Metabolic syndrome is strictly associated with morbid obesity and leads to an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and related mortality. Bariatric surgery is considered an effective option for the management of these patients. We searched MEDLINE, Current Contents, and the Cochrane Library for papers published on bariatric surgery outcomes in English from 1 January 1990 to 20 July 2012. We reported the effect of gastrointestinal manipulation on metabolic syndrome after bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery determines an important resolution rate of major obesity-related comorbidities. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and biliopancreatic diversion appear to be more effective than adjustable gastric banding in terms of weight loss and comorbidities resolution. However, the results obtained in terms of weight loss and resolution of comorbidities after a “new bariatric procedure” (sleeve gastrectomy) encouraged and stimulated the diffusion of this operation.
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is considered the gold standard bariatric procedure with documented safety and effectiveness. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a newer procedure being done with increasing frequency. Randomized comparisons of LSG and other bariatric procedures are limited. We present the results of the first prospective randomized trial comparing LSG and RYGB in the Polish population.
To assess the efficacy and safety of LSG versus RYGB in the treatment of morbid obesity and obesity-related comorbidities.
Material and methods
Seventy-two morbidly obese patients were randomized to RYGB (36 patients) or LSG (36 patients). Both groups were comparable regarding age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and comorbidities. The follow-up period was at least 12 months. Baseline and 6 and 12 month outcomes were analyzed including assessment of percent excess weight lost (%EWL), reduction in BMI, morbidity (minor, major, early and late complications), mortality, reoperations, comorbidities and nutritional deficiencies.
There was no 30-day mortality and no significant difference in major complication rate (0% after RYGB and 8.3% after LSG, p > 0.05) or minor complication rate (16.6% after RYGB and 10.1% after LSG, p > 0.05). There were no early reoperations after RYGB and 2 after LSG (5.5%) (p > 0.05). Weight loss was significant after RYGB and LSG but there was no difference between both groups at 6 and 12 months of follow-up. At 12 months %EWL in RYGB and LSG groups reached 64.2% and 67.6% respectively (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the overall prevalence of comorbidities and nutritional deficiencies.
Both LSG and RYGB produce significant weight loss at 6 and 12 months after surgery. The procedures are equally effective with regard to %EWL, reduction in BMI and amelioration of comorbidities at 6 and 12 months of follow-up. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and RYGB are comparably safe techniques with no significant differences in minor and major complication rates at 6 and 12 months.
bariatric surgery; morbid obesity; gastric bypass; sleeve gastrectomy; randomized trial
Morbid obesity is strongly associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. The current best treatment of NAFLD and NASH is weight reduction through life style modifications, antiobesity medication, and bariatric surgery. Importantly, bariatric surgery is the best alternative option for weight reduction if lifestyle modifications and pharmacological therapy have not yielded long-term success. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment option for individuals who are grossly obese and associated with marked decrease in obesity-related morbidity and mortality. The most common performed bariatric surgery is Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The current evidence suggests that bariatric surgery in these patients will decrease the grade of steatosis, hepatic inflammation, and fibrosis. NAFLD per se is not an indication for bariatric surgery. Further research is urgently needed to determine (i) the benefit of bariatric surgery in NAFLD patients at high risk of developing liver cirrhosis (ii) the role of bariatric surgery in modulation of complications of NAFLD like diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The outcomes of the future research will determine whether bariatric surgery will be one of the recommended choice for treatment of the most progressive type of NAFLD.
Increases in the prevalence of obesity and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) have paralleled one another over the past decade, which suggests the possibility of a linkage between these two processes. In both instances, surgical therapy is recognized as the most effective treatment for severe, refractory disease. Current surgical therapies for severe obesity include (in descending frequency) Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, adjustable gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy, and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch, while fundoplication remains the mainstay for the treatment of severe GERD. In several large series, however, the outcomes and durability of fundoplication in the setting of severe obesity are not as good as those in patients who are not severely obese. As such, bariatric surgery has been suggested as a potential alternative treatment for these patients. This article reviews current concepts in the putative pathophysiological mechanisms by which obesity contributes to gastroesophageal reflux and their implications with regards to surgical therapy for GERD in the setting of severe obesity.
