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1.  Several genetic polymorphisms interact with overweight/obesity to influence serum lipid levels 
Background
Information about the interactions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overweight/obesity on serum lipid profiles is still scarce. The present study was undertaken to detect ten SNPs and their interactions with overweight/obesity on serum lipid levels.
Methods
A total of 978 normal weight and 751 overweight/obese subjects of Bai Ku Yao were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Normal weight, overweight and obesity were defined as a body mass index (BMI) < 24, 24–28, and > 28 kg/m2; respectively. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and ApoB levels were measured. Genotyping of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA-1) V825I, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) rs1044925, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) AvaII, hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) -250G>A, endothelial lipase gene (LIPG) 584C>T, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T, the E3 ubiquitin ligase myosin regulatory light chain-interacting protein (MYLIP) rs3757354, proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9) E670G, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) +294T>C, and Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) rs5888 was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. The interactions were detected by factorial design covariance analysis.
Results
The genotypic and allelic frequencies of LIPC and PCSK9 were different between normal weight and overweight/obese subjects, the genotypic frequency of LIPG and allelic frequency of MYLIP were also different between normal weight and overweight/obese subjects (P < 0.05-0.001). The levels of TC, ApoA1 (ABCA-1); TC, LDL-C, ApoA1, ApoB and ApoA1/ApoB (LIPC); TG, HDL-C, and ApoA1 (LIPG); TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB (MTHFR); HDL-C and ApoA1 (MYLIP) in normal weight subjects were different among the genotypes (P < 0.01-0.001). The levels of LDL-C, ApoB and ApoA1/ApoB (ABCA-1); HDL-C, ApoA1, ApoB and ApoA1/ApoB (LIPC); TC, HDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB (LIPG); TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB (MTHFR); TC, TG and ApoB (MYLIP); TG (PCSK9); TG, ApoA1 and ApoB (PPARD); and TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB (SCARB1) in overweight/obese subjects were different among the genotypes (P < 0.01-0.001). The SNPs of ABCA-1 (LDL-C and ApoA1/ApoB); LIPC (TC, LDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB); LIPG (ApoB); MTHFR (TC, TG and LDL-C); MYLIP (TC and TG); PCSK9 (TG, HDL-C, ApoB and ApoA1/ApoB); PPARD (TG and ApoA1/ApoB); and SCARB1 (TG, ApoA1 and ApoB) interacted with overweight/obesity to influence serum lipid levels (P < 0.05-0.001).
Conclusions
The differences in serum lipid levels between normal weight and overweight/obese subjects might partly result from different genetic polymorphisms and the interactions between several SNPs and overweight/obesity.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-11-123
PMCID: PMC3508802  PMID: 23039238
Lipid; Apolipoprotein; Genetic polymorphism; Overweight; Obesity; Interaction
2.  Analysis of common and coding variants with cardiovascular disease in the diabetes heart study 
Background
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. Identification of genetic risk factors for CVD is important to understand disease risk. Two recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium detected CVD-associated loci.
Methods
Variants identified in CHARGE were tested for association with CVD phenotypes, including vascular calcification, and conventional CVD risk factors, in the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) (n = 1208; >80% T2DM affected). This included 36 genotyped or imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from DHS GWAS data. 28 coding SNPs from 14 top CHARGE genes were also identified from exome sequencing resources and genotyped, along with 209 coding variants from the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip genotype data in the DHS were also tested. Genetic risk scores (GRS) were calculated to evaluate the association of combinations of variants with CVD measures.
Results
After correction for multiple comparisons, none of the CHARGE SNPs were associated with vascular calcification (p < 0.0014). Multiple SNPs showed nominal significance with calcification, including rs599839 (PSRC1, p = 0.008), rs646776 (CELSR2, p = 0.01), and rs17398575 (PIK3CG, p = 0.009). Additional COL4A2 and CXCL12 SNPs were nominally associated with all-cause or CVD-cause mortality. Three SNPs were significantly or nominally associated with serum lipids: rs3135506 (Ser19Trp, APOA5) with triglycerides (TG) (p = 5×10−5), LDL (p = 0.00070), and nominally with high density lipoprotein (HDL) (p = 0.0054); rs651821 (5′UTR, APOA5) with increased TGs (p = 0.0008); rs13832449 (splice donor, APOC3) associated with decreased TGs (p = 0.0015). Rs45456595 (CDKN2A, Gly63Arg), rs5128 (APOC3, 3′UTR), and rs72650673 (SH2B3, Glu400Lys) were nominally associated with history of CVD, subclinical CVD, or CVD risk factors (p < 0.010). From the exome chip, rs3750103 (CHN2, His204Arg/His68Arg) with carotid intima-medial thickness (IMT) (p = 3.9×10−5), and rs61937878 (HAL, Val549Met) with infra-renal abdominal aorta CP (AACP) (p = 7.1×10−5). The unweighted GRS containing coronary artery calcified plaque (CAC) SNPs was nominally associated with history of prior CVD (p = 0.033; OR = 1.09). The weighted GRS containing SNPs was associated with CAC and myocardial infarction (MI) was associated with history of MI (p = 0.026; OR = 1.15).
Conclusions
Genetic risk factors for subclinical CVD in the general population (CHARGE) were modestly associated with T2DM-related risk factors and CVD outcomes in the DHS.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-13-77
PMCID: PMC4021556  PMID: 24725463
Coronary artery calcified plaque; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Cardiovascular disease; Genetic risk score
3.  The SCARB1 rs5888 SNP and Serum Lipid Levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han Populations 
Backgroud: The associations of scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) rs5888 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid levels are inconsistant among diverse ethnic populations. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of rs5888 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations.
Methods: Genotypes of the SCARB1 rs5888 SNP in 801 subjects of Mulao and 807 subjects of Han Chinese were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing.
