Activation of inflammatory immune responses during granuloma formation by the host upon infection of mycobacteria is one of the crucial steps that is often associated with tissue remodeling and breakdown of the extracellular matrix. In these complex processes, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays a major role in chronic inflammation and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) significantly in tissue remodeling. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying Phosphatidyl-myo-inositol dimannosides (PIM2), an integral component of the mycobacterial envelope, triggered COX-2 and MMP-9 expression in macrophages. PIM2 triggers the activation of Phosphoinositide-3 Kinase (PI3K) and Notch1 signaling leading to COX-2 and MMP-9 expression in a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-MyD88 dependent manner. Notch1 signaling perturbations data demonstrate the involvement of the cross-talk with members of PI3K and Mitogen activated protein kinase pathway. Enforced expression of the cleaved Notch1 in macrophages induces the expression of COX-2 and MMP-9. PIM2 triggered significant p65 nuclear factor -κB (NF-κB) nuclear translocation that was dependent on activation of PI3K or Notch1 signaling. Furthermore, COX-2 and MMP-9 expression requires Notch1 mediated recruitment of Suppressor of Hairless (CSL) and NF-κB to respective promoters. Inhibition of PIM2 induced COX-2 resulted in marked reduction in MMP-9 expression clearly implicating the role of COX-2 dependent signaling events in driving the MMP-9 expression. Taken together, these data implicate PI3K and Notch1 signaling as obligatory early proximal signaling events during PIM2 induced COX-2 and MMP-9 expression in macrophages.
Long term survival of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans is linked to the immunomodulatory potential of its complex cell wall glycolipids, which include the phosphatidylinositol mannoside (PIM) series as well as the related lipomannan and lipoarabinomannan glycoconjugates. PIM biosynthesis is initiated by a set of cytosolic α-mannosyltransferases, catalyzing glycosyl transfer from the activated saccharide donor GDP-α-d-mannopyranose to the acceptor phosphatidyl-myo-inositol (PI) in an ordered and regio-specific fashion. Herein, we report the crystal structure of mannosyltransferase Corynebacterium glutamicum PimB′ in complex with nucleotide to a resolution of 2.0 Å. PimB′ attaches mannosyl selectively to the 6-OH of the inositol moiety of PI. Two crystal forms and GDP- versus GDP-α-d-mannopyranose-bound complexes reveal flexibility of the nucleotide conformation as well as of the structural framework of the active site. Structural comparison, docking of the saccharide acceptor, and site-directed mutagenesis pin regio-selectivity to a conserved Asp residue in the N-terminal domain that forces presentation of the correct inositol hydroxyl to the saccharide donor.
Cell Wall; Glycoconjugate; Membrane Lipids; Protein Structure; X-ray Crystallography; Corynebacterium glutamicum; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Glycosyltransferase
Mycobacterial PimA is an essential enzyme that catalyses the first mannosylation step in phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannoside (PIM) biosynthesis. Crystals of the enzyme from M. smegmatis, obtained in the presence of GDP and myo-inositol, are orthorhombic (P212121) and diffract X-rays to 2.4 Å resolution.
Phosphatidylinositol mannosyltransferase (PimA) is an essential enzyme for mycobacterial growth that catalyses the first mannosylation step in phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannoside (PIM) biosynthesis. The enzyme belongs to the large GT4 family of glycosyltransferases, for which no structure is currently available. Recombinant purified PimA from Mycobacterium smegmatis has been crystallized in the presence of GDP and myo-inositol. The crystals belong to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 37.2, b = 72.4, c = 138.2 Å, and diffract to 2.4 Å resolution.
