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1.  Implantation of a customized toric intraocular lens for correction of post-keratoplasty astigmatism 
Eye  2013;27(4):531-537.
Purpose
To report visual and refractive outcomes, and endothelial cell loss following primary and secondary ‘piggyback' toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in patients with high post-penetrating keratoplasty (PK) astigmatism.
Methods
Prospective case series. Nine eyes of nine patients with post-PK astigmatism were consecutively recruited for implantation of a customized toric IOL. Six underwent simultaneous phacoemulsification (PE) and three pseudophakic eyes had a secondary ‘piggyback' toric IOL implanted in the ciliary sulcus. Mean follow-up time was 17.2±7.7 months. Pre- and post-operative uncorrected (UDVA) and best-corrected (BDVA) distance visual acuities and refractive errors were collected for comparison. Cartesian astigmatic vectors were calculated to identify a change in the magnitude of astigmatism pre- compared to postoperatively. Pre- and post-operative endothelial cell counts were also collected for analysis.
Results
UDVA (logMAR) improved from 1.13±0.51 preoperatively to 0.48±0.24 postoperatively (P-value=0.003). There was no significant change in BDVA (P-value=0.905) from 0.31±0.27 to 0.26±0.19. Corneal astigmatism preoperatively was 6.57±4.40 diopters (D). Post-operative refractive cylinder was 0.83±1.09 D compared to 3.89±4.01 D preoperatively (P=0.039). Analysis of astigmatic Cartesian x and y coordinates found a significant reduction postoperatively compared to preoperatively (P=0.005 and P=0.002), respectively. Mean endothelial cell loss was 9.9%.
Conclusion:
Implantation of a customized primary or secondary ‘piggyback' toric IOL serves as an effective modality in treating patients with high post-PK astigmatism.
doi:10.1038/eye.2012.300
PMCID: PMC3626004  PMID: 23348728
penetrating keratoplasty; astigmatism; toric intraocular lens
2.  Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty for a failed penetrating keratoplasty graft in a pseudophakic patient with a toric intraocular lens: a case report 
BMC Ophthalmology  2013;13:64.
Background
To report a patient with penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) graft endothelial failure implanted with toric intraocular lens (IOL) who was treated with Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK).
Case presentation
A 40 year old male patient implanted with toric intraocular lens for the treatment of post PKP astigmatism, presented for the treatment of graft endothelial failure’. The patient had uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) 20/200 not correcting with manifest refraction. The patient reported excellent visual acuity after cataract surgery and toric IOL implantation. DSAEK was performed in order to minimally affect keratometry and retain correspondence of the anterior cornea astigmatism with the toric IOL astigmatic power. Three months postoperatively the cornea was clear with no edema. UDVA was 20/40 and corrected distance visual acuity was 20/25 with +1.50-1.00 × 20.
Conclusions
This report describes a unique case of DSAEK for treatment of a failed PKP in a patient previously implanted with a toric IOL. DSAEK was an effective alternative of PKP in this patient for the preservation of the toric IOL’s effect.
doi:10.1186/1471-2415-13-64
PMCID: PMC3871011  PMID: 24171843
Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty; Post penetrating keratoplasty astigmatism; Toric intraocular lens
3.  Visual Performance of Tecnis ZM900 Diffractive Multifocal IOL after 2500 Implants: A 3-Year Followup 
Journal of Ophthalmology  2010;2010:717591.
Purpose. To evaluate visual performance for near, intermediate, and distant vision; complaints of photic phenomena, and patient satisfaction with the new diffractive multifocal IOL used in eyes which underwent phacoemulsification. Methods. Two thousand and five hundred consecutive eyes undergoing Tecnis ZM900 multifocal IOL implantation were included in this retrospective analysis. The minimum followup of 3 months was required after the surgery. Patients were assessed for uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA) at a fixed distance (33 cm), uncorrected intermediate visual acuity (UIVA) at 60 cm, and uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA). Using a subjective questionnaire, patients satisfaction, their independence from using glasses, and the perception of glare and halo phenomena were also evaluated at the last follow-up. Results. Two thousand and five hundred eyes of 1558 patients underwent cataract surgery and Tecnis ZM900 multifocal IOL implantation. Four hundred and eighty seven patients (31.3%) were men, and 1071 (68.7%) were women. The mean age of the patients was 66.17 years. A UDVA of 20/30 or better was achieved by 85% of eyes. A UNVA of J1 was achieved by 93.7% of eyes and that of J2 or better was achieved by 98%. A UIVA of J4 or better was achieved by 65% and J5 or better was achived by more than 82.8% of the eyes in the study. Glare and halos were reported as severe by only 6.1% and 2.12% of patients, respectively. Ninety seven percent reported complete spectacle independence and 88% stated that they are totally satisfied with their quality of vision and would choose to have the same lens implanted again after the first implant. Five percent of the eyes in the study needed a second procedure (enhancement) to achieve a better visual result. No patient underwent lens exchange. Conclusion. Excellent near, intermediate, and distant vision was observed in patients implanted with the Tecnis ZM900 diffractive multifocal IOL. Spectacle independence and a minimum occurrence of photic phenomena make this IOL an excellent option in patients with cataract.
doi:10.1155/2010/717591
PMCID: PMC2952904  PMID: 20953369
4.  Combined 23-gauge microincisonal vitrectomy surgery and phacoemulsification with AcrySof toric intraocular lens implantation: a comparative study 
Eye  2011;25(10):1327-1332.
