Beta thalassemia major is an inherited disease resulting from reduction or total lack of beta globin chains. Patients with this disease need repeated blood transfusion for survival. This may cause oxidative stress and tissue injury due to iron overload, altered antioxidant enzymes, and other essential trace element levels. The aim of this review is to scrutinize the relationship between oxidative stress and serum trace elements, degree of damage caused by oxidative stress, and the role of antioxidant enzymes in beta thalassemia major patients. The findings indicate that oxidative stress in patients with beta thalassemia major is mainly caused by tissue injury due to over production of free radical by secondary iron overload, alteration in serum trace elements and antioxidant enzymes level. The role of trace elements like selenium, copper, iron, and zinc in beta thalassemia major patients reveals a significant change of these trace elements. Studies published on the status of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and glutathione S-transferase in beta thalassemia patients also showed variable results. The administration of selective antioxidants along with essential trace elements and minerals to reduce the extent of oxidative damage and related complications in beta thalassemia major still need further evaluation.
Beta-thalassemia major is an autosomal recessive disease causing severe and hemolytic anemia, which begins about 2-6 months after birth. Iron overload, which arises from recurrent transfusion and ineffective erythropoiesis, can enhance oxidative stress in thalassemic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum total antioxidant capacity of patients with ß-Thalassemia major.
Sixty six Iranian patients with β-thalassemia major and 66 age-gender matched controls were evaluated for serum total antioxidant status (TAS), uric acid (UA), bilirubin and albumin. In addition, serum ferritin and transaminases were recorded in these subjects.
Significant increases of TAS, UA, and bilirubin were observed in the patient group, compared with the control group (P<0.01). Mean TAS and bilirubin in male patients was higher than in females (P=0.005 and P=0.008, respectively). There was also direct correlation between TAS and albumin (P<0.001), bilirubin (P<0.001) and UA (P=0.002).
Endogenous antioxidants such as ferritin, UA and bilirubin can result in increased level of TAS in the patients with Beta-thalassemia major. Compensatory excess of TAS to oxidative stress could also be the reason for difference between our findings and previous studies.
β-Thalassemia Major; Oxidative Stress; Antioxidants; Ferritin; Uric Acid
Crystal aggregation and retention are critical events for the formation of kidney stones. There is a close association between crystal development and free radical activity in vivo. In the present study 30 subjects presenting with urolithiasis were included. Serum levels of total lipid peroxides, nitric oxide (as nitrite), α-tocopherol, plasma ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were measured. These findings were compared with 30 age matched control subjects irrespective of sex. Student's ‘t’ test was applied for statistical analysis. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxides (p<0.001), where as significant decrease in nitrite (p<0.01) and α-tocopherol (p<0.001) levels were observed. Plasma ascorbate (p>0.05) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity (p>0.05) was also found to be decreased but the difference was not statistically significant which suggests that oxidative stress is evident in urolithiasis with depletion in antioxidant status where as decrease in nitric oxide may be less abetting in disease condition.
Urolithiasis; Lipid Peroxidation; Nitric Oxide; Antioxidants
Most of the techniques for measuring iron stores such as serum iron concentration, iron binding capacity, serum ferritin level, liver biopsy can be troublesome or invasive for patients with thalassemia. The salivary iron measurement could be of potential advantage being an easy and non invasive approach for diagnosis of iron deficiency and iron overload . The aim of this study was to compare the levels of iron and ferritin in saliva and serum of patients affected by thalassemia or iron deficiency anemia. For this purpose, 96 patients with iron overload (71 with thalassemia major, 10 with thalassemia intermedia and 15 with thalassemia trait), 30 patients with iron deficiency anemia, and 35 healthy children as control group were involved in this study. Their saliva and serum iron and ferritin levels were measured. Iron and ferritin levels were higher in iron overload groups than in control group and lower in iron deficiency group (p<0.05). Furthermore serum and saliva iron and ferritin levels paralleled in all groups. In conclusion, iron and ferritin saliva can be routinely used for diagnosis of both iron overload and deficiency; furthermore this procedure may be an important advantage for blood donors being easily available and not invasive.