GT4 glycosyltransferase; tuberculosis; phosphatidylinositol mannoside; PIM; mycobacteria
The genus Corynebacterium is part of the phylogenetic group nocardioform actinomycetes, which also includes the genus Mycobacterium. Members of this phylogenetic group have a characteristic cell envelope structure, which is dominated by complex lipids and amongst these, lipoglycans are of particular interest. The disruption of NCgl2106 in C. glutamicum resulted in a mutant devoid of monoacylated phosphatidyl-myo-inositol dimannoside (Ac1PIM2) resulting in the accumulation of Ac1PIM1 and cessation of phosphatidyl-myo-inositol (PI) based lipomannan (Cg-LM, now also termed ‘Cg-LM-A’) and lipoarabinomannan (Cg-LAM) biosynthesis. Interestingly, SDS-analysis of the lipoglycan fraction from the mutant revealed the synthesis of a single novel lipoglycan, now termed ‘Cg-LM-B’. Further chemical analyses established the lipoglycan possessed an α-d-glucopyranosyluronic acid-(1 → 3)-glycerol (GlcAGroAc2) based anchor which was then further glycosylated by 8–22 mannose residues, with Man12–20GlcAGroAC2 molecular species being the most abundant, to form a novel lipomannan structure (Cg-LM-B). The deletion of NCgl2106 in C. glutamicum has now provided a useful strain, in addition with a deletion mutant of NCgl0452 in C. glutamicum for the purification of Cg-LM-A and Cg-LM-B. Interestingly, both Cg-LM species induced a similar production of TNF-α by a human macrophage cell line suggesting that the phospho-myo-inositol residue of the PI-anchor does not play a key role in lipoglycan pro-inflammatory activity.
Corynebacterium glutamicum; Lipomannan; Mannosyltransferase; PimB′
Mycobacteria develop strategies to evade the host immune system. Among them, mycobacterial LAM or PIMs inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines by activated macrophages. Here, using synthetic PIM analogues, we analyzed the mode of action of PIM anti-inflammatory effects. Synthetic PIM1 isomer and PIM2 mimetic potently inhibit TNF and IL-12 p40 expression induced by TLR2 or TLR4 pathways, but not by TLR9, in murine macrophages. We show inhibition of LPS binding to TLR4/MD2/CD14 expressing HEK cells by PIM1 and PIM2 analogues. More specifically, the binding of LPS to CD14 was inhibited by PIM1 and PIM2 analogues. CD14 was dispensable for PIM1 and PIM2 analogues functional inhibition of TLR2 agonists induced TNF, as shown in CD14-deficient macrophages. The use of rough-LPS, that stimulates TLR4 pathway independently of CD14, allowed to discriminate between CD14-dependent and CD14-independent anti-inflammatory effects of PIMs on LPS-induced macrophage responses. PIM1 and PIM2 analogues inhibited LPS-induced TNF release by a CD14-dependent pathway, while IL-12 p40 inhibition was CD14-independent, suggesting that PIMs have multifold inhibitory effects on the TLR4 signalling pathway.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Corynebacterium glutamicum share a similar cell wall structure and orthologous enzymes involved in cell wall assembly. Herein, we have studied C. glutamicum NCgl1505, the orthologue of putative glycosyltransferases Rv1459c from M. tuberculosis and MSMEG3120 from Mycobacterium smegmatis. Deletion of NCgl1505 resulted in the absence of lipomannan (Cg-LM-A), lipoarabinomannan (Cg-LAM) and a multi-mannosylated polymer (Cg-LM-B) based on a 1,2-di-O-C16/C18:1-(α-D-glucopyranosyluronic acid)-(1→3)-glycerol (GlcAGroAc2) anchor, while syntheses of triacylated-phosphatidyl-myo-inositol dimannoside (Ac1PIM2) and Man1GlcAGroAc2 were still abundant in whole cells. Cell-free incubation of C. glutamicum membranes with GDP-[14C]Man established that C. glutamicum synthesized a novel α(1→6)-linked linear form of Cg-LM-A and Cg-LM-B from Ac1PIM2 and Man1GlcAGroAc2 respectively. Furthermore, deletion of NCgl1505 also led to the absence of in vitro synthesized linear Cg-LM-A and Cg-LM-B, demonstrating that NCgl1505 was involved in core α(1→6) mannan biosynthesis of Cg-LM-A and Cg-LM-B, extending Ac1PI[14C]M2 and [14C]Man1GlcAGroAc2 primers respectively. Use of the acceptor α-D-Manp-(1→6)-α-D-Manp-O-C8 in an in vitro cell-free assay confirmed NCgl1505 as an α(1→6) mannopyranosyltransferase, now termed MptB. While Rv1459c and MSMEG3120 demonstrated similar in vitroα(1→6) mannopyranosyltransferase activity, deletion of the Rv1459c homologue in M. smegmatis did not result in loss of mycobacterial LM/LAM, indicating a functional redundancy for this enzyme in mycobacteria.