Results: Serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels and the T allelic frequency were higher in Mulao than in Han. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in Mulao were different among the genotypes, the subjects with TT genotype had lower HDL-C levels than the subjects with CC or CT genotype in female (P < 0.05). For the Han population, serum triglyceride (TG), HDL-C, ApoAI, ApoB levels and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in males were different among the genotypes, the T allele carriers had lower serum HDL-C, ApoAI levels and ApoAI/ApoB ratio and higher serum ApoB levels than the T allele noncarriers (P < 0.05 for all), the subjects with TT genotype had higher serum TG levels than the subjects with CC or CT genotype. Serum HDL-C levels in Mulao females and serum HDL-C, ApoAI, ApoB levels and the ApoAI/ApoB ratio in Han males were correlated with genotypes by the multiple linear regression analysis. Serum lipid parameters were also influenced by genotype-environmental interactions in Han but not in Mulao populations.
Conclusions: These results suggest that the rs5888 SNP is associated with serum HDL-C levels in Mulao females, and TG, HDL-C, ApoAI, ApoB levels and the ApoAI/ApoB ratio in Han males. The differences in serum ApoB levels between the two ethnic groups might partially attribute to different SCARB1 genotype-environmental interactions.
doi:10.7150/ijms.4815
PMCID: PMC3477681  PMID: 23091409
scavenger receptor class B type 1 gene; single nucleotide polymorphism; lipids; apolipoproteins
4.  ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter G5 and G8 Polymorphisms and Several Environmental Factors with Serum Lipid Levels 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(5):e37972.
Background
The association of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum lipid profiles is inconsistent. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of ABCG5/G8 SNPs and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Genotyping of the ABCG5 (rs4131229 and rs6720173) and ABCG8 (rs3806471 and rs4148211) SNPs was performed in 719 unrelated subjects of Mulao nationality and 782 participants of Han nationality. There were no differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of four SNPs between the two ethnic groups besides the genotypic frequencies of rs4131229 SNP in Han. The levels of triglyceride (TG), apolipoprotein (Apo) A1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4131229); low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB (rs6720173); high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA1, ApoB, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs3806471); and HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4148211) in Han were different among their genotypes (P<0.05–0.001). The levels of LDL-C (rs6720173) and ApoA1 (rs3806471) in Mulao were also different among their genotypes (P<0.05 for each). The levels of TC, TG, HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4131229); LDL-C and ApoB (rs6720173); HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs3806471); and TG, HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4148211) in Han males; and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4131229); LDL-C, ApoB, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs3806471); HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4148211) in Han females were different between the genotypes (P<0.05–0.001). The levels of LDL-C in Mulao females were also different between GG and GC/CC genotypes of rs6720173 (P<0.05). The correlation between serum lipid parameters and genotypes of four SNPs was observed in Han, especially in Han males. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors.
Conclusions
The associations of four ABCG5/G8 SNPs and serum lipid levels are different between the Mulao and Han populations, or between males and females, suggesting that there may be a racial/ethnic- and/or sex-specific association between ABCG5/G8 SNPs and some serum lipid parameters.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037972
PMCID: PMC3360029  PMID: 22655090
5.  Association of the MLXIPL/TBL2 rs17145738 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations 
Background
The rs17145738 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) near MLX interacting protein-like/transducin (beta)-like 2 (MLXIPL/TBL2) loci is associated with serum lipid levels, but the results are inconsistent in diverse ethnic/racial groups. The current study was to investigate the association of MLXIPL/TBL2 rs17145738 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid profiles in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations.
Methods
A total of 649 subjects of Mulao nationality and 712 participants of Han nationality aged 16–84 years were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized samples. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing.
Results
Serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels were higher in Mulao than in Han (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of the MLXIPL/TBL2 rs17145738 SNP between the two ethnic groups or between males and females. The T allele carriers had higher triglyceride (TG) and ApoB levels in Mulao, and higher total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in Han than the T allele non-carriers (P < 0.05 for all). Subgroup analyses showed that the T allele carriers had higher ApoB levels in both Mulao and Han females than the T allele non-carriers, but the T allele carriers had lower ApoB levels in Han males than the T allele non-carriers (P < 0.05, respectively). The T allele carriers in Han had higher TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and ApoA1/ApoB ratio and lower TG levels in males, and higher LDL-C levels and lower ApoA1/ApoB ratio in females than the T allele non-carriers (P < 0.05 for all). Serum TC levels in the combined population of the two ethnic groups and in Han, and HDL-C levels in Han males were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors (P < 0.05-0.01).
Conclusions
The association of MLXIPL/TBL2 rs17145738 SNP and serum lipid profiles is different between the Mulao and Han populations. There is a sex-specific association in the both ethnic groups.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-12-156
PMCID: PMC3818985  PMID: 24160749
6.  Role of the APOB Gene Polymorphism (c.12669G>A, p. Gln4154Lys) in Coronary Artery Disease in the Indian Punjabi Population 
High concentration of apolipoprotein B (apoB) is a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). The association of the APOB gene polymorphism c.12669G>A, p.Gln4154Lys with the risk of CAD varies considerably in different populations. The present study represents the first investigation regarding the role of this APOB gene polymorphism with CAD in the Indian Punjabi population. We have studied the APOB gene polymorphism c.12669G>A, p.Gln4154Lys and its relationship with lipid, apoB, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) heterogeneity and oxidation in subjects suffering from CAD. The study was conducted on 87 patients with CAD; 75 healthy subjects served as controls. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to determine the DNA polymorphism in the APOB gene. Frequency of R− (mutant) allele was significantly high (p <0.05) in CAD patients when compared to controls. Variations in serum lipid levels in the R+R+ and R+R− APOB genotypes were insignificant (p >0.05). However, serum apoB levels were significantly raised (p <0.05) in CAD patients with the R+R− genotype as compared to those with the R+R+ APOB genotype. Coronary artery disease patients had raised significantly raised (p <0.01) Log triglyceride/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, apoB carbonyl content and increased malondialdehyde-low density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL levels, irrespective of APOB genotype as compared to controls. Carriers of the R− allele are at higher risk of CAD, probably because of elevated serum apoB levels in the Indian Punjabi population. Overall, it may be concluded that the R− allele might be associated with increased susceptibility towards CAD development in the Indian Punjabi population, and one of the linking factor is the elevation in serum apoB levels. However, this association needs further evaluation in a larger population. Secondly, the robust mechanism behind the positive association of the R− allele with raised serum apoB levels needs to be explored, which might be helpful in the strengthening the observed results.
doi:10.2478/v10034-011-0045-9
PMCID: PMC3776703  PMID: 24052710
Apolipoprotein B (apoB); Polymorphism; Coronary artery disease (CAD)
7.  Interactions of the apolipoprotein C-III 3238C>G polymorphism and alcohol consumption on serum triglyceride levels 
Background
Both apolipoprotein (Apo) C-III gene polymorphism and alcohol consumption have been associated with increased serum triglyceride (TG) levels, but their interactions on serum TG levels are not well known. The present study was undertaken to detect the interactions of the ApoC-III 3238C>G (rs5128) polymorphism and alcohol consumption on serum TG levels.