In the present study, the role of serum lipid peroxide and serum nitric oxide as oxidants and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase & serum vitamin E as antioxidants were determined in the 50 neonates with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. (HIE) as against 25 healthy neonates as controls 50 patients of HIE were further divided into two groups i. e. mild and moderate HIE patients. All subjects were in the age group of 37–41 weeks of gestation. The levels of serum lipid peroxide, serum nitric oxide and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase were significantly elevated in both groups of neonates with HIE than those of controls (P<0.001), whereas serum vitamin E levels were significantly decreased in both groups of HIE patients than those of controls (P<0.001). A positive correlation was obtained between serum lipid peroxide and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (r=+0.86). Alterations in the status of oxidants and antioxidants indicate role of free radicals in the development of HIE.
Lipid peroxide; nitric oxide; superoxide dismutase; vitamin E; hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy
Liver transplantation is an accepted therapy for chronic liver disease patients. These patients generally have low levels of fat soluble vitamins, which have important antioxidant roles. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate whether such patients had evidence of antioxidant depletion and increased lipid peroxidation before transplant and whether the subsequent ischemia and reperfusion encountered during liver transplantation have any effect on antioxidant levels and lipid peroxidation. We assessed plasma total antioxidant capacity and serum lipid peroxide in 12 patients undergoing liver transplantation and equal numbers of healthy subjects. We found that before reperfusion, antioxidant levels were significantly decreased along with significantly elevated lipid peroxidation levels as compared with healthy controls (P<0.001). On reperfusion of the liver graft, further declined values of total antioxidant accompanied with highly elevated lipid peroxidation were seen than those of pre-reperfusion samples (P<0.001). This data shows that patients undergoing liver transplant have lowered antioxidant defenses and evidence of free radical damage, which compound the additional insult of reperfusion injury. Therefore antioxidant therapy in these patients before transplantation may ameliorate the effects of reperfusion.
Ischemia/reperfusion injury; Total antioxidant; Lipid peroxidation
Previous phenotyping of glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion in a mouse model of hereditary hemochromatosis (Hfe−/−) and iron overload suggested mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondria from Hfe−/− mouse liver exhibited decreased respiratory capacity and increased lipid peroxidation. Although the cytosol contained excess iron, Hfe−/− mitochondria contained normal iron but decreased copper, manganese, and zinc, associated with reduced activities of copper-dependent cytochrome c oxidase and manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). The attenuation in MnSOD activity was due to substantial levels of unmetallated apoprotein. The oxidative damage in Hfe−/− mitochondria is due to diminished MnSOD activity, as manganese supplementation of Hfe−/− mice led to enhancement of MnSOD activity and suppressed lipid peroxidation. Manganese supplementation also resulted in improved insulin secretion and glucose tolerance associated with increased MnSOD activity and decreased lipid peroxidation in islets. These data suggest a novel mechanism of iron-induced cellular dysfunction, namely altered mitochondrial uptake of other metal ions.
Pregnancy is associated with increased demand of all the nutrients like Iron, Copper, Zinc etc. and deficiency of any of these could affect pregnancy, delivery and out come of pregnancy. With this consideration, the study was conducted on 80 mothers and newborns and 20 age matched control women. Out of 80 mothers, 34 had Iron deficiency anemia and their Hb levels were below 9.0 gm/d1. Pregnant women had significantly lower Iron and Zinc levels while Copper and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) were significantly higher (P<0.001). Newborns had significantly elevated Iron and Zinc levels and low levels of Copper and TIBC as compared to their mothers irrespective of Iron deficiency anemia. Micronutrient status of newborn was found to be dependent on their mother's micronutrient status. Besides, results also suggest micronutrient interactions, which are reflected in Iron/Zinc, Iron/Copper and Zinc/Copper ratios. In view of this, there is need for proper, adequate and balanced micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy to affect a healthy outcome.
