.
18F-FIAU shows a continuous accumulation of activity in HSV-TK expressing tumors. 18F-FAU does not show any preferential accumulation in HSV-TK expressing tumors. In the 18F-FIAU treated mice, the 18F-FAU contribution to the total uptake seen in HSV-TK positive tumors is minimal.
Fluorine-18; FIAU; HSV-TK; Gene Expression; Metabolism; PET Imaging
The radioiodinated thymidine analogue, FIAU, is a tracer that has been developed for reporter gene, for cells that were transfected with herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase, HSV-TK. FIAU is also a specific substrate of bacterial TK due to the homology between viral and bacterial TK. In this issue of AJNMMI (http://www.ajnmmi.us), Pullamb-hatla et al. reported that the accumulation of 125I-FIAU in pulmonary infectious foci correlated with the bacterial burden in the lungs. 125I-FIAU could be used to monitor the efficacy of anti-microbial therapy in mice. Potentially 124I-FIAU PET could be used to discriminate microbial from sterile inflammation in patients with prosthetic implants.
Infection; inflammation; reporter gene imaging; positron emission tomography (PET)
The capacity of recombinant human cytosolic thymidine kinase (TK1) and bovine mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) to phosphorylate the antiviral analogs 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodouracil (FIAU) and 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-methyluracil (FMAU) has been analyzed. The Vmax/Km ratios for FIAU and FMAU with TK2 are about 30% of that for deoxythymidine, while the corresponding values for TK1 are 2 and 5%, respectively. Thus, these two analogs are more efficient substrates for TK2 than for TK1, which may be part of the explanation for the mitochondrial toxicity associated with FIAU during treatment of hepatitis B infection.
The fluorinated pyrimidines 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodouracil (FIAU) and 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-methyluracil (FMAU) are highly effective inhibitors of herpesvirus infections in vitro and in vivo. This report is concerned with an evaluation of their activities in African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) infected with simian varicella virus, a herpesvirus closely related to human varicella-zoster virus. Oral or intravenous administration of FIAU at 50 mg/kg per day as divided doses beginning 48 h after virus inoculation prevented the development of evidences of clinical infection. Oral treatment with FIAU at 30 mg/kg per day deferred as late as 7 days after virus inoculation modified the course of the disease. When treatment was started 48 h after virus inoculation, daily doses of FIAU as small as 1 mg/kg inhibited development of infections; daily doses of 0.2 mg/kg were ineffective. At the latter dose FMAU prevented development of clinical disease, suggesting that it was more active than FIAU. No signs of FIAU toxicity were observed, with the single exception of an early but transitory elevation in aspartate aminotransferase activity in serum.
The thymidine analog, 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabino-furanosyl)-5-iodouracil (FIAU), is incorporated into DNA in cell culture and in vivo. To investigate the effect of incorporation of FIAU into DNA on the binding of transcription factors, oligonucleotide duplexes which bind specifically to activator protein 1 (AP-1) or to TFIID were synthesized and binding of these oligonucleotides to their respective proteins was studied using gel-shift analysis. When thymidine at position -3, -1, 1 or 7 (relative to the first thymidine of the core binding sequence) was replaced with FIAU, binding to AP-1 was approximately 82, 28, 86 and 51%, respectively, of the binding to the non-substituted oligonucleotide to AP-1. When thymidine at position 3 or 5 (each adjacent to the center of dyad symmetry) was replaced with FIAU, binding to AP-1 was abrogated. Oligonucleotides containing FIAU at positions -1, 3 or 5, were much less able to compete with radiolabeled wild-type oligonucleotides for binding to AP-1. In contrast, the presence of FIAU, depending on its location, resulted in the increased binding of TFIID to its consensus target DNA sequence. These results indicate that incorporation of FIAU into DNA may induce local conformational changes resulting in the altered ability of transcriptional factors to bind to their cognate DNA sequences. Additional studies demonstrated that the presence of FIAU at a position 5' to the cleavage site in the consensus sequence T*TAA (where * is the cleavage site) inhibited restriction of the oligomeric duplex by MseI.
