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1.  Combined SPECT and Multidetector CT for Prostate Cancer Evaluations 
111In-capromab pendetide is an imaging probe for noninvasive detection of prostate cancer dissemination, and can be difficult to interpret because of low photon statistics resulting in noisy images with limited anatomical precision. We examined if a 16-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) combined with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could increase the impact on the clinical management and improve confidence in SPECT image interpretations in comparison to a relatively low-mA (limited resolution) CT. 17 scans were reviewed from a SPECT combined with low-mA CT scanner; 21 scans were reviewed from a SPECT combined with 16-slice MDCT scanner. Reports of the clinical interpretations from the imaging studies, additional examinations performed by referring physicians as a follow-up to the imaging results, and long-term clinical and laboratory follow-ups were used to define confidence of the SPECT/CT readings and impact of the readings on the patient management. The impact was defined as: the occurrence of the 111In-capromab pendetide interpretation resulted in additional imaging studies or biopsies. MDCT improved the quality and confidence in the characterization of small lymph nodes with or without uptake of 111In-capromab pendetide. The increased confidence with MDCT in SPECT/CT readings was evident in all cases reviewed in this study, and the impact on the clinical management was higher (8 out of 21) using SPECT/MDCT than the impact using SPECT combined with low-mA CT (2 out of 17). The dual-modality SPECT/CT provides a quantifiable benefit when MDCT is used instead of low-mA CT, particularly for prostate cancer evaluations using 111In-capromab pendetide.
PMCID: PMC3260786  PMID: 22267999
prostate cancer; capromab pendetide; SPECT/CT; MDCT; prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA)
2.  In vivo Tumor Grading of Prostate Cancer using Quantitative 111In-Capromab Pendetide SPECT/CT 
We have developed an in vivo antibody uptake quantification method using 111In-capromab pendetide single photon emission computed tomography combined with computed tomography (SPECT/CT) technology. Our goal is to evaluate this noninvasive antibody quantification method for potential prostate tumor grading.
Our phantom experiments focused on the robustness of an advanced iterative reconstruction algorithm that involves corrections for photon attenuation, scatter, and geometric blurring caused by radionuclide collimators. The conversion factors between image values and tracer concentrations (in Bq/ml) were calculated from uniform phantom filled with aqueous solution of 111InCl3 using the same acquisition protocol and reconstruction parameters as for patient studies. In addition, the spatial resolution of the reconstructed images was measured from a point source phantom. The measured spatial resolution was modeled into a point spread function (PSF), and the PSF was implemented in a deconvolution-based partial volume error (PVE) correction algorithm. The recovery capability to correctly estimate true tracer concentration values was tested using prostate-like and bladder-like lesion phantoms fitted in the modified NEMA/IEC body phantom. Patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer (n=10) who underwent prostatectomy were prospectively enrolled in the preoperative SPECT/CT studies at the San Francisco VA Medical Center. The CT portion of SPECT/CT was used for CT-based attenuation map generation as well as an anatomical localization tool for clinical interpretation. Pathologic Gleason grades were compared with in vivo “antibody uptake value” (AUV) normalized by injected dose, effective half-life, and injection-scan time difference. AUVs were calculated in each lobe of prostate gland with cylindrical volumes of interest (VOIs) having dimensions of 1.5 cm both in diameter and height.
Reconstructed SPECT images further corrected by the deconvolution-based PVE correction could recover true tracer concentrations in volumes as small as 7.77 ml up to 90% in phantom measurements. From patient studies, there was a statistically significant correlation (ρ = 0.71, P = 0.033) between higher AUVs (from either left or right lobe) and higher components of pathologic Gleason scores.
Our results strongly indicate noninvasive prostate tumor grading potential using quantitative 111In-capromab pendetide SPECT/CT for prostate cancer evaluation.
PMCID: PMC2821016  PMID: 20008977
prostate cancer; capromab pendetide; SPECT; SPECT/CT; quantification; tracer quantification; quantitative SPECT; prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA)
3.  Limited value of 99mTc depreotide single photon emission CT compared with CT for the evaluation of pulmonary lesions 
The British Journal of Radiology  2012;85(1015):e307-e313.
A contrast-enhanced multidetector CT (MDCT) scan is the first choice examination when evaluating patients with suspected lung cancer. However, while the clinical focus is on CT, research focus is on molecular biological methods whereby radiolabelled pharmaceuticals are injected into participants and target malignant lung tumours. We examined whether a contrast-enhanced MDCT scan supplied with an additional non-contrast enhanced high-resolution CT scan, or a newer but more expensive 99mTc depreotide single photon emission CT (SPECT) scan, was the better first-choice examination for the work-up of pulmonary lesions. Furthermore, we examined whether a 99mTc depreotide SPECT scan was an appropriate second-choice examination for patients with indeterminate lesions.