Iron; Copper; Zinc; Pregnancy; Newborn; Iron Deficiency Anemia
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of malarial anemia. The present study was undertaken to study the role of oxidant and antioxidants in the patients ofPlasmodium falciparum malaria (n=25),Plasmodium vivax malaria (n=25) as against the normal control subjects (n=25). The parameters included are the hematological [hemoglobin, erythrocyte adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity, ADP-induced platelet aggregation] and serum total lipid peroxide as an index of oxidative stress and antioxidants [erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, serum vitamin E] & serum iron.
Significant alterations in all above parameters were noted in both groups of malaria patients as compared to control subjects. Maximum significant alterations in hematological parameters were noticed inP. falciparum infection as compared toP. vivax malaria (p<0.001). Substantial rise in serum total lipid peroxides and a significant reduction in antioxidants such as serum vitamin E and serum iron were noted inP. falciparum malaria as compared toP. vivax malaria (p<0.001), whereas maximum decline in erythrocytic SOD activity was observed inP. vivax infection as compared toP. falciparum malaria (p<0.05). Follow-up examination revealed the restoration of the levels of all biochemical parameters to the normal level after 20 days of antimalarial therapy.
The study specified severity ofP. falciparum malaria and also functional duality of oxidant.
Hematological Parameters; Lipid Peroxidation; Antioxidants; Malaria
In beta thalassemic patients, tissue damage occurs due to oxidative stress and it happens because of the accumulation of iron in the body. This study was conducted to determine the effect of zinc and vitamin E supplementation on antioxidant status in beta-thalassemic major patients.
This double blind randomized clinical trial was carried out on 120 beta thalassemic patients older than 18 years. Patients were randomly categorized in four groups. Zinc (50mg/day) and vitamin E (400mg/day) supplements were administered for former and latter group, respectively. In the third group both supplements were administered in similar doses. The fourth (control) group received no supplement. The effect of supplementations on serum zinc and vitamin E, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and body mass index (BMI) were measured at the beginning and the end of the study.
Serum zinc levels in group 1 and 3 were significantly increased (P<0.007 and P<0.005, respectively). Serum vitamin E levels in group 2 and 3 were also increased significantly (P<0.001). Mean GPX activity in group1, 2 and 3 decreased significantly (P<0.015, P<0.032 and P<0.029, respectively). Mean SOD activity and TAC did not show significant change after supplementation. BMI had significant increase in all treated groups (P<0.001).
Our results suggest that beta thalassemic patients have enhanced oxidative stress and administration of selective antioxidants may preclude oxidative damage.
Vitamin E; Zinc; Glutathione Peroxidase; Superoxide Dismutase; Body Mass Index; Antioxidants
Iron cardiomyopathy is a lethal complication of transfusion therapy in thalassemia major. Nutritional supplements decreasing cardiac iron uptake or toxicity would have clinical significance. Murine studies suggest taurine may prevent oxidative damage and inhibit Ca2+-channel-mediated iron transport. We hypothesized that taurine supplementation would decrease cardiac iron-overloaded toxicity by decreasing cardiac iron. Vitamin E and selenium served as antioxidant control.
Animals were divided into control, iron, taurine, and vitamin E/selenium groups. Following sacrifice, iron and selenium measurements, histology, and biochemical analyses were performed.
No significant differences were found in heart and liver iron content between treatment groups, except for higher hepatic dry-weight iron concentrations in taurine-treated animals (p < 0.03). Serum iron increased with iron loading (751 ± 66 vs. 251 ± 54 μg/dl, p < 0.001) and with taurine (903 ± 136 μg/dl, p = 0.03).
Consistent with oxidative stress, iron overload increased cardiac malondialdehyde levels, decreased heart glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and increased serum aspartate aminotransferase. Taurine ameliorated these changes, but only significantly for liver GPx activity. Selenium and vitamin E supplementation did not improve oxidative markers and worsened cardiac GPx activity. These results suggest that taurine acts primarily as an antioxidant rather than inhibiting iron uptake. Future studies should illuminate the complexity of these results.
