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1.  Correlation of Oxidative Stress with Serum Trace Element Levels and Antioxidant Enzyme Status in Beta Thalassemia Major Patients: A Review of the Literature 
Anemia  2012;2012:270923.
Beta thalassemia major is an inherited disease resulting from reduction or total lack of beta globin chains. Patients with this disease need repeated blood transfusion for survival. This may cause oxidative stress and tissue injury due to iron overload, altered antioxidant enzymes, and other essential trace element levels. The aim of this review is to scrutinize the relationship between oxidative stress and serum trace elements, degree of damage caused by oxidative stress, and the role of antioxidant enzymes in beta thalassemia major patients. The findings indicate that oxidative stress in patients with beta thalassemia major is mainly caused by tissue injury due to over production of free radical by secondary iron overload, alteration in serum trace elements and antioxidant enzymes level. The role of trace elements like selenium, copper, iron, and zinc in beta thalassemia major patients reveals a significant change of these trace elements. Studies published on the status of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and glutathione S-transferase in beta thalassemia patients also showed variable results. The administration of selective antioxidants along with essential trace elements and minerals to reduce the extent of oxidative damage and related complications in beta thalassemia major still need further evaluation.
PMCID: PMC3357501  PMID: 22645668
2.  Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in beta-thalassemia heterozygotes 
Several studies have evaluated the oxidant and antioxidant status of thalassemia patients but most focused mainly on the severe and intermediate states of the disease. Moreover, the oxidative status has not been evaluated for the different beta-thalassemia mutations.
To evaluate lipid peroxidation and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity in relation to serum iron and ferritin in beta thalassemia resulting from two different mutations (CD39 and IVS-I-110) compared to individuals without beta-thalassemia.
One hundred and thirty subjects were studied, including 49 who were heterozygous for beta-thalassemia and 81 controls. Blood samples were subjected to screening tests for hemoglobin. Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm mutations for beta-thalassemia, an analysis of thiobarbituric acid reactive species was used to determine lipid peroxidation, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity evaluations were performed. The heterozygous beta-thalassemia group was also evaluated for serum iron and ferritin status.
Thiobarbituric acid reactive species (486.24 ± 119.64 ng/mL) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values (2.23 ± 0.11 mM/L) were higher in beta-thalassemia heterozygotes compared to controls (260.86 ± 92.40 ng/mL and 2.12 ± 0.10 mM/L, respectively; p-value < 0.01). Increased thiobarbituric acid reactive species values were observed in subjects with the CD39 mutation compared with those with the IVS-I-110 mutation (529.94 ± 115.60 ng/mL and 453.39 ± 121.10 ng/mL, respectively; p-value = 0.04). However, average Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values were similar for both mutations (2.20 ± 0.08 mM/L and 2.23 ± 0.12 mM/L, respectively; p-value = 0.39). There was no influence of serum iron and ferritin levels on thiobarbituric acid reactive species and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values.
This study shows an increase of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in beta-thalassemia heterozygotes, mainly in carriers of the CD39 mutation.
PMCID: PMC3905823  PMID: 24478607
Oxidative stress; Beta-thalassemia; Lipid peroxidation; Beta-globins; Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; Mutation
3.  Total Antioxidant Status in Patients with Major β-Thalassemia 
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics  2011;21(2):159-165.
Beta-thalassemia major is an autosomal recessive disease causing severe and hemolytic anemia, which begins about 2-6 months after birth. Iron overload, which arises from recurrent transfusion and ineffective erythropoiesis, can enhance oxidative stress in thalassemic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum total antioxidant capacity of patients with ß-Thalassemia major.
Sixty six Iranian patients with β-thalassemia major and 66 age-gender matched controls were evaluated for serum total antioxidant status (TAS), uric acid (UA), bilirubin and albumin. In addition, serum ferritin and transaminases were recorded in these subjects.
Significant increases of TAS, UA, and bilirubin were observed in the patient group, compared with the control group (P<0.01). Mean TAS and bilirubin in male patients was higher than in females (P=0.005 and P=0.008, respectively). There was also direct correlation between TAS and albumin (P<0.001), bilirubin (P<0.001) and UA (P=0.002).
Endogenous antioxidants such as ferritin, UA and bilirubin can result in increased level of TAS in the patients with Beta-thalassemia major. Compensatory excess of TAS to oxidative stress could also be the reason for difference between our findings and previous studies.
PMCID: PMC3446157  PMID: 23056782
β-Thalassemia Major; Oxidative Stress; Antioxidants; Ferritin; Uric Acid
4.  A Study of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Effect of Oral Antioxidant Supplementation in Severe Acute Malnutrition 
Background: Malnutrition represents one of the most severe health problems in India. Free radicals play an important role in immunological response, which induces the oxidative surplus in severe acute malnutrition. Severe dietary deficiency of nutrients leads to increased oxidative stress in cellular compartments.
Aim: The goal of this study was to inspect impact of oxidative stress in the form of serum malondialdehyde as product of lipid peroxidation, vitamin E, zinc and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in patients with severe acute malnutrition.
Material and Methods: Sixty severe acute malnutrition patients were studied before and after supplementation of antioxidants for one month, and their status were compared with those of 60 age and sex matched healthy controls.
The level of serum MDA was analyzed by the Kei Satoh method, serum vitamin E concentration was measured by Baker and Frank Method, serum zinc was measured by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase was measured by Kajari Das Method.