FIAC [1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodocytosine], FIAU [1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodouracil], and FMAU [1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-methyluracil] were evaluated for their efficacies in the treatment of genital infections with herpes simplex virus type 2 in guinea pigs. Intraperitoneal administration of these drugs in daily doses of 100 mg/kg of body weight initiated 24 h after virus inoculation and repeated 2 successive days thereafter inhibited development of genital lesions and reduced shedding of virus without evoking untoward reactions. In a comparative study with this 3-day dosage schedule, the efficacy of daily doses of 50 mg of FMAU per kg was greater than that of the same doses of FIAC and FIAU, in that order; all these were more effective than daily doses of 50, 100, or 200 mg of acyclovir or of 500 mg of phosphonoformic acid per kg. These differences in efficacy were enhanced when treatment was delayed for 2 to 3 days after inoculation.
We investigated the possibility of using a pharmacologic agent to modulate viral gene expression in order to target radiotherapy to tumor tissue. In a murine xenograft model, we had previously shown targeting of [125I]2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-beta-D-5-iodouracilarabinofuranoside ([125I]FIAU) to tumors engineered to express the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-thymidine kinase (TK). Here we extend those results to targeting of a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical [131I]FIAU to slow or stop tumor growth or to achieve tumor regression. These outcomes were achieved in xenografts with tumors that constitutively expressed the EBV-TK, as well as with naturally-infected EBV tumor cell lines. Burkitt's lymphoma and gastric carcinoma required activation of viral gene expression by pretreatment with bortezomib. Marked changes in tumor growth could also be achieved in naturally-infected Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) tumors following bortezomib activation. Bortezomib-induced enzyme-targeted radiation (BETR) therapy illustrates the possibility of pharmacologically modulating tumor gene expression to effect targeted radiotherapy.
As measured by plaque and yield reduction assays, several metabolites of 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodocytosine (FIAC) were highly active against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. These metabolites included the 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoroarabinosyl derivatives of 5-iodouracil (FIAU), cytosine (FAC), uracil (FAU), and thymine (FMAU). In mice inoculated intracerebrally with herpes simplex virus type 2, the relative order of potency of these compounds and licensed antiviral drugs was as follows: FMAU much greater than FIAC approximately equal to FIAU greater than acyclovir approximately equal to vidarabine much greater than FAC approximately equal to FAU. One of the main metabolites of FMAU, 2'-fluoro-5-hydroxymethyl-arabinosyluracil, was essentially inactive in vivo. FIAC-, FIAU-, FMAU-, FAC-, and FAU-resistant herpes simplex virus variants prepared in cell culture were found to be (i) devoid of viral thymidine kinase, (ii) cross-resistant to one another and resistant to drugs requiring viral thymidine kinase for activation, and (iii) sensitive to vidarabine or phosphonoformate. These results indicate that FIAC, FIAU, and FMAU require the virally encoded thymidine kinase for activation and suggest that the antiviral activity of FAU and FAC in cell cultures is also mediated by this enzyme. The interaction of the fluoroarabinosyl pyrimidine nucleosides with herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase in a cell-free system is also described.
Traditional imaging techniques for the localization and monitoring of bacterial infections, although reasonably sensitive, suffer from a lack of specificity. This is particularly true for musculoskeletal infections. Bacteria possess a thymidine kinase (TK) whose substrate specificity is distinct from that of the major human TK. The substrate specificity difference has been exploited to develop a new imaging technique that can detect the presence of viable bacteria.
Eight subjects with suspected musculoskeletal infections and one healthy control were studied by a combination of [124I]FIAU-positron emission tomography and CT ([124I]FIAU-PET/CT). All patients with proven musculoskeletal infections demonstrated positive [124I]FIAU-PET/CT signals in the sites of concern at two hours after radiopharmaceutical administration. No adverse reactions with FIAU were observed.
[124I]FIAU-PET/CT is a promising new method for imaging bacterial infections.