Iron overload; Taurine; Heart; Liver; Antioxidants
The β-Thalassemia syndromes are the most common hereditary chronic hemolytic anemia due to impaired globin chain synthesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays several roles in angiogenesis which is a crucial process in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory, autoimmune and malignant diseases. Endothelial damage and inflammation make a significant contribution to the pathophysiology of β-thalassemia.
: The aim of the study was to assess serum VEGF level in children with beta-thalassemia major as a marker of angiogenesis.
A total of 50 children entered the study, 40 patients with thalassemia major and 10 healthy controls. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantitative evaluation of VEGF.
VEGF level was significantly higher in patients with β-thalassemia major than healthy controls (p=0.001). VEGF level was also higher in splenectomised thalassemic patients than non splenectomised ones (p=0.001). There were a positive correlation between VEGF and chelation starting age (p=0.008), and a negative correlation between VEGF and frequency of blood transfusion (p=0.002).
Thalassemia patients, especially splenectomized, have elevated serum levels of VEGF. Early chelation and regular blood transfusion help to decrease serum VEGF and the risk of angiogenesis.
Oxidative stress induced by the production of reactive oxygen species may play a critical role in the stimulation of HIV replication and the development of immunodeficiency. This study was conducted as there are limited and inconclusive studies on the significance of a novel early marker of oxidative stress which can reflect the total antioxidant capacity in HIV patients,
Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid peroxidation were evaluated in 50 HIV-1 seropositive patients (including HIV-1 symptomatics and asymptomatics). Controls included 50 age and sex matched and apparently healthy HIV-1 seronegative subjects. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), Total antioxidant capacity [TAC] (by ferric reducing antioxidant power assay), vitamin E, vitamin C and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity were estimated among controls and cases. Statistical comparisons and correlations at 5% level of significance were determined.
Results and Discussion
The mean MDA concentrations were significantly elevated in both HIV-1 asymptomatic (CD4+ count > 500 cells/microliter) and HIV-1 symptomatic (CD4+ count <500 cells/microliter) groups (Mean ± S.D values were 2.2 +/- 0.7 nmol/ml and 2.8 +/- 0.8 nmol/ml respectively) when compared with the control group (Mean ± S.D value was 0.9 +/- 0.2 nmol/ml) (p < 0.01). The mean TAC of HIV- 1 asymptomatic and HIV-1 symptomatic (Mean ± S.D values were 754.6 ± 135.6 μmol/L and 676.6 ± 154.1 μmol/L respectively) patients were significantly reduced compared with the control group (Mean ± S.D value was 1018.7 ± 125.6 μmol/L) (p < 0.01). Also, there were significantly decreased levels of vitamin E, vitamin C and SOD among HIV-1 seropositive patients(controls > asymptomatic > symptomatic) compared to controls (p < 0.01). TAC showed significant negative correlation with MDA among HIV-1 infected patients (p < 0.01).
Our results clearly show that severe oxidative stress occurs in the HIV-1 seropositive patients in comparison with controls, and increases significantly with the progression of disease, i.e. HIV-1 symptomatics > asymptomatics > controls. TAC can be used as a novel early bio-chemical marker of oxidative stress in HIV-1 infected patients which may result in reduced tissue damage by free radicals and help to monitor and optimize antioxidant therapy in such patients.
Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is characterized by heavy proteinuria and hypoalbuminuria. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) seem to play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of proteinuria in NS. This study aims to evaluate the potential role of reactive oxygen species in pathogenesis of NS by estimating the levels of oxidants and antioxidants in children with NS. Thirty patients of NS and thirty age, sex-matched healthy subjects, were selected for the study. As compared to healthy controls, the levels of serum lipid peroxide were significantly elevated while levels of nitric oxide, erythrocyte-superoxide dismutase activity, levels of vitamin C, albumin and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced in nephrotic patients. The levels of uric acid and bilirubin were significantly increased in children with NS as compared to controls. There was no significant difference in vitamin E level between patients and controls. It can be concluded that increased ROS generation and decreased antioxidant defense may be related to the pathogenesis of proteinuria in NS.