Results: Significantly increased levels of serum malondialdehyde (p<0.001) were found in the patients as compared to those in controls, and significant depletions were found in the levels of serum vitamin E, zinc and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in patients with severe acute malnutrition as compared to those in controls.
After supplementation of antioxidants for one month, the levels of malondialdehyde were found to be decreased significantly (p<0.001) and zinc and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase capacity levels were increased significantly (p<0.05). Also, there was a non–significant (p>0.05) increase in vitamin E levels as compared to those before supplementation results.
Conclusion: Harsh deficiency of various nutrients in severe acute malnutrition leads to generation of heavy oxidative stress. These effects may be minimized with supplementation of antioxidants.
PMCID: PMC3842512  PMID: 24298460
Severe acute malnutrition; Oxidative stress; Zinc
5.  Effects of Vitamin E and Zinc Supplementation on Antioxidants in Beta thalassemia major Patients 
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics  2011;21(1):8-14.
In beta thalassemic patients, tissue damage occurs due to oxidative stress and it happens because of the accumulation of iron in the body. This study was conducted to determine the effect of zinc and vitamin E supplementation on antioxidant status in beta-thalassemic major patients.
This double blind randomized clinical trial was carried out on 120 beta thalassemic patients older than 18 years. Patients were randomly categorized in four groups. Zinc (50mg/day) and vitamin E (400mg/day) supplements were administered for former and latter group, respectively. In the third group both supplements were administered in similar doses. The fourth (control) group received no supplement. The effect of supplementations on serum zinc and vitamin E, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and body mass index (BMI) were measured at the beginning and the end of the study.
Serum zinc levels in group 1 and 3 were significantly increased (P<0.007 and P<0.005, respectively). Serum vitamin E levels in group 2 and 3 were also increased significantly (P<0.001). Mean GPX activity in group1, 2 and 3 decreased significantly (P<0.015, P<0.032 and P<0.029, respectively). Mean SOD activity and TAC did not show significant change after supplementation. BMI had significant increase in all treated groups (P<0.001).
Our results suggest that beta thalassemic patients have enhanced oxidative stress and administration of selective antioxidants may preclude oxidative damage.
PMCID: PMC3446117  PMID: 23056757
Vitamin E; Zinc; Glutathione Peroxidase; Superoxide Dismutase; Body Mass Index; Antioxidants
6.  Glucose homeostasis in Egyptian children and adolescents with β-Thalassemia major: Relationship to oxidative stress 
Oxidative stress in children with β-thalassemia may contribute to shortened life span of erythrocytes and endocrinal abnormalities.
This study was aimed to evaluate glucose homeostasis in Egyptian children and adolescents with β-thalassemia major and its relation to oxidative stress.
Materials and Methods:
Sixty children and adolescents with β-thalassemia major were studied in comparison to 30 healthy age and sex-matched subjects. Detailed medical history, thorough clinical examination, and laboratory assessment of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), serum ferritin, alanine transferase (ALT), fasting insulin levels, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) as oxidant marker and serum total antioxidants capacity (TAC) were performed. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of abnormal OGTT.
The prevalence of diabetes was 5% (3 of 60) and impaired glucose tolerance test (IGT) was 8% (5 of 60). Fasting blood glucose, 2-hour post-load plasma glucose, serum ferritin, ALT, fasting insulin level, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and MDA levels were significantly elevated while TAC level was significantly decreased in thalassemic patients compared with healthy controls (P < 0.001 for each). The difference was more evident in patients with abnormal OGTT than those with normal oral glucose tolerance (P < 0.001 for each). We also observed that thalassemic patients not receiving or on irregular chelation therapy had significantly higher fasting, 2-h post-load plasma glucose, serum ferritin, ALT, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, oxidative stress markers OSI and MDA levels and significantly lower TAC compared with either those on regular chelation or controls. HOMA-IR was positively correlated with age, serum ferritin, ALT, MDA, and negatively correlated with TAC.
The development of abnormal glucose tolerance in Egyptian children and adolescents with β--thalassemia is associated with alteration in oxidant-antioxidant status and increase in insulin resistance.
1- Glucose tolerance tests, HOMA-IR, and MDA should be an integral part of the long-term follow-up of children and adolescents with β-thalassemia major. 2- Regular iron chelation and antioxidant therapy should be advised for thalassemic patients to improve glucose hemostasis.
PMCID: PMC4056131  PMID: 24944927
β-thalassemic major; diabetes mellitus; insulin resistance; oxidative stress
7.  Studies on biochemical changes with special reference to oxidant and antioxidants in malaria patients 
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of malarial anemia. The present study was undertaken to study the role of oxidant and antioxidants in the patients ofPlasmodium falciparum malaria (n=25),Plasmodium vivax malaria (n=25) as against the normal control subjects (n=25). The parameters included are the hematological [hemoglobin, erythrocyte adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity, ADP-induced platelet aggregation] and serum total lipid peroxide as an index of oxidative stress and antioxidants [erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, serum vitamin E] & serum iron.
Significant alterations in all above parameters were noted in both groups of malaria patients as compared to control subjects. Maximum significant alterations in hematological parameters were noticed inP. falciparum infection as compared toP. vivax malaria (p<0.001). Substantial rise in serum total lipid peroxides and a significant reduction in antioxidants such as serum vitamin E and serum iron were noted inP. falciparum malaria as compared toP. vivax malaria (p<0.001), whereas maximum decline in erythrocytic SOD activity was observed inP. vivax infection as compared toP. falciparum malaria (p<0.05). Follow-up examination revealed the restoration of the levels of all biochemical parameters to the normal level after 20 days of antimalarial therapy.