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) cell wall contains an important group of structurally related mannosylated lipoglycans called phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides (PIMs), lipomannan (LM), and mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM), where the terminal α-[1→2] mannosyl structures on higher order PIMs and ManLAM have been shown to engage C-type lectins such as the macrophage mannose receptor directing M.tb phagosome maturation arrest. An important gene described in the biosynthesis of these molecules is the mannosyltransferase pimB (Rv0557). Here, we disrupted pimB in a virulent strain of M.tb. We demonstrate that the inactivation of pimB in M.tb does not abolish the production of any of its cell wall mannosylated lipoglycans; however, it results in a quantitative decrease in the ManLAM and LM content without affecting higher order PIMs. This finding indicates gene redundancy or the possibility of an alternative biosynthetic pathway that may compensate for the PimB deficiency. Furthermore, infection of human macrophages by the pimB mutant leads to an alteration in macrophage phenotype concomitant with a significant increase in the rate of macrophage death.
lipoarabinomannan; macrophage death; mannosyltransferase; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannoside
The multiple-stage ion-trap mass spectrometric approaches towards to the structural characterization of the monoacyl-PIM (triacylated PIM) and the diacyl-PIM (tetracylated PIM), namely, the PIM (diacylated PIM) consisting of one or two additional fatty acid substituents attached to the glycoside, respectively, were described. While the assignment and confirmation of the fatty acid substituents on the glycerol backbone can be easily achieved by the methods described in the previous article, the identity of the glycoside moiety and its acylation state can be determined by the observation of a prominent acylglycoside ion arising from cleavage of the diacylglycerol moiety ([M – H – diacylglycerol]−) in the MS2-spectra of monoacyl-PIM and diacyl-PIM. The distinction of the fatty acid substituents on the 2-O-mannoside (i.e., R3CO2H) from that on the inositol (i.e., R4CO2H) is based on the findings that the MS3-spectrum of [M – H – diacylglycerol]− contains a prominent ion arising from further loss of the fatty acid at the 2-O-mannoside (i.e., the [M – H – diacylglycerol – R3CO2H]− ion), while the ion arising from loss of the fatty acid substituent at the inositol (i.e., the [M – H – diacylglycerol – R4CO2H]− ion) is of low abundance. The fatty acyl moiety on the inositol can also be identified by the product-ion spectrum from MS4 of the [M – H – diacylglycerol – R3CO2H]− ion, which gives rise to a prominent ion corresponding to loss of R4CO2H. An [M – H – acylmannose]− ion was also observed in the MS2-spectra and, thus, the identity of the fatty acid substituent attached to 2-O-mannoside can be confirmed. The combined information obtained from the multiple-stage product-ion spectra from MS2, MS3, and MS4 permit the assignment of the complex structures of monoacyl-PIMs and diacyl-PIMs in a mixture isolated from M. bovis Bacillus Calmette Guérin.