Nephrotic syndrome; reactive oxygen species; lipid peroxide; total antioxidant capacity
Generation of reactive oxygen species is an important factor in the development and maintenance of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in humans. This study was undertaken to investigate interplay among oxidants, antioxidants and pathogenesis of Rheumatoid arthritis. Serum levels of lipid peroxides, nitric oxide, vitamin E and ratio of calcium/phosphorus in RA patients were determined and compared with normal healthy controls. Significant increases in lipid peroxides (p<0.001) and nitric oxide (p<0.001) levels were found in patients presenting with RA as compared to controls. Whereas significant decrease in vitamin E (P<0.001) and calcium/phosphorus ratio (p<0.001) were found in Rheumatoid arthritis patients as compared to controls. Positive correlation was found between lipid peroxides and nitric oxide as well as between vitamin E and calcium. While lipid peroxides and nitric oxide were correlated negatively with vitamin E. whereas negative correlation was observed between MDA and Calcium/Phosphorus ratio in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Our findings suggest that there is a close association between bone loss and oxidative threat in patients presenting with Rheumatoid arthritis.
Rheumatoid arthritis; oxidative stress; lipid peroxidation; vitamin E; Calcium/Phosphorus
Cervical cancer (CaCx) is a global public health problem as it is the second most common cancer leading to the death of women worldwide. Many references revealed that the low levels of antioxidants induce the generation of free radicals leading to DNA damage and further mutations. In the present study attempt have been made to evaluate the levels of serum Lipid peroxide, Nitric Oxide (NO.) Erythrocytic—Superoxide Dismutase (RBC-SOD), Vitamin-C, serum Copper (Cu) and serum Zinc (Zn). 120 patients were divided in 4 groups according to the increasing CaCx stages i.e. stage I, II, III & IV respectively. All the patients were around the age group of 25–65 years. 30 healthy women between the same age group were treated as controls. Highly significant increased values of MDA, NO. and Cu were observed (p<0.001) whereas the activity of RBC-SOD, levels of Vitamin-C and Zn were significantly decreased in CaCx patients as compared with healthy controls (p<0.001). Cu/Zn ratio was found to be altered in CaCx patients. From our findings it can be concluded that the oxidative stress is induced among CaCx patients, which inturn increases the risk of CaCx.
Lipid peroxide; Cervical cancer; RBC-SOD; Nitric Oxide; Vitamin-C; Copper; Zinc
There had been conflicting reports with levels of markers of iron metabolism in HIV infection. This study was therefore aimed at investigating iron status and its possible mediation of severity of HIV- 1 infection and pathogenesis.
Eighty (80) anti-retroviral naive HIV-1 positive and 50 sero-negative controls were recruited for the study. Concentrations of serum total iron, transferrin, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), CD4+ T -lymphocytes, vitamin C, zinc, selenium and transferrin saturation were estimated.
The mean CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell counts, serum iron, TIBC, transferrin saturation for the tests and controls were 319 ± 22, 952 ± 57 cells/μl (P < 0.001), 35 ± 0.8, 11.8 ± 0.9 μmol/l (P < 0.001), 58.5 ± 2.2, 45.2 ± 2.4 μmol/l (P < 0.005) and 68.8 ± 3.3, 27.7 ± 2.2%, (P <0.001), respectively, while mean concentrations of vitamin C, zinc and selenium were 0.03 ± 0.01, 0.3 ± 0.04 (P < 0.001), 0.6 ± 0.05, 11.9 ± 0.26 μmol/l (P < 0.001) and 0.1 ± 0.01, 1.2 ± 0.12 μmol/l (P < 0.001) respectively. Furthermore, CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell count had a positive correlation with levels of vitamin C (r = 0.497, P < 0.001), zinc (r = 0.737, P < 0.001), selenium (r = 0.639, P < 0.001) and a negative correlation with serum iron levels (r = −0.572, P < 0.001).
It could be inferred that derangement in iron metabolism, in addition to oxidative stress, might have contributed to the depletion of CD4+ T cell population in our subjects and this may result in poor prognosis of the disease.