Fialuridine (FIAU) is a halogen-substituted analog of thymidine that was undergoing clinical investigation as a drug for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B viral infection. However, clinical trials of FIAU were terminated after adverse events occurred following chronic oral administration. Prior to the termination of clinical trials, a sensitive assay was needed for the measurement of FIAU because of the anticipated low dose administered to patients. We therefore undertook the development of a radioimmunoassay (RIA). A specific antiserum was raised in rabbits following immunization with a 5'-O-hemisuccinate analog of FIAU coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Radiolabeled FIAU was synthesized by a destannylation procedure by using sodium [125I]iodide. We developed a competitive-binding procedure and used precipitation with polyethylene glycol as the method for separating the bound and free forms of FIAU. The RIA is sensitive (0.2 ng/ml), specific (negligible interference from known metabolites and endogenous nucleosides), and reproducible (interassay coefficients of variation range from 5 to 19.7% for serum controls). We used the RIA to assess the pharmacokinetics of FIAU in healthy adult volunteers following administration of a single 5-mg oral dose. The sensitivity of the RIA permitted the detection of a prolonged elimination phase for FIAU in healthy volunteers and dogs, with mean elimination half-lives of 29.3 and 35.3 h, respectively. We conclude the RIA is a valid method for the quantification of FIAU in biological fluids.
We have used a genetically attenuated adenoviral vector which expresses HSVtk to assess the possible additive role of suicidal gene therapy for enhanced oncolytic effect of the virus. Expression of TK was measured using a radiotracer-based molecular counting and imaging system.
Materials and Methods
Replication-competent recombinant adenoviral vector (Ad-ΔE1B19/55) was used in this study, whereas replication-incompetent adenovirus (Ad-ΔE1A) was generated as a control. Both Ad-ΔE1B19/55-TK and Ad-ΔE1A-TK comprise the HSVtk gene inserted into the E3 region of the viruses. YCC-2 cells were infected with the viruses and incubated with 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodouracil (I-131 FIAU) to measure amount of radioactivity. The cytotoxicity of the viruses was determined, and gamma ray imaging of HSVtk gene was performed. MTT assay was also performed after GCV treatment.
On gamma counter-analyses, counts/minute (cpm)/µg of protein showed MOIs dependency with ΔE1B19/55-TK infection. On MTT assay, Ad-ΔE1B19/55-TK led to more efficient cell killing than Ad-ΔE1A-TK. On plate imaging by gamma camera, both Ad-ΔE1B19/55-TK and Ad-ΔE1A-TK infected cells showed increased I-131 FIAU uptake in a MOI dependent pattern, and with GCV treatment, cell viability of ΔE1B19/55-TK infection was remarkably reduced compared to that of Ad-ΔE1A-TK infection.
Replicating Ad-ΔE1B19/55-TK showed more efficient TK expression even in the presence of higher-cancer cell killing effects compared to non-replicating Ad-ΔE1A-TK. Therefore, GCV treatment still possessed an additive role to oncolytic effect of Ad-ΔE1B19/55-TK. The expression of TK by oncolytic viruses could rapidly be screened using a radiotracer-based counting and imaging technique.
Oncolysis; adenovirus; thymidine kinase; gene therapy; radiotracer
1-(2'-Deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodocytosine (FIAC), 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-methyluridine (FMAU), 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodouridine (FIAU), and 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-ethyluridine (FEAU) were evaluated for antiviral activities against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and compared with 9-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]guanine (acyclovir) and E-5-(2'-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (BVDU). The relative anti-HCMV potencies of these compounds, as determined by calculating the dose of drug which inhibited 50% plaque formation, were in order of decreasing potency: FIAC greater than FIAU greater than FMAU greater than acyclovir greater than FEAU greater than BVDU. The antiviral activity of FIAC occurred at levels much lower than those that caused cytotoxic or cytostatic effects in uninfected fibroblasts. Neither thymidine nor deoxycytidine reversed the anti-HCMV activity of FIAC, indicating that this drug was not acting as an analog of the natural nucleosides. FIAC was not phosphorylated by cytosols of HCMV-infected cells to a greater extent that by those of uninfected cells, indicating that, unlike the antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1, the selectivity of this drug is probably not based on a virus-specified pyrimidine kinase.