Morbid obesity; Gastroesophageal reflux disease; Fundoplication; Bariatric surgery; Gastric bypass; Sleeve gastrectomy
Morbid obesity, a physiological dysfunction in humans associated with environmental, genetic and endocrinological origins, has significantly increased in the past few decades in the USA. Many methods have emerged for treating morbid obesity, such as diets, exercise, behavior modification, liposuction, drugs, and surgery; among these, bariatric surgery reduces weight and appears to have other curative effects. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the principal form of bariatric surgery, followed by laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, gastric sleeve operation, duodenojejunal bypass and biliopancreatic diversion. This weight-loss surgery may also affect comorbidities of morbid obesity, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), atherosclerosis, hypertension and steatohepatitis. Weight-loss surgery, for example, is associated with a more than 80% diabetes (data indicates > 80%) remission rate in severely obese persons. Empirical evidence also suggests that the use of bariatric surgery reduces atherosclerosis, and may ameliorate other comorbities. This warrants closer examination.
bariatric surgery; atherosclerosis; morbid obesity; diabetes mellitus
Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) in obese patients, with the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass being the technique preferred by many surgeons. Published data reporting the results of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in patients with GERD are contradictory. In a previous observational study, we found that relative narrowing of the distal sleeve, hiatal hernia (HH), and dilation of the fundus predispose to GERD after LSG. In this study, we evaluated the effects of standardization of our LSG technique on the incidence of postoperative symptoms of GERD.
This was a concurrent cohort study. Patients who underwent bariatric surgery at our center were followed prospectively. LSG was performed in all patients in this series.
A total of 234 patients underwent surgery. There were no cases of death, fistula, or conversion to open surgery. All 134 patients who completed 6–12 months of postoperative follow-up were evaluated. Excess weight loss at 1 year was 73.5 %. In the study group, 66 patients (49.2 %) were diagnosed with GERD preoperatively, and HH was detected in 34 patients (25.3 %) intraoperatively. HH was treated by reduction in three patients, anterior repair in 28, and posterior repair in three. Only two patients (1.5 %) had symptoms of GERD at 6–12 months postoperatively.
Our results confirm that careful attention to surgical technique can result in significantly reduced occurrence of symptoms of GERD up to 12 months postoperatively, compared with previous reports of LSG in the literature.
Sleeve; Gastroesophageal reflux; Laparoscopic; Technique; Hiatal hernia
It is well known that bariatric surgery provides excellent weight loss and resolution of comorbid conditions. We propose an additional benefit: Because body proportion is an independent predictor of diabetes and cardiovascular risk, we hypothesize that bariatric surgery results in improved body proportion and may thus improve health risk independent of overall weight loss and resolution of comorbid conditions.
A total of 168 patients underwent laparoscopic bariatric surgery at our institution from December 2006 to September 2009. Prospective data gathered preoperatively and at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively included body mass index (BMI); excess weight loss (EWL); waist-hip ratio (WHR); and discontinuation of hypertensive, hyperlipidemic, and diabetic medications.
Of the 168 patients, 122 underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 40 gastric band, and 6 gastric sleeve procedures. Mean preoperative BMI was 48.6 kg/m2 (SD = 7.8 kg/m2). Mean EWL was 33.7 lbs (SD = 11.9 lbs) at 3 months, 46.35 lbs (SD = 15.58 lbs) at 6 months, and 52.48 lbs (SD = 24.19 lbs) at 1 year. Mean WHR was 0.91 (SD = 0.1) preoperatively, 0.87 (SD = 0.1) at 3 months (P < .0001), 0.87 (SD = 0.09) at 6 months (P < .0001), and 0.86 (SD = 0.1) at 1 year (P = .0006). At 1-year follow-up, 52% of patients had discontinued hypertensive medications, 64% had discontinued diabetic medications, and 56% had discontinued hyperlipidemic medications.
Along with well-known improvements in overall weight and comorbid conditions, bariatric surgery significantly improves body proportion, which may decrease health risk. Continued follow-up will determine if this change is long term or if patients will revert to preoperative WHRs. Future studies with sufficient power to study individual bariatric procedures will determine which procedures, if any, provide patients with the greatest improvement in WHR and if inferior WHR results are associated with cardiovascular events.
Bariatric surgery; body mass index; waist-hip ratio
To assess the safety and effectiveness of the laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) as compared to the Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Band(LAGB), the Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass(LRYGB) and the Open Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass(ORYGB) for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases.
Summary of Background Data
LSG is a newer procedure being done with increasing frequency. However, limited data are currently available comparing LSG to the other established procedures. We present the first prospective, multi-institutional, nationwide, clinically-rich, bariatric-specific data comparing sleeve gastrectomy to the adjustable gastric band and the gastric bypass.