Methods
A total of 516 unrelated nondrinkers and 514 drinkers aged 15-89 were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the ApoC-III 3238C>G was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Interactions of the ApoC-III 3238C>G genotype and alcohol consumption was assessed by using a cross-product term between genotypes and the aforementioned factor.
Results
Serum total cholesterol (TC), TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA-I and ApoB levels were higher in drinkers than in nondrinkers (P < 0.05-0.001). There was no significant difference in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between the two groups. Serum TG levels in nondrinkers were higher in CG genotype than in CC genotype (P < 0.01). Serum TC, TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB levels in drinkers were higher in GG genotype than in CC or CG genotype (P < 0.01 for all). Serum HDL-C levels in drinkers were higher in CG genotype than in CC genotype (P < 0.01). Serum TC, TG, HDL-C and ApoA-I levels in CC genotype, TC, HDL-C, ApoA-I levels and the ratio of ApoA-I to ApoB in CG genotype, and TC, TG, LDL-C, ApoA-I and ApoB levels in GG genotype were higher in drinkers than in nondrinkers (P < 0.05-0.01). But the ratio of ApoA-I to ApoB in GG genotype was lower in drinkers than in nondrinkers (P < 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the levels of TC, TG and ApoB were correlated with genotype in nondrinkers (P < 0.05 for all). The levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB were associated with genotype in drinkers (P < 0.01 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with age, sex, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, blood pressure, body weight, and body mass index in both groups.
Conclusions
This study suggests that the ApoC-III 3238CG heterozygotes benefited more from alcohol consumption than CC and GG homozygotes in increasing serum levels of HDL-C, ApoA-I, and the ratio of ApoA-I to ApoB, and lowering serum levels of TC and TG.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-9-86
PMCID: PMC2929234  PMID: 20716347
8.  The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 gene E670G polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations 
Background
Proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plays a key role in regulating plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. However, the association of E670G (rs505151) polymorphism in the PCSK9 gene and serum lipid levels is inconsistent in several previous studies. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of PCSK9 E670G polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations.
Methods
A total of 649 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 646 participants of Han were randomly selected from our previous samples. Genotypes of the PCSK9 E670G polymorphism were determined via polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing.
Results
Serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C, and apolipoprotein (Apo) AI were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of G allele was 2.00% in Bai Ku Yao and 4.80% in Han (P < 0.01). There was significant difference in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between Bai Ku Yao and Han (P < 0.01); between normal LDL-C (≤ 3.20 mmol/L) and high LDL-C subgroups (> 3.20 mmol/L, P < 0.01) in Bai Ku Yao; and between normal HDL-C (≥ 0.91 mmol/L) and low HDL-C (< 0.91 mmol/L, P < 0.05), between normal ApoAI (≥ 1.00 g/L) and low ApoAI (< 1.00 g/L, P < 0.05), or between normal ApoAI/ApoB ratio (≥ 1.00) and low ApoAI/ApoB ratio (< 1.00, P < 0.01) subgroups in Han. The G allele carriers in Han had higher serum HDL-C levels and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the G allele noncarriers. The G allele carriers in Han had higher serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels than the G allele noncarriers in males (P < 0.05 for each), whereas the G allele carriers had lower serum ApoB levels and higher the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the G allele noncarriers in females (P < 0.05 for all). Serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels in Han were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05) in males, and serum ApoB levels and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB were associated with genotypes (P < 0.05) in females.
Conclusions
The PCSK9 E670G polymorphism is mainly associated with some serum lipid parameters in the Han population. The G allele carriers had higher serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels in males, and lower serum ApoB levels and higher the ApoAI/ApoB ratio in females than the G allele noncarriers.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-10-5
PMCID: PMC3035481  PMID: 21232153
9.  Association of rs2072183 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations 
Background
Niemann-pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) is a key protein for intestinal cholesterol transportation. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NPC1L1 gene have been associated with cholesterol absorption and serum lipid levels. The present study was undertaken to explore the possible association of NPC1L1 rs2072183 1735 C > G SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations.
Methods
Genotyping of the rs2072183 SNP was performed in 688 subjects of Mulao and 738 participants of Han Chinese. The interactions between NPC1L1 1735 C > G polymorphism and several environmental factors on serum lipid phenotypes were tested using the factorial design covariance analysis after controlling for potential confounders.
Results
The frequency of G allele was lower in Mulao than in Han (29.72% vs. 37.26%, P < 0.001). The frequency of CC, CG and GG genotypes was 49.85%, 40.84% and 9.31% in Mulao, and 39.30%, 46.88% and 13.82% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) B and the ratio of ApoAI/ApoB in Han but not in Mulao were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05 for all), the subjects with GG and CG genotypes had higher LDL-C, ApoB levels and lower ApoAI/ApoB ratio than the subjects with CC genotype. Subgroup analysis showed that the G allele carriers in Han had higher total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C and ApoB levels in males (P < 0.05) and lower ApoAI/ApoB ratio in both sexes (P < 0.05) than the G allele noncarriers. The G allele carriers in Mulao had higher TC and LDL-C levels in males (P < 0.05) and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in both sexes (P < 0.05) than the G allele noncarriers. Serum TC, LDL-C, ApoB levels and ApoAI/ApoB ratio were correlated with genotypes in Han males (P < 0.05) but not in females. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors. The genotypes of rs2072183 SNP were interacted with gender or cigarette smoking to influence serum TC and HDL-C levels in Mulao, whereas the genotypes of rs2072183 SNP were interacted with several environmental factors to influence all seven lipid traits in Han (P < 0.05-0.01).