140 participants were included in the analysis. CT images were given a malignancy potential rating of 1, 2 or 3 with higher rating being indicative of disease. 99mTc depreotide SPECT images were graded either positive or negative. Histopathology and CT follow-up were used as reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were calculated.
Overall sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of CT were 97%, 30% and 84%, respectively. Overall sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of 99mTc depreotide SPECT were 94%, 58% and 76%, respectively. For indeterminate lesions sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of 99mTc depreotide SPECT were 71%, 68% and 69%, respectively.
Both CT and 99mTc depreotide SPECT made valuable contributions to the evaluation of pulmonary lesions. 99mTc depreotide SPECT results were not superior to CT results and did not contribute further to the diagnostic work-up. Regarding indeterminate lesions, 99mTc depreotide SPECT sensitivity was too low.
PMCID: PMC3474046  PMID: 22745210
4.  Evaluation of coronary atheroma by 64-slice multidetector computed tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound and angiography 
The Canadian Journal of Cardiology  2009;25(11):641-647.
Recent improvements in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with 64-slice scanners have allowed acquisition of a coronary study in 5 s to 6 s, with good temporal and spatial resolution. Previous studies have reported an underestimation of plaque burden by MDCT. Whether shorter scan times can allow correct assessment of plaque volume requires comparison with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS).
Patients (n=30) scheduled for coronary angiography also underwent MDCT and IVUS examinations within 96 h. MDCT examination was performed with a 64-slice scanner. Nitroglycerin was administered before all imaging procedures. MDCT, quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and IVUS analyses were performed by observers blinded to other results. Plaque volumes were determined by MDCT and IVUS in one vessel, and maximum percentage diameter stenosis was identified in each coronary segment by MDCT and QCA.
The mean (± SD) plaque volume was determined to be 179.1±78.9 mm3 by MDCT and 176.1±87.9 mm3 by IVUS. There was a strong positive correlation for plaque volume between MDCT and IVUS (r=0.84, P<0.0001). Percentage diameter stenosis assessed by MDCT and QCA also correlated well (r=0.88 per patient and r=0.87 per vessel, P<0.0001 for both). The maximum percentage diameter stenosis per vessel was 38.1±30.2% with MDCT and 34.1±27.6% with QCA. The sensitivity and specificity of MDCT in detecting stenoses above 50% per vessel were 100% and 91.0%, respectively.
Plaque volumes measured by 64-slice MDCT and IVUS correlate well, without systematic underestimation. The sensitivity and specificity of MDCT to detect stenoses greater than 50% by QCA are excellent with the administration of nitroglycerin before imaging.
PMCID: PMC2776562  PMID: 19898696
Angiography; Atherosclerosis; Coronary disease; Tomography; Ultrasonics
5.  Automatic and manual image fusion of 111In-pentetreotide SPECT and diagnostic CT in neuroendocrine tumor imaging – An evaluation 
In the clinical diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors (NET), the results of examinations, such as high-resolution computed tomography (CT) and single photon computerized tomography (SPECT), have conventionally been interpreted separately. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Hermes Multimodality™ 5.0 H Image Fusion software-based automatic and manual image fusion of SPECT and CT for the localization of NET lesions. Out of 34 NET patients who were examined by means of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) with 111In- pentetreotide along with SPECT, 22 patients had a CT examination of the abdomen, which was used in the fusion analysis. SPECT and CT data were fused using software with a registration algorithm based on normalized mutual information. The criteria for acceptable fusion were established at a maximum cranial or caudal dislocation of 25 mm between the images and at a reasonable consensus (in order of less than 1 cm) between outline of the reference organs. The automatic fusion was acceptable in 13 of the 22 examinations, whereas 9 fusions were not. However all the 22 examinations were acceptable at the manual fusion. The result of automatic fusion was better when the slice thickness of 5 mm was applied at CT examination, when the number of slices was below 100 in CT data and when both examinations included uptakes of pathological lesions. Retrospective manual image fusion of SPECT and CT is a relatively inexpensive but reliable method to be used in NET imaging. Automatic image fusion with specified software of SPECT and CT acts better when the number of CT slices is reduced to the SPECT volume and when corresponding pathological lesions appear at both SPECT and CT examinations.
PMCID: PMC2990117  PMID: 21170187
Computed tomography; image fusion; neuroendocrine tumors; single photon emission computed tomography; somatostatin receptor scintigraphy
6.  Adenosine Stress 64- and 256-Row Detector Computed Tomography Angiography and Perfusion Imaging A Pilot Study Evaluating the Transmural Extent of Perfusion Abnormalities to Predict Atherosclerosis Causing Myocardial Ischemia 
Multidetector computed tomography coronary angiography (CTA) is a robust method for the noninvasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease. However, in its current form, CTA is limited in its prediction of myocardial ischemia. The purpose of this study was to test whether adenosine stress computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (CTP), when added to CTA, can predict perfusion abnormalities caused by obstructive atherosclerosis.
