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1.  Gender Disparities in the Presentation, Management and Outcomes of Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: Data from the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2) 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e55508.
Background
Gender-related differences in mortality of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have been reported. The extent and causes of these differences in the Middle-East are poorly understood. We studied to what extent difference in outcome, specifically 1-year mortality are attributable to demographic, baseline clinical differences at presentation, and management differences between female and male patients.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Baseline characteristics, treatment patterns, and 1-year mortality of 7390 ACS patients in 65 hospitals in 6 Arabian Gulf countries were evaluated during 2008–2009, as part of the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2). Women were older (61.3±11.8 vs. 55.6±12.4; P<0.001), more overweight (BMI: 28.1±6.6 vs. 26.7±5.1; P<0.001), and more likely to have a history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia or diabetes. Fewer women than men received angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE), aspirin, clopidogrel, beta blockers or statins at discharge. They also underwent fewer invasive procedures including angiography (27.0% vs. 34.0%; P<0.001), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (10.5% vs. 15.6%; P<0.001) and reperfusion therapy (6.9% vs. 20.2%; P<0.001) than men. Women were at higher unadjusted risk for in-hospital death (6.8% vs. 4.0%, P<0.001) and heart failure (HF) (18% vs. 11.8%, P<0.001). Both 1-month and 1-year mortality rates were higher in women than men (11% vs. 7.4% and 17.3% vs. 11.4%, respectively, P<0.001). Both baseline and management differences contributed to a worse outcome in women. Together these variables explained almost all mortality disparities.
Conclusions/Significance
Differences between genders in mortality appeared to be largely explained by differences in prognostic variables and management patterns. However, the origin of the latter differences need further study.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055508
PMCID: PMC3566183  PMID: 23405162
2.  Characteristics and in-hospital outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes and heart failure in the United Arab Emirates 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:534.
Background
Heart failure (HF) is a serious complication of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), and is associated with high in-hospital mortality and poor long-term survival. The aims of this study were to describe the clinical characteristics, management and in-hospital outcomes of coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with HF in the United Arab Emirates.
Findings
The study was selected from the Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE), a prospective multi-national, multicenter registry of patients hospitalized with ACS in six Middle East countries. The present analysis was focused on participants admitted to various hospitals in the UAE with a diagnosis of ACS in 2007 and were analyzed in terms of HF (Killip class II/III and IV) on admission. Of 1691 patients (mean age: 52.6 ± 11.7 years; 210 Females, 1481 Males) with ACS, 356 (21%) had an admission diagnosis of HF (Killip class II/III and IV). HF patients were less frequently males (19.2% vs. 34.3%; P < 0.001). HF was more frequently associated with hypertension (64.3% vs. 43.9%; P < 0.001), hyperlipidemia (49.4% vs. 31.8%; P < 0.001) and diabetes mellitus (DM) (51.1% vs. 36.2%; P < 0.001). HF was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality (OR = 11.821; 95% CI: 5.385-25.948; P < 0.001). In multivariate logistic regression, age, hyperlipidemia, heart rate and DM were associated with higher in-hospital HF.
Conclusions
HF is observed in about 1 in 5 patients with ACS in the UAE and is associated with a significant increase in in-hospital mortality and other adverse outcomes.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-534
PMCID: PMC3527184  PMID: 23014157
Heart failure; Acute coronary syndrome; United Arab Emirates
3.  Clinical Profile and Mortality of ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Receiving Thrombolytic Therapy in the Middle East 
Objective:
Little is known about thrombolytic therapy patterns in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in the Middle East. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical profile and mortality of STEMI patients who arrived in hospital within 12 hours from pain onset and received thrombolytic therapy.
Patients and Methods:
This was a prospective, multinational, multi-centre, observational survey of consecutive acute coronary syndrome patients admitted to 65 hospitals in six Middle Eastern countries during the period between October 2008 and June 2009, as part of Gulf RACE-II (Registry of Acute Coronary Events). Analyses were performed using univariate statistics.
Results:
Out of 2,465 STEMI patients, 66% (n = 1,586) were thrombolysed with namely: streptokinase (43%), reteplase (44%), tenecteplase (10%), and alteplase (3%). 22.7% received no reperfusion. Median age of the study cohort was 50 (45-59) years with majority being males (91%). The overall median symptom onset-to-presentation and door-to-needle times were 165 (95- 272) minutes and 38 (24-60) minutes, respectively. Generally, patients presenting with higher GRACE risk scores were treated with newer thrombolytic agents (reteplase and tenecteplase) (P < 0.001). The use of newer thrombolytic agents was associated with a significantly lower mortality at both 1-month (0.8% vs. 1.7% vs. 4.2%; P = 0.014) and 1-year (0% vs. 1.7% vs. 3.4%; P = 0.044) compared to streptokinase use.
Conclusions:
Majority of STEMI patients from the Middle East were thrombolysed with streptokinase and reteplase in equal numbers. Nearly one-fifth of patients did not receive any reperfusion therapy. There was inappropriately long symptom-onset to hospital presentation as well as door-to-needle times. Use of newer thrombolytic agents in high risk patients was appropriate. Newer thrombolytic agents were associated with significantly lower mortality at 1-month and 1-year compared to the older agent, streptokinase.
doi:10.4103/1995-705X.99224
PMCID: PMC3424777  PMID: 22919446
Acute coronary syndrome; GRACE score; Middle East; mortality; reteplase; STEMI; streptokinase; tenecteplase; thrombolytic therapy
4.  Prevalence, Predictors, and Impact of Low High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol on in-Hospital Outcomes Among Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients in the Middle East 
Objective:
To estimate the prevalence, predictors, and impact of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on in-hospital outcomes among acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients in the Middle East.