The study specified severity ofP. falciparum malaria and also functional duality of oxidant.
PMCID: PMC3453864  PMID: 23105405
Hematological Parameters; Lipid Peroxidation; Antioxidants; Malaria
8.  Antioxidant Enzymes and Oxidative Stress in the Erythrocytes of Iron Deficiency Anemic Patients Supplemented with Vitamins 
Iranian Biomedical Journal  2014;18(2):82-87.
Background: Iron deficiency anemia is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Evidences from epidemiological and clinical studies suggest a possible correlation between antioxidant levels and the anemic disease risk. The present work is to investigate antioxidant levels and lipid peroxidation in anemic patients. Methods: A number of 30 patients (15 males and 15 females) were selected for the study. Likewise, 30 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (15 males and 15 females) were selected with their informed consent. Patients and healthy subjects were supplemented with vitamins C and E for 15 days. The lipid peroxidation both in plasma and erythrocyte lysates was determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lipid peroxides. The antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E and total antioxidant activity were also analyzed. The antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were also determined. Results: Based on analysis, we found that the increase in lipid peroxidation was higher in the anemic subjects before vitamin supplementation, which was statistically significant at P<0.05. The antioxidant enzymes were higher in the patients before antioxidant supplementation when compared with patients after vitamin supplementation. Conclusion: Our data revealed higher oxidative stress before vitamin supplementation in iron deficiency anemic patients and after supplementation, lower lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidant vitamins were achieved.
PMCID: PMC3933916  PMID: 24518548
Iron deficiency anemia; Lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH); Vitamin C; Vitamin E; Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)
9.  Antioxidant-Mediated Effects in a Gerbil Model of Iron Overload 
Acta haematologica  2007;118(4):193-199.
Iron cardiomyopathy is a lethal complication of transfusion therapy in thalassemia major. Nutritional supplements decreasing cardiac iron uptake or toxicity would have clinical significance. Murine studies suggest taurine may prevent oxidative damage and inhibit Ca2+-channel-mediated iron transport. We hypothesized that taurine supplementation would decrease cardiac iron-overloaded toxicity by decreasing cardiac iron. Vitamin E and selenium served as antioxidant control.
Animals were divided into control, iron, taurine, and vitamin E/selenium groups. Following sacrifice, iron and selenium measurements, histology, and biochemical analyses were performed.
No significant differences were found in heart and liver iron content between treatment groups, except for higher hepatic dry-weight iron concentrations in taurine-treated animals (p < 0.03). Serum iron increased with iron loading (751 ± 66 vs. 251 ± 54 μg/dl, p < 0.001) and with taurine (903 ± 136 μg/dl, p = 0.03).
Consistent with oxidative stress, iron overload increased cardiac malondialdehyde levels, decreased heart glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and increased serum aspartate aminotransferase. Taurine ameliorated these changes, but only significantly for liver GPx activity. Selenium and vitamin E supplementation did not improve oxidative markers and worsened cardiac GPx activity. These results suggest that taurine acts primarily as an antioxidant rather than inhibiting iron uptake. Future studies should illuminate the complexity of these results.
PMCID: PMC2892915  PMID: 17940334
Iron overload; Taurine; Heart; Liver; Antioxidants
10.  Serum lipid profiles in patients with beta-thalassemia major and intermedia in southern Iran 
Beta-thalassemia is considered to be the most frequent hereditary blood disorder worldwide. Lipid abnormalities have been detected in different types of beta-thalassemia. The aim of this study is to assess the lipid profiles in beta-thalassemia major (BTM) and beta-thalassemia intermedia (BTI) patients in southern Iran.
The study group consisted of 55 BTM patients and 50 BTI patients. The control group included 130 sex-and age-matched healthy participants. Serum lipids profiles (total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol) as well as hemoglobin (Hb) and ferritin, were compared between the three groups. P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
There were no significant differences between BTM and BTI patients regarding age or sex. Mean triglyceride concentration was not significantly different between patients and controls. Total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly lower in patients with BTM and BTI in comparison with controls (p < 0.001). HDL-cholesterol was significantly lower in patients with BTI than in controls (p < 0.03).
In patients with BTM and BTI, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were lower than in control participants. The mechanisms that may account for these findings are increased erythropoiesis and cholesterol consumption in BTI, and iron overload and oxidative stress in BTM.
PMCID: PMC3082801  PMID: 21526074
Beta-Thalassemia Major; Beta-Thalassemia Intermedia; Total Cholesterol; LDL-Cholesterol; HDL-Cholesterol; Triglycerides
11.  Effect of excess alpha-hemoglobin chains on cellular and membrane oxidation in model beta-thalassemic erythrocytes. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1993;91(4):1706-1712.