The remodeling of phosphatidylinositol polyphosphates in cellular membranes by phosphatases and kinases orchestrates the signaling by these lipids in space and time. In order to provide chemical tools to study of the changes in cell physiology mediated by these lipids, three new metabolically-stabilized (ms) analogues of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P were synthesized. We describe herein the total asymmetric synthesis of 3-methylphosphonate, 3-monofluoromethylphosphonate and 3-phosphorothioate analogues of PtdIns(3)P. From differentially protected D-myo-inositol key intermediates, a versatile phosphoramidite reagent was employed in the synthesis of PtdIns(3)P analogues with diacylglyceryl moieties containing dioleoyl, dipalmitoyl and dibutyryl chains. In addition, we introduce a new phosphorlyation reagent, monofluoromethylphosphonyl chloride, which has general applications for the preparation of “pKa-matched” monofluorophosphonates. These ms-PtdIns(3)P analogues exhibited reduced binding activities with 15N-labelled FYVE and PX domains, as significant 1H and 15N chemical shift changes in the FYVE domain were induced by titrating ms-PtdIns(3)Ps into membrane-mimetic dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles. In addition, the PtdIns(3)P analogues with dioleyl and dipalmitoyl chains were substrates for the 5-kinase enzyme PIKfyve; the corresponding phosphorylated ms-PI(3,5)P2 products were detected by radio-TLC analysis.
Mycobacteria use inositol in phosphatidylinositol, for anchoring lipoarabinomannan (LAM), lipomannan (LM) and phosphatidylinosotol mannosides (PIMs) in the cell envelope, and for the production of mycothiol, which maintains the redox balance of the cell. Inositol is synthesized by conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to inositol-1-phosphate, followed by dephosphorylation by inositol monophosphate phosphatases (IMPases) to form myo-inositol. To gain insight into how Mycobacterium tuberculosis synthesises inositol we carried out genetic analysis of the four IMPase homologues that are present in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome.
Mutants lacking either impA (Rv1604) or suhB (Rv2701c) were isolated in the absence of exogenous inositol, and no differences in levels of PIMs, LM, LAM or mycothiol were observed. Mutagenesis of cysQ (Rv2131c) was initially unsuccessful, but was possible when a porin-like gene of Mycobacterium smegmatis was expressed, and also by gene switching in the merodiploid strain. In contrast, we could only obtain mutations in impC (Rv3137) when a second functional copy was provided in trans, even when exogenous inositol was provided. Experiments to obtain a mutant in the presence of a second copy of impC containing an active-site mutation, in the presence of porin-like gene of M. smegmatis, or in the absence of inositol 1-phosphate synthase activity, were also unsuccessful. We showed that all four genes are expressed, although at different levels, and levels of inositol phosphatase activity did not fall significantly in any of the mutants obtained.
We have shown that neither impA, suhB nor cysQ is solely responsible for inositol synthesis. In contrast, we show that impC is essential for mycobacterial growth under the conditions we used, and suggest it may be required in the early stages of mycothiol synthesis.
Combining synthesis and mutagenesis, we show that a cation–π interaction between adenine of adenophostin analogues and Arg504 of IP3 receptors (IP3R) is responsible for the enhanced activity of adenophostins and can replace a phosphate–receptor interaction.
Ca2+ release by d-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) is widely considered to require the vicinal 4,5-bisphosphate motif of IP3, with P-5 and P-4 engaging the α and β domains of the binding site; using synthesis and mutagenesis we show that the adenine of synthetic glyconucleotides, through an interaction with Arg504, can replace the interaction of either P-1 or P-5 with the α-domain producing, respectively, the most potent bisphosphate agonist yet synthesised and the first agonist of IP3R without a vicinal bisphosphate motif; this will stimulate new approaches to IP3R ligand design.
Ustiloxins A–F are antimitotic heterodetic cyclopeptides containing a 13–membered cyclic core structure with a synthetically challenging chiral tertiary alkyl–aryl ether linkage. The first total synthesis of ustiloxin D was achieved in 31 linear steps using an SNAr reaction. An nOe study of this synthetic product showed that ustiloxin D existed as a single atropisomer. Subsequently, highly concise and convergent syntheses of ustiloxins D and F were developed by utilizing a newly discovered ethynyl aziridine ring–opening reaction in a longest linear sequence of 15 steps. The approach was further optimized to achieve a better macrolactamization strategy. Ustiloxins D, F and eight analogues (14–MeO–ustiloxin D, four analogues with different amino acid residues at the C–6 position, and three (9R, 10S)–epi–ustiloxin analogues) were prepared via the second generation route. Evaluation of these compounds as inhibitors of tubulin polymerization demonstrated that variation at the C–6 position is tolerated to a certain extent. In contrast, the S configuration of the C–9 methylamino group and a free phenolic hydroxyl group are essential for inhibition of tubulin polymerization.