Methods:
Data were collected prospectively from 6,266 consecutive patients admitted with a diagnosis of ACS and enrolled in the Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE). A low HDL-C was defined as a level <40 mg/Dl (1.0 mmol/L) for males and <50 mg/dL (1.3 mmol/L) for females. Analyses were performed using univariate and multivariate statistical techniques.
Results:
The overall mean age of the cohort was 56±12 years and majority were males (77%). The overall prevalence of low HDL-C was 62%. During in-hospital stay and at discharge, the majority were on statin therapy (83%) while 10% were on other cholesterol lowering agents. After adjustment of demographic and clinical characteristics, the predictors for low HDL-C were higher body mass index (BMI), prior myocardial infarction (MI), diabetes mellitus, smoking and impaired renal function. Multivariable adjustment revealed that low HDL-C was associated with higher in-hospital mortality (odds ratio (OR), 1.54; 95% CI: 1.06-2.24; p=0.022) and cardiogenic shock (OR, 1.61; 95% CI: 1.20-2.14; p=0.001).
Conclusions:
ACS patients in the Middle East have a high prevalence of low HDL-C. Higher BMI, prior MI, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and impaired renal function were predictors of low HDL-C. Significantly higher in-hospital mortality and cardiogenic shock were associated with low HDL-C in men but not in women.
doi:10.2174/1874192401105010203
PMCID: PMC3178900  PMID: 21966331
High density lipoprotein cholesterol; low density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides; acute coronary syndrome; myocardial infarction; gender; Middle East.
5.  Age and clinical outcomes in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes☆ 
Context
Elderly patients have more cardiovascular risk factors and a greater burden of ischemic disease than younger patients.
Aims
To examine the impact of age on clinical presentation and outcomes in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Methods and material
Collected data from the 2nd Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2), which is a prospective multicenter study from six adjacent Arab Middle Eastern Gulf countries. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their age: ≤50 years, 51–70 years and >70 years and their clinical characteristics and outcomes were analyzed. Mortality was assessed at one and 12 months.
Statistical analysis used
One-way ANOVA test for continuous variables, Pearson chi-square (X2) test for categorical variables and multivariate logistic regression analysis for predictors were performed.
Results
Among 7930 consecutive ACS patients; 2755 (35%) were ≤50 years, 4110 (52%) were 51–70 years and 1065 (13%) >70 years old. The proportion of women increased with increasing age (13% among patients ≤50 years to 31% among patients > 70 years). The risk factor pattern varied with age; younger patients were more often obese, smokers and had a positive family history of CAD, whereas older patients more likely to have diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Advancing age was associated with under-treatment evidence-based therapies. Multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for relevant covariates showed that old age was independent predictors for re-ischemia (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.03–1.60), heart failure (OR 2.8; 95% CI 2.17–3.52) and major bleeding (OR 4.02; 95% CI 1.37–11.77) and in-hospital mortality (age 51–70: OR 2.67; 95% CI 1.86–3.85, and age >70: OR 4.71; 95% CI 3.11–7.14).
Conclusion
Despite being higher risk group, elderly are less likely to receive evidence-based therapies and had worse outcomes. Guidelines adherence is highly recommended in elderly.
doi:10.1016/j.jcdr.2012.08.005
PMCID: PMC3770118  PMID: 24027372
Acute coronary syndrome; Age; Elderly
6.  Acute Coronary Syndrome in Young Adults from Oman: Results from the Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events 
Objective:
To assess the prevalence, risk factors, presenting features, and in-hospital outcomes of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients ≤40 years of age from Oman.
Methods:
Data were analyzed from 1579 consecutive ACS patients from Oman during May, 2006 to June, 2007, as part of Gulf RACE (Registry of Acute Coronary Events). ACS patients ≤40 years of age were compared with patients >40 years of age.
Results:
A total of 121 (7.6%) patients were ≤40 years of age with mean age of 36 ± 4 vs. 61 ± 11 years in young and old adults, respectively (P<0.001). More men were seen in the younger age group (81 vs. 60%; P<0.001). Among all the coronary risk factors, young patients had more history of smoking (47 vs. 15%; P<0.001), obesity (72 vs. 58%; P = 0.009), and family history of coronary artery disease (CAD) (16 vs. 7%; P = 0.001). Both groups received aspirin, statins, thrombolytic therapy, and anticoagulants equally; however, younger patients received clopidogrel, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, β-blockers, and in-hospital coronary angiogram more. Younger patients experienced less heart failure (6 vs. 27%; P<0.001) and in-hospital mortality, especially among STEMI patients (0 vs. 10%; P = 0.037).
Conclusions:
Young ACS patients from Oman have different risk profile. They were treated more aggressively and their outcome was better, which is similar to other populations. However, smoking, along with obesity and family history of CAD were strong risk factors in the young Omani ACS patients. There is a need for prevention programmes to control smoking and obesity epidemic by targeting young adults in the population.
doi:10.4103/1995-705X.76799
PMCID: PMC3089825  PMID: 21577375
Acute coronary syndrome; Oman; smoking; young adults
7.  Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome and Prior Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in a Large Middle Eastern Cohort 
Background:
Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) can occur in patients with prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). In the Gulf Registry of acute coronary events (Gulf RACE), we identified the clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes of these patients.