Conclusions
The present study suggests that the rs2072183 SNP in NPC1L1 gene and its association with serum lipid profiles are different between the Mulao and Han populations. The difference in serum lipid profiles between the two ethnic groups might partly result from different rs2072183 SNP or NPC1L1 gene-environmental interactions.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-11-61
PMCID: PMC3422998  PMID: 22646906
10.  Evidence of mechanism how rs7575840 influences apolipoprotein B containing lipid particles 
Objective
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified a variant rs7575840 in the apolipoprotein B (APOB) gene region to be associated with LDL-C. However, the underlying functional mechanism of this variant that resides 6.5 kb upstream of APOB has remained unknown. Our objective was to investigate rs7575840 for association with refined apoB containing lipid particles; for replication in a non-Caucasian Mexican population; and for underlying functional mechanism.
Methods and Results
Our data show that rs7575840 is associated with serum apoB levels (P=4.85×10−10) and apoB containing lipid particles, very small VLDL, IDL and LDL particles (P=2×10−5 - 9×10−7) in the Finnish METSIM study sample (n=7,710). Fine mapping of the APOB region using 43 SNPs replicated the association of rs7575840 with apoB in a Mexican study sample (n=2,666, P=3.33×10−05). Furthermore, our transcript analyses of adipose RNA samples from 175 Finnish METSIM subjects indicate that rs7575840 alters expression of APOB (P=1.13×10−10) and a regional non-coding RNA (BU630349) (P=7.86×10−6) in adipose tissue.
Conclusions
It has been difficult to convert GWAS associations into mechanistic insights. Our data show that rs7575840 is associated with serum apoB levels and apoB containing lipid particles as well as influences expression of APOB and a regional transcript BU630349 in adipose tissue. We thus provide evidence how a common genome-wide significant SNP rs7575840 may affect serum apoB, LDL-C, and TC levels.
doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.111.224139
PMCID: PMC3081410  PMID: 21393584
Apolipoprotein B; association analysis; gene expression; adipose tissue; Mexicans
11.  Interactions of the Apolipoprotein A5 Gene Polymorphisms and Alcohol Consumption on Serum Lipid Levels 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(3):e17954.
Background
Little is known about the interactions of apolipoprotein (Apo) A5 gene polymorphisms and alcohol consumption on serum lipid profiles. The present study was undertaken to detect the interactions of ApoA5–1131T>C, c.553G>T and c.457G>A polymorphisms and alcohol consumption on serum lipid levels.
Methodology/Principal Findings
A total of 516 nondrinkers and 514 drinkers were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA1 and ApoB were higher in drinkers than in nondrinkers (P<0.05–0.001). The genotypic and allelic frequencies of three loci were not different between the two groups. The interactions between –1131T>C genotypes and alcohol consumption on ApoB levels (P<0.05) and the ApoA1/ApoB ratio (P<0.01), between c.553G>T genotypes and alcohol consumption on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels (P<0.05) and the ApoA1/ApoB ratio (P<0.05), and between c.457G>A genotypes and alcohol consumption on TG levels (P<0.001) were detected by factorial regression analysis after controlling for potential confounders. Four haplotypes (T-G-G, C-G-G, T-A-G and C-G-T) had frequencies ranging from 0.06 to 0.87. Three haplotypes (C-G-G, T-A-G, and C-G-T) were significantly associated with serum lipid parameters. The –1131T>C genotypes were correlated with TG, and c.553G>T and c.457G>A genotypes were associated with HDL-C levels in nondrinkers (P<0.05 for all). For drinkers, the –1131T>C genotypes were correlated with TC, TG, LDL-C, ApoB levels and the ApoA1/ApoB ratio (P<0.01 for all); c.553G>T genotypes were correlated with TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C levels (P<0.05–0.01); and c.457G>A genotypes were associated with TG, LDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB levels (P<0.05–0.01).
Conclusions
The differences in some serum lipid parameters between the drinkers and nondrinkers might partly result from different interactions of the ApoA5 gene polymorphisms and alcohol consumption.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017954
PMCID: PMC3056790  PMID: 21423763
12.  Identification of two common variants contributing to serum apolipoprotein B levels in Mexicans 
Background
Although the Mexican population has a high predisposition to dyslipidemias and premature coronary artery disease, this population is underinvestigated for the genetic factors conferring the high susceptibility.
Methods and Results
First, we investigated apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels in Mexican extended families with familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) using a two-step testing strategy. In the screening step, we screened 5,721 SNPs for linkage signals with apoB. In the test step, we analyzed the 130 SNPs residing in regions of suggestive linkage signals for association with apoB. We identified significant associations with two SNPs, rs1424032 (P=6.07×10−6) and rs1349411 (P=2.72×10−4), that surpassed the significance level for the number of tests performed in the test step (P<3.84×10−4). Second, these SNPs were tested for replication in Mexican hyperlipidemic cases-control samples. The same risk alleles as in the FCHL families were significantly associated (P<0.05) with apoB in the case-control samples. The rs1349411 resides near the apoB mRNA editing enzyme (APOBEC1) involved in the processing of APOB mRNA in the small intestine. The rs1424032 resides in a highly conserved non-coding region predicted to function as a regulatory element.
Conclusions
We identified two novel variants, rs1349411 and rs1424032, for serum apoB levels in Mexicans.
doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.109.196402
PMCID: PMC2809779  PMID: 19965785
association; lipids; apolipoproteins; cardiovascular disease and Mexican population
13.  Apolipoprotein Gene Polymorphisms (APOB, APOC111, APOE) in the Development of Coronary Heart Disease in Ethnic Groups of Kazakhstan 
Background
Previous Analysis of polymorphism of genes associated with the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) reveals that the frequency distribution of genotypes and alleles depends on the ethnic characteristics of the populations under study. Further impetus is derived from the well -established links between alcoholism (high prevalence in Kazakhstan region) and cardiovascular disorders.