Aim
To compare AcrySof toric intraocular lens (IOL) and non-toric IOL in patients who had combined 23-gauge microincisional vitrectomy surgery (MIVS) and phacoemulsification for vitreoretinal diseases and cataract with pre-existing corneal astigmatism.
Methods
This is a prospective comparative study comprised of 30 patients (30 eyes) who had combined 23-gauge MIVS and phacoemulsification for vitreoretinal diseases and cataract with pre-existing regular corneal astigmatism greater than 1 diopters (D). In all, 15 eyes had AcrySof toric IOL (Alcon Laboratories) and 15 eyes had non-toric IOL (Akreos AO MI60; Bausch & Lomb) implantation. Main outcome measures were uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), refractive cylinder, surgically induced astigmatism (SIA), and IOL misalignment during 6 months.
Results
The mean UCVA of the toric IOL group was better than the non-toric IOL group at postoperative months 1, 3, and 6 (P<0.001, respectively). The mean absolute residual refractive cylinder of the toric IOL group at postoperative week 1, and months 1, 3, and 6 was less than the non-toric IOL group (P=0.008, <0.001, <0.001, and <0.001, respectively). There was no difference in the mean SIA between the two groups (P>0.05, respectively). The mean toric IOL axis rotation was 3.52±2.75°, which was within 5° in 66.7% of the toric IOL group and within 10° in 100%.
Conclusions
Combined 23-gauge MIVS and phacoemulsification with AcrySof toric IOL implantation is an effective method of correcting vitreoretinal diseases and cataract and pre-existing corneal astigmatism, and the toric IOL showed good rotational stability, even in vitrectomized eyes for 6 months.
doi:10.1038/eye.2011.168
PMCID: PMC3194321  PMID: 21760624
toric intraocular lens; corneal astigmatism; IOL rotation; phacovitrectomy
5.  Successful toric intraocular lens implantation in a patient with induced cataract and astigmatism after posterior chamber toric phakic intraocular lens implantation: a case report 
Introduction
We report the case of a patient in whom simultaneous toric phakic intraocular lens removal and phacoemulsification with toric intraocular lens implantation were beneficial for reducing pre-existing astigmatism and acquiring good visual outcomes in eyes with implantable collamer lens-induced cataract and astigmatism.
Case presentation
A 53-year-old woman had undergone toric implantable collamer lens implantation three years earlier. After informed consent was obtained, we performed simultaneous toric implantable collamer lens removal and phacoemulsification with toric intraocular lens implantation. Preoperatively, the manifest refraction was 0, -0.5 × 15, with an uncorrected visual acuity of 0.7 and a best spectacle-corrected visual acuity of 0.8. Postoperatively, the manifest refraction was improved to 0, -0.5 × 180, with an uncorrected visual acuity of 1.2 and a best spectacle-corrected visual acuity of 1.5. No vision-threatening complications were observed.
Conclusion
Toric intraocular lens implantation may be a good surgical option for the correction of spherical and cylindrical errors in eyes with implantable collamer lens-induced cataract and astigmatism.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-6-109
PMCID: PMC3349471  PMID: 22507132
6.  Long-Term Efficacy and Rotational Stability of AcrySof Toric Intraocular Lens Implantation in Cataract Surgery 
Purpose
To evaluate the long-term efficacy and rotational stability of the AcrySof toric intraocular lens (IOL) in correcting preoperative astigmatism in cataract patients.
Methods
This prospective observational study included 30 eyes from 24 consecutive patients who underwent implantation of an AcrySof toric IOL with micro-coaxial cataract surgery between May 2008 and September 2008. Outcomes of visual acuity, refractive and keratometric astigmatism, and IOL rotation after 1 day, 1 month, 3 months, and long-term (mean, 13.3±5.0 months) follow-up were evaluated.
Results
At final follow-up, 73.3% of eyes showed an uncorrected visual acuity of 20/25 or better. The postoperative keratometric value was not different from the preoperative value; mean refractive astigmatism was reduced to -0.28±0.38 diopter (D) from -1.28±0.48 D. The mean rotation of the toric IOL was 3.45±3.39 degrees at final follow-up. One eye (3.3%) exhibited IOL rotation of 10.3 degrees, the remaining eyes (96.7%) had IOL rotation of less than 10 degrees.
Conclusions
Early postoperative and long-term follow-up showed that implantation of the AcrySof toric IOL is an effective, safe, and predictable method for managing corneal astigmatism in cataract patients.
doi:10.3341/kjo.2010.24.4.207
PMCID: PMC2916101  PMID: 20714383
Astigmatism; Cataract surgery; Toric intraocular lens
7.  Comparison of patient outcomes after implantation of Visian toric implantable collamer lens and iris-fixated toric phakic intraocular lens 
Eye  2011;25(11):1409-1417.
Purpose
We compared visual and refractive outcomes after implantation of Visian toric implantable collamer lenses (toric ICLs) and iris-fixated toric pIOLs (toric Artisans).
Patients and methods
A comparative retrospective analysis was performed. Toric ICLs were implanted into 30 eyes of 18 patients, and toric Artisans into 31 eyes of 22 recipients. We measured the logarithms of the minimum angle of resolution of uncorrected visual acuity (logMAR UCVA), logMAR of best spectacle-corrected corrected VA (logMAR BSCVA), MR, SE, and astigmatism (by the power vector method) before surgery and 1, 3, and 6 months thereafter. Differences between patients receiving each type of lens were compared by using a mixed model of repeated measures.