The effects of (2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodocytosine (FIAC), 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-methyluridine (FMAU), 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodouridine (FIAU), (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (BVdU), and 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine (DHPG or BW B759U) on the replication of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in vitro were evaluated and compared with that of acyclovir (ACV). The relative potencies of these drugs, on the basis of anti-EBV activity, were: FIAC = FIAU greater than FMAU greater than DHPG greater than BVdU greater than ACV; on the basis of the therapeutic index they were: BVdU greater than DHPG greater than FIAC greater than ACV greater than FIAU greater than FMAU. Differential inhibition of EBV-associated polypeptides by these drugs was observed.
Purpose: A group of radiolabeled thymidine analogs were developed as radio-tracers for imaging herpes viral thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) or its variants used as reporter gene. A transgenic mouse model was created to express tk upon liver injury or naturally occurring hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The purpose of this study was to use this unique animal model for initial testing with radio-labeled thymidine analogs, mainly a pair of newly emerging nucleoside analogs, D-FMAU and L-FMAU.
Methods: A transgeneic mouse model was created by putting a fused reporter gene system, firefly luciferase (luc) and HSV1-tk, under the control of mouse alpha fetoprotein (Afp) promoter. Initial multimodal imaging, which was consisted of bioluminescent imaging (BLI) and planar gamma scintigraphy with [125I]-FIAU, was used for examining the model creation in the new born and liver injury in the adult mice. Carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN) was then administrated to induce HCC in these knock-in mice such that microPET imaging could be used to track the activity of Afp promoter during tumor development and progression by imaging tk expression first with [18F]-FHBG. Dynamic PET scans with D-[18F]-FMAU and L-[18F]-FMAU were then performed to evaluate this pair of relatively new tracers. Cells were derived from these liver tumors for uptake assays using H-3 labeled version of PET tracers.
Results: The mouse model with dual reporters: HSV1-tk and luc placed under the transcriptional control of an endogenous Afp promoter was used for imaging studies. The expression of the Afp gene was highly specific in proliferative hepatocytes, in regenerative liver, and in developing fetal liver, and thus provided an excellent indicator for liver injury and cancer development in adult mice. Both D-FMAU and L-FMAU showed stable liver tumor uptake where the tk gene was expressed under the Afp promoter. The performance of this pair of tracers was slightly different in terms of signal-to-background ratio as well as tracer clearance.
Conclusion: The newly created knock-in mouse model was used to demonstrate the use of the dual-reporter genes driven by well-characterized cancer-specific transcriptional units in conjunction with in vivo imaging as a paradigm in studying naturally occurring cancer in live animals. While BLI is suitable for small animal imaging with luc expression, PET with L-FMAU seemed be the choice for liver injury or liver cancer imaging with this animal model for future investigations.
deoxynucleoside analogs; reporter gene imaging; hepatocellular carcinoma
A decrease in the in vitro sensitivity to acyclovir (ACV) was observed in successive isolates of herpes simplex virus type 1 from three immunocompromised patients during intravenous therapy with this drug. The ACV-resistant isolate from patient 1 was cross-resistant to dihydroxypropoxymethylguanine and bromovinyldeoxyuridine, but still susceptible to three fluoro-substituted pyrimidines, 2'-fluoro-5-iodo-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (FIAC), 2'-fluoro-5-iodo-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (FIAU), and 2'-fluoro-5-iodo-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylthymine (FMAU). The thymidine kinase (TK) from the resistant isolate showed a 50-fold or greater reduction in affinity for thymidine, FIAU, FMAU, and ACV, but the total enzyme activity was similar to that of the sensitive isolate. The ACV-resistant isolate from patient 2 was also resistant to dihydroxypropoxymethylguanine, bromovinyldeoxyuridine, and the fluoro-substituted compounds; TK activity for this isolate was less than 1% of the patient's pretherapy isolate. An isolate obtained during a subsequent recurrence in patient 2 was susceptible to ACV and the other TK-dependent agents. The ACV-resistant isolate from patient 3 was partially resistant to FIAC and FIAU but still susceptible to FMAU; the viral TK had a 10-fold-lower affinity for ACV, FIAU, and FMAU than did the sensitive pretherapy isolate, while the level of TK activity detected was reduced to 6%. In none of the isolates studied was a change in sensitivity to phosphonoformic acid observed. Compared with the corresponding pretherapy ACV-sensitive isolates, there was a 30-fold decrease in neurovirulence for mice of the two drug-resistant isolates with diminished levels of thymidine-phosphorylating activity and no change in virulence for the third isolate. These findings indicate that mixed patterns of drug-resistance to TK-dependent antiviral compounds can occur in clinical isolates, resulting from changes in either the amount or the affinity of viral TK activity.
