Urinary markers were tested as predictors of macroalbuminuria or microalbuminuria in type 1 diabetes.
Nested case:control of participants in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)
Setting & Participants
Eighty-seven cases of microalbuminuria were matched to 174 controls in a 1:2 ratio, while 4 cases were matched to 4 controls in a 1:1 ratio, resulting in 91 cases and 178 controls for microalbuminuria. Fifty-five cases of macroalbuminuria were matched to 110 controls in a 1:2 ratio. Controls were free of micro/macroalbuminuria when their matching case first developed micro/macroalbuminuria.
Urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, pentosidine, AGE fluorescence, albumin excretion rate (AER)
Incident microalbuminuria (two consecutive annual AER > 40 but <= 300 mg/day), or macroalbuminuria (AER > 300 mg/day)
Stored urine samples from DCCT entry, and 1–9 years later when macroalbuminuria or microalbuminuria occurred, were measured for the lysosomal enzyme, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, and the advanced glycosylation end-products (AGEs) pentosidine and AGE-fluorescence. AER and adjustor variables were obtained from the DCCT.
Sub-microalbuminuric levels of AER at baseline independently predicted microalbuminuria (adjusted OR 1.83; p<.001) and macroalbuminuria (adjusted OR 1.82; p<.001). Baseline N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase independently predicted macroalbuminuria (adjusted OR 2.26; p<.001), and microalbuminuria (adjusted OR 1.86; p<.001).
Baseline pentosidine predicted macroalbuminuria (adjusted OR 6.89; p=.002). Baseline AGE fluorescence predicted microalbuminuria (adjusted OR 1.68; p=.02). However, adjusted for N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, pentosidine and AGE-fluorescence lost predictive association with macroalbuminuria and microalbuminuria, respectively.
Use of angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitors was not directly ascertained, although their use was proscribed during the DCCT.
Early in type 1 diabetes, repeated measurements of AER and urinary NAG may identify individuals susceptible to future diabetic nephropathy. Combining the two markers may yield a better predictive model than either one alone. Renal tubule stress may be more severe, reflecting abnormal renal tubule processing of AGE-modified proteins, among individuals susceptible to diabetic nephropathy.