Methods:
Clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes for 461 ACS patients with prior CABG are compared to 7715 ACS patients without prior CABG enrolled from 64 hospitals in 6 Gulf countries over a 6-month period.
Results:
The overall incidence of ACS with prior CABG was 5.6% out of 8176 patients. The ACS with prior CABG were older (63 vs 55 years, P<0.0001), had more history of diabetes (62.3 vs 37.6%, P <0.0001), dyslipidemia (70.3 vs 29.5%, P<0.0001), and hypertension (75.7 vs 47.8%, P<0.0001) compared with the non-CABG group. They presented more frequently with dyspnea (14.8 vs 9.5%, P<0.0005), non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (41.4 vs 31.6%, P<0.0001) and echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular dysfunction (49.4 vs 29.8%, P<0.0001) than ACS without prior CABG. They had a complicated in-hospital course with more recurrent ischemia (13.9 vs 9.3%, P=0.0011), heart failure (24.1 vs 15.7%), and stroke (2.2 vs 0.6%) compared with those without CABG. The in-hospital mortality rate was 5.6% in the CABG group compared with 3.5% in the ACS without prior CABG group. After adjusting for confounders, prior CABG was independently associated with recurrent ischemia and shock, more in patients presenting with ST elevation than non-ST elevation ACS.
Conclusions:
Patients with ACS and prior CABG are a high-risk group with poor outcomes irrespective of their older age and comorbidities. They should be identified and treated differently to improve their outcomes.
doi:10.2174/1874192401105010196
PMCID: PMC3170976  PMID: 21915225
Acute Coronary Syndrome; Angioplasty; Comorbidity; Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting; Risk factors; Stroke.
8.  Gender-related differences in the presentation, management, and outcomes among patients with acute coronary syndrome from Oman 
Objective
To assess gender-related differences in the presentation, management, and in-hospital outcomes among acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients from Oman.
Methods
Data were analyzed from 1579 consecutive ACS patients from Oman during May 8, 2006 to June 6, 2006 and January 29, 2007 to June 29, 2007, as part of Gulf RACE (Registry of Acute Coronary Events). Analyses were conducted using univariate and multivariate statistical techniques.
Results
In this study, 608 (39%) patients were women with mean age 62 ± 12 vs. 57 ± 13 years (p < 0.001). More women were seen in the older age groups (age <55 years: 25% vs. 43%, 55–74 years: 60% vs. 49% and >75 years: 15% vs. 8%; p < 0.001). Women had higher frequencies of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, angina, and aspirin use, but less history of smoking. Women were significantly less likely to have ischemic chest pain, ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI and were more likely to have dyspnea, unstable angina, ST depression and left bundle branch block. Both groups received ACS medications and cardiac catheterization equally; however, women received anticoagulants (88% vs. 79%; p < 0.001), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) (70% vs. 65%; p = 0.050) more and clopidogrel less (20% vs. 29%; p < 0.001). Women experienced more recurrent ischemia and heart failure but with similar in-hospital mortality (4.6% vs. 4.3%) even after adjusting for age (p = 0.500).
Conclusions
Women admitted with ACS were older than men, had more risk factors, presented differently with no difference in hospital mortality. This is similar to Gulf RACE study except for mortality. Women received anticoagulants/ACEIs /ARBs more but were under-treated with clopidogrel.
doi:10.1016/j.jsha.2010.09.003
PMCID: PMC3727510  PMID: 23960630
Gender-related differences; Women; Acute coronary syndrome; Oman
9.  Risk factors, quality of care and prognosis in South Asian, East Asian and White patients with stroke 
BMC Neurology  2013;13:74.
Background
Stroke has emerged as a significant and escalating health problem for Asian populations. We compared risk factors, quality of care and risk of death or recurrent stroke in South Asian, East Asian and White patients with acute ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.
Methods
Retrospective analysis was performed on consecutive patients with ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage admitted to 12 stroke centers in Ontario, Canada (July 2003-March 2008) and included in the Registry of the Canadian Stroke Network database. The database was linked to population-based administrative databases to determine one-year risk of death or recurrent stroke.
Results
The study included 253 South Asian, 513 East Asian and 8231 White patients. East Asian patients were more likely to present with intracerebral hemorrhage (30%) compared to South Asian (17%) or White patients (15%) (p<0.001). Time from stroke to hospital arrival was similarly poor with delays >2 hours for more than two thirds of patients in all ethnic groups. Processes of stroke care, including thrombolysis, diagnostic imaging, antithrombotic medications, and rehabilitation services were similar among ethnic groups. Risk of death or recurrent stroke at one year after ischemic stroke was similar for patients who were White (27.6%), East Asian (24.7%, aHR 0.97, 95% CI 0.78-1.21 vs. White), or South Asian (21.9%, aHR 0.91, 95% CI 0.67-1.24 vs. White). Although risk of death or recurrent stroke at one year after intracerebral hemorrhage was higher in East Asian (35.5%) and White patients (47.9%) compared to South Asian patients (30.2%) (p=0.002), these differences disappeared after adjustment for age, sex, stroke severity and comorbid conditions (aHR 0.89 [0.67-1.19] for East Asian vs White and 0.99 [0.54-1.81] for South Asian vs. White).