Methods and Results
Forty patients with a history of abnormal single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI) underwent adenosine stress 64-row (n=24) or 256-row (n=16) detector CTP and CTA. A subset of 27 patients had invasive angiography available for quantitative coronary angiography. CTA and quantitative coronary angiography were evaluated for stenoses ≥50%, and SPECT-MPI was evaluated for fixed and reversible perfusion deficits using a 17-segment model. CTP images were analyzed for the transmural differences in perfusion using the transmural perfusion ratio (subendocardial attenuation density/subepicardial attenuation density). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the combination of CTA and CTP to detect obstructive atherosclerosis causing perfusion abnormalities using the combination of quantitative coronary angiography and SPECT as the gold standard was 86%, 92%, 92%, and 85% in the per-patient analysis and 79%, 91%, 75%, and 92% in the per vessel/territory analysis, respectively.
The combination of CTA and CTP can detect atherosclerosis causing perfusion abnormalities when compared with the combination of quantitative coronary angiography and SPECT.
PMCID: PMC3035629  PMID: 19808590
imaging; atherosclerosis; ischemia; perfusion; myocardium
7.  Molecular SPECT Imaging: An Overview 
Molecular imaging has witnessed a tremendous change over the last decade. Growing interest and emphasis are placed on this specialized technology represented by developing new scanners, pharmaceutical drugs, diagnostic agents, new therapeutic regimens, and ultimately, significant improvement of patient health care. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) have their signature on paving the way to molecular diagnostics and personalized medicine. The former will be the topic of the current paper where the authors address the current position of the molecular SPECT imaging among other imaging techniques, describing strengths and weaknesses, differences between SPECT and PET, and focusing on different SPECT designs and detection systems. Radiopharmaceutical compounds of clinical as well-preclinical interest have also been reviewed. Moreover, the last section covers several application, of μSPECT imaging in many areas of disease detection and diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC3094893  PMID: 21603240
8.  Multidetector row CT for imaging the paediatric tracheobronchial tree 
Pediatric Radiology  2007;37(6):515-529.
The introduction of multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) scanners has altered the approach to imaging the paediatric thorax. In an environment where the rapid acquisition of CT data allows general hospitals to image children instead of referring them to specialist paediatric centres, it is vital that general radiologists have access to protocols appropriate for paediatric applications. Thus a dramatic reduction in the delivered radiation dose is ensured with optimal contrast bolus delivery and timing, and inappropriate repetition of the scans is avoided. This article focuses on the main principles of volumetric CT imaging that apply generically to all MDCT scanners. We describe the reconstruction techniques for imaging the paediatric thorax and the low-dose protocols used in our institution on a 16-slice detector CT scanner. Examples of the commonest clinical applications are also given.
PMCID: PMC1891645  PMID: 17457581
Volumetric; Multidetector CT; Tracheobronchial tree; Children
9.  Breath-hold CT attenuation correction for quantitative cardiac SPECT 
EJNMMI Research  2012;2:33.
Attenuation correction of a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image is possible using computed tomography (CT)-based attenuation maps with hybrid SPECT/CT. CT attenuation maps acquired during breath holding can be misaligned with SPECT, generating artifacts in the reconstructed images. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of respiratory phase during breath-hold CT acquisition on attenuation correction of cardiac SPECT imaging.
A series of 201Tl-emission and 99mTc-based transmission computed tomography (TCT) scans was carried out along with CT-attenuation scans on 11 young normal volunteers using a hybrid SPECT/CT scanner. The CT scans were performed at three respiratory phases: end-inspiration (INS), end-expiration (EXP), and the midpoint (MID) between these phases. Using alignment parameters between attenuation maps and SPECT images without attenuation or scatter corrections, quantitative SPECT images were reconstructed, including corrections for attenuation and scatter. Regional radioactivity concentrations normalized by the subjects’ weights were compared between CT- and TCT-based attenuation correction techniques.
SPECT images with CT attenuation maps at the EXP phase showed significant differences in regional weight-normalized radioactivity concentrations relative to the images using the other attenuation maps (p < 0.05), as well as systematic positive bias errors, compared to TCT-based images for all myocardial segments, 5.7% ± 2.7% (1.9% to 10.0%). No significant differences in regional weight-normalized radioactivity concentrations were observed between images with CT attenuation maps at MID and INS phases or between these and the TCT-based images, but regional tendencies were found: for anterior to anterolateral segment, positive bias of 5.0% ± 2.2% (1.3% to 8.1%) and 5.6% ± 1.9% (2.6% to 8.5%) and for inferior to inferoseptal segment, negative bias of −5.3% ± 2.6% (−9.1% to −1.7%) and −4.6% ± 2.5% (−8.8% to −1.5%) for the MID and INS phases, respectively.