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to examine a number of apolipoprotein gene polymorphisms and correlate these alleles with changes of lipid profile in CHD patients of Kazakh and Uyghur nationalities.
Methods
Four-Hundred Forty Eight (448) males of Kazakh and Uyghur nationalities residing in Kazakhstan were evaluated and genotyped. The age range of these subjects was 30–55 years which included both afflicted and controls. Specifically, 161- Kazakhs suffered from myocardial infarction compared to 112 health controls; 80- Uyghurs suffered from CHD compared to 95 health controls. Blood lipid profiles were examined in the total cohort. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using oligonucleotide primers identifying; ApoB; ApoC111; and APOE gene polymorphisms.
Results
Initial screening revealed a significant inter-ethnic difference on the frequency of alleles associated with both the ApoB and APOE genes. We found that the X1 ApoB gene polymorphism is overrepresented in healthy Kazakhs relative to Uyghurs [86.4% in Kazakhs vs. 69.4% in Uyghurs]. Moreover, we found that the E4APOE allele was also overrepresented in healthy Kazakhs relative to Uyghurs [16.8% in Kazakhs vs. 9.5% in Uyghurs]. There was a significant relationship of polymorphisms of APOE such as ApoB and ApoC 111 with the value of lipid indices in Kazakhs. Additionally, we found that the E4 allele of the APOE gene also correlated with the value of lipid indices in Kazakhs. Further evaluation showed that the X2 allele of the ApoB and the S2 allele of the ApoCIII gene significantly associated with the lipid indices of Uyghurs.
Conclusion
This systematic investigation confirms the association of various alleles of Apolipoprotein gene polymorphisms and contribution to aberrant lipid metabolism. Putatively at least in our population we are proposing that certain gene polymorphisms of Apolipoprotein genes such as ApoB; ApoC111; APOE ; X2 of ApoB; and S2 of ApoCIII differentially represented in either Kazakhs or Uyghurs are genetic markers of hypertriglyceridemia.
doi:10.4172/2157-7412.100021610.4172/2157-7412.1000216
PMCID: PMC3998840  PMID: 24772377
Molecular Genetics; Hypertriglyceridemia; Coronary Heart Disease (CHD; Apolipoprotein Gene Polymorphisms (APOB, APOC111, APOE); Kazakhs or Uyghurs
14.  Association of the GALNT2 gene polymorphisms and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations 
Background
The association of UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 gene (GALNT2) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum lipid profiles in the general population is not well known. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of GALNT2 polymorphisms and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations.
Method
A total of 775 subjects of Mulao nationality and 699 participants of Han nationality were randomly selected from our stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the GALNT2 rs2144300 and rs4846914 SNPs was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing.
Results
There were no significant differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of both SNPs between the two ethnic groups, or between the males and females. The subjects with TT genotype of rs2144300 in Mulao had lower serum triglyceride (TG) levels than the subjects with CC genotype in females (P < 0.01). The participants with CT/TT genotype of rs2144300 in Han had lower TG and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels, and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA1 levels and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB in males; and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB levels in females than the participants with CC genotype (P < 0.05-0.001). The individuals with GA/AA genotype of rs4846914 in Mulao had higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C levels than the individuals with GG genotype in males (P < 0.05 for each). The subjects with AA genotype of rs4846914 in Han had higher LDL-C and ApoB levels, and lower HDL-C levels and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB than the subjects with GG genotype (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of TC in Mulao were correlated with the genotypes of rs4846914 in males (P < 0.05). The levels of ApoA1 in Han were correlated with the genotypes of both SNPs, and the levels of HDL-C and ApoB and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB were associated with the genotypes of rs2144300 in males (P < 0.05-0.001). The levels of LDL-C in Han were correlated with the genotypes of rs4846914 in females (P < 0.05). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several enviromental factors.
Conclusions
The associations of both GALNT2 rs2144300 and rs4846914 SNPs and serum lipid levels are different in the Mulao and Han populations. These discrepancies might partly result from different GALNT2 gene-enviromental interactions.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-10-160
PMCID: PMC3196710  PMID: 21933382
15.  The joint effects of apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A1, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol on risk: 3510 cases of acute myocardial infarction and 9805 controls† 
European Heart Journal  2009;30(17):2137-2146.
Aims
Plasma levels of apolipoprotein B (apoB), the main surface protein on LDL particles, and LDL-C, the amount of cholesterol in those particles, are closely correlated and, considered separately, are positive risk factors. Plasma levels of apolipoprotein A1, the main surface protein on HDL particles, and HDL-C, the amount of cholesterol in those particles, are also closely correlated with each other and, considered separately, are negative risk factors. The interdependence of these four risk factors is unclear.
Methods and results
Case–control study among 3510 acute myocardial infarction patients (without prior vascular disease, diabetes, or statin use) in UK hospitals and 9805 controls. Relative risks (age, sex, smoking, and obesity-adjusted) were more strongly related to apoB than to LDL-C and, given apoB, more strongly negatively related to apoA1 than to HDL-C. The ratio apoB/apoA1 was uncorrelated with time since symptom onset in cases, was reproducible in samples collected a few years apart in controls (correlation 0.81), and encapsulated almost all the predictive power of these four measurements. Its effect was continuous, substantial throughout the UK normal range [relative risk, top vs. bottom decile of this ratio, 7.3 (95% CI 5.8–9.2)] and varied little with age. The ratio apoB/apoA1 was substantially more informative about risk (χ12 = 550) than were commonly used measures such as LDL-C/HDL-C, total/HDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol (χ12 = 407, 334, 204, and 105, respectively). Given apoB and apoA1, the relationship with risk of LDL-C was reversed, and this reversal was strengthened by appropriate allowance for random measurement errors in two correlated variables. Given usual apoB, lower LDL-C (consistent with smaller LDL particles) was associated with higher risk (P < 0.0001). During the first 8 h after symptom onset HDL-C increased by about 10%, precluding reliable assessment of the joint relationship of apoA1 and pre-onset HDL-C with risk in such retrospective case–control studies.