This is the initial report analyzing data from the American College of Surgeons – Bariatric Surgery Center Network accreditation program, and its prospective, longitudinal, data collection system based on standardized definitions and collected by trained data reviewers. Univariate and multivariate analyses compare 30-day, 6-month, and one-year outcomes including morbidity and mortality, readmissions and reoperations as well as reduction in body mass index (BMI) and weight-related comorbidities.
109 hospitals submitted data for 28,616 patients, from 7/2007 to 9/2010. The LSG has higher risk-adjusted morbidity, readmission and reoperation/intervention rates compared to the LAGB, but lower reoperation/intervention rates compared to the LRYGB and ORYGB. There were no differences in mortality. Reduction in BMI and most of the weight-related comorbidities following the LSG also lies between those of the LAGB and the LRYGB/ORYGB.
LSG has morbidity and effectiveness positioned between the LAGB and the LRYGB/ORYGB for data up to one year. As obesity is a lifelong disease, longer term comparative effectiveness data are most critical, and are yet to be determined.
This review will summarize current indications, limitations and outcomes of bariatric surgery in adolescents, as well as provide an overview of the physiologic effects of bariatric surgery on enteric hormones involved in regulating appetite, satiation and maintenance of weight.
Extreme obesity (BMI ≥ 99 percentile) now affects 4% of children and adolescents in the United States. Traditional dietary and behavioral weight management methods have no demonstrated efficacy for extremely obese children and adolescents, in contrast with bariatric surgery which has produced significant and sustainable weight loss and associated improvements in comorbid diseases for the extremely obese. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) are the most commonly performed bariatric surgical procedures in adolescents, but vertical sleeve gastrectomy may be a promising new option for selected extremely obese adolescents. A mean weight loss of 37–40% is achieved in adolescents after RYGB, with LAGB showing similar results, albeit attained at a slower rate.
Alterations in the enteric hormones involved in the gut–brain axis that regulates appetite and energy expenditure may play a role in both the anorexigenic and weight-reducing effects of certain bariatric surgical procedures. In particular, RYGB induces a rise in both fasting and post-prandial peptide tyrosine–tyrosine which could contribute to the more rapid and greater degree of weight loss than is seen with LAGB. Limitations of bariatric surgery however include the potential for post-operative morbidity and mortality, as well as possible weight regain in a small proportion of patients.
Obesity; Adolescent obesity; Bariatric surgery; Gastric bypass; Ghrelin; PYY; GLP-1
Diminished dopaminergic neurotransmission contributes to decreased reward and negative eating behaviors in obesity. Bariatric surgery is the most effective therapy for obesity and rapidly reduces hunger and improves satiety through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that dopaminergic neurotransmission would be enhanced after Roux-en-Y-Gastric Bypass (RYGB) and Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy (VSG) surgery and that these changes would influence eating behaviors and contribute to the positive outcomes from bariatric surgery.
Five females with obesity were studied preoperatively and at ~ 7 weeks after RYGB or VSG surgery. Subjects underwent positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with a dopamine type 2 (DA D2) receptor radioligand whose binding is sensitive to competition with endogenous dopamine. Regions of interest (ROI) relevant to eating behaviors were delineated. Fasting enteroendocrine hormones were quantified at each time point.
Body weight decreased as expected after surgery. DA D2 receptor availability decreased after surgery. Regional decreases (mean ± SEM) were, caudate 10±3%, putamen 9±4%, ventral striatum 8±4%, hypothalamus 9±3%, substantia nigra 10±2%, medial thalamus 8±2%, and amygdala 9±3%. These were accompanied by significant decreases in plasma insulin (62%) and leptin (41%).
The decreases in DA D2 receptor availability after RYGB and VSG most likely reflect increases in extracellular dopamine levels. Enhanced dopaminergic neurotransmission may contribute to improved eating behavior (e.g. reduced hunger and improved satiety) following these bariatric procedures.