Conclusion
After stratification by stroke type, stroke care and outcomes are similar across ethnic groups in Ontario. Enhanced health promotion is needed to reduce delays to hospital for all ethnic groups.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-13-74
PMCID: PMC3726470  PMID: 23829874
10.  Infarctions in the vascular territory of the posterior cerebral artery: clinical features in 232 patients 
BMC Research Notes  2011;4:329.
Background
Ischemic stroke caused by infarction in the territory of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) has not been studied as extensively as infarctions in other vascular territories. This single centre, retrospective clinical study was conducted a) to describe salient characteristics of stroke patients with PCA infarction, b) to compare data of these patients with those with ischaemic stroke due to middle cerebral artery (MCA) and anterior cerebral artery (ACA) infarctions, and c) to identify predictors of PCA stroke.
Findings
A total of 232 patients with PCA stroke were included in the "Sagrat Cor Hospital of Barcelona Stroke Registry" during a period of 19 years (1986-2004). Data from stroke patients are entered in the stroke registry following a standardized protocol with 161 items regarding demographics, risk factors, clinical features, laboratory and neuroimaging data, complications and outcome. The characteristics of these 232 patients with PCA stroke were compared with those of the 1355 patients with MCA infarctions and 51 patients with ACA infarctions included in the registry.
Infarctions of the PCA accounted for 6.8% of all cases of stroke (n = 3808) and 9.6% of cerebral infarctions (n = 2704). Lacunar infarction was the most frequent stroke subtype (34.5%) followed by atherothrombotic infarction (29.3%) and cardioembolic infarction (21.6%). In-hospital mortality was 3.9% (n = 9). Forty-five patients (19.4%) were symptom-free at hospital discharge. Hemianopia (odds ratio [OR] = 6.43), lacunar stroke subtype (OR = 2.18), symptom-free at discharge (OR = 1.92), limb weakness (OR = 0.10), speech disorders (OR = 0.33) and cardioembolism (OR = 0.65) were independent variables of PCA stroke in comparison with MCA infarction, whereas sensory deficit (OR = 2.36), limb weakness (OR = 0.11) and cardioembolism as stroke mechanism (OR = 0.43) were independent variables associated with PCA stroke in comparison with ACA infarction.
Conclusions
Lacunar stroke is the main subtype of infarction occurring in the PCA territory. Several clinical features are more frequent in stroke patients with PCA infarction than in patients with ischaemic stroke due to infarction in the MCA and ACA territories. In-hospital mortality in patients with PCA territory is low.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-4-329
PMCID: PMC3180463  PMID: 21899750
11.  Prevalence, Characteristics, and In-Hospital Outcomes of Metabolic Syndrome among Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome in the United Arab Emirates 
Objective:
To evaluate clinical profiles, management and in-hospital outcomes of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Methods:
MetS was defined according to the criteria for its diagnosis by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI). Participants were admitted to various hospitals in the UAE with a diagnosis of ACS in 2007 as part of the Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE) project. We compared baseline characteristics, treatment patterns, and in-hospital outcomes stratified by MetS status.
Results:
Of 1259 patients with ACS in the UAE (mean age: 52 ± 11 years, 88.8% males), the majority (n = 851, 67.6%) had MetS. MetS patients were more frequently males (86.4 vs 13.6%; P < 0.001). They were more obese (waist circumference and BMI, P < 0.001) as compared with non-MetS patients. MetS was more frequently associated with hypertension (51.1 vs 37.7%; P < 0.001) and diabetes mellitus (45.6 vs 24.3%; P < 0.001). After multivariate adjustment, certain MetS criteria rather than MetS itself were associated with higher in-hospital mortality and heart failure. Paradoxically, hypertension was associated with lower in-hospital mortality.
Conclusions:
Prevalence of MetS among patients with ACS in our study population was high. Certain MetS criteria were associated with higher in-hospital mortality and heart failure.
doi:10.2174/1874192401206010081
PMCID: PMC3414714  PMID: 22888374
acute coronary syndrome; Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events; metabolic syndrome; Middle East; obesity; United Arab Emirates.
12.  The prevalence of metabolic syndrome components, individually and in combination, in male patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome, without previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus 
The Libyan Journal of Medicine  2013;8:10.3402/ljm.v8i0.20185.
Background
Mortality from cardiovascular disease in the Middle East is projected to increase substantially in the coming decades. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) continues to raise interest, but data from the Middle East is limited, especially in non-diabetic patients. This study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of MS and frequency of its components, individually and in combination, in a male population presenting with ACS, but without a previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM).
Methods
This is a prospective study of 467 consecutive male patients hospitalized for ACS. They were categorized according to the specific criteria stated in the latest joint statement for the global definition of MS.
Results
The mean age was (49.7±10.7 years). Of the 467 patients, 324 (69.4%) fulfilled the criteria for MS. ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) was identified in 178 patients (54.9%), and non-ST elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS) in 146 patients (45.1%). These proportions were not significantly different from those without MS (STEMI 51.7% vs. NSTE-ACS 48.3%, respectively). However, patients with MS were older (50.6±10 vs. 47.9±11 years; p=0.012), and more than half of those with MS were above 50 years. The most common abnormal metabolic components were reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c; 94.1%), elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG; 89.8%), and elevated triglycerides (81.8%), followed by increased waist circumference (61.7%) and raised blood pressure (40.4%). The majority of patients with MS had three or more metabolic components (326 patients, 69.4%), and 102 (21.8%) had two components, but only 37 (8.4%) had a single component.