Results
Visual improvements were evident after operation in both groups. By comparing the attempted to the achieved SE values, we were able to confirm that correction of refractive error was similar in both groups. However, the logMAR UCVA was significantly higher in the toric ICL group at all postoperative time points. Although manifest cylinder power and astigmatism (calculated by using the power vector method) gradually decreased in the toric ICL group, cylinder power 1 month postoperatively increased from −2.62 to −2.75 D; astigmatism was also increased at this time in the toric Artisan group.
Conclusion
The two tested toric pIOLs were similar in terms of the ability to correct refractive error, as assessed 3 months postoperatively. However toric ICLs corrected astigmatism more rapidly and safely. Notably, the large difference in astigmatism level between the two groups 1 month postoperatively indicates that toric ICLs are more effective when used to correct astigmatism.
doi:10.1038/eye.2011.176
PMCID: PMC3213644  PMID: 21852802
Visian toric implantable collamer lens; iris-fixated toric phakic intraocular lens; Verisys intraocular lens; phakic intraocular lens; correction of astigmatism
8.  Functional and refractive results after one month of AcrySof toric intraocular lens implantation 
Journal of Optometry  2011;4(2):63-68.
Purpose
To describe the functional and refractive results obtained with the implantation of toric intraocular lens (IOL) in a private clinic, and verify and compare these results with other similar studies.
Methods
Retrospective evaluation of patients implanted with SN60AT toric IOL. Patients undergoing cataract surgery and corneal astigmatism (CA) higher than 0.75 D were included in the study. Preoperative and postoperative uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), subjective refraction and preoperative keratometry were recorded and analyzed statistically.
Results
The study included 68 eyes (52 patients). Thirty eyes were implanted with SN60T3, 11 with SN60T4 and 28 with SN60T5. Mean BCVA gain was of 1.9 ± 1.67 logMAR lines. Comparing the preoperative BCVA versus postoperative UCVA, the improvement was of 0.89 ± 2 logMAR lines. The postoperative refractive astigmatism was −0.37 ± 0.37 D; 75.5% of the eyes had a refractive astigmatism lower than 0.50 D and 98.6% lower than 1.00 D. The expected cylinder supplied by the manufacturer showed a good agreement with the postoperative subjective results (−0.03 ± 0.47 D).
Conclusions
The implantation of SN60T toric IOL in patients with CA higher than 0.75 D is a safe, predictable and effective way of reducing refractive astigmatism in patients undergoing cataract surgery.
doi:10.1016/S1888-4296(11)70043-7
PMCID: PMC3974402
AcrySof toric intraocular lens; Functional and refractive results; Lente intraocular tórica AcrySof; Resultados funcionales y refractivos
9.  Distance vision after bilateral implantation of AcrySof toric intraocular lenses: a randomized, controlled, prospective trial 
AIM
To evaluate the distance vision of Chinese patients with cataracts and corneal astigmatism after implantation of bilateral AcrySof toric intraocular lens (IOL) versus bilateral AcrySof spherical IOL.
METHODS
This study randomized 60 patients into equal groups to receive toric IOL or spherical IOL. IOL powers targeting emmetropia were selected for 93% of toric IOL patients and for 90% of spherical IOL patients. Assessments included monocular and binocular distance vision, with and without best correction. Patients also completed surveys about their distance vision.
RESULTS
Preoperatively, the two study groups were similar in age, in distance visual acuity, and in the magnitude of corneal astigmatism. At 6 months postoperative, binocular uncorrected distance vision was 0.06±0.14 logMAR in the AcrySof toric IOL group, significantly better than the 0.14±0.11 logMAR in the spherical IOL group (P<0.05). For eyes with emmetropia as a target, the equivalent of 20/20 uncorrected vision was more likely (P<0.001) in the toric IOL group (36% of eyes) than in the spherical IOL group (4% of eyes). No patients in the emmetropia/toric IOL group used distance glasses, as compared to 52% of patients in the emmetropia/spherical IOL group. All patients were satisfied or highly satisfied. Quality of distance vision was rated higher by toric IOL patients than by spherical IOL patients (P<0.05).
CONCLUSION
Bilateral AcrySof toric IOL is superior to bilateral spherical IOL in providing uncorrected distance vision to cataract patients with corneal astigmatism.
doi:10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2011.02.13
PMCID: PMC3340696  PMID: 22553636
astigmatism; cataract extraction; lenses, intraocular; pseudophakia
10.  High-cylinder toric intraocular lens implantation versus combined surgery of low-cylinder intraocular lens implantation and limbal relaxing incision for high-astigmatism eyes 
Clinical outcomes were compared between high-cylinder toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and the combined surgery of low-cylinder toric IOL implantation and limbal relaxing incision (LRI) for correcting preexisting high-amplitude corneal astigmatism. Fifty-seven eyes with preexisting corneal astigmatism of 2.5 diopter (D) or greater were divided into the following two groups: (1) eyes that underwent Alcon AcrySof® IQ Toric T6, T7, T8, or T9 IOL implantation (toric group); and (2) eyes that underwent the combined surgery of AcrySof® IQ Toric T5 IOL implantation and LRI (LRI group). Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), manifest, refractive and corneal cylinder (MC, RC, CC), were compared postoperatively. Corneal and ocular higher-order aberrations (HOA) were also compared. At 1 day postoperative, UCVA was significantly better and MC and RC were significantly less in the toric group, however, at 1 and 6 months postoperative, there was no significant difference in those parameters. Postoperative corneal and ocular HOA were significantly greater in the LRI Group. For correcting astigmatism in eyes with a high amount of preexisting astigmatism, high-cylinder toric IOL implantation achieves better clinical outcomes, especially in the early postoperative period, than the combined procedure of moderate-cylinder toric IOL implantation and LRI.