Use of breath-hold CT attenuation maps at INS and MID phases for attenuation and scatter corrections demonstrated accurate quantitative images that would prove beneficial in cardiac SPECT/CT studies.
PMCID: PMC3444955  PMID: 22726667
10.  Transitioning from 16-slice to 64-slice multidetector computed tomography for the assessment of coronary artery disease: Are we really making progress? 
Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has demonstrated promise in the noninvasive evaluation of coronary artery disease.
To systematically review the literature regarding the improved diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice MDCT.
An EMBASE, OVID, PubMed and Cochrane Library database search was performed using the key words ‘computed tomography’ matched with the terms ‘coronary artery’ or ‘coronary angiography’ to identify English-language articles examining MDCT cardiac imaging. Studies that compared 16-slice or 64-slice MDCT with catheter-based coronary angiography for the detection of coronary artery disease in non-revascularized, poststent and post-coronary artery bypass graft patients were included. Data were pooled to obtain a weighted sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy for MDCT. Negative and positive predictive values, and likelihood ratios were calculated based on sensitivity and specificity.
Currently, 15 studies involving 1008 patients have examined the efficacy of 64-slice MDCT in the assessment of coronary artery stenosis (more than 50% luminal narrowing). In these studies, 64-slice MDCT has demonstrated a sensitivity (89%), specificity (96%) and diagnostic accuracy (95%) similar to that of 16-slice MDCT. However, 64-slice MDCT was able to assess 5% more coronary artery segments than 16-slice MDCT. In revascularized patients, MDCT can accurately assess both bypass graft occlusion and stenosis. The 64-slice MDCT is also capable of adequately detecting in-stent restenosis. Improvements in spatial and temporal resolution with 64-slice technology have decreased the occurrence of high attenuation and motion artefacts that plagued the previous generation of MDCT scanners.
MDCT offers an accurate assessment of the coronary arteries, stented arteries and bypass grafts. The improved accuracy and safety of MDCT may reduce the need for catheter-based coronary angiography.
PMCID: PMC2780905  PMID: 19746244
Angiography; Bypass; Computed tomography; Coronary disease; Restenosis
Urologic oncology  2012;31(2):144-154.
Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy affecting men in North America. Despite significant efforts, conventional imaging of PC does not contribute to patient management as much as imaging performed for other common cancers. Given the lack of specificity in conventional imaging techniques, one possible solution is to screen for PC specific antigenic targets and generate agents able to specifically bind. Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is over-expressed in PC tissue, with low levels of expression in the small intestine, renal tubular cells and salivary gland. The first clinical agent for targeting PSMA was 111In-capromab, involving an antibody recognizing the internal domain of PSMA. The second- and third-generation humanized PSMA binding antibodies have the potential to overcome some of the limitations inherent to capromab pendetide i.e. inability to bind to live PC cells. One example is the humanized monoclonal antibody J591 (Hu mAb J591) that was developed primarily for therapeutic purposes but also has interesting imaging characteristics including the identification of bone metastases in PC.
The major disadvantage of use of mAb for imaging is slow target recognition and background clearance in an appropriate timeframe for diagnostic imaging. Urea-based compounds such as small molecule inhibitors may also present promising agents for PC imaging with SPECT and PET. Two such small-molecule inhibitors targeting PSMA, MIP-1072 and MIP-1095, have exhibited high affinity for PSMA. The uptake of 123I-MIP-1072 and 123I-MIP-1095 in PC xenografts have imaged successfully with favorable properties amenable to human trials. While advances in conventional imaging will continue, Ab and small molecule imaging exemplified by PSMA targeting have the greatest potential to improve diagnostic sensitivity and specificity.
PMCID: PMC3461099  PMID: 22658884
Prostate specific membrane antigen; prostate cancer; molecular imaging; monoclonal antibody; single-photon emission computed tomography; positron emission tomography
12.  Meta-analysis of the literature on diagnostic accuracy of SPECT in parkinsonian syndromes 
BMC Neurology  2007;7:27.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. One of the most widely used techniques to diagnose PD is a Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography (SPECT) scan to visualise the integrity of the dopaminergic pathways in the brain. Despite this there remains some discussion on the value of SPECT in the differential diagnosis of PD. We did a meta-analysis of all the existing literature on the diagnostic accuracy of both pre- and post-synaptic SPECT imaging in the differential diagnosis of PD.
Relevant studies were searched in Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane databases with back-searching of their reference lists. We limited our analysis to studies with a clinically relevant methodology: i.e. when they assessed the ability of the SPECT to provide 1. diagnosis of PD in an early phase vs. normalcy; 2 diagnostic differentiation between PD and essential tremor (ET); 3. distinguishing between PD and vascular parkinsonism (VP); 4. delineation of PD from atypical parkinsonian syndromes (APS). Gold standard was, dependent on the study type, clinical examination at initial visit or follow-up, and/or response to dopaminergic agents.