[125I]IodoDPA-713 [125I]1, which targets the translocator protein (TSPO, 18 KDa), was synthesized in seven steps from methyl-4-methoxybenzoate as a tool for quantification of inflammation in preclinical models. Preliminary in vitro autoradiography and in vivo small animal imaging were performed using [125I]1 in a neurotoxicant-treated rat and in a murine model of lung inflammation, respectively. The radiochemical yield of [125I]1 was 44 ± 6% with a specific radioactivity of 51.8 GBq/μmol (1,400 mCi/μmol) and > 99% radiochemical purity. Preliminary studies showed that [125I]1 demonstrated increased specific binding to TSPO in a neurotoxicant-treated rat and increased radiopharmaceutical uptake in the lungs of an experimental inflammation model of lung inflammation. Compound [125I]1 is a new, convenient probe for preclinical studies of TSPO activity.
pyrazolopyrimidine; peripheral benzodiazepine receptor; translocator protein; autoradiography; small animal imaging
There is a well-recognized need for a new generation of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion tracers with improved myocardial extraction over a wide flow range. Radiotracers that target complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain have been proposed as a new class of myocardial perfusion imaging agents. 7-(Z)-[125I]iodorotenone (125I-ZIROT) has demonstrated superior myocardial extraction and retention characteristics in rats and in isolated perfused rabbit hearts. We sought to fully characterize the biodistribution and myocardial extraction versus flow relationship of 123I-ZIROT in an intact large-animal model.
Methods and Results
The 123I-ZIROT was administered during adenosine A2A agonist-induced hyperemia in 5 anesthetized dogs with critical left anterior descending (LAD) stenoses. When left circumflex (LCx) flow was maximal, 123I-ZIROT and microspheres were coinjected and the dogs were euthanized 5 minutes later. 123I-ZIROT biodistribution was evaluated in 2 additional dogs by in vivo planar imaging. At 123I-ZIROT injection, transmural LAD flow was unchanged from baseline (mean±SEM, 0.90±0.22 versus 0.87±0.11 mL/[min · g]; P=0.92), whereas LCx zone flow increased significantly (mean±SEM, 3.25±0.51 versus 1.00±0.17 mL/[min · g]; P<0.05). Myocardial 123I-ZIROT extraction tracked regional myocardial flow better than either thallium-201 or 99mTc-sestamibi from previous studies using a similar model. Furthermore, the 123I-ZIROT LAD/LCx activity ratios by ex vivo imaging or well counting (mean±SEM, 0.42±0.08 and 0.45±0.1, respectively) only slightly underestimated the LAD/LCx microsphere flow ratio (0.32±0.09).
The ability of 123I-ZIROT to more linearly track blood flow over a wide range makes it a promising new SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging agent with potential for improved coronary artery disease detection and better quantitative estimation of the severity of flow impairment.
coronary artery disease; diagnosis; myocardial perfusion imaging; radioisotope
Influenza accounts for 5 to 10% of community-acquired pneumonias and is a major cause of mortality. Sterile and bacterial lung injuries are associated with procoagulant and inflammatory derangements in the lungs. Activated protein C (APC) is an anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory properties that exert beneficial effects in models of lung injury. We determined the impact of lethal influenza A (H1N1) infection on systemic and pulmonary coagulation and inflammation, and the effect of recombinant mouse (rm-) APC hereon.
Male C57BL/6 mice were intranasally infected with a lethal dose of a mouse adapted influenza A (H1N1) strain. Treatment with rm-APC (125 μg intraperitoneally every eight hours for a maximum of three days) or vehicle was initiated 24 hours after infection. Mice were euthanized 48 or 96 hours after infection, or observed for up to nine days.