Conclusion
Apolipoprotein ratios are more informative about risk than lipid fractions are. This suggests that, among lipoprotein particles of a particular type (LDL or HDL), some smaller and larger subtypes differ in their effects on risk. Direct measurements of even more specific subtypes of lipoprotein particles may be even more informative about risk.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehp221
PMCID: PMC2735728  PMID: 19520708
Myocardial infarction; Lipoproteins; Lipids; Cholesterol; Risk factors
16.  Effect of the 3'APOB-VNTR polymorphism on the lipid profiles in the Guangxi Hei Yi Zhuang and Han populations 
BMC Medical Genetics  2007;8:45.
Background
Apolipoprotein (Apo) B is the major component of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and chylomicrons. Many genetic polymorphisms of the Apo B have been described, associated with variation of lipid levels. However, very few studies have evaluated the effect of the variable number of tandem repeats region 3' of the Apo B gene (3'APOB-VNTR) polymorphism on the lipid profiles in the special minority subgroups in China. Thus, the present study was undertaken to study the effect of the 3'APOB-VNTR polymorphism on the serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Hei Yi Zhuang and Han populations.
Methods
A total of 548 people of Hei Yi Zhuang were surveyed by a stratified randomized cluster sampling. The epidemiological survey was performed using internationally standardized methods. Serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels were measured. The 3'APOB-VNTR alleles were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels, and classified according to the number of repeats of a 15-bp hypervariable elements (HVE). The sequence of the most common allele was determined using the PCR and direct sequencing. The possible association between alleles of the 3'APOB-VNTR and lipid variables was examined. The results were compared with those in 496 people of Han who also live in that district.
Results
Nineteen alleles ranging from 24 to 64 repeats were detected in both Hei Yi Zhuang and Han. HVE56 and HVE58 were not be detected in Hei Yi Zhuang whereas HVE48 and HVE62 were totally absent in Han. The frequencies of HVE26, HVE30, HVE46, heterozygote, and short alleles (< 38 repeats) were higher in Hei Yi Zhuang than in Han. But the frequencies of HVE34, HVE38, HVE40, homozygote, and long alleles (≥ 38 repeats) were lower in Hei Yi Zhuang than in Han (P < 0.05–0.01). The levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and Apo B in Hei Yi Zhuang but not in Han were higher in VNTR-LS (carrier of one long and one short alleles) than in VNTR-LL (the individual carrying two long alleles) genotypes. The levels of TC, triglycerides (TG), LDL cholesterol, and Apo B in Hei Yi Zhuang were higher in both HVE34 and HVE36 alleles than in HVE32 allele. The levels of TC, TG, HDL-C and Apo B in Hei Yi Zhuang were also higher in homozygotes than in heterozygotes. There were no significant differences in the detected lipid parameters between the VNTR-SS (carrier of two short alleles) and VNTR-LS or VNTR-LL genotypes in both ethnic groups.
Conclusion
There were significant differences of the 3'APOB-VNTR polymorphism between the Hei Yi Zhuang and Han populations. An association between the 3'APOB-VNTR polymorphism and serum lipid levels was observed in the Hei Yi Zhuang but not in the Han populations.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-8-45
PMCID: PMC1939985  PMID: 17640344
17.  Links between cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: serum lipids or atherosclerosis per se? 
Osteoporosis International  2006;18(4):505-512.
Introduction and hypothesis
Epidemiological observations suggest links between osteoporosis and risk of acute cardiovascular events and vice versa. Whether the two clinical conditions are linked by common pathogenic factors or atherosclerosis per se remains incompletely understood. We investigated whether serum lipids and polymorphism in the ApoE gene modifying serum lipids could be a biological linkage.
Methods
This was an observational study including 1176 elderly women 60–85 years old. Women were genotyped for epsilon (ɛ) allelic variants of the ApoE gene, and data concerning serum lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C, LDL-C, apoA1, ApoB, Lp(a)), hip and spine BMD, aorta calcification (AC), radiographic vertebral fracture and self-reported wrist and hip fractures, cardiovascular events together with a wide array of demographic and lifestyle characteristics were collected.
Results
Presence of the ApoE ɛ4 allele had a significant impact on serum lipid profile, yet no association with spine/hip BMD or AC could be established. In multiple regression models, apoA1 was a significant independent contributor to the variation in AC. However, none of the lipid components were independent contributors to the variation in spine or hip BMD. When comparing the women with or without vertebral fractures, serum triglycerides showed significant differences. This finding was however not applicable to hip or wrist fractures. After adjustment for age, severe AC score (≥6) and/or manifest cardiovascular disease increased the risk of hip but not vertebral or wrist fractures.
Conclusion
The contribution of serum lipids to the modulators of BMD does not seem to be direct but rather indirect via promotion of atherosclerosis, which in turn can affect bone metabolism locally, especially when skeletal sites supplied by end-arteries are concerned. Further studies are needed to explore the genetic or environmental risk factors underlying the association of low triglyceride levels to vertebral fractures.
doi:10.1007/s00198-006-0255-2
PMCID: PMC1820757  PMID: 17109061
Aorta calcification; ApoE polymorphism; Cardiovascular events; Lipids; Osteoporosis
18.  Association of the KLF14 rs4731702 SNP and Serum Lipid Levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han Populations 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:231515.
The objective of the present study was to detect the association of the rs4731702 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. A total of 727 subjects of Mulao and 740 subjects of Han Chinese were included. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels were higher in Mulao than in Han (P < 0.05). The T allele carriers had higher serum LDL-C and ApoAI levels in Mulao, whereas they had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Han (P < 0.05) than the T allele noncarriers. Subgroup analyses showed that the T allele carriers had higher HDL-C, LDL-C, and ApoAI levels in Mulao males and lower ApoAI levels and ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Han males than the T allele noncarriers. The subjects with TT genotype in Han females also had higher total cholesterol, LDL-C, ApoAI, and ApoB levels than the subjects with CT or CC genotype. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups. The differences in the association of KLF14 rs4731702 SNP and serum lipid levels between the two ethnic groups might partly result from different gene-environmental interactions.
doi:10.1155/2013/231515
PMCID: PMC3806325  PMID: 24195066
19.  Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations 
Background
The association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels is inconsistent in several previous studies. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of PPARD +294T > C (rs2016520) polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations.