doi:10.2147/OPTH.S61373
PMCID: PMC3976238
toric intraocular lens; limbal relaxing incision; high-cylinder astigmatism; cataract surgery
11.  Results of the AcrySof Toric intraocular lenses implantation 
Summary
Background
The expectations of post-removal cataract surgery patients are extremely high, and best vision acuity is expected. The best refractive results are influenced by two factors – cataract surgical removal and the corneal astigmatism correction. Currently, the two most often applied corneal astigmatism removal methods are laser surgery and toric intraocular lens implantation, with the latter method being both more stable and more reversible. This study aimed to estimate the surgical astigmatism correction efficiency after AcrySof Toric intraocular lens implantation in patients with corneal astigmatism.
Material/Methods
We used the AcrySof Toric IOL 1-part hydrophobic acrylic lenses. The retrospective research covered 30 eyeballs in 28 cataract and corneal astigmatism patients, with the AcrySof Toric lens implanted by one surgeon.
Results
In our test group 92.31% of post-surgical patients (phacoemulsification and toric lenses implantation) gained the best uncorrected visual acuity, range 0.6–1.0; and in 7.69% of patients the acuity was 0.4–0.6. Lens rotation was examined three weeks after the surgical procedure and a 3.24±3.41 degree axial displacement was observed; however, this lens rotation was clinically unimportant.
Based on the analysis of post-surgical results, the corneal astigmatism was 84.2% lower than before the procedure.
Conclusions
We noticed clinically and statistically important vision acuity improvement in the corneal astigmatism patients. The patients’ high satisfaction was conditioned by proper pre-surgery qualification. Astigmatism correction by cataract removal surgery is a safe and effective surgical solution. In the future, we expect the use of toric intraocular lenses will become widespread and significant.
doi:10.12659/MSM.882182
PMCID: PMC3560683  PMID: 22207126
cataract; corneal astigmatism; toric intraocular lenses
12.  Visual and Refractive Outcomes after Cataract Surgery with Implantation of a New Toric Intraocular Lens 
Case Reports in Ophthalmology  2013;4(2):48-56.
Purpose
The aim of this study was to evaluate and report the visual, refractive and aberrometric outcomes of cataract surgery with implantation of the new aspheric Tecnis ZCT toric intraocular lens (IOL) in eyes with low to moderate corneal astigmatism.
Methods
We conducted a prospective study of 19 consecutive eyes of 17 patients (mean age: 78 years) with a visually significant cataract and moderate corneal astigmatism [higher than 1 diopter (D)] undergoing cataract surgery with implantation of the aspheric Tecnis ZCT toric IOL (Abbott Medical Optics). Visual, refractive and aberrometric changes were evaluated during a 6-month follow-up. Ocular aberrations as well as IOL rotation were evaluated by means of the OPD-Station II (Nidek).
Results
The six-month postoperative spherical equivalent and power vector components of the refractive cylinder were within ±0.50 D in all eyes (100%). Postoperative logMAR uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuities (UDVA/CDVA) were 0.1 (about 20/25) or better in almost all eyes (94.74%). The mean logMAR CDVA improved significantly from 0.41 ± 0.23 to 0.02 ± 0.05 (p < 0.01). No significant changes were found in corneal astigmatism (p = 0.73). The mean IOL rotation was 3.33 ± 1.94°. This parameter did not correlate with higher-order aberrations (r = −0.09, p = 0.73). A significant improvement in the Strehl ratio was also observed (p < 0.01), which was consistent with the significant reduction in higher-order aberrations (p = 0.02).
Conclusion
Cataract surgery with implantation of the aspheric Tecnis ZCT IOL is a predictable and effective procedure for visual rehabilitation in eyes with cataract and low to moderate corneal astigmatism, providing an excellent postoperative ocular optical quality.
doi:10.1159/000353389
PMCID: PMC3724128  PMID: 23898293
Tecnis ZCT; Aspheric toric intraocular lens; Cataract surgery; Higher-order aberrations
13.  Toric Intraocular Lens Implantation for Correction of Astigmatism in Cataract Patients with Corneal Ectasia 
Case Reports in Ophthalmology  2013;4(3):219-228.
Our purpose was to examine the long-term efficacy of toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in cataract patients with high astigmatism due to corneal ectasia, who underwent phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Five eyes of 3 cataract patients with topographically stable keratoconus or pellucid macular degeneration (PMD), in which phacoemulsification with toric IOL implantation was used to correct high astigmatism, are reported. Objective and subjective refraction, visual acuity measurement and corneal topography were performed in all cases before and after cataract surgery. In all cases, there was a significant improvement in visual acuity, as well as refraction, which remained stable over time. Specifically, in subjective refraction, all patients achieved visual acuity from 7/10 to 9/10 with up to −2.50 cyl. Corneal topography also remained stable. Postoperative follow-up was 18–28 months. Cataract surgery with toric IOL implantation seems to be safe and effective in correcting astigmatism and improving visual function in cataract patients with topographically stable keratoconus or PMD.
doi:10.1159/000356532
PMCID: PMC3843926  PMID: 24348406
Phacoemulsification; Keratoconus; Pellucid marginal degeneration; Toric intraocular lens; Intraocular lens; Astigmatism
14.  Comparison of a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic apodized diffractive multifocal intraocular lens 
International Ophthalmology  2013;33:493-500.