The search gave 185 hits, of which we deemed 32 suitable for our analysis. From these we recalculated the diagnostic odds ratio of SPECT for the clinical questions above. The pooled odds ratio (with 95%CI) for presynaptic SPECT scan's ability to distinguish between early PD and normalcy was 60 (13 – 277). For the ability to differentiate between PD and ET this ratio was 210 (79–562). The ratio for presynaptic SPECT's ability to delineate PD from VP was 105 (32 – 348). The mean odds ratio for the presynaptic SPECT scans to differentiate between PD and the two APS was 2 (1 – 4), and for the postsynaptic SPECT imaging this was 19 (9–36).
SPECT with presynaptic radiotracers is relatively accurate to differentiate patients with PD in an early phase from normalcy, patients with PD from those with ET, and PD from VP.
The accuracy of SPECT with both presynaptic and postsynaptic tracers to differentiate between PD and APS is relatively low.
PMCID: PMC2064928  PMID: 17764571
13.  Value of Bone Scintigraphy and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) in Lumbar Facet Disease and Prediction of Short-term Outcome of Ultrasound Guided Medial Branch Block with Bone SPECT 
The Korean Journal of Pain  2011;24(2):81-86.
Facet joint disease plays a major role in axial low-back pain. Few diagnostic tests and imaging methods for identifying this condition exist. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is reported that it has a high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing facet disease. We prospectively evaluated the use of bone scintigraphy with SPECT for the identification of patients with low back pain who would benefit from medial branch block.
SPECT was performed on 33 patients clinically suspected of facet joint disease. After SPECT, an ultrasound guided medial branch block was performed on all patients. On 28 SPECT-positive patients, medial branch block was performed based on the SPECT findings. On 5 negative patients, medial branch block was performed based on clinical findings. For one month, we evaluated the patients using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry disability index. SigmaStat and paired t-tests were used to analyze patient data and compare results.
Of the 33 patients, the ones who showed more than 50% reduction in VAS score were assigned 'responders'. SPECT positive patients showed a better response to medial branch blocks than negative patients, but no changes in the Oswestry disability index were seen.
SPECT is a sensitive tool for the identification of facet joint disease and predicting the response to medial branch block.
PMCID: PMC3111564  PMID: 21716615
facet; medial branch block; SPECT
14.  Sixty-four MDCT achieves higher contrast in pancreas with optimization of scan time delay 
World Journal of Radiology  2012;4(7):324-327.
AIM: To compare different multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) protocols to optimize pancreatic contrast enhancement.
METHODS: Forty consecutive patients underwent contrast-enhanced biphasic MDCT (arterial and portal-venous phase) using a 64-slice MDCT. In 20 patients, the scan protocol was adapted from a previously used 40-channel MDCT scanner with arterial phase scanning initiated 11.1 s after a threshold of 150 HU was reached in the descending aorta, using automatic bolus tracking (Protocol 1). The 11.1-s delay was changed to 15 s in the other 20 patients to reflect the shorter scanning times on the 64-channel MDCT compared to the previous 40-channel system (Protocol 2). HU values were measured in the head and tail of the pancreas in the arterial and portal-venous phase.
RESULTS: Using an 11.1-s delay, 74.2 HU (head) were measured on average in the arterial phase and 111.2 HU (head) were measured using a 15-s delay (P < 0.0001). For the pancreatic tail, the average attenuation level was 76.73 HU (11.1 s) and 99.89 HU (15 s) respectively (P = 0.0002). HU values were also significantly higher in the portal-venous phase [pancreatic head: 70.5 HU (11.1 s) vs 84.0 HU (15 s) (P = 0.0014); pancreatic tail: 67.45 HU (11.1 s) and 77.18 HU (15 s) using Protocol 2 (P = 0.0071)].
CONCLUSION: Sixty-four MDCT may yield a higher contrast in pancreatic study with (appropriate) optimization of scan delay time.
PMCID: PMC3419869  PMID: 22900134
Computed tomography; Pancreas; Scan delay; Protocol; Contrast enhancement
15.  SPECT Imaging of Epilepsy: An Overview and Comparison with F-18 FDG PET 
Epilepsy surgery is highly effective in treating refractory epilepsy, but requires accurate presurgical localization of the epileptogenic focus. Briefly, localization of the region of seizure onset traditionally dependents on seizure semiology, scalp EEG recordings and correlation with anatomical imaging modalities such as MRI. The introduction of noninvasive functional neuroimaging methods, including single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) has dramatically changed the method for presurgical epilepsy evaluation. These imaging modalities have become powerful tools for the investigation of brain function and are an essential part of the evaluation of epileptic patients. Of these methods, SPECT has the practical capacity to image blood flow functional changes that occur during seizures in the routine clinical setting. In this review we present the basic principles of epilepsy SPECT and PET imaging. We discuss the properties of the SPECT tracers to be used for this purpose and imaging acquisition protocols as well as the diagnostic performance of SPECT in addition to SPECT image analysis methods. This is followed by a discussion and comparison to F-18 FDG PET acquisition and imaging analysis methods.