The biosynthesis of mycobacterial mannose-containing lipoglycans, such as lipomannan (LM) and the immunomodulator lipoarabinomanan (LAM), is carried out by the GT-C superfamily of glycosyltransferases that require polyprenylphosphate-based mannose (PPM) as a sugar donor. The essentiality of lipoglycan synthesis for growth makes the glycosyltransferase that synthesizes PPM, a potential drug target in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. In M. tuberculosis, PPM has been shown to be synthesized by Ppm1 in enzymatic assays. However, genetic evidence for its essentiality and in vivo role in LM/LAM and PPM biosynthesis is lacking. In this study, we demonstrate that MSMEG3859, a Mycobacterium smegmatis gene encoding the homologue of the catalytic domain of M. tuberculosis Ppm1, is essential for survival. Depletion of MSMEG3859 in a conditional mutant of M. smegmatis resulted in the loss of higher order phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides (PIMs) and lipomannan. We were also able to demonstrate that two other M. tuberculosis genes encoding glycosyltransferases that either had been shown to possess PPM synthase activity (Rv3779), or were involved in synthesizing similar polyprenol-linked donors (ppgS), were unable to compensate for the loss of MSMEG3859 in the conditional mutant.
The Pim family of proto-oncogenes encodes a distinct class of serine/threonine kinases consisting of PIM1, PIM2, and PIM3. Although the Pim genes are evolutionarily highly conserved, the contribution of PIM proteins to mammalian development is unclear. PIM1-deficient mice were previously described but showed only minor phenotypic aberrations. To assess the role of PIM proteins in mammalian physiology, compound Pim knockout mice were generated. Mice lacking expression of Pim1, Pim2, and Pim3 are viable and fertile. However, PIM-deficient mice show a profound reduction in body size at birth and throughout postnatal life. In addition, the in vitro response of distinct hematopoietic cell populations to growth factors is severely impaired. In particular, PIM proteins are required for the efficient proliferation of peripheral T lymphocytes mediated by synergistic T-cell receptor and interleukin-2 signaling. These results indicate that members of the PIM family of proteins are important but dispensable factors for growth factor signaling.
Methanococcus igneus, a hyperthermophilic marine methanogen (optimum growth temperature of 88°C) with a 25-min doubling time, synthesizes an unusual inositol phosphodiester which is present at high intracellular concentrations along with l-α-glutamate and β-glutamate. Identification of this compound as a dimeric inositol phosphodiester (di-myo-inositol-1,1′-phosphate) was provided by two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance methods. The intracellular levels of all three negatively charged solutes (l-α-glutamate, β-glutamate, and the inositol phosphodiester) increase with increasing levels of external NaCl, although the inositol compound shows much smaller increases with increasing NaCl levels than the glutamate isomers. The turnover of these solutes was examined by 13CO2-pulse-CO2-chase experiments. The results indicated that both the β-glutamate and the inositol phosphodiester behaved as compatible solutes and were not efficiently metabolized by cells as was l-α-glutamate. At a fixed external NaCl concentration, lower ammonium levels increased the fraction of the inositol dimer present in extracts. The most pronounced changes in di-myo-inositol-1,1′-phosphate occurred as a function of cell growth temperature. While the organism grows over a relatively wide temperature range, the phosphodiester accumulated only when M. igneus was grown at temperatures of ≥80°C. Thus, this unusual compound is a non-nitrogen-containing osmolyte preferentially synthesized at high growth temperatures.