To compare outcomes between a new design apodized diffractive hydrophilic multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) (Seelens MF; study group), and a well-known apodized diffractive hydrophobic multifocal IOL (SN6AD1; control group). A comparative case series comparing refractive and visual outcomes at distance and near. Patient satisfaction with a validated questionnaire, dysphotopsia and straylight measurement scores were recorded at 3 months post-operatively. The study group comprised 48 eyes and the control group 37 eyes. At 3 months post-operatively the mean uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) was not statistically significant different between the study group and the control group (0.02 ± 0.07 logMAR [SD] vs 0.04 ± 0.09 logMAR). Corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was statistically significantly better with the study lens (−0.04 ± 0.05 logMAR vs −0.01 ± 0.04 logMAR (p < 0.019). There was no clinical or statistical significant difference at the 40 cm distance (0.09 ± 0.12 logMAR vs 0.08 ± 0.09 logMAR). The study group had statistically significant better uncorrected near acuity at 50 and 60 cm distances (p < 0.03 and p < 0.007, respectively). In terms of satisfaction the lenses performed equally. Halos were seen less often with the study lens. Straylight, as a parameter for visual quality, was significantly less with the study lens. Conclusion: The Seelens MF performs equally as well as the well-known SN6AD1 for UCDA and CDVA. The Seelens MF performs better at intermediate distance, and seems to allow for better depth of focus, and increased visual quality. More study is needed to corroborate the last finding.
doi:10.1007/s10792-013-9727-5
PMCID: PMC3782640  PMID: 23381387
15.  Comparison of outcomes with multifocal intraocular lenses: a meta-analysis 
Purpose
To compare the clinical outcome of different multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) based on information reported in the international literature.
Methods
All comparative clinical trials that involved implanting at least one multifocal IOL in patients with cataract or presbyopia were extracted from the literature. Clinical outcomes included uncorrected near visual acuity, uncorrected distance visual acuity, visual acuity, spectacle independence, and halos. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to compare outcomes for the different IOL types.
Results
Twenty papers were identified describing 11 monofocal IOLs and 35 multifocal IOLs (19 diffractive, including 12 ReSTOR®, 14 refractive, and two accommodative) patient cohorts. Multifocal and monofocal uncorrected distance visual acuity was 0.165 (0.090–0.240) and 0.093 (0.088–0.098), respectively. Compared with monofocal IOLs, multifocal IOLs produced better uncorrected near visual acuity (0.470 [0.322–0.618] versus 0.141 [0.131–0.152]; P < 0.0001), resulting in higher spectacle independence (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 3.62 [2.90–4.52]; P < 0.0001). Compared with refractive multifocal IOLs, diffractive multifocal IOLs produced a similar uncorrected distance visual acuity (0.105 [0.098–0.111] versus 0.085 [0.029–0.140]; P ≤ 0.78, not significant) and better uncorrected near visual acuity (0.217 [0.118–0.317] versus 0.082 [0.067–0.098]; P < 0.0001) resulting in higher spectacle independence (IRR 1.75 [1.24–2.48]; P < 0.001). Compared with other multifocal IOLs, ReSTOR produced a better uncorrected distance visual acuity (0.067 [0.059–0.076] versus 0.093 [0.088–0.098]; P < 0.0001) and better uncorrected near visual acuity (0.064 [0.046–0.082] versus 0.141 [0.131–0.152]; P < 0.006), resulting in higher spectacle independence (IRR 2.06 [1.26–1.36]; P < 0.004). Halo incidence rates with different types of multifocal implants did not differ significantly.
Conclusion
Multifocal IOLs provide better uncorrected near visual acuity than monofocal IOLs, leading to less need for spectacles. Multifocal IOL design might play a role in postsurgical outcome, because better results were obtained with diffractive lenses. ReSTOR showed better uncorrected near visual acuity, uncorrected distance visual acuity, and higher spectacle independence rates compared with other multifocal IOLs.
doi:10.2147/OPTH.S14325
PMCID: PMC3033003  PMID: 21311656
multifocal implants; meta-analysis; uncorrected near visual acuity; uncorrected distance visual acuity; spectacle independence; patient satisfaction
16.  Iris Claw versus Scleral Fixation Intraocular Lens Implantation during Pars Plana Vitrectomy 
Purpose
To compare the outcomes of iris claw anterior chamber intraocular lens (IC-ACIOL) with that of scleral fixation posterior chamber intraocular lens (SF-PCIOL) implantation during pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) as initial surgery to correct aphakia. Methods: Twelve patients with complicated cataract surgery or trauma who hadsuffered nucleus, whole crystalline lens or intraocular lens (IOL) drop into the vitreous cavity, and undergone PPV with IC-ACIOL implantation over a period of one year were evaluated for the purpose of this study. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central corneal thickness (CCT), spherical equivalent (SE) refractive error, astigmatism and complications were recorded. The results were compared to outcomes of another group of 13 patients who had previously undergone PPV with SF-PCIOL implantation.