While red cells from individuals with beta thalassemias are characterized by evidence of elevated in vivo oxidation, it has not been possible to directly examine the relationship between excess alpha-hemoglobin chains and the observed oxidant damage. To investigate the oxidative effects of unpaired alpha-hemoglobin chains, purified alpha-hemoglobin chains were entrapped within normal erythrocytes. These "model" beta-thalassemic cells generated significantly (P < 0.001) greater amounts of methemoglobin and intracellular hydrogen peroxide than did control cells. This resulted in significant time-dependent decreases in the protein concentrations and reduced thiol content of spectrin and ankyrin. These abnormalities correlated with the rate of alpha-hemoglobin chain autoxidation and appearance of membrane-bound globin. In addition, alpha-hemoglobin chain loading resulted in a direct decrease (38.5%) in catalase activity. In the absence of exogenous oxidants, membrane peroxidation and vitamin E levels were unaltered. However, when challenged with an external oxidant, lipid peroxidation and vitamin E oxidation were significantly (P < 0.001) enhanced in the alpha-hemoglobin chain-loaded cells. Membrane bound heme and iron were also significantly elevated (P < 0.001) in the alpha-hemoglobin chain-loaded cells and lipid peroxidation could be partially inhibited by entrapment of an iron chelator. In contrast, chemical inhibition of cellular catalase activity enhanced the detrimental effects of entrapped alpha-hemoglobin chains. In summary, entrapment of purified alpha-hemoglobin chains within normal erythrocytes significantly enhanced cellular oxidant stress and resulted in pathological changes characteristic of thalassemic cells in vivo. This model provides a means by which the pathophysiological effects of excess alpha-hemoglobin chains can be examined.
PMCID: PMC288150  PMID: 7682576
12.  Effect of Vitamin E Supplementation on Biochemical Parameters in Pesticides Sprayers of Grape Gardens of Western Maharashtra (India) 
The aim of this study was to see the biochemical effects of pesticides on sprayers of grape gardens before and after 15 days of vitamin E supplementations in Western Maharashtra (India), who were occupationally exposed to various pesticides over a long period of time (about 5 to 15 years). Blood samples were collected from all study group subjects for biochemical parameters assays before and after 15 days of vitamin E supplementation. Sprayers of grape gardens were given 400 mg of vitamin E tablet/day for 15 days. After 15 days of vitamin E supplementation to sprayers of grape gardens, we observed significantly decreased aspartate transaminase (10.88 %, P < 0.05, r = 0.88), alanine transaminase (25.92 %, P < 0.01, r = 0.46) and total proteins (3.32 %, P < 0.01, r = 0.33), whereas, no statistically significant change was found in serum acetyl cholinesterase, C-reactive proteins, albumin (ALB), globulins and ALB/globulin ratio as compared to before vitamin E supplementation. Sprayers of grape gardens, who received vitamin E supplementation, showed significantly decreased serum lipid peroxide (LP) (18.75 %, P < 0.001, r = 0.63) and significantly increased RBC-superoxide dismutase (SOD) (12.88 %, P < 0.001, r = 0.85), RBC-Catalase (CAT) (24.49 %, P < 0.001, r = 0.70), plasma ceruloplasmin (CP) (4.6 %, P < 0.01, r = 0.80), serum zinc (4.57 %, P < 0.01, r = 0.83) and serum copper (4.37 %, P < 0.01, r = 0.79) as compared to values before vitamin E supplementation. These results showed that vitamin E supplementation has ameliorating effects on these transaminase enzymes, suggesting that it may have a protective effect on liver, from pesticides induced damage. In this study vitamin E supplementation might have decreased LP levels by breaking chain reaction of lipid peroxidation. Present results indicate that vitamin E plays a crucial role in restoring the antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT and CP, in population exposed to pesticides. This helps to enhance its antioxidant ability. Therefore, it is suggested that farmers, pesticide applicators, workers in the pesticide industry and other pesticide users, who come in regular contact with pesticides, may be benefited by supplementation with vitamin E.
PMCID: PMC3358367  PMID: 23543683
Acetylcholinesterase; C-reactive proteins; Aspartate transaminase; Alanine transaminase; Lipid peroxidation; Superoxide dismutase; Catalase; Ceruloplasmin; Glutathione-S-transferase
13.  Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in cervical cancer patients 
Cervical cancer (CaCx) is a global public health problem as it is the second most common cancer leading to the death of women worldwide. Many references revealed that the low levels of antioxidants induce the generation of free radicals leading to DNA damage and further mutations. In the present study attempt have been made to evaluate the levels of serum Lipid peroxide, Nitric Oxide (NO.) Erythrocytic—Superoxide Dismutase (RBC-SOD), Vitamin-C, serum Copper (Cu) and serum Zinc (Zn). 120 patients were divided in 4 groups according to the increasing CaCx stages i.e. stage I, II, III & IV respectively. All the patients were around the age group of 25–65 years. 30 healthy women between the same age group were treated as controls. Highly significant increased values of MDA, NO. and Cu were observed (p<0.001) whereas the activity of RBC-SOD, levels of Vitamin-C and Zn were significantly decreased in CaCx patients as compared with healthy controls (p<0.001). Cu/Zn ratio was found to be altered in CaCx patients. From our findings it can be concluded that the oxidative stress is induced among CaCx patients, which inturn increases the risk of CaCx.