Conclusions
In ACS patients, without previous history of DM, MS is highly prevalent. Reduced HDL, elevated FBG and triglycerides were the most frequent metabolic components. The majority had multiple components. These findings raise alarm and show that drug therapy alone may not be fully effective, unless the underlying risk factors causing MS, such as weight and exercise, are also tackled.
doi:10.3402/ljm.v8i0.20185
PMCID: PMC3604448  PMID: 23517754
male; metabolic syndrome; acute coronary syndrome; diabetes mellitus
13.  Clinical study of 35 patients with dysarthria-clumsy hand syndrome 
Objectives: Although dysarthria-clumsy hand syndrome (DCHS) is a well known and infrequent lacunar syndrome, there are few data regarding the spectrum of associated clinical characteristics, anatomical site of lesion, and aetiopathogenetic mechanisms. We report a clinical description of this subtype of lacunar stroke based on data collected from a prospective acute stroke registry.
Methods: From 2500 acute stroke patients included in a hospital based prospective stroke registry over a 12-year period, 35 patients were identified as having DCHS.
Results: DCHS accounted for 1.6% of all acute stroke patients (35/2110), 1.9% of acute ischaemic stroke (35/1840), and 6.1% of lacunar syndromes (35/570) admitted consecutively to a neurology department and included in the stroke registry over this period. The results supported the lacunar hypothesis in 94.3% of patients (n = 33). Atherothrombotic and cardioembolic infarction occurred in only one patient each (2.9%). No patient with DCHS had an intracerebral haemorrhage. Outcome was good (mortality in hospital 0%, symptom free at discharge 45.7%). After multivariate analysis, absence of limitation at discharge, limb weakness but not cerebellar-type ataxia, and internal capsule (40%), pons (17%), and corona radiata (8.6%) location were significantly associated with DCHS.
Conclusions: DCHS is a rare cerebrovascular syndrome, and supports the criteria of the lacunar hypothesis. The majority of patients in this study had internal capsule infarcts. The prognosis is good with striking similarity compared with other types of lacunar strokes. There are important differences between DCHS and non-lacunar strokes. Internal capsule and pons are the most frequent cerebral sites.
PMCID: PMC1738934  PMID: 14742595
14.  Infarction in the territory of the anterior cerebral artery: clinical study of 51 patients 
BMC Neurology  2009;9:30.
Background
Little is known about clinical features and prognosis of patients with ischaemic stroke caused by infarction in the territory of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). This single centre, retrospective study was conducted with the following objectives: a) to describe the clinical characteristics and short-term outcome of stroke patients with ACA infarction as compared with that of patients with ischaemic stroke due to middle cerebral artery (MCA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) infarctions, and b) to identify predictors of ACA stroke.
Methods
Fifty-one patients with ACA stroke were included in the "Sagrat Cor Hospital of Barcelona Stroke Registry" during a period of 19 years (1986–2004). Data from stroke patients are entered in the stroke registry following a standardized protocol with 161 items regarding demographics, risk factors, clinical features, laboratory and neuroimaging data, complications and outcome. The characteristics of these 51 patients with ACA stroke were compared with those of the 1355 patients with MCA infarctions and 232 patients with PCA infarctions included in the registry.
Results
Infarctions of the ACA accounted for 1.3% of all cases of stroke (n = 3808) and 1.8% of cerebral infarctions (n = 2704). Stroke subtypes included cardioembolic infarction in 45.1% of patients, atherothrombotic infarction in 29.4%, lacunar infarct in 11.8%, infarct of unknown cause in 11.8% and infarction of unusual aetiology in 2%. In-hospital mortality was 7.8% (n = 4). Only 5 (9.8%) patients were symptom-free at hospital discharge. Speech disturbances (odds ratio [OR] = 0.48) and altered consciousness (OR = 0.31) were independent variables of ACA stroke in comparison with MCA infarction, whereas limb weakness (OR = 9.11), cardioembolism as stroke mechanism (OR = 2.49) and sensory deficit (OR = 0.35) were independent variables associated with ACA stroke in comparison with PCA infarction.
Conclusion
Cardioembolism is the main cause of brain infarction in the territory of the ACA. Several clinical features are more frequent in stroke patients with ACA infarction than in patients with ischaemic stroke due to infarction in the MCA and PCA territories.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-9-30
PMCID: PMC2714497  PMID: 19589132
15.  Geographic Variation in One-Year Recurrent Ischemic Stroke Rates for Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries in the USA 
Neuroepidemiology  2010;34(2):123-129.
Background
While geographic disparities in stroke mortality are well documented, there are no data describing geographic variation in recurrent stroke. Accordingly, we evaluated geographic variations in 1-year recurrent ischemic stroke rates in the USA with adjustment for patient characteristics.
Methods
One-year recurrent stroke rates for ischemic stroke (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision codes 433, 434 and 436) following hospital discharge were calculated by county for all fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries from 2000 to 2002. The rates were standardized and smoothed using a bayesian conditional autoregressive model that was risk-standardized for patients’ age, gender, race/ethnicity, prior hospitalizations, Deyo comorbidity score, acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, diabetes, hypertension, dementia, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obesity.
Results
The overall 1-year recurrent stroke rate was 9.4% among 895,916 ischemic stroke patients (mean age: 78 years; 56.6% women; 86.6% White, 9.7% Black and 1.2% Latino/Hispanic). The rates varied by geographic region and were highest in the South and in parts of the West and Midwest. Regional variation was present for all racial/ethnic subgroups and persisted after adjustment for individual patient characteristics.