Results
Mean improvement of UCVA was greater in IC-ACIOL eyes as compared tothe SF-PCIOL group (-1.17±0.28 versus -0.89±0.21 logMAR, P=0.01), corresponding values for postoperative BCVA were 0.24±0.17 and 0.44±0.22 logMAR (P=0.041), respectively. Average postoperative SE was comparable in the IC-ACIOL and SF-PCIOL groups at 0.6±1.03 and 0.56±1.23 diopters, respectively (P=0.290). However, 10 (83.3%) IC-ACIOL eyes versus 6 (46.1%) SF-PCIOL eyes had SE within 1 diopter of emmetropia (P=0.048). Mean postoperative increase in CCT was comaparble between the study groups (P=0.126).
Conclusion
In the absence of sufficient capsular support, the use of an IC-ACIOLfor correction of aphakia during PPV can be a good alternative and seems to entail better visual outcomes as compared to SF-PCIOL.
PMCID: PMC3520467  PMID: 23275819
Iris-Claw Anterior Chamber Intraocular Lens; Pars Plana Vitrectomy; Scleral FixationIntraocular Lens; Capsular Support; Nucleus Drop; Intraocular Lens Drop
17.  Visual outcome and rotational stability of open loop toric intraocular lens implantation in Indian eyes 
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology  2013;61(11):626-629.
Purpose:
To assess the visual outcome and rotational stability of single-piece open loop toric Intra Ocular Lens (IOL) in a clinical setting.
Materials and Methods:
In a prospective study, 122 eyes of 77 patients were followed up for a period of 12 months after cataract surgery with toric open loop IOL implantation. The pre-operative markings for the position of incision and IOL placement were done under slit lamp by anterior stromal puncture. The visual acuity, refraction, and IOL position were assessed at day 1, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after surgery.
Results:
The mean age of the cohort was 56 yrs (S.D. 13.88; range 16 to 87 years). The mean pre-operative cylinder of corneal astigmatism was 1.37 D. (SD 0.79, range 1.0 to 5.87 D). Mean post-operative refractive cylinder was 0.36 D (SD 0.57, range 0 to 1.50 D) at 12 months. Ninety-seven percent of the eyes were within 1 D of residual astigmatism. Ninety-four percent of patients had uncorrected visual acuity of 20/30 or better. Four eyes required IOL repositioning due to rotation. At 12 months, 96.7% of the IOLs were within 10 degrees of the target axis. There was no rotation seen after 6 months.
Conclusion:
Toric IOLs are very effective and consistent in correcting astigmatism during the cataract surgery. IOL rotation happens mostly within a month of surgery, and if significant, requires early repositioning.
doi:10.4103/0301-4738.123142
PMCID: PMC3959075  PMID: 24343593
Astigmatism; cataract surgery; toric lens; toric intraocular lens
18.  Acrylic toric intraocular lens implantation: a single center experience concerning clinical outcomes and postoperative rotation 
Purpose:
To present clinical results of toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation for preexisting astigmatism correction and determine the time of any postoperative rotation.
Patients and methods:
Twenty-nine eyes of 19 patients underwent uncomplicated phacoemulsification and were implanted with an Acrysof © toric IOL. Uncorrected visual acuity, residual astigmatism, and postoperative rotation of the IOL were estimated one and six months after the operation.
Results:
Uncorrected visual acuity was ≥0.5 in 26 of 29 eyes (89.7%) and ≥0.8 in 19 of 29 patients (65.5%). The mean toric IOL axis rotation was 2.2 ± 1.5° (range 0.6–7.8°) one month postoperation and 2.7 ± 1.5° (range 0.9–8.4°) six months postoperation.
Conclusion:
Implantation of one-piece hydrophobic acrylic toric IOLs appears to have acceptable stability, which encourages visual outcome and emerges as an attractive alternative for correction of refractive astigmatism.
PMCID: PMC2850825  PMID: 20390033
astigmatism; cataract; stability; implantation
19.  Predicting the necessity of LASIK enhancement after cataract surgery in patients with multifocal IOL implantation 
Purpose
To investigate if the parameters measured routinely prior to cataract surgery with multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) implantation can predict the necessity of additional laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) to improve visual outcome.
Methods
Records of patients undergoing cataract surgery between January 2008 and December 2009 were reviewed. Individuals satisfied with visual outcome of cataract surgery and not satisfied were grouped (group 1 and 2, respectively). Preoperative data of refractive error, axial length, corneal astigmatism, intraocular pressure, and postoperative uncorrected visual acuity were recorded. Data was available for 62 patients (104 eyes), of which LASIK enhancement was deemed necessary in 21 eyes (20%; group 2). The receiver operator characteristic curves were used to discriminate between the groups and linear regression analysis was performed to predict the postoperative visual outcome.
Results
The astigmatism measured preoperatively using manifest refraction had an accuracy of 64% in discriminating between the groups. Age, spherical component of refraction, axial length, corneal astigmatism, and intraocular pressure were very close to chance prediction 59%, 57%, 56%, 51%, and 51%, respectively. The postoperative uncorrected visual acuity had an accuracy of 79% in discriminating the groups. Individuals with uncorrected visual acuity worse than 20/40 after cataract surgery were most likely to undergo LASIK enhancement; however, approximately 20% of group 2 underwent LASIK enhancement despite having visual acuity of 20/30 or better. When combined, preoperative visual acuity accounted for just 7% of variance in postoperative uncorrected visual acuity.
