To evaluate the Nordic Patient Experiences Questionnaire (NORPEQ) for data quality, reliability and validity following surveys of patients in Finland, Norway, Sweden and the Faroe Islands.
Design, methods and participants
The NORPEQ was mailed to 500 patients randomly selected after receiving inpatient treatment in Finland, Norway and Sweden. The NORPEQ was also included in a national survey in Norway and in the Faroe Islands. Dimensionality was assessed using principal component analysis and internal consistency by item-total correlation and Cronbach's α. Construct validity was assessed by correlating NORPEQ scores with variables known to be related to patient experiences.
Somatic hospitals in Finland, Faroe Islands, Norway and Sweden.
Primary and secondary outcome measures
Item missing, internal consistency reliability and construct validity.
Response rates ranged from 45.8% in Norway to 84% for Sweden. Levels of missing data were low for all items across the surveys. Principal component analysis identified one component with six experiences items. Mean NORPEQ scores ranged from 74 to 79 on the 0–100 scale, where 100 represents the best possible experiences. Cronbach's α ranged from 0.84 in Finland to 0.88 in Sweden.
The NORPEQ is a brief measure of patient experiences that covers important aspects of the healthcare encounter. It shows good evidence of reliability and validity.
The NORPEQ instrument is recommended for cross-national comparisons of healthcare experiences for the four Nordic countries.
The NORPEQ was designed to include a core set of questions covering the most important aspects of patient experiences that can be used cross-nationally and alongside existing longer-form national survey questionnaires.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of NORPEQ in four Nordic countries.
On the basis of a rigorous process of questionnaire development and evaluation including forward–backwards translation, levels of missing data analysis, dimensionality, internal and construct validity, the NORPEQ shows good evidence of reliability and validity.
The NORPEQ instrument is recommended for cross-national comparisons of healthcare experiences in the Nordic countries.
Strengths and limitations of this study
The NORPEQ includes what are evaluated to be the most important aspects of experiences for patients. Levels of missing data were generally very low across countries indicating the acceptability of the questionnaire.
The NORPEQ was tested in four countries, and there is good evidence for the cross-cultural equivalence of the questionnaire.
Results were based on pilot surveys in two countries and should be further evaluated following national surveys. Psychometric properties of the NORPEQ should also be tested in Denmark and Iceland.