Conclusions
Almost 1 in 10 hospitalized ischemic stroke patients was readmitted for an ischemic stroke within 1 year. There was heterogeneity in recurrence patterns by geographic region. Further work is needed to understand the reasons for this regional variability.
doi:10.1159/000274804
PMCID: PMC2837886  PMID: 20068358
Stroke, recurrent; Small-area analysis; Variation, geographic; Recurrence
16.  Gender differences in presenting and prodromal stroke symptoms 
Background and Purpose
Prompt recognition of stroke symptoms is critical to timely treatment and women have increased delay to treatment. Women may be more likely to present with atypical symptoms, but this hypothesis has not been extensively evaluated.
Methods
We examined gender differences in the prevalence of presenting and prodromal stroke symptoms among 1,107 consecutive patients hospitalized with neurologist-confirmed acute ischemic stroke. Patient demographics, clinical variables, and stroke symptoms were abstracted from medical records by trained abstractors using standardized forms. Estimates were age standardized to the age distribution of men and women combined. Presenting symptoms occurred within 24 hrs of incident stroke admission, prodromal symptoms occurred ≥ 24 hours of admission
Results
Women were significantly older (p<.001), more likely to have cardioembolic stroke (p<.001) and less likely to receive aspirin (p=.014) or statins (p<0.001). 35% of the sample (n=389) reported prodomal symptoms. Women were more likely to have ≥ 1 somatic prodromal and presenting symptom (p=.03; p=0.008), but did not differ from men on specific somatic symptoms. Women did not differ from men in classic presenting stroke symptoms (p=.89)
Conclusion
Women did not differ significantly in the prevalence of traditional stroke symptoms, but were more likely to have somatic presenting and prodromal symptoms. We found no differences in specific prodromal symptoms, making it difficult to craft a public health message about gender differences in early warning signs of stroke. These results suggest that the focus of stroke prevention education for women should continue to emphasize traditional stroke risk factors.
doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.543371
PMCID: PMC2753397  PMID: 19211480
Gender; stroke; symptoms
17.  Metabolic Syndrome and Stroke Recurrence in Chinese Ischemic Stroke Patients – The ACROSS-China Study 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e51406.
Objective
Metabolic syndrome has emerged as a novel risk factor in cardiovascular disease due to its potential for predicting stroke in population-based studies. We investigated the relationship of metabolic syndrome with stroke recurrence.
Methods
This was a retrospective analysis of Chinese patients enrolled in the prospective Abnormal gluCose Regulation in patients with acute strOke acroSS China (ACROSS-China) study after their first ischemic stroke. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Vascular risk factors were assessed. Outcome was defined as recurrence of stroke within one year after the index ischemic stroke. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to identify potential predictors of stroke recurrence.
Results
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among 2639 ischemic stroke patients was 51.35%. During the one-year follow-up, 195 strokes (7.4%) recurred. The multivariate hazard ratio (95% CI) of stroke recurrence was 1.94 (1.39–2.73) for metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for components, metabolic syndrome lost its association with stroke recurrence; in this model, high fasting plasma glucose (IDF definition) was a predictor for stroke recurrence.
Conclusion
Metabolic syndrome may not be predictive for stroke recurrence beyond its component individual factors for Chinese ischemic stroke patients.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051406
PMCID: PMC3515495  PMID: 23227264
18.  Characteristics, Management, and In-Hospital Outcomes of Diabetic Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome in the United Arab Emirates 
The Scientific World Journal  2012;2012:698597.
We describe the baseline characteristics, management, and in-hospital outcomes of patients in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) with DM admitted with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and assess the influence of DM on in-hospital mortality. Data was analyzed from 1697 patients admitted to various hospitals in the UAE with a diagnosis of ACS in 2007 as part of the 1st Gulf RACE (Registry of Acute Coronary Events). Of 1697 patients enrolled, 668 (39.4%) were diabetics. Compared to patients without DM, diabetic patients were more likely to have a past history of coronary artery disease (49.1% versus 30.1%, P < 0.001), hypertension (67.2% versus 36%, P < 0.001), and prior revascularization (21% versus 11.4%, P < 0.001). They experienced more in-hospital recurrent ischemia (8.5% versus 5.1%; P = 0.004) and heart failure (20% versus 10%; P < 0.001). The mortality rate was 2.7% for diabetics and 1.6% for nondiabetics (P = 0.105). After age adjustment, in-hospital mortality increased by 3.5% per year of age (P = 0.016). This mortality was significantly higher in females than in males (P = 0.04). ACS patients with DM have different clinical characteristics and appear to have poorer outcomes.
doi:10.1100/2012/698597
PMCID: PMC3385598  PMID: 22778703
19.  Influence of Acute Complications on Outcome 3 Months after Ischemic Stroke 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e75719.
Background
Early medical complications are potentially modifiable factors influencing in-hospital outcome. We investigated the influence of acute complications on mortality and poor outcome 3 months after ischemic stroke.
Methods
Data were obtained from patients admitted to one of 13 stroke units of the Berlin Stroke Registry (BSR) who participated in a 3-months-follow up between June 2010 and September 2012. We examined the influence of the cumulative number of early in-hospital complications on mortality and poor outcome (death, disability or institutionalization) 3 months after stroke using multivariable logistic regression analyses and calculated attributable fractions to determine the impact of early complications on mortality and poor outcome.