Myo-inositol, especially in combination with arginine, enhances streptomycin production. Compounds which show structural relationship with myo-inositol are ineffective.
Myo-inositol decreases the incorporation of C14-glucose into streptomycin, particularly into streptidine. This effect suggests that myo-inositol is a precursor of the streptidine ring.
Methionine stimulates antibiotic production in a synthetic medium but proves to be unfavorable in a complex medium.
The γ- and δ-isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane inhibit streptomycin formation.
The formation of streptomycin by washed mycelium was studied. Essentially the same results were here obtained as with growing cultures.
Lipoarabinomannans (LAMs) and phosphatidylinositol mannosides (PIMs) are abundant glycolipids in the cell walls of all corynebacteria and mycobacteria, including the devastating human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We have recently shown that M. smegmatis mutants of the lipoprotein-encoding lpqW gene have a profound defect in LAM biosynthesis. When these mutants are cultured in complex medium, spontaneous bypass mutants consistently evolve in which LAM biosynthesis is restored at the expense of polar PIM synthesis. Here we show that restoration of LAM biosynthesis in the lpqW mutant results from secondary mutations in the pimE gene. PimE is a mannosyltransferase involved in converting AcPIM4, a proposed branch point intermediate in the PIM and LAM biosynthetic pathways, to more polar PIMs. Mutations in pimE arose due to insertion of the mobile genetic element ISMsm1 and independent point mutations that were clustered in predicted extracytoplasmic loops of this polytopic membrane protein. Our findings provide the first strong evidence that LpqW is required to channel intermediates such as AcPIM4 into LAM synthesis and that loss of PimE function results in the accumulation of AcPIM4, bypassing the need for LpqW. These data highlight new mechanisms regulating the biosynthetic pathways of these essential cell wall components.
Archaeoglobus fulgidus accumulates di-myo-inositol phosphate (DIP) and diglycerol phosphate (DGP) in response to heat and osmotic stresses, respectively, and the level of glycero-phospho-myo-inositol (GPI) increases primarily when the two stresses are combined. In this work, the pathways for the biosynthesis of these three compatible solutes were established based on the detection of the relevant enzymatic activities and characterization of the intermediate metabolites by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. The synthesis of DIP proceeds from glucose-6-phosphate via four steps: (i) glucose-6-phosphate was converted into l-myo-inositol 1-phosphate by l-myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase; (ii) l-myo-inositol 1-phosphate was activated to CDP-inositol at the expense of CTP; this is the first demonstration of CDP-inositol synthesis in a biological system; (iii) CDP-inositol was coupled with l-myo-inositol 1-phosphate to yield a phosphorylated intermediate, 1,1′-di-myo-inosityl phosphate 3-phosphate (DIPP); (iv) finally, DIPP was dephosphorylated into DIP by the action of a phosphatase. The synthesis of the two other polyol-phosphodiesters, DGP and GPI, proceeds via the condensation of CDP-glycerol with the respective phosphorylated polyol, glycerol 3-phosphate for DGP and l-myo-inositol 1-phosphate for GPI, yielding the respective phosphorylated intermediates, 1X,1′X-diglyceryl phosphate 3-phosphate (DGPP) and 1-(1X-glyceryl) myo-inosityl phosphate 3-phosphate (GPIP), which are subsequently dephosphorylated to form the final products. The results disclosed here represent an important step toward the elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms underlying the differential accumulation of these compounds in response to heat and osmotic stresses.
Cells of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius contain about 2.5% total lipid on a dry-weight basis. Total lipid was found to contain 10.5% neutral lipid, 67.6% glycolipid, and 21.7% polar lipid. The lipids contained C40H80 isopranol glycerol diethers. Almost no fatty acids were present. The glycolipids were composed of about equal amounts of the glycerol diether analogue of glucosyl galactosyl diglyceride and a glucosyl polyol glycerol diether. The latter compound contained an unidentified polyol attached by an ether bond to the glycerol diether. The polar lipids contained a small amount of sulfolipid, which appeared to be the monosulfate derivative of glucosyl polyol glycerol diether. About 40% of the lipid phosphorus was found in the diether analogue of phosphatidyl inositol. The remaining lipid phosphorus was accounted for by approximately equal amounts of two inositol monophosphate-containing phosphoglycolipids, inositolphosphoryl glucosyl galactosyl glycerol diether and inositolphosphoryl glucosyl polyol glycerol diether.