PMCID: PMC3453822  PMID: 23105702
Lipid peroxide; Cervical cancer; RBC-SOD; Nitric Oxide; Vitamin-C; Copper; Zinc
14.  Role of reactive oxygen species in pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome 
Nephrotic syndrome is the common chronic disorder characterized by alteration of permeability of the glomerular capillary wall, resulting in its inability to restrict the urinary loss of proteins. Nephrotic syndrome is characterized by heavy proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia associated with peripheral edema. The molecular basis of glomerular permselectivity remains largely unknown. In recent years it has been proposed that Nephrotic syndrome is a consequence of an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant activity. The present study was aimed to test that the reactive oxygen species are the mediators of excessive protein permeability and other complications of Nephrotic syndrome. For this 30 adults with Nephrotic syndrome were studied. The control group comprised 30 healthy adults matched for age. Serum levels of lipid peroxides, nitric oxide (NO⊙), α- tocopherol, ascorbic acid, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity, serum albumin, uric acid, cholesterol and plasma total antioxidant capacity were measured. Student’s ‘t’ test was applied for statistical analysis. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxide (1.58 ± 0.42 in controls, 3.64 ±1.3 in patients) (P<0.001) levels in study group as compared with controls. α-tocopherol (12.95 ± 1.04 in controls, 9.93 ± 1.43 in patients) (P<0.001), erythrocyte SOD activity(1.88 ± 0.9 in controls 1.07 ± 0.5 in patients) (P=0.01), serum albumin(4.06 ± 0.50 in controls, 3.04 ± 0.11 in patients) (P<0.001), and plasma total antioxidant capacity (847.33 ± 126.83 in controls, 684.00±102.94 in patients) (P<0.001) were significantly decreased. There was non-significant increase in uric acid (P>0.05), a non-significant decrease in NO⊙ (38.48 ± 15.47 in controls 37.47 ± 14.27 in patients) (P>0.05) and ascorbic acid levels ascorbic acid,( 0.95 ± 0.31in controls 0.79 ± 0.30 in patients) (P>0.05) in study group as compared with controls. Imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants may contribute to pathogenesis of proteinuria and related complications in nephrotic syndrome.
PMCID: PMC3453014  PMID: 23105890
Nephrotic syndrome; Lipid peroxide; Antioxidants; Erythrocyte Superoxide dismutase
15.  Coexisting Iron Deficiency Anemia and Beta Thalassemia Trait: Effect of Iron Therapy on Red Cell Parameters and Hemoglobin Subtypes 
ISRN Hematology  2014;2014:293216.
Background. Coexistence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and beta thalassemia trait (BTT) has been the topic of few studies. However, no study from our country was found evaluating the effect of iron therapy in patients with concomitant IDA and BTT. Methods. Over a period of two years, 30 patients with concomitant IDA and BTT were included. All the patients had a complete blood count, serum iron studies, and thalassemia screening using BIORADTM hemoglobin testing system. The patients received oral iron therapy in appropriate dosages for a period of twenty weeks, after which all the investigations were repeated. Appropriate statistical methods were applied for comparison of pre- and posttherapy data. Results. All except two patients were adults with a marked female preponderance. Oral iron therapy led to statistically significant improvement in hemoglobin, red cell indices (P < 0.05), and marked change in serum iron, ferritin, and HbA2 levels (P < 0.001). There was a significant reduction in the total iron binding capacity levels. Conclusion. The present study shows the frequent occurrence of iron deficiency anemia in patients with beta thalassemia trait, which can potentially confound the diagnosis of the latter. Hence, iron deficiency should be identified and rectified in patients with suspicion of beta thalassemia trait.
PMCID: PMC3972954  PMID: 25006473
16.  Effect of pretreatment with coenzyme Q10 on isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity and cardiac hypertrophy in rats 
Background: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a lipid-soluble, vitamin-like substance found in the hydrophobic interior of the phospholipid bilayer of most cellular membranes. It appears to be involved in the coordinated regulation between oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity of heart tissue when the heart is subjected to oxidative stress in various pathogenic conditions.
Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of pretreatment with CoQ10 (100 mg/kg) on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiotoxicity and cardiac hypertrophy in rats.
Methods: Albino male Wistar rats (250–300 g) were evenly divided by lottery method into 1 of the following 3 groups: the ISO group (olive oil 2 mL/kg orally for 18 days and ISO 1 mg/kg IP from days 9–18); the CoQ10 + ISO group (CoQ10 100 mg/kg orally for 18 days and ISO 1 mg/kg IP from days 9–18); and the control group (olive oil 2 mL/kg orally for 18 days and water IP from days 9–18). Twenty-four hours after the last dose of water or ISO, the rats were anesthetized and an ECG was recorded. Blood was withdrawn by retro-orbital puncture for estimation of serum creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) isoenzyme levels, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, and aspartate aminotransferase activities. The animals were euthanized using an overdose of ether. The hearts of 6 animals from each group were used for estimation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration, lipid peroxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total protein concentration. Histopathology of the 2 remaining hearts in each group was carried out by a blinded technician.
Results: A total of 24 rats (8 in each group) were used in this study; all rats survived to study end. Compared with the control group, the ISO-treated rats had a significant change in heart to body weight ratio (P < 0.001); significant changes in the endogenous antioxidants (ie, significantly higher myocardial MDA concentration [P < 0.001]; significantly lower myocardial GSH concentration [P < 0.001] and SOD activity [P < 0.01]); and significantly higher serum activities of marker enzymes (eg, CK-MB [P < 0.001] and LDH [P < 0.001]). Compared with the ISO group, the CoQ10 + ISO group had a significant change in heart to body weight ratio (P < 0.001); significant changes in the endogenous antioxidants (ie, significantly lower MDA concentration [P < 0.05]; significantly higher myocardial GSH concentration [P < 0.001] and SOD activity [P < 0.05]); and significantly lower serum activities of marker enzymes (eg, CK-MB [P < 0.05] and LDH [P < 0.01]).
Conclusion: Pretreatment with CoQ10 (100 mg/kg) for 18 days was associated with moderate protection against ISO-induced cardiotoxicity and cardiac hypertrophy, and with lower myocardial injury by preserving endogenous antioxidants and reducing LPO in rat heart.