Conclusion
Requirement of LASIK enhancement after cataract surgery with multifocal IOL implant is complex in nature, and parameters routinely measured before surgery cannot successfully identify the group requiring LASIK enhancement or predict postoperative uncorrected visual acuity.
doi:10.2147/OPTH.S23345
PMCID: PMC3180499  PMID: 21966202
refractive error; axial length; corneal astigmatism; intraocular pressure; uncorrected visual acuity; visual outcome; multivariate analysis; LASIK enhancement
20.  Visual function and higher order aberration after implantation of aspheric and spherical multifocal intraocular lenses: a meta-analysis 
AIM
To assess the visual outcomes of aspheric multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) compared with spherical multifocal IOL after cataract surgery.
METHODS
Potential prospective controlled trials that comparing aspheric multifocal IOL implantation with spherical multifocal IOL group were extracted from the computer database. The statistical analysis was carried out using Stata 10 software. Standardized mean differences with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for continuous variables. The pooled estimates were computed in the use of a random-effects model.
RESULTS
A systematic review identified five prospective nonrandomized controlled trials, including 178 aspheric multifocal IOL and 164 spherical multifocal IOL. There was no significant difference in uncorrected distance visual acuity (95%CI, -0.248 to 0.152;P=0.641) and uncorrected near visual acuity (95%CI, -0.210 to 0.428;P=0.504) between aspheric multifocal IOL and spherical multifocal IOL. Statistically significant differences were detected less spherical aberration in aspheric multifocal IOL (95%CI, -1.111 to -0.472; P<0.001) when compared to spherical multifocal IOL. Spherical multifocal IOL showed a greater higher order aberration compared to the aspheric multifocal IOL (95%CI, -1.024 to-0.293; P<0.001). Sensitivity analysis suggested that the results were relatively reliable.
CONCLUSION
The overall findings indicated that aspheric multifocal IOL and spherical multifocal IOL provided similar visual acuity at near and distance. Patients implanted with aspheric multifocal IOL had less spherical aberration and higher order aberration than patients with spherical multifocal IOL. Further well-organized, prospective controlled trials involving larger patient numbers are needed.
doi:10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2013.05.27
PMCID: PMC3808923  PMID: 24195051
aspheric multifocal intraocular lens; uncorrected near visual acuity; uncorrected distance visual acuity; spherical multifocal intraocular lens; higher order aberration; meta-analysis
21.  Three-Year Follow-Up of Posterior Chamber Toric Phakic Intraocular Lens Implantation for Moderate to High Myopic Astigmatism 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e56453.
Purpose
To assess the 3-year clinical outcomes of toric phakic intraocular lens (Visian ICL™; STAAR Surgical) implantation for moderate to high myopic astigmatism.
Methods
This retrospective study evaluated fifty eyes of 28 patients who underwent toric ICL implantation for the correction of moderate to high myopic astigmatism and who regularly returned for postoperative examination. Before, and 1, 3, and 6 months after, and 1, 2, and 3 years after surgery, we assessed the safety, efficacy, predictability, stability, and adverse events of the surgery in eyes undergoing toric ICL implantation.
Results
The logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (LogMAR) uncorrected visual acuity and LogMAR best spectacle-corrected visual acuity were –0.10 (corresponding to Snellen equivalents 20/16) ± 0.16 and –0.20 (corresponding to 20/12.5) ± 0.07, 3 years postoperatively, respectively. The safety and efficacy indices were 1.16 ± 0.20 and 0.94 ± 0.28. At 3 year, 82% and 98% of the eyes were within 0.5 and 1.0 D, respectively, of the targeted correction. Manifest refraction changes of –0.15 ± 0.31 D occurred from 1 month to 3 year. No vision-threatening complications occurred during the observation period.
Conclusions
On the basis of the clinical results of this study, toric ICL implantation was good in all measures of safety, efficacy, predictability, and stability for the correction of moderate to high myopic astigmatism throughout a 3-year observation period.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056453
PMCID: PMC3568037  PMID: 23409187
22.  Success rates in the correction of astigmatism with toric and spherical soft contact lens fittings 
Objectives:
To evaluate success rates in the correction of astigmatism with toric and spherical soft contact lens fitting.
Methods:
30 patients with soft toric lenses having more than 1.25 D of corneal astigmatism (25 eyes; Group A) or having 0.75–1.25 D of corneal astigmatism (22 eyes; Group B) and 30 patients with soft spheric lenses having 0.75–1.25 D of corneal astigmatism (28 eyes; Group C) or less than 0.75 D of corneal astigmatism (23 eyes; Group D) were included in the study. Corrected and uncorrected monocular visual acuity measurement with logMAR, biomicroscopic properties, autorefractometry and corneal topography were performed for all patients immediately before and at least 20 minutes after the application of contact lenses. Success of contact lens fitting was evaluated by three parameters: astigmatic neutralization, visual success, and retinal deviation.
Results:
After soft toric lens application, spheric dioptres, cylindric and keratometric astigmatism, and retinal deviation decreased significantly in Groups A and B (P < 0.05). In Group C, spheric dioptres and retinal deviation decreased (P < 0.05), while cylindric and keratometric astigmatism did not change significantly (P > 0.05). In Group D, spheric dioptres, retinal deviation, and cylindric astigmatism decreased (P < 0.05). Keratometric astigmatism did not change significantly (P > 0.05) and astigmatic neutralization even increased.