Results
A total of 2349 ischemic stroke patients alive at discharge from acute care were included in the analysis. Older age, stroke severity, pre-stroke dependency and early complications were independent predictors of mortality 3 months after stroke. Poor outcome was independently associated with older age, stroke severity, pre-stroke dependency, previous stroke and early complications. More than 60% of deaths and poor outcomes were attributed to age, pre-stroke dependency and stroke severity and in-hospital complications contributed to 12.3% of deaths and 9.1% of poor outcomes 3 months after stroke.
Conclusion
The majority of deaths and poor outcomes after stroke were attributed to non-modifiable factors. However, early in-hospital complications significantly affect outcome in patients who survived the acute phase after stroke, underlining the need to improve prevention and treatment of complications in hospital.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075719
PMCID: PMC3782455  PMID: 24086621
20.  Cerebral infarction in diabetes: Clinical pattern, stroke subtypes, and predictors of in-hospital mortality 
BMC Neurology  2005;5:9.
Background
To compare the characteristics and prognostic features of ischemic stroke in patients with diabetes and without diabetes, and to determine the independent predictors of in-hospital mortality in people with diabetes and ischemic stroke.
Methods
Diabetes was diagnosed in 393 (21.3%) of 1,840 consecutive patients with cerebral infarction included in a prospective stroke registry over a 12-year period. Demographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, clinical events, stroke subtypes, neuroimaging data, and outcome in ischemic stroke patients with and without diabetes were compared. Predictors of in-hospital mortality in diabetic patients with ischemic stroke were assessed by multivariate analysis.
Results
People with diabetes compared to people without diabetes presented more frequently atherothrombotic stroke (41.2% vs 27%) and lacunar infarction (35.1% vs 23.9%) (P < 0.01). The in-hospital mortality in ischemic stroke patients with diabetes was 12.5% and 14.6% in those without (P = NS). Ischemic heart disease, hyperlipidemia, subacute onset, 85 years old or more, atherothrombotic and lacunar infarcts, and thalamic topography were independently associated with ischemic stroke in patients with diabetes, whereas predictors of in-hospital mortality included the patient's age, decreased consciousness, chronic nephropathy, congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation
Conclusion
Ischemic stroke in people with diabetes showed a different clinical pattern from those without diabetes, with atherothrombotic stroke and lacunar infarcts being more frequent. Clinical factors indicative of the severity of ischemic stroke available at onset have a predominant influence upon in-hospital mortality and may help clinicians to assess prognosis more accurately.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-5-9
PMCID: PMC1097737  PMID: 15833108
21.  Clinical study of 222 patients with pure motor stroke 
The objective was to assess the frequency of pure motor stroke caused by different stroke subtypes and to compare demographic, clinical, neuroimaging, and outcome data of pure motor stroke with those of patients with other lacunar stroke as well as with those of patients with non-lacunar stroke.
Data from 2000 patients with acute stroke (n=1761) or transient ischaemic attack (n=239) admitted consecutively to the department of neurology of an acute care 350 bed teaching hospital were prospectively collected in the Sagrat Cor Hospital of Barcelona stroke registry over a 10 year period. For the purpose of the study 222 (12.7%) patients with pure motor stroke were selected. The other study groups included 218 (12.3%) patients with other lacunar strokes and 1321 (75%) patients with non-lacunar stroke.
In relation to stroke subtype, lacunar infarcts were found in 189 (85%) patients, whereas ischaemic lacunar syndromes not due to lacunar infarcts occurred in 23 (10.4%) patients (atherothrombotic stroke in 12, cardioembolic stroke in seven, infarction of undetermined origin in three, and infarction of unusual aetiology in one) and haemorrhagic lacunar syndromes in 10 (4.5%). Patients with pure motor stroke showed a better outcome than patients with non-lacunar stroke with a significantly lower number of complications and in hospital mortality rate, shorter duration of hospital stay, and a higher number of symptom free patients at hospital discharge. After multivariate analysis, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidaemia, non-sudden stroke onset, internal capsule involvement, and pons topography seemed to be independent factors of pure motor stroke in patients with acute stroke.
In conclusion, about one of every 10 patients with acute stroke had a pure motor stroke. Pure motor stroke was caused by a lacunar infarct in 85% of patients and by other stroke subtypes in 15%. Several clinical features are more frequent in patients with pure motor stroke than in patients with non-lacunar stroke.


doi:10.1136/jnnp.71.2.239
PMCID: PMC1737524  PMID: 11459902
22.  Patients Living in Impoverished Areas Have More Severe Ischemic Strokes 
Background and Purpose
Initial stroke severity is one of the strongest predictors of eventual stroke outcome. However, predictors of initial stroke severity have not been well-described within a population. We hypothesized that poorer patients would have a higher initial stroke severity upon presentation to medical attention.
Methods
We identified all cases of hospital-ascertained ischemic stroke (IS) occurring in 2005 within a biracial population of 1.3 million. “Community” socioecomic status (SES) was determined for each patient based on the % below poverty in the census tract in which the patient resided linear regression was used to model the effect of SES on stroke severity. Models were adjusted for race, gender, age, pre-stroke disability, and history of medical comorbidities
Results
There were 1895 ischemic stroke events detected in 2005 included in this analysis; these cases were 22% were black, 52% were female, and the mean age was 71 years (range 19–104). The median NIHSSS was 3 (range 0–40). The poorest community SES was associated with a significantly increased initial NIHSSS by 1.5 points (95% CI 0.5–2.6 p<0.001) compared with the richest category in the univariate analysis, which increased to 2.2 points after adjustment for demographics and comorbidities.