PMCID: PMC3969979  PMID: 24692838
antioxidants; cardiac hypertrophy; coenzyme Q10; isoproterenol
17.  Total antioxidant capacity – a novel early bio-chemical marker of oxidative stress in HIV infected individuals 
Oxidative stress induced by the production of reactive oxygen species may play a critical role in the stimulation of HIV replication and the development of immunodeficiency. This study was conducted as there are limited and inconclusive studies on the significance of a novel early marker of oxidative stress which can reflect the total antioxidant capacity in HIV patients,
Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid peroxidation were evaluated in 50 HIV-1 seropositive patients (including HIV-1 symptomatics and asymptomatics). Controls included 50 age and sex matched and apparently healthy HIV-1 seronegative subjects. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), Total antioxidant capacity [TAC] (by ferric reducing antioxidant power assay), vitamin E, vitamin C and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity were estimated among controls and cases. Statistical comparisons and correlations at 5% level of significance were determined.
Results and Discussion
The mean MDA concentrations were significantly elevated in both HIV-1 asymptomatic (CD4+ count > 500 cells/microliter) and HIV-1 symptomatic (CD4+ count <500 cells/microliter) groups (Mean ± S.D values were 2.2 +/- 0.7 nmol/ml and 2.8 +/- 0.8 nmol/ml respectively) when compared with the control group (Mean ± S.D value was 0.9 +/- 0.2 nmol/ml) (p < 0.01). The mean TAC of HIV- 1 asymptomatic and HIV-1 symptomatic (Mean ± S.D values were 754.6 ± 135.6 μmol/L and 676.6 ± 154.1 μmol/L respectively) patients were significantly reduced compared with the control group (Mean ± S.D value was 1018.7 ± 125.6 μmol/L) (p < 0.01). Also, there were significantly decreased levels of vitamin E, vitamin C and SOD among HIV-1 seropositive patients(controls > asymptomatic > symptomatic) compared to controls (p < 0.01). TAC showed significant negative correlation with MDA among HIV-1 infected patients (p < 0.01).
Our results clearly show that severe oxidative stress occurs in the HIV-1 seropositive patients in comparison with controls, and increases significantly with the progression of disease, i.e. HIV-1 symptomatics > asymptomatics > controls. TAC can be used as a novel early bio-chemical marker of oxidative stress in HIV-1 infected patients which may result in reduced tissue damage by free radicals and help to monitor and optimize antioxidant therapy in such patients.
PMCID: PMC2714592  PMID: 19583866
18.  Depleted nitrite and enhanced oxidative stress in urolithiasis 
Crystal aggregation and retention are critical events for the formation of kidney stones. There is a close association between crystal development and free radical activity in vivo. In the present study 30 subjects presenting with urolithiasis were included. Serum levels of total lipid peroxides, nitric oxide (as nitrite), α-tocopherol, plasma ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were measured. These findings were compared with 30 age matched control subjects irrespective of sex. Student's ‘t’ test was applied for statistical analysis. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxides (p<0.001), where as significant decrease in nitrite (p<0.01) and α-tocopherol (p<0.001) levels were observed. Plasma ascorbate (p>0.05) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity (p>0.05) was also found to be decreased but the difference was not statistically significant which suggests that oxidative stress is evident in urolithiasis with depletion in antioxidant status where as decrease in nitric oxide may be less abetting in disease condition.
PMCID: PMC3453986  PMID: 23105640
Urolithiasis; Lipid Peroxidation; Nitric Oxide; Antioxidants
19.  Beta-thalassemia 
Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta globin gene on chromosome 11, leading to reduced (beta+) or absent (beta0) synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin (Hb). Transmission is autosomal recessive; however, dominant mutations have also been reported. Diagnosis of thalassemia is based on hematologic and molecular genetic testing. Differential diagnosis is usually straightforward but may include genetic sideroblastic anemias, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, and other conditions with high levels of HbF (such as juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and aplastic anemia). Genetic counseling is recommended and prenatal diagnosis may be offered. Treatment of thalassemia major includes regular RBC transfusions, iron chelation and management of secondary complications of iron overload. In some circumstances, spleen removal may be required. Bone marrow transplantation remains the only definitive cure currently available. Individuals with thalassemia intermedia may require splenectomy, folic acid supplementation, treatment of extramedullary erythropoietic masses and leg ulcers, prevention and therapy of thromboembolic events. Prognosis for individuals with beta-thalassemia has improved substantially in the last 20 years following recent medical advances in transfusion, iron chelation and bone marrow transplantation therapy. However, cardiac disease remains the main cause of death in patients with iron overload.
PMCID: PMC2893117  PMID: 20492708
20.  Adenosine deaminase enzyme activity is increased and negatively correlates with catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in patients with Behçet's disease: original contributions/clinical and laboratory investigations. 
Mediators of Inflammation  2003;12(2):107-116.