Conclusions:
Visual acuity and residual spherical equivalent refraction remained between tolerable limits with the use of toric and spheric contact lenses. Spherical lenses failed to mask corneal toricity during topography, while toric lenses caused central neutralization and decrease in corneal cylinder in low and moderate astigmatic eyes.
PMCID: PMC2938274  PMID: 20856589
astigmatism; soft toric lenses; soft spheric lenses; spherical equivalent refraction; surface topography
23.  Evaluation of intrastromal corneal ring segments for treatment of keratoconus with a mechanical implantation technique 
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology  2013;61(5):218-225.
Purpose:
To evaluate the clinical outcomes of intrastromal corneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation in patients with keratoconus using a mechanical implantation technique.
Materials and Methods:
Thirty eyes of 17 patients with keratoconus were enrolled. ICRSs (Keraring) were implanted after dissection of the tunnel using Tunc's specially designed dissector under suction. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed, including uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), spherical equivalent, keratometric readings, inferosuperior asymmetry index (ISAI), and ultrasound pachymetry. All 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups were completed, and statistical analysis was performed.
Results:
The mean preoperative UDVA for all eyes was 1.36 ± 0.64 logMAR. At 12 months, the mean UDVA was 0.51 ± 0.28 logMAR (P = 0.001), and the mean preoperative CDVA was 0.57 ± 0.29 logMAR, which improved to 0.23 ± 0.18 (P = 0.001) at 1 year. There was a significant reduction in spherical equivalent refractive error from –6.42 ± 4.69 diopters (D) preoperatively to –1.26 ± 1.45 D (P = 0.001) at 1 year. In the same period, the mean K-readings improved from 49.38 ± 3.72 D to 44.43 ± 3.13 D (P = 0.001), and the mean ISAI improved from 7.92 ± 3.12 to 4.21 ± 1.96 (P = 0.003). No significant changes in mean central corneal thickness were observed postoperatively. There were no major complications during and or after surgery.
Conclusion:
ICRS implantation using a unique mechanical dissection technique is a safe and effective treatment for keratoconus. All parameters improved by the 1-year follow-up.
doi:10.4103/0301-4738.109519
PMCID: PMC3730505  PMID: 23571258
Intrastromal corneal ring segments; keraring; keratoconus
24.  Efficacy and Safety of Cataract Extraction with Negative Power Intraocular Lens Implantation§ 
Purpose:
To evaluate the visual and refractive outcomes, lens power calculation accuracy, and safety of negative power intraocular lenses (IOLs) implanted in highly myopic eyes at the time of cataract surgery.
Design:
Interventional case series.
Methods:
Sixteen consecutive highly myopic eyes implanted with IOLs from –1 D to –6 D were identified. IOL power; preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA); postoperative uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA); preoperative, intended, and achieved spherical equivalent (SE) refractive errors; and operative complications were recorded.
Results:
Median UCVA improved from finger counting to 20/50-2. Median BCVA improved from 20/125-1 to 20/30+1. Mean axial length was 32.65 mm. The mean SE refractive error was –22.19 ± 5.4 D before surgery and -0.28 ± 1.4 D after surgery. The difference between the mean intended and mean achieved SE refractive errors was +1.16 D for the SRK/T, +1.2 D for the Holladay 1, and +1.60 D for the Hoffer Q formulas. Only 5 (33.3%) of 15 eyes in which postoperative measurements were possible were within 1 D of the intended SE postoperative refraction. Postoperative complications included a mildly hyperopic postoperative refractive error (+1.75 D) in one eye necessitating an IOL exchange and posterior capsule opacification in most eyes. There were no retinal detachments.
Conclusions:
The SRK/T formula had the greatest accuracy and predictability when immersion A-scan ultrasonography was used to measure axial length. The mean achieved postoperative refractive error was +1.16 D more hyperopic than predicted by this formula. We recommend targeting highly myopic eyes for –1.5 D using the SRK/T formula if a negative power IOL is calculated and emmetropia or mild residual myopia is the desired postoperative result.
doi:10.2174/1874364100802010015
PMCID: PMC2687099  PMID: 19478922
25.  Scleral Fixation of a One-Piece Toric Intraocular lens 
Purpose
To describe a novel technique for toric intraocular lens (IOL) repositioning and fixation in the absence of adequate capsular support
Methods
Case report and literature review
Results
Two cases are presented with scleral fixation of a one-piece toric IOL (SN6AT series, Alcon Inc.) In both cases, toric IOLs initially placed within the capsular bag became decentered due to poor capsular support and/or posterior capsule rupture. To avoid the potential complications of lens explantation and maintain the astigmatic benefits of the toric IOL, scleral fixation of the lenses was performed. The Hoffman technique was used to create reverse scleral pockets without conjunctival dissection. A 10-0 suture was used to capture and then secure the lens haptics in a lasso-type fashion. Sutures were then buried within the previously created scleral pockets. Both patients had well centered lenses postoperatively and have remained stable at last follow-up, up to thirty months postoperatively.
Conclusion
In the absence of adequate capsular support, scleral fixation is a viable option for one-piece toric IOL fixation to avoid IOL explanation
doi:10.3928/1081597X-20130117-10
PMCID: PMC3748721  PMID: 23380416

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