PMCID: PMC3139140  PMID: 21785722
16.  SPECT/CT localization of oral radioiodine activity: a retrospective study and in-vitro assessment 
Nuclear Medicine Communications  2013;34(12):1216-1222.
We sought to further localize radioiodine activity in the mouth on post-thyroid cancer therapy imaging using single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT).
Materials and methods
We retrospectively reviewed all patients (58) who underwent thyroid cancer therapy with iodine-131 (131I) at our institution from August 2009 to March 2011 whose post-therapy radioiodine imaging included neck SPECT/CT. A small group (six) of diagnostic 123I scans including SPECT/CT was also reviewed. Separately, we performed in-vitro 131I (sodium iodide) binding assays with amalgam and Argenco HP 77 (77% dental gold alloy) as proof of principle for these interactions.
Of the 58 post-therapy patients, 45 (78%) had undergone metallic dental restorations, and of them 41 (91%) demonstrated oral 131I activity localizing preferentially to those restorations. It was observed that radioiodine also localized to other dental restorations and to orthodontic hardware. Gum-line activity in edentulous patients suggests radioiodine interaction with denture adhesive.
In vitro, dental amalgam and Argenco HP 77 bound 131I in a time-dependent manner over 1–16 days of exposure. Despite subsequent washings with normal saline, significant 131I activity (maximally 12% for amalgam and 68% for Argenco HP 77) was retained by these metals. Subsequent soaking in a saturated solution of potassium iodide partially displaced 131I from amalgam, with near-total displacement of 131I from Argenco HP 77.
SPECT/CT shows that radioiodine in the oral cavity localizes to metallic dental restorations. Furthermore, in-vitro studies demonstrate partially reversible binding of 131I to common dental metals.
PMCID: PMC3815121  PMID: 24128897
benign; dental; 131I; oral; radioiodine; single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography; thyroid cancer
17.  The hazards of lack of co-registration of ictal brain SPECT with MRI: A case report of sinusitis mimicking a brainstem seizure focus 
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) following injection of radiotracer during a seizure is known as ictal SPECT. Comparison of an ictal SPECT study to a baseline or interictal study can aid identification of a seizure focus.
Case presentation
A young woman with encephalitis and refractory seizures underwent brain SPECT during a period of frequent seizure-like episodes, and during a seizure-free period. A focal area of increased radiotracer uptake present only when she was experiencing frequent seizure-like episodes was originally localized to the brainstem, but with later computerized co-registration of SPECT to MRI, was found to lie outside the brain, in the region of the sphenoid sinus.
Low-resolution SPECT images present difficulties in interpretation, which can be overcome through co-registration to higher-resolution structural images.
PMCID: PMC535895  PMID: 15569392
18.  CT Coronary Angiography: 256-Slice and 320-Detector Row Scanners 
Current cardiology reports  2010;12(1):68-75.
Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has rapidly evolved from 4-detector row systems in 1998 to 256-slice and 320-detector row CT systems. With smaller detector element size and faster gantry rotation speed, spatial and temporal resolution of the 64-detector MDCT scanners have made coronary artery imaging a reliable clinical test. Wide-area coverage MDCT, such as the 256-slice and 320-detector row MDCT scanners, has enabled volumetric imaging of the entire heart free of stair-step artifacts at a single time point within one cardiac cycle. It is hoped that these improvements will be realized with greater diagnostic accuracy of CT coronary angiography. Such scanners hold promise in performing a rapid high quality “triple rule-out” test without high contrast load, improved myocardial perfusion imaging, and even four-dimensional CT subtraction angiography. These emerging technical advances and novel applications will continue to change the way we study coronary artery disease beyond detecting luminal stenosis.
PMCID: PMC2893879  PMID: 20425186
Computed tomography; Coronary artery disease; Wide area detector; Imaging; Technology
19.  Preoperative and Postoperative Evaluation of Multiple Giant Coronary Aneurysms by the Use of Coronary CT Angiography with 64-MDCT: A Case of Multiple Giant Coronary Aneurysms Treated with Aneurysmectomy and Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2009;50(1):160-163.