Conclusions
We found that increasing community poverty was associated with worse stroke severity at presentation, independent of other known factors associated with stroke outcomes. SES may impact stroke severity via medication compliance, access to care, cultural factors, or may be a proxy measure for undiagnosed disease states.
doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.649608
PMCID: PMC3432858  PMID: 22773557
23.  Exploring gender distribution in patients with acute stroke: A multi-national approach 
Background:
Gender distribution of acute stroke patients varies considerably among stroke registries throughout the world, but factors responsible for this phenomenon remained vastly unknown.
Materials and Methods:
Using data from prospective hospital-based stroke registries in China (n = 752 acute stroke patients), Germany (n = 96054), India (n = 1500), and Iran (n = 1392), this descriptive study explored gender distribution of stroke patients and its determinants. In addition, the proportions of males and females to be expected in fictive study populations were calculated, and differences in gender distribution between stroke databases throughout the world were described.
Results:
In the German dataset, a maximum male preponderance was found for patients aged between 55 and 64 years (proportion of male patients 0.67 [95% CI: 0.66-0.67]), whereas patients older than 84 years revealed a strong overbalance of females (0.27 [0.26-0.28]). In Germany, age-specific gender distribution of stroke patients is well explained by the numbers of females and males in the general population and by gender-specific stroke incidence rates. Both in China and India, a strong preponderance of male stroke patients was found for the majority of age categories with a maximum proportion of male patients of 0.82 in the 35-44 years age group. In contrast, the Iranian stroke register revealed an overbalance of females (0.13 [0.11-0.14]) in nearly all age categories. A total of 1392 Iranian ischemic stroke patients (738 female, 654 male) were investigated.
Conclusion:
Gender distribution of acute stroke patients is highly variable. Gender distribution varied considerably between countries. Apart from demographic factors reflecting gender ratio in the general population and gender-specific stroke incidence rates, sociocultural peculiarities may also play an important role in this context.
PMCID: PMC3719219  PMID: 23901335
Gender; incidence; stroke
24.  Relationship between Younger Age, Autoimmunity, Cardiometabolic Risk, Oxidative Stress, HAART, and Ischemic Stroke in Africans with HIV/AIDS 
ISRN Cardiology  2011;2011:897908.
Background and Purpose. It now appears clear that both HIV/AIDS and antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use are associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease such as stroke. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence, the risk factors, and the cardiometabolic comorbidities of stroke in HIV/AIDS Central African patients. Methods. This hospital-based cross-sectional study collected clinical, laboratory, and imaging data of black Central African heterosexual, intravenous drug nonuser, and HIV/AIDS patients. Results. There were 54 men and 62 women, with a female to male ratio of 1.2 : 1. All were defined by hypercoagulability and oxidative stress. Hemorrhagic stroke was reported in 1 patient, ischemic stroke in 17 patients, and all stroke subtypes in 18 patients (15%). Younger age <45 years (P = .003), autoimmunity (P < .0001), and metabolic syndrome defined by IDF criteria (P < .0001) were associated with ischemic stroke. Conclusions. Clustering of several cardiometabolic factors, autoimmunity, oxidative stress, and lifestyle changes may explain accelerated atherosclerosis and high risk of stroke in these young black Africans with HIV/AIDS. Prevention and intervention programs are needed.
doi:10.5402/2011/897908
PMCID: PMC3262512  PMID: 22347662
25.  LOAD: A Pilot Study of the Safety of Loading of Aspirin and Clopidogrel in Acute Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack 
Background:
Most patients with ischemic stroke present to the emergency department beyond the approved 3-hour time window for thrombolytic or other revascularization therapies. Clopidogrel and aspirin loading is commonly used to prevent deterioration in other acute vascular occlusive events. This pilot study examined the safety of antiplatelet loading in acute ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack.
Methods:
Forty patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack symptoms, not eligible for revascularization, received a single dose of 375 mg of clopidogrel and 325 mg of aspirin within 36 hours of stroke onset. All patients were admitted to a comprehensive stroke department and monitored for neurologic deterioration (2-point increase on National Institutes of Health stroke scale [NIHSS] score) and bleeding complications until hospital day 7 or discharge. NIHSS was performed at 24 hours postadmission and on hospital day 7 or discharge, whichever came first.
Results:
A total of 40 patients were loaded with 375 mg of clopidogrel and 325 mg of aspirin (mean 12 hours 32 minutes). Mean admission NIHSS score was 6. There were no cases of systemic hemorrhage or mortality. A single symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (2.5%) was detected 43 hours posttreatment. When compared with matched control subjects, loaded patients were no more likely to experience hemorrhage and significantly less likely to experience neurologic deterioration (odds ratio 17.2; P < .002).
Conclusions:
Loading with 375 mg of clopidogrel and 325 mg of aspirin appears to be safe when administered up to 36 hours after stroke and transient ischemic attack onset in this pilot study. Neurologic deterioration may be decreased and warrants further study.
doi:10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2007.09.006
PMCID: PMC2663572  PMID: 18190818
Acute stroke; antiplatelet; platelet; stroke; transient ischemic attack

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