A novel nucleoside, O2'-methylinosine (Im), has been identified as a constituent of the ribosomal RNA of Crithidia fasciculata, a hemoflaggelate protozoan. The nucleoside is released as part of an alkali-stable dinucleotide, Im-Up, by alkaline hydrolysis of Crithidia rRNA, and as a 5'-nucleotide, pIm, by snake venom hydrolysis of the same RNA. The Im-containing derivatives isolated from Crithidia rRNA were characterized by comparison with marker compounds prepared by chemical deamination of the corresponding adenosine analogues. O2'-Methylinosine prepared from either natural Im-Up or natural pIm had the same ultraviolet absorption spectra and chromatographic properties as marker Im. Characterization of the base and sugar components of Im as hypoxanthine and 2-O-methylribose, respectively, provided final confimration of structure. Control experiments have eliminated the possibility that Im arises from O2'-methyladenosine (Am), a known constituent of ribosomal RNA, by chemical or enzymatic deamination during hydrolysis of Crithidia rRNA.
A stereoisomer of inositol, scyllo-inositol, is known as a promising therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease, since it prevents the accumulation of beta-amyloid deposits, a hallmark of the disease. However, this compound is relatively rare in nature, whereas another stereoisomer of inositol, myo-inositol, is abundantly available.
Bacillus subtilis possesses a unique inositol metabolism involving both stereoisomers. We manipulated the inositol metabolism in B. subtilis to permit the possible bioconversion from myo-inositol to scyllo-inositol. Within 48 h of cultivation, the engineered strain was able to convert almost half of 10 g/L myo-inositol to scyllo-inositol that accumulated in the culture medium.
The engineered B. subtilis serves as a prototype of cell factory enabling a novel and inexpensive supply of scyllo-inositol.
Inositol derivative compounds provide a nutrient source for soil bacteria that possess the ability to degrade such compounds. Rhizobium strains that are capable of utilizing certain inositol derivatives are better colonizers of their host plants. We have cloned and determined the nucleotide sequence of the myo-inositol dehydrogenase gene (idhA) of Sinorhizobium fredii USDA191, the first enzyme responsible for inositol catabolism. The deduced IdhA protein has a molecular mass of 34,648 Da and shows significant sequence similarity with protein sequences of Sinorhizobium meliloti IdhA and MocA; Bacillus subtilis IolG, YrbE, and YucG; and Streptomyces griseus StrI. S. fredii USDA191 idhA mutants revealed no detectable myo-inositol dehydrogenase activity and failed to grow on myo-inositol as a sole carbon source. Northern blot analysis and idhA-lacZ fusion expression studies indicate that idhA is inducible by myo-inositol. S. fredii USDA191 idhA mutant was drastically affected in its ability to reduce nitrogen and revealed deteriorating bacteroids inside the nodules. The number of bacteria recovered from such nodules was about threefold lower than the number of bacteria isolated from nodules initiated by S. fredii USDA191. In addition, the idhA mutant was also severely affected in its ability to compete with the wild-type strain in nodulating soybean. Under competitive conditions, nodules induced on soybean roots were predominantly occupied by the parent strain, even when the idhA mutant was applied at a 10-fold numerical advantage. Thus, we conclude that a functional idhA gene is required for efficient nitrogen fixation and for competitive nodulation of soybeans by S. fredii USDA191.