A coronary artery aneurysm is an uncommon disorder and is seen as a characteristic dilatation of a localized portion of the coronary artery. Clinical manifestation of a coronary artery aneurysm varies from an asymptomatic presentation to sudden death of a patient. Although coronary aneurysms are typically diagnosed by the use of coronary angiography, a new generation of coronary 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (64-MDCT) scanners have successfully been used for evaluating this abnormality in a noninvasive manner. In the present case, we performed coronary 64-MDCT scanning preoperatively and postoperatively on a patient with multiple giant coronary aneurysms. The use of coronary 64-MDCT may provide an evaluation technique not only for diagnosis but also for follow-up after surgery for this condition.
PMCID: PMC2649873  PMID: 19259365
Coronary aneurysm; computed tomography
20.  Single photon emission computed tomography in seizure disorders. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1988;63(10):1184-1188.
Fourteen children with various seizure disorders were studied using a cerebral blood flow tracer, 123I iodoamphetamine (0.05 mCi/kg), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In the five patients with radiological lesions, SPECT showed congruent or more extensive abnormalities. Five of the nine children with a normal scan on computed tomography had abnormal SPECT studies consisting of focal hypoperfusion, diffuse hemispheric hypoperfusion, multifocal and bilateral hypoperfusion, or focal hyperperfusion. A focal lesion seen on SPECT has been found in children with tonic-clonic seizures suggesting secondarily generalised seizures. Moreover the pattern seen on SPECT seemed to be related to the clinical status. An extensive impairment found on SPECT was associated with a poor evolution in terms of intellectual performance and seizure frequency. Conversely all children with a normal result on SPECT had less than two seizures per year and normal neurological and intellectual development.
PMCID: PMC1779044  PMID: 3264135
21.  Clinical use of ictal SPECT in secondarily generalized tonic–clonic seizures 
Brain  2009;132(8):2102-2113.
Partial seizures produce increased cerebral blood flow in the region of seizure onset. These regional cerebral blood flow increases can be detected by single photon emission computed tomography (ictal SPECT), providing a useful clinical tool for seizure localization. However, when partial seizures secondarily generalize, there are often questions of interpretation since propagation of seizures could produce ambiguous results. Ictal SPECT from secondarily generalized seizures has not been thoroughly investigated. We analysed ictal SPECT from 59 secondarily generalized tonic–clonic seizures obtained during epilepsy surgery evaluation in 53 patients. Ictal versus baseline interictal SPECT difference analysis was performed using ISAS ( SPECT injection times were classified based on video/EEG review as either pre-generalization, during generalization or in the immediate post-ictal period. We found that in the pre-generalization and generalization phases, ictal SPECT showed significantly more regions of cerebral blood flow increases than in partial seizures without secondary generalization. This made identification of a single unambiguous region of seizure onset impossible 50% of the time with ictal SPECT in secondarily generalized seizures. However, cerebral blood flow increases on ictal SPECT correctly identified the hemisphere (left versus right) of seizure onset in 84% of cases. In addition, when a single unambiguous region of cerebral blood flow increase was seen on ictal SPECT, this was the correct localization 80% of the time. In agreement with findings from partial seizures without secondary generalization, cerebral blood flow increases in the post-ictal period and cerebral blood flow decreases during or following seizures were not useful for localizing seizure onset. Interestingly, however, cerebral blood flow hypoperfusion during the generalization phase (but not pre-generalization) was greater on the side opposite to seizure onset in 90% of patients. These findings suggest that, with appropriate cautious interpretation, ictal SPECT in secondarily generalized seizures can help localize the region of seizure onset.
PMCID: PMC2714057  PMID: 19339251
epilepsy; cerebral blood flow; grand mal; surgery; nuclear medicine
22.  Taekling the challenges of interpretation of conventional coronary angiography using multidetector CT coronary angiography 
Netherlands Heart Journal  2004;12(5):203-207.
Although conventional catheter angiography is still regarded as the gold standard for anatomical visualisation of the coronary artery tree, it faces a number of challenges and pitfalls concerning the interpretation of the acquired images.
The aim of this review is to demonstrate that multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) can provide information that is not or only partially acquired by coronary angiography (CAG).
For different interpretation issues and pitfalls, we establish whether MDCT can provide better, i.e. more standardised and reproducible, information on the basis of both the properties of the technique and clinical examples.
Advantages of MDCT are full three- and four-dimensional coverage of the heart and contrast enhancement of all vascular compartments together with a superior low contrast resolution. MDCT shortcomings are the low temporal resolution and related to this the lack of flow information compared with catheter coronary angiography. MDCT is shown to meet most of the blind spots and pitfalls described for catheter coronary angiography.
Cardiac and coronary MDCT provides diagnostic information, which equals CAG diagnosis in most cases, and in some cases even provides a better diagnosis. This could influence the value of the sensitivity and specificity numbers published comparing noninvasive techniques with catheter coronary angiography (gold standard). Due to the added advantages of CT and its continuous improvement of temporal and spatial resolution, it might eventually replace diagnostic catheter coronary angiography.