AIM: Behçet's disease (BD) is an inflammatory vasculitis with immunologic, endothelial and neutrophil alterations. Adenosine deaminase (AD) is a marker of T-cell activation and is related to the production of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils with the production of NO(*), O(2)(*-), H(2)O(2) and OH(*). We reported increased tumour necrosis factor-alpha, soluble interleukin-2 receptor, interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and NO(*) in active BD. As there is a relation between cytokines, T cells and oxidative stress in inflammatory diseases, this study further evaluated: (1) plasma AD activity and its correlation with acute phase reactants; (2) thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) as an indicator for lipid peroxidation; and (3) antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and catalase in patients with BD. The effect of disease activity and correlations between the measured parameters were explored. METHODS: A total of 35 active (n=17) or inactive (n=18) patients with BD (16 men, 19 women) satisfying International Study Group criteria, and 20 age-matched and sex-matched controls (nine men, 11 women) were included in this cross-sectional case-control study. AD and TBARS were measured in plasma, catalase in red blood cells (RBC), and SOD and GSHPx in both plasma and RBC in both groups. Acute phase reactants (alpha(1)-antitrypsin, alpha(2)-macroglobulin, neutrophils, erythrocyte sedimentation rate) were used to classify patients as active or inactive. RESULTS: Plasma AD (mean+/-standard error of the mean, 36.1+/-0.7 U/l) and TBARS (4.2+/-0.1 nmol/ml) levels were significantly (for each, p<0.001) higher in BD than in controls (24.1+/-0.8 U/l and 1.6+/-0.1 nmol/ml, respectively). RBC catalase activity was significantly (p<0.001) lower in BD than in controls (120.9+/-3.8 versus 160.3+/-4.1 k/g haemoglobin). SOD and GSHPx activities were significantly lower in both plasma and erythrocytes of patients with BD than in controls (plasma SOD, 442.4+/-8.6 versus 636.4+/-9.2 U/ml, p<0.001; RBC SOD, 3719.2+/-66.0 versus 4849.7+/-49.0 U/g haemoglobin, p<0.001; plasma GSHPx, 73.1+/-1.5 versus 90.6+/-2.9 U/ml, p<0.001; RBC GSHPx, 600.7+/-8.0 versus 670.6+/-10.1 U/g haemoglobin, p<0.001). Active BD patients had significantly lower antioxidant enzymes (except RBC catalase) and higher AD and TBARS levels than inactive subjects (for each, p<0.01). When considering all BD patients, a significant positive correlation was present between AD and TBARS (p<0.001) whereas both AD and TBARS were negatively correlated with antioxidant enzymes (for each, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: AD and lipid peroxidation are increased and associated with defective antioxidants in BD, suggesting interactions between activated T cells and neutrophil hyperfunction. Measures of pro-oxidative stress and antioxidative defence with AD activity as an indicator of T-cell activation can be considered as significant supportive diagnostic indicators, especially in active disease. In addition, strengthening the antioxidant defence may contribute to treatment modalities.
PMCID: PMC1781598  PMID: 12775361
21.  Antioxidant treatment in the absence of exogenous lipids and proteins protects rhesus macaque sperm from cryopreservation-induced cell membrane damage 
Theriogenology  2011;76(1):168-176.
Osmotic stress caused oxidative stress in rhesus macaque sperm, which was alleviated by antioxidant supplementation. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate that cryopreservation of rhesus macaque sperm also induces (reactive oxygen species) ROS production, and to determine whether ROS have an important role in cryopreservation-induced membrane. Additionally, we evaluated the antioxidant capacity of TEST buffer (with 20% egg yolk and 13% skim milk) and supplementation with antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and α-tocopherol. There was a substantial level of ROS production in both the presence (15% increase in superoxide, P < 0.01; 14% increase in hydrogen peroxide, P < 0.01) and absence of egg yolk (EY) and skim milk (SM; 33% increase in superoxide, P < 0.001; 48% increase in hydrogen peroxide, P < 0.001). Superoxide dismutase provided little membrane protection against ROS, but increased post-thaw total and progressive motility by 10% (P < 0.01) and 15% (P < 0.05), respectively. Supplementation with CAT and α-tocopherol in the presence of EY and SM decreased H2O2 by 55% (P < 0.01) and 49% (P < 0.001), whereas supplementation with CAT and α-tocopherol in the absence of EY and SM reduced the level of lipid peroxidation by 61% (P < 0.05) and 28% (P < 0.01). In conclusion, this is apparently the first report that cryopreservation of rhesus macaque sperm induced a significant increase in ROS and that antioxidant supplementation can significantly decrease the extent of ROS-induced membrane damage.
PMCID: PMC3109175  PMID: 21458048
Cryopreservation; Sperm; Nonhuman primate; Oxidative stress; Lipid peroxidation
22.  Therapeutic Value of Combined Therapy with Deferasirox and Silymarin on Iron Overload in Children with Beta Thalassemia 
Beta thalassemia is an inherited hemoglobin disorder resulting in a severe, chronic anemia requiring life-long blood transfusion that induces iron overload. Silymarin is a flavonoid complex isolated from Silybin marianum with a strong antioxidant activity, inducing an hepatoprotective action, and probably, a protective effect on iron overload. The aim of this work was to determine the silymarin value in improving iron chelation in thalassemic patients with iron overload treated with Deferasirox.
Patients and Methods
This study was conducted on 40 children with beta thalassemia major under follow-up at Hematology Unit, Pediatric Department, Tanta University Hospital with serum ferritin level more than 1000 ng/ml and was divided into two groups. Group IA: Received oral Deferasirox (Exjade) and silymarin for 6 months. Group IB: Received oral Deferasirox (Exjade) and placebo for 6 months and 20 healthy children serving as a control group in the period between April 2011 and August 2012 and was performed after approval from research ethical committee center in Tanta University Hospital and obtaining an informed written parental consent from all participants in this study.
Serum ferritin levels were markedly decreased in group IA cases compared with group IB (P= 0.001).
From this study we concluded that, silymarin in combination with Exjade can be safely used in the treatment of iron-loaded thalassemic patients as it showed good iron chelation with no sign of toxicity.