Methods
A total of 609 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 573 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the PPARD +294T > C polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing.
Results
The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.001 for all). The frequency of T and C alleles was 77.50% and 22.50% in Bai Ku Yao, and 72.43% and 27.57% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. The frequency of TT, TC and CC genotypes was 60.59%, 33.83% and 5.53% in Bai Ku Yao, and 52.18%, 40.50% and 7.32% in Han (P < 0.05); respectively. The subjects with CC genotype in Bai Ku Yao had higher serum LDL-C and ApoB levels and lower the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the subjects with TT and TC genotypes in females but not in males. The C allele carriers in Han had higher serum TC levels in males (P < 0.01) and ApoB levels in females (P < 0.05) than the C allele noncarriers. Serum TC and ApoB levels were correlated with genotypes in Han (P < 0.05 for each) but not in Bai Ku Yao. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups.
Conclusions
These results suggest that the association of PPARD +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels is different between the Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. The discrepancy between the two ethnic groups might partly result from different PPARD +294T > C polymorphism or PPARD gene-enviromental interactions.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-9-145
PMCID: PMC3017528  PMID: 21176135
20.  Association of the rs7395662 SNP in the MADD-FOLH1 and Several Environmental Factors with Serum Lipid Levels in the Mulao and Han Populations 
Background: The rs7395662 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MADD-FOLH1 has been associated with serum lipid traits, but the results are inconsistent in different populations. The present study was undertaken to investigate the association of rs7395662 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations.
Method: A total of 721 subjects of Mulao and 727 subjects of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized samples. Genotyping of the SNP was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and confirmed by direct sequencing.
Results: Serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels were higher in Mulao than in Han (P < 0.01). The allelic and genotypic frequencies in Han were different between males and females (P < 0.05 for each), but there was no difference between Mulao and Han or between Mulao males and females. The levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB in Mulao females were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05), the G allele carriers had higher LDL-C and ApoB levels than the G allele non-carriers. The levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), LDL-C and ApoB in Han males and TC, TG and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in Han females were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05-0.01), the subjects with GG genotype in Han males had higher TC, TG, and ApoB and lower LDL-C levels than the subjects with AA or AG genotype, and the G allele carriers in Han females had lower TC and HDL-C levels than the G allele non-carriers. The levels of LDL-C and ApoB in Mulao females were correlated with the genotypes (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of HDL-C and ApoAI in Han males and HDL-C in Han females were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05-0.01).
Conclusion: The association of rs7395662 SNP and serum lipid levels is different between the Mulao and Han populations, and between males and females in both ethnic groups.
doi:10.7150/ijms.6421
PMCID: PMC3775112  PMID: 24046529
environmental factors; MADD-FOLH1; lipid profiles; single nucleotide polymorphism.
21.  Clinical Impact of Non-High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol and Apolipoprotein B on Clinical Outcomes in Metabolic Syndrome Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention 
Korean Circulation Journal  2012;42(5):319-328.
Background and Objectives
Non-high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) are markers of atherosclerotic risk and predictors of cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical impact of non-HDL-C and ApoB on clinical outcomes in metabolic syndrome (MS) patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percuatneous coronary intervetion.
Subjects and Methods
We analyzed 470 MS patients (64.4±12.0 years, 53.6% male) with AMI who were followed-up for 12-month after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) from December 2005 to January 2008 in a single center. These patients were divided into 2 groups based on median values of non-HDL-C and ApoB. We studied their baseline and follow-up relation with 12-month clinical outcomes, all-cause death and major adverse cardiac events (MACE).
Results
Mean values of baseline non-HDL-C and ApoB were 141.2±43.1 mg/dL and 99.3±29.0 mg/dL respectively. During 12-month follow-up 32 MACE (6.8%) and 12 deaths (2.5%) occurred. We observed significant correlation between non-HDL-C and ApoB. Twelve-month MACE and all-cause death after PCI showed no significant relation as non-HDL-C or ApoB levels increased. Follow-up patients (n=306, rate 65%) also did not show significant relation with clinical outcomes. Twelve-month MACE decreased as non-HDL-C and ApoB reduction rates increased.
Conclusion
There was no significant association between higher non-HDL-C or ApoB and 12-month clinical outcomes in MS patients with AMI undergoing PCI. ApoB was found to be a better predictor of 12-month MACE than non-HDL-C based on their reduction rates.
doi:10.4070/kcj.2012.42.5.319
PMCID: PMC3369963  PMID: 22701134
Myocardial infarction; Metabolic syndrome; Cholesterol; Apolipoproteins B
22.  Plasma Apolipoprotein Levels Are Associated with Cognitive Status and Decline in a Community Cohort of Older Individuals 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(6):e34078.
Objectives
Apolipoproteins have recently been implicated in the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In particular, Apolipoprotein J (ApoJ or clusterin) has been proposed as a biomarker of the disease at the pre-dementia stage. We examined a group of apolipoproteins, including ApoA1, ApoA2, ApoB, ApoC3, ApoE, ApoH and ApoJ, in the plasma of a longitudinal community based cohort.
Methods
664 subjects (257 with Mild Cognitive Impairment [MCI] and 407 with normal cognition), mean age 78 years, from the Sydney Memory and Aging Study (MAS) were followed up over two years. Plasma apolipoprotein levels at baseline (Wave 1) were measured using a multiplex bead fluorescence immunoassay technique.
Results
At Wave 1, MCI subjects had lower levels of ApoA1, ApoA2 and ApoH, and higher levels of ApoE and ApoJ, and a higher ApoB/ApoA1 ratio. Carriers of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele had significantly lower levels of plasma ApoE, ApoC3 and ApoH and a significantly higher level of ApoB. Global cognitive scores were correlated positively with ApoH and negatively with ApoJ levels. ApoJ and ApoE levels were correlated negatively with grey matter volume and positively with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume on MRI. Lower ApoA1, ApoA2 and ApoH levels, and higher ApoB/ApoA1 ratio, increased the risk of cognitive decline over two years in cognitively normal individuals. ApoA1 was the most significant predictor of decline. These associations remained after statistically controlling for lipid profile. Higher ApoJ levels predicted white matter atrophy over two years.