BACKGROUND—Mammalian Toll-like receptor (TLR) proteins are pattern recognition receptors for a diverse array of bacterial and viral products. Gram negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates cells through TLR4, whereas the mycobacterial cell wall glycolipids, lipoarabinomannan (LAM) and mannosylated phosphatidylinositol (PIM), activate cells through TLR2. Furthermore, short term culture filtrates of M tuberculosis bacilli contain a TLR2 agonist activity, termed soluble tuberculosis factor (STF), that appears to be PIM. It was recently shown that stimulation of RAW264.7 murine macrophages by LPS, LAM, STF, and PIM rapidly activated NF-κB, AP1, and MAP kinases.
RESULTS—This study shows that signalling by TLR2 and TLR4 also activates the protein kinase Akt, a downstream target of phosphatidylinositol-3'-kinase (PI-3-K). This finding suggests that activation of PI-3-K represents an additional signalling pathway induced by engagement of TLR2 and TLR4. Subsequently, the functional responses induced by the different TLR agonists were compared. LPS, the mycobacterial glycolipids, and the OspC lipoprotein (a TLR2 agonist) all induced macrophages to secrete tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), whereas only LPS could induce nitric oxide (NO) secretion. Human alveolar macrophages also exhibited a distinct pattern of cellular response after stimulation with TLR2 and TLR4 agonists. Specifically, LPS induced TNFα, MIP-1β, and RANTES production in these cells, whereas the TLR2 agonists induced only MIP-1β production.
CONCLUSION—Together, these data show that different TLR proteins mediate the activation of distinct cellular responses, despite their shared ability to activate NF-κB, AP1, MAP kinases, and PI-3-K.
Experimental diabetes consistently reduces the concentration of free myo-inositol in peripheral nerve, which usually exceeds that of plasma by 90-100-fold. This phenomenon has been explicitly linked to the impairment of nerve conduction in the acutely diabetic streptozocin-treated rat. However, the mechanism by which acute experimental diabetes lowers nerve myo-inositol content and presumably alters nerve myo-inositol content and presumably alters nerve myo-inositol metabolism is unknown. Therefore, the effects of insulin and elevated medium glucose concentration of 2-[3H]myo-inositol uptake were studied in a metabolically-defined in vitro peripheral nerve tissue preparation derived from rabbit sciatic nerve, whose free myo-inositol content is reduced by experimental diabetes. The results demonstrate that myo-inositol uptake occurs by at least two distinct transport systems in the normal endoneurial preparation. A sodium- and energy-dependent saturable transport system is responsible for at least 94% of the measured uptake at medium myo-inositol concentrations approximating that present in plasma. This carrier-mediated transport system has a high affinity for myo-inositol (Kt = 63 microM), and is not influenced acutely by physiological concentrations of insulin; it is, however, inhibited by hyperglycemic concentrations of glucose added to the incubation medium in a primarily competitive fashion. Thus, competitive inhibition of peripheral nerve myo-inositol uptake by glucose may constitute a mechanism by which diabetes produces physiologically significant alterations in peripheral nerve myo-inositol metabolism.
Complex lipids from the thermoacidophilic facultative autotroph Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, as well as a strictly autotrophic isolate, were compared between cells grown on yeast extract and elemental sulfur. Lipids from both organisms grown autotrophically were nearly identical. Each contained about 15% neutral lipids, 35% glycolipids, and 50% acidic lipids. Glycolipids and acidic lipids contained C40H82-76-derived glycerol ether residues. Major glycolipids included the glycerol ether analogues of glucosyl galactosyl diglyceride (5%) and glucosyl polyol diglyceride (75%). Acidic lipids were comprised mainly of the glycerol ether analogues of phosphatidyl inositol (7%), inositolphosphoryl glucosyl polyol diglyceride (72%), and a partially characterized sulfate- and phosphate-containing derivative of glucosyl polyol diglyceride (13%). The lipids from cells grown heterotrophically were similar to those from autotrophically grown cells, except that the partially characterized acidic lipid was absent. In addition, the two glycolipids as well as the respective inositolphosphoryl derivatives were each present in nearly equal proportions.