Lethal H1N1 influenza resulted in systemic and pulmonary activation of coagulation, as reflected by elevated plasma and lung levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes and fibrin degradation products. These procoagulant changes were accompanied by inhibition of the fibrinolytic response due to enhanced release of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1. Rm-APC strongly inhibited coagulation activation in both plasma and lungs, and partially reversed the inhibition of fibrinolysis. Rm-APC temporarily reduced pulmonary viral loads, but did not impact on lung inflammation or survival.
Lethal influenza induces procoagulant and antifibrinolytic changes in the lung which can be partially prevented by rm-APC treatment.
Silver nanoparticles are increasingly finding applications in medicine; however, little is known about their in vivo tissue distribution. Here, we have developed a rapid method for radiolabeling of silver nanoparticles with iodine-125 in order to track in vivo tissue uptake of silver nanoparticles after systemic administration by biodistribution analysis and single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging. Poly(N-vinyl-2 -pyrrolidone)-capped silver nanoparticles with an average size of 12 nm were labeled by chemisorption of iodine-125 with a > 80% yield of radiolabeling efficiency. Radiolabeled silver nanoparticles were intravenously injected in Balb/c mice, and the in vivo distribution pattern of these nanoparticles was evaluated by noninvasive whole-body SPECT imaging, which revealed uptake of the nanoparticles in the liver and spleen. Biodistribution analysis confirmed predominant accumulation of the silver nanoparticles in the spleen (41.5%ID/g) and liver (24.5%ID/g) at 24 h. Extensive uptake in the tissues of the reticuloendothelial system suggests that further investigation of silver nanoparticle interaction with hepatic and splenic tissues at the cellular level is critical for evaluation of the in vivo effects and potential toxicity of silver nanoparticles. This method enables rapid iodine-125 radiolabeling of silver nanoparticles with a specific activity sufficient for in vivo imaging and biodistribution analysis.
Ag nanoparticles; radiolabeling; PVP; CT-SPECT imaging
We assessed the quantitation accuracy of small animal pinhole single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) under the current preclinical settings, where image compensations are not routinely applied.
The effects of several common image-degrading factors and imaging parameters on quantitation accuracy were evaluated using Monte-Carlo simulation methods. Typical preclinical imaging configurations were modeled, and quantitative analyses were performed based on image reconstructions without compensating for attenuation, scatter, and limited system resolution.
Using mouse-sized phantom studies as examples, attenuation effects alone degraded quantitation accuracy by up to −18% (Tc-99m or In-111) or −41% (I-125). The inclusion of scatter effects changed the above numbers to −12% (Tc-99m or In-111) and −21% (I-125), respectively, indicating the significance of scatter in quantitative I-125 imaging. Region-of-interest (ROI) definitions have greater impacts on regional quantitation accuracy for small sphere sources as compared to attenuation and scatter effects. For the same ROI, SPECT acquisitions using pinhole apertures of different sizes could significantly affect the outcome, whereas the use of different radii-of-rotation yielded negligible differences in quantitation accuracy for the imaging configurations simulated.
We have systematically quantified the influence of several factors affecting the quantitation accuracy of small animal pinhole SPECT. In order to consistently achieve accurate quantitation within 5% of the truth, comprehensive image compensation methods are needed.
Quantitation; Pinhole SPECT; Small animal imaging; Image compensations; Attenuation; Scatter; Image resolution
One limitation of HSV1-tk reporter PET imaging with nucleoside analogues is the high background radioactivity in the intestine. We hypothesized that endogenous expression of thymidine kinase in bacterial flora could phosphorylate and trap such radiotracers, contributing to the high radioactivity levels in the bowel and therefore explored different strategies to increase fecal elimination of radiotracer.
Intestinal radioactivity was assessed by in vivo microPET imaging and ex vivo tissue sampling following intravenous injection of 18F-FEAU, 124I-FIAU or 18F-FHBG in a germ-free mouse strain. We also explored the use of an osmotic laxative agent and/or a 100% enzymatically hydrolyzed liquid diet.
No significant differences in intestinal radioactivity were observed between germ-free and normal mice. 18F-FHBG-derived intestinal radioactivity levels were higher than those of 18F-FEAU and 124I-FIAU; the intestine-to-blood ratio was more than 20-fold higher for 18F-FHBG than for 18F-FEAU and 124I-FIAU. The combination of Peptamen and Nulytely lowered intestinal radioactivity levels and increased (2.2-fold) the HSV1-tk transduced xenograft-to-intestine ratio for 18F-FEAU.