Conclusions
Elderly individuals with MCI have abnormal apolipoprotein levels, which are related to cognitive function and volumetric MRI measures cross-sectionally and are predictive of cognitive impairment in cognitively normal subjects. ApoA1, ApoH and ApoJ are potential plasma biomarkers of cognitive decline in non-demented elderly individuals.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034078
PMCID: PMC3372509  PMID: 22701550
23.  Association of the ST3GAL4 rs11220462 polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations 
Background
A previous genome-wide association study has displayed the association of the ST3 beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialytransferase 4 (ST3GAL4) gene variant and lipid traits in the individuals of European ancestry, but the reproducibility of this association has not been detected in the Chinese population. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of ST3GAL4 rs11220462 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and several environmental factors with serum lipid profiles in the Mulao and Han populations.
Methods
A total of 700 unrelated individuals of Mulao nationality and 694 subjects of Han nationality were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized samples. Genotypes of the SNP were determined via polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism in combination with gel electrophoresis, and then verified by direct sequencing.
Results
Serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels were higher and the ApoAI/ApoB ratio was lower in Mulao than in Han (P < 0.05-0.01). There were no significant differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of the ST3GAL4 rs11220462 SNP between the two ethnic groups or between males and females. The A allele carriers in both Mulao males and females had higher total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and ApoB levels than the A allele non-carriers (P < 0.05-0.01). The subjects with AA genotype in Han males but not in females had higher TC and triglyceride (TG) levels than the subjects with AG or GG genotype (P < 0.01 for each). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB in Mulao females; TC and LDL-C in Mulao males; and TC in Han males were correlated with the genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also associated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05 -0.001).
Conclusions
The association of ST3GAL4 rs11220462 SNP and serum lipid levels was different between the Mulao and Han populations, suggesting that there may be a racial/ethnic-specific association, and/or sex-specific association between the ST3GAL4 rs11220462 SNP and serum lipid parameters in some ethnic groups.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-13-123
PMCID: PMC4237880  PMID: 25086711
Lipids; ST3 beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialytransferase 4; Single nucleotide polymorphism; Environmental factors
24.  Genetic association of APOB polymorphisms with variation in serum lipid profile among the Kuwait population 
Background
Several studies have identified APOB as a candidate gene predisposing individuals to dyslipidemia. Polymorphisms including the signal peptide (rs11279109), codon 2488 XbaI (rs1042031), codon 3611 MspI (rs693), codon 4154 EcoRI (rs1801701) and the 3’ variable number of tandem repeats have been reported to be associated with dyslipidemia in several populations. With limited studies on Arabs, this study aimed to investigate the genetic association of APOB polymorphisms and assess the potential influence of minor and rare alleles on serum lipid levels in the Kuwaiti population.
Methods
A total of 795 Kuwaiti subjects, documented with phenotypic data and fasting serum lipid levels, were genotyped for the five polymorphisms using PCR, PCR-RFLP and gene fragment analysis. Genotype and allele association with variation in serum lipid levels as well as haplotypes were analyzed using chi-square test, univariate and logistic regression analysis.
Results
Analysis of the genotype and allele frequencies distribution revealed a significant positive association between the APOB signal peptide and 3611 MspI polymorphisms with increased levels of triglycerides (statistical power of 80%). Haplotype analysis further supported the findings by showing that carriers of haplotypes (IX−M−E+M) had significantly lower mean (SD) TG levels (0.86 ± 0.07) as compared to non-carriers (1.01 ± 0.02). Significance was also observed with regards to positive family history of hypercholesterolemia.
Conclusion
The results imply a “protective role” for two alleles (rs11279109 and rs1801701) in which logistic regression analysis showed a significant half–fold decrease in the risk for heterozygotes of rs11279109 and an 8.8 fold decrease in the risk for homozygous M−M− of rs1801701 of having lower TG levels (<1.70 mmol/L) in individuals. This suggests that genetic interaction between various polymorphisms at different gene loci act in linkage disequilibrium to affect serum TG levels. Apo B genotyping may be a useful adjunct for the identification of individuals at risk of developing dyslipidemia in order to provide them with lifestyle modifications and/or pharmacological intervention to mitigate the effects of gene interaction and environmental influence.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1476-511X-13-157) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-13-157
PMCID: PMC4201729  PMID: 25292352
APOB; SNPs; VNTR; Genetic polymorphisms; Dyslipidemia; Genetic association; Arab; Kuwait
25.  Genetic variant of V825I in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 gene and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations 
Background
Several genetic variants in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) gene have associated with modifications of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and the susceptibility for coronary heart disease, but the findings are still controversial in diverse racial/ethnic groups. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in southern China. The present study was undertaken to detect the possible association of V825I (rs2066715) polymorphism in the ABCA1 gene and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations.
Methods
A total of 677 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 646 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism assay combined with gel electrophoresis were performed for the genotyping of V825I variant, and then confirmed by direct sequencing.
Results
The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of G and A alleles was 57.4% and 42.6% in Bai Ku Yao, and 57.7% and 42.3% in Han (P > 0.05); respectively. The frequency of GG, GA and AA genotypes was 33.7%, 47.4% and 18.9% in Bai Ku Yao, and 33.4%, 48.6% and 18.0% in Han (P > 0.05); respectively. There was no difference in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between males and females in the both ethnic groups. The subjects with AA genotype in Bai Ku Yao had higher serum TC levels than the subjects with GG and GA genotypes (P < 0.05). The participants with AA genotype in Han had lower serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels than the participants with GG and GA genotypes (P < 0.05 for each), but these results were found in males but not in females. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that the levels of TC in Bai Ku Yao and HDL-C and ApoAI in male Han were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05-0.001).
Conclusion
The present study suggests that the V825I polymorphism in the ABCA1 gene is associated with male serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels in the Han, and serum TC levels in the Bai Ku Yao populations. The difference in the association of V825I polymorphism and serum lipid levels between the two ethnic groups might partly result from different ABCA1 gene-enviromental interactions.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-10-14
PMCID: PMC3034691  PMID: 21247457

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