Iron metabolism; HIV-1 infection; Pathogenesis; Prognosis; Antioxidant; Free radicals
Iron overload is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in β-thalassemia with or without transfusion dependence. Iron homeostasis is regulated by the hepatic peptide hormone hepcidin. Hepcidin controls dietary iron absorption, plasma iron concentrations, and tissue iron distribution. Hepcidin deficiency is the main or contributing factor of iron overload in iron-loading anemias such as β-thalassemia. Hepcidin deficiency results from a strong suppressive effect of the high erythropoietic activity on hepcidin expression. Although in thalassemia major patients iron absorption contributes less to the total iron load than transfusions, in non-transfused thalassemia, low hepcidin and the consequent hyperabsorption of dietary iron is the major cause of systemic iron overload. Hepcidin diagnostics and future therapeutic agonists may help in management of patients with β-thalassemia.
hepcidin; β-thalassemia; iron overload
Phototherapy has been related to increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. In the present study, thirty full term jaundiced neonates with appropriate weight were analyzed before and after completion of phototherapy for malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), total thiols, vitamin C and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in hemolysate and albumin levels in plasma. These parameters were analyzed in cord blood samples of 20 healthy neonates as control. It was observed that levels of MDA were elevated significantly (p<0.001) in patients as compared to controls and that the levels increased significantly after phototherapy (p<0.001). Levels of SOD were also found to be increased significantly as compared to controls and the levels rose after phototherapy (p<0.001). On the other hand, the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as GSH, total thiols and vitamin C were significantly low (p<0.001) as compared to controls and the levels decreased significantly after phototherapy (p<0.001). The plasma albumin levels also were found to be decreased significantly after phototherapy (p<0.01). Therefore, phototherapy increases oxidative stress and should be used with care.
Neonatal Jaundice; Oxidative stress; Phototherapy
Coronary Artery Disease is the major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Traditional risk factors account for only half of the morbidity and mortality from coronary artery disease. There is substantial evidence that oxidative stress plays the major role in the atherosclerotic process. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the level of lipid peroxidation (by measuring malondialdehyde) and antioxidant enzymes (ceruloplasmin, glutathione, superoxide dismutase) in coronary artery disease. Serum malondialdehyde levels and serum ceruloplasmin levels were significantly raised in all the subgroups of study group as compared to control group (p<0.001). Whole blood glutathione levels and hemolysate superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased in all the subgroups of study group as compared to control group (p<0.001). Above results suggests that the patients of coronary artery disease show increased oxidative stress and decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes. So it is recommended that the management protocol for coronary artery disease patients should include antioxidant supplementation along with simultaneous lowering of lipid peroxidation.
Coronary artery disease; Lipid peroxidation; Antioxidants; Ceruloplasmin
Hypothyroidism usually appears in the second decade of life and is thought to be associated with iron overload in patients with thalassemia major. This study aimed to evaluate thyroid dysfunctions in patients with beta-thalassemia major and to see if they appear in the earlier period of life.
Thyroid function and iron load status were evaluated in 90 children with a mean age of 7.17±3.78 years with beta-thalassemia major by measuring serum free thyroxin (FT4), serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), total thyroxin (T3), serum total triiodothyronine (T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and ferritin levels from serum of patients admitted to the Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine University of Dicle between March 2005 and July 2009. A control group formed from an age-sex matched healthy children with a mean age of 6.98±3.66 years was also included. A standard thyrotropin releasing hormone test was applied to 3 patients who had high TSH levels and were classified as subclinical primer hypothyroidism. The study was designed according to the Declaration of Helsinki and informed consent was obtained from the parents of all participants.
All thyroid parameters in patients were in the normal ranges compared with the controls except three of them which had high TSH levels. Serum ferritin level (2703±1649 ng/mL) in patients was significantly higher than in controls (81.5±15.5 ng/mL).
The work implies that hypothyroidism could be even seen in the first decade of life in patients with beta-thalassemia major in spite of improved hematological cares.