Intestinal bacteria in germ-free mice do not contribute to the high intestinal levels of radioactivity following injection of radionucleoside analogs. The combination of Peptamen and Nulytely increased radiotracer elimination by increasing bowel motility without inducing dehydration.
reporter gene imaging; HSV1-tk; PET imaging; bacteria; background radioactivity
Potential antiviral nucleoside analogs 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylthymine, the 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-nucleosides of -5-methyluracil, -5-iodouracil, -5-methylcytosine, -5-iodocytosine, and -E-5-(2-bromovinyl)uracil, E-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine, E-5-(2-bromovinyl)-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil, and 9-(2-hydroxyethyoxymethyl)guanine were studied to compare their phosphorylation rates relative to thymidine by purified thymidine kinases from human and herpes simplex virus sources. Most of these analogs are capable of being phosphorylated by both human and viral enzymes. On the assumption that inhibition constants (Ki) reflect binding affinity, Ki values were determined for these analogs with the same thymidine kinases. In general, these analogs have a greater affinity for the viral enzymes. The amount of the analogs phosphorylated to the monophosphate form, which is presumably necessary to produce cytotoxic effects, was determined by the combined effects of phosphorylation rates and binding affinities. All of these analogs act as preferential substrates for the viral thymidine kinases at low concentrations, which may be one of the main reasons for their selective antiviral action.
To extend our development of new imaging agents targeting the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), we have used the versatile intermediate 2-[3-(5-amino-1-carboxy-pentyl)-ureido]-pentanedioic acid (Lys-C(O)-Glu), which allows ready incorporation of radiohalogens for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). We prepared 2-[3-[1-carboxy-5-(4-[125I]iodo-benzoylamino)-pentyl]-ureido]-pentanedioic acid ([125I]3), 2-[3-[1-carboxy-5-(4-[18F]fluoro-benzoylamino)-pentyl]-ureido]-pentanedioic acid ([18F]6) and 2-(3-[1-carboxy-5-[(5-[125I]iodo-pyridine-3-carbonyl)-amino]-pentyl]-ureido)-pentanedioic acid ([125I]8) in 65 - 80% (non-decay-corrected), 30 - 35% (decay corrected) and 59 - 75% (non-decay-corrected) radiochemical yields. Compound [125I]3 demonstrated 8.8 ± 4.7 percent injected dose per gram (%ID/g) within PSMA+ PC-3 PIP tumor at 30 min postinjection, which persisted, with clear delineation of the tumor by SPECT. Similar tumor uptake values at early time points were demonstrated for [18F]6 (using PET) and [125I]8. Because of the many radiohalogenated moieties that can be attached via the ε amino group, the intermediate Lys-C(O)-Glu is an attractive template upon which to develop new imaging agents for prostate cancer.
NAALADase; GCPII; radiopharmaceutical; SPECT; PET; small animal imaging
We have tested the use of thymidine kinase as a negative selection system for Trypanosoma brucei. To this end we have targeted a construct containing a Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (TK) gene into the ribosomal DNA array of procyclic T. brucei. This resulted in TK activity 30-50-fold above background and in susceptibility to the nucleoside analogues ganciclovir, ethyl-deoxyuridine and 1-[2-deoxy,2-fluoro-8-D-arabinofuranosyl]-5-iodouracil, all of which have no effect on wild-type trypanosomes. TK+ trypanosomes, however, reverted to a ganciclovir resistant phenotype at a rate of 10(-6) per cell-generation. A similar reversion rate was observed using the Varicella-zoster virus TK gene. Loss of TK activity was not due to detectable DNA rearrangements or a decrease in TK mRNA. Sequence analysis of the revertant genes demonstrated, however, the occurrence of point mutations and frameshifts. One revertant line had a mutation in the thymidine binding site leading to the substitution of a conserved arginine by a glycine. Other mutations included single base insertion, single base deletion and the introduction of a premature termination codon by point mutation.