PMCID: PMC2497115
coronary artery disease; coronary angiography; multidetector computed tomography
23.  Diagnostic and therapeutic impact of SPECT/CT in patients with unspecific pain of the hand and wrist 
EJNMMI Research  2012;2:53.
Unspecific pain of the hand/wrist is a diagnostic challenge. Radiographs and planar bone scan are useful diagnostic tools in patients with unspecific wrist pain. Both modalities are deficient, either by not presenting metabolic disorders or due to inadequate anatomical resolution. Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) claims to fuse both features.
Fifty-one patients with persisting wrist pain were referred for evaluation by SPECT/CT. All patients received X-ray and early-phase/late-phase SPECT/CT imaging. SPECT/CT results were compared with X-ray alone and X-ray combined with planar bone scan. The therapeutic impact was evaluated in consensus with the referring hand surgeon.
A total of 48 lesions were detected on plain radiographs, 117 on planar bone scan, and 142 on SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT detected significantly more lesions than the other imaging modalities. In 30 out of 51 patients (61%), a positive concordance between the clinical diagnosis and SPECT/CT findings was found. In 19 out of 51 patients (37%), SPECT/CT findings had significant impact on consecutive therapy.
SPECT/CT showed higher lesion detection rates compared to standard X-rays and planar bone scan. Significant impact on patient management could be demonstrated. SPECT/CT might be added to the workup of such a specific patient population when standard imaging fails to detect the patient's main pathology.
PMCID: PMC3506557  PMID: 23021154
SPECT/CT; Therapeutic impact; Multimodality imaging; Hand and wrist pain
24.  Phase I Study of Noninvasive Imaging of Adenovirus-mediated Gene Expression in the Human Prostate 
To monitor noninvasively potentially therapeutic adenoviruses for cancer, we have developed a methodology based on the sodium iodide symporter (NIS). Men with clinically localized prostate cancer were administered an intraprostatic injection of a replication-competent adenovirus, Ad5-yCD/utTKSR39rep-hNIS, armed with two suicide genes and the NIS gene. NIS gene expression (GE) was imaged noninvasively by uptake of Na99mTcO4 in infected cells using single photon emission–computed tomography (SPECT). The investigational therapy was safe with 98% of the adverse events being grade 1 or 2. GE was detected in the prostate in seven of nine (78%) patients at 1 × 1012 virus particles (vp) but not at 1 × 1011 vp. Volume and total amount of GE was quantified by SPECT. Following injection of 1 × 1012 vp in 1 cm3, GE volume (GEV) increased to a mean of 6.6 cm3, representing, on average, 18% of the total prostate volume. GEV and intensity peaked 1–2 days after the adenovirus injection and was detectable in the prostate up to 7 days. Whole-body imaging demonstrated intraprostatic gene expression, and there was no evidence of extraprostatic dissemination of the adenovirus by SPECT imaging. The results demonstrate that noninvasive imaging of adenovirus-mediated gene therapy in humans is feasible and safe.
PMCID: PMC3127288  PMID: 18714306
25.  Influence of Sinogram Affirmed Iterative Reconstruction of CT Data on Image Noise Characteristics and Low-Contrast Detectability: An Objective Approach 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e56875.
To utilize a novel objective approach combining a software phantom and an image quality metric to systematically evaluate the influence of sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) data on image noise characteristics and low-contrast detectability (LCD).
Materials and Methods
A low-contrast and a high-contrast phantom were examined on a 128-slice scanner at different dose levels. The datasets were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP) and SAFIRE and virtual low-contrast lesions (-20HU) were inserted. LCD was evaluated using the multiscale structural similarity index (MS-SIM*). Image noise texture and spatial resolution were objectively evaluated.
The use of SAFIRE led to an improvement of LCD for all dose levels and lesions sizes. The relative improvement of LCD was inversely related to the dose level, declining from 208%(±37%), 259%(±30%) and 309%(±35%) at 25mAs to 106%(±6%), 119%(±9%) and 123%(±8%) at 200mAs for SAFIRE filter strengths of 1, 3 and 5 (p<0.05). SAFIRE reached at least the LCD of FBP at a relative dose of 50%. There was no statistically significant difference in spatial resolution. The use of SAFIRE led to coarser image noise granularity.
A novel objective approach combining a software phantom and the MS-SSIM* image quality metric was used to analyze the detectability of virtual low-contrast lesions against the background of image noise as created using SAFIRE in comparison to filtered back-projection. We found, that image noise characteristics using SAFIRE at 50% dose were comparable to the use of FBP at 100% dose with respect to lesion detectability. The unfamiliar imaging appearance of iteratively reconstructed datasets may in part be explained by a different, coarser noise characteristic as demonstrated by a granulometric analysis.
PMCID: PMC3572072  PMID: 23468886

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