Beta-Thalassemia; Hypothyroidism; Iron Overload; Chelation Therapy; Splenectomy
The effect of an intrinsic defect in the red cell and pronounced hypochromia on oxidative damage to RBC membrane lipids was compared in beta-thalassemia and iron deficiency anemia (IDA), which have a varied etiology but equivalent low hemogiobin content. The study was planned to correlate the etiology of the disorders to the severity of lipid imbalance and RBC hemolysis in membranes of both the conditions. Results indicated a fall of lysophosphatidylcholine(LPC), phosphatidylethanolamine(PE) and the unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio in both conditions, while phosphatidylcholine(PC) increased only in thalassemia. However, irrespective of the disease, sphingomyelin(SM), total cholesterol and phospholipid levels elevated and the hydrogen peroxide stress test indicated increased susceptibility of both pathologic RBCs to peroxidation. Present findings indicate that IDA and thalassemla, allow for considerable amounts of oxidative damage to membrane lipids, irrespective of their etiologles, and thus point hypochromia as an important contributor for inducing lipid imbalance and RBC hemolysis.
Hypochromia; intrinsic defect; oxidation; RBC membrane; lipid imbalance
The objective of the present study is to evaluate the beneficial effect of tomatoes, which are rich source of Lycopene, relatively a new carotenoid known to play an important role in human health and disease. In this study lipid peroxidation rate was measured by estimating Malondialdehyde and the levels of serum enzymes involved in antioxidant activities like Super Oxide Dismutase, Glutathione Peroxidase, Glutathione Reductase, Reduced Glutathione, in type-II diabetic group (n=40) and age matched control group (n=50), and observed significantly lower levels of antioxidant enzymes and very high lipid peroxidation rate in type-II diabetes when compared to control group (p<0.001). Short term supplementation with tomatoes (cooked) to diabetic group for a period of 30 days, showed a significant improvement in antioxidant enzyme levels (p<0.001) and decreased lipid peroxidation rate (p<0.001) suggesting the supplementation with tomato lycopene may serve as the best method of preventing the oxidative stress in diabetic patients.
Tomoto lycopene; Malondialdehyde; Super Oxide Dismutase; Catalase; Reduced Glutathione; Glutathione Reductase; Glutathione Peroxidase
One of the hallmarks of both sickle cell disease (SCD) and thalassemia major (TM) is accelerated oxidative damage. Decreased antioxidant levels and increased oxidant stress biomarkers are found in both diseases. Although isolated vitamin deficiencies have been reported in TM and nontransfused SCD patients, a comprehensive evaluation of vitamin and trace mineral levels has never been performed in chronically transfused SCD or TM patients. As vitamins and trace minerals may be consumed as a result of chronic oxidative stress; we hypothesized that levels of these compounds would correlate with surrogates of iron overload, hemolysis, and inflammation in chronically transfused patients. Using a convenience sample of our group of chronically transfused patients we studied 43 patients with SCD (17 male, 26 female) and 24 patients with TM (13 male and 11 female). The age range for our patients varied from 1.5 to 31.4 years. Levels of vitamins A, thiamin, B6, B12, C, D, E as well as selenium, zinc, copper, and ceruloplasmin were measured. We found that 40–75% of the patients were deficient in A, C, D and selenium and 28–38% of the patients had low levels of B vitamins and folate. There was little association with iron overload, hemolysis, or inflammation. Although the precise mechanism of these deficiencies is unclear, they may contribute to the morbidity of chronically transfused hemoglobinopathy patients.
Many plants are claimed to possess antidiabetic and antioxidant activity. In practice, it is being increasingly recognized to be an alternative approach to modern medicine. This study assess the antioxidant capacity of Tinospora cordifolia stem methanol extract in daily oral administration of 500 mg/kg of body weight for 40 days in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The erythrocytes membrane lipid peroxide and catalase activity was increased where as the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase were found to be decreased significantly (P<0.01) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The levels of lipid peroxide in liver of diabetic rats increased significantly (P<0.01) and catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase in liver was significantly decreased in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, when compared to normal rats. After treatment of methanol Tinospora cordifolia stem extract brings back to normal (P<0.01) in the erythrocytes membrane and liver cell enzymes activities.
Alloxan; antioxidant; diabetes; Tinospora cordifolia stem; Tinospora cordifolia