We recommend extensive multicenter studies in a large number of patients with longer duration of follow-up and more advanced techniques of assessment of iron status in order to clarify the exact role of silymarin in reducing iron overload in children with beta thalassemia.
PMCID: PMC3867224  PMID: 24363880
23.  Renal functions in pediatric patients with beta-thalassemia major: relation to chelation therapy: original prospective study 
In β-thalassemia, profound anemia and severe hemosiderosis cause functional and physiological abnormalities in various organ systems. In recent years, there have been few published studies mainly in adult demonstrating renal involvement in β-thalassemia. This prospective study was aimed to investigate renal involvement in pediatric patients with transfusion dependant beta-thalassemia major (TD-βTM), using both conventional and early markers of glomerular and tubular dysfunctions, and to correlate findings to oxidative stress and iron chelation therapy.
Sixty-nine TD-βTM patients (aged 1-16 years) and 15 healthy controls (aged 3-14 years) were enrolled in this study. Based on receiving chelation therapy (deferoxamine, DFO), patients were divided into two groups: group [I] with chelation (n = 34) and group [II] without chelation (n = 35). Levels of creatinine (Cr), calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorus (PO4), uric acid (UA) and albumin were measured by spectrophotometer. Serum (S) levels of cystatin-C (SCysC) and total antioxidant capacity (STAC) and urinary (U) levels of β2-microglobulin (Uβ2MG) were measured by immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (UNAG) activity and malondialdehyde (UMDA) were measured by chemical methods. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was determined from serum creatinine.
In patient with and without chelation, glomerular [elevated SCysC, SCr, Ualbumin/Cr and diminished eGFR]; and tubular dysfunctions [elevated SUA, SPO4, UNAG/Cr, Uβ2MG/Cr] and oxidative stress marker disturbances [diminished STAC and elevated UMDA/Cr] were reported than controls. In patients with chelation, SCysC was significantly higher while, STAC was significantly lower than those without chelation. In all patients, SCysC showed significant positive correlation with SCr and negative correlation with eGFR; STAC showed significant positive correlation with eGFR and negative correlation with SCysC, SCr, UNAG/Cr; UMDA/Cr showed significant positive correlation with Ualbumin/Cr, Uβ2MG/Cr, UNAG/Cr.
Our data confirm high frequency of glomerular and tubular dysfunctions in TD-βTM pediatric patients which could be attributed to oxidative stress and DFO therapy.
PMCID: PMC2894023  PMID: 20500848
24.  Effect of EPA and Vitamin C on Superoxide Dismutase, Glutathione Peroxidase, Total Antioxidant Capacity and Malondialdehyde in Type 2 Diabetic Patients 
Oman Medical Journal  2014;29(1):39-45.
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid combined with vitamin C in comparison with the pure form of eicosapentaenoic acid on the serum concentration of malondialdehyde, erythrocyte activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and the serum level of total antioxidant capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Eighty one male diabetic patients, aged 33-63 years, were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups. The subjects consumed 500 mg/d pure eicosapentaenoic acid, 200 mg/d vitamin C, 500 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 200 mg/d vitamin C or placebo depending on their groups. In fasting blood samples, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were determined via the enzymatic method (Randox kit) and the serum total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde and vitamin C concentrations were estimated by colorimetric methods.
Administration of pure eicosapentaenoic acid in diabetic patients increased superoxide dismutase by 4%, glutathione peroxidase 53%, total antioxidant capacity 36% and decreased malondialdehyde significantly by 25%. Prescription of eicosapentaenoic acid combined with vitamin C demonstrated a significant increment for superoxide dismutase activity by 3% and for glutathione peroxidase activity by 52% during the study, but no significant change was seen for total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde, respectively. There was a significant decrease in FBS and HbA1c following prescription of eicosapentaenoic acid with/without vitamin C along the study, although these changes were not significant between the study groups.
It is concluded that prescription of eicosapentaenoic acid in the pure form reduces oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic patients; albeit, it does not alleviate hyperglycemia. Combination of vitamin C and eicosapentaenoic acid does not improve antioxidant property of eicosapentaenoic acid.
PMCID: PMC3910411  PMID: 24498481
Diabetes; Eicosapentaenoic acid; Glutathione peroxidase; Superoxide dismutase; Total antioxidant capacity; Malondialdehyde
25.  Oxidative stress in Parkinson’s disease 
Oxidative stress contributes to the cascade, leading to dopamine cell degeneration in Parkinson’s disease. However, oxidative stress is intimately linked to other components of the degenerative process, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, nitric oxide toxicity and inflammation. It is therefore difficult to determine whether oxidative stress leads to or is a consequence of, these events. Oxidative stress was assessed by estimating lipid peroxidation product in the form of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, nitric oxide in the form of nitrite & nitrate. Enzymatic antioxidants in the form of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, ceruloplasmin and non enzymatic antioxidant vitamins e.g. vitamin E and C in either serum or plasma or erythrocyte in 40 patients of Parkinson’s disease in the age group 40–80 years. Trace elements e.g. copper, zinc and selenium were also estimated. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide levels were Significantly high but superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, ceruloplasmin, vitamin-E, vitamin-C, copper, zinc and selenium levels were significantly low in Parkinson’s disease when compared with control subjects. Present study showed that elevated oxidative stress may be playing a role in dopaminergic neuronal loss in substentia nigra pars compacta and involved in pathogenesis of the Parkinson’s disease.
PMCID: PMC3453463  PMID: 23105815
Oxidative stress; Antioxidants; Pathogenesis; Parkinson’s disease

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