dopamine; obesity; bariatric surgery; receptor
The past decade has seen an enormous increase in the number of bariatric, or weight loss, operations performed. This trend is likely to continue, mirroring the epidemic of obesity around the world and its rising prevalence among children. Bariatric surgery is considered by many to be the most effective treatment for obesity in terms of maintenance of long-term weight loss and improvement in obesity-related comorbid conditions. Although overly simplified, the primary mechanisms of the surgical interventions currently utilized to treat obesity are the creation of a restrictive or malabsorptive bowel anatomy. Operations based on these mechanisms include the laparoscopic adjustable gastric band and laparoscopic vertical sleeve gastrectomy (considered primarily restrictive operations), the laparoscopic biliopancreatic diversion with or without a duodenal switch (primarily malabsorptive operation), and the laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (considered a combination restrictive and selective malabsorptive procedure). Each operation has pros and cons. Important considerations, for the patient and surgeon alike, in the decision to proceed with bariatric surgery include the technical aspects of the operation, postoperative complications including long-term nutritional problems, magnitude of initial and sustained weight loss desired, and correction of obesity-related comorbidities. Herein, the pros and cons of the contemporary laparoscopic bariatric operations are reviewed and ongoing controversies relating to bariatric surgery are discussed: appropriate patient selection, appropriate operation selection for an individual patient, surgeon selection, and how to measure success after surgery.
Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is a relatively new bariatric procedure with a number of advantages compared with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. However, SG also has a number of disadvantages and associated risks. We sought to examine perioperative complications and outcomes of laparoscopic SG (LSG) in a single major Canadian bariatric surgery centre (Victoria, BC).
Since June 2008, LSG has been performed at our centre and we reviewed the cases of all patients. We conducted a retrospective chart review in April 2010.
Thirty-four patients had LSG, and none was lost to follow-up. Indications for LSG over other bariatric procedures were patient preference (n = 28), severe obesity with a body mass index (BMI) greater than 60 kg/m2 (n = 5) and severe upper abdominal adhesions (n = 1). All but 1 of the cohort were women, and the average age was 48 (standard deviation [SD] 11) years. Preoperatively, the average BMI was 50.3 (SD 7.7) kg/m2. Preoperative obesity-related comorbidity rates were 56% (n = 19) for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 50% (n = 17) for hypertension, 32% (n = 11) for dyslipidemia, 62% (n = 21) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), 62% (n = 21) for knee and/or hip pain and 44% (n = 15) for depression and/or anxiety. The mean duration of surgery was 74 (SD 21) minutes. There were 2 major perioperative complications: 1 staple line leak and 1 staple line hemorrhage. The median stay in hospital was 1 day. Postoperative upper gastrointestinal imaging studies were conducted in 11 patients; 1 was positive for staple line leak. Histopathology on the excised gastric segments revealed chronic helicobacter pylori gastritis in 2 patients and small gastrointestinal stromal tumours in 1 patient. The mean postoperative follow-up interval was 10 months. Weight loss averaged 27.4 (SD 9.0) kg. Overall weight loss was 3.3 (SD 1.8) kg/month. Resolution occurred in 74% of patients with T2DM, 53% with hypertension, 45% with dyslipidemia, 76% with OSA, 38% with joint pain and 20% with depression/anxiety. Overall satisfaction was rated as excellent by 68% of patients, good by 29% and poor by 3% of patients.
Preliminary analysis of our experience with LSG indicates that this is an effective and safe procedure for the treatment of obesity.
To assess the effects of different bariatric surgical procedures on the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance in high fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mice.
Bariatric surgery is currently considered the most effective treatment for morbid obesity and its comorbidities; however, a systematic study of their mechanisms is still lacking.
We developed bariatric surgery models, including gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), modified RYGB (mRYGB) and biliopancreatic diversion (BPD), in DIO mice. Body weight, body fat and lean mass, liver steatosis, glucose tolerance and pancreatic beta cell function were examined.
All bariatric surgeries resulted in significant weight loss, reduced body fat and improved glucose tolerance in the short term (4 weeks), compared to mice with sham surgery. Of the bariatric surgery models, sleeve gastrectomy and mRYGB had higher success rates and lower mortalities and represent reliable restrictive and gastrointestinal (GI) bypass mouse bariatric surgery models, respectively. In the long term, the GI bypass procedure produced more profound weight loss, significant improvement of glucose tolerance and liver steatosis than the restrictive procedure. DIO mice had increased insulin promoter activity, suggesting over-activation of pancreatic beta cells, which was regulated by the mRYGB procedure. Compared to the restrictive procedure, the GI bypass procedure showed more severe symptoms of malnutrition following bariatric surgery.
Both restrictive and GI bypass procedures provide positive effects on weight loss, fat composition, liver steatosis and glucose tolerance; however, in the long term, the GI bypass shows better results than restrictive procedures.
Bariatric surgery has been established as the best option of treatment for morbid obesity. In recent years single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) has emerged as another modality of carrying out the bariatric procedures. While SILS represents an advance, its application in morbid obesity at present is limited. In this article, we review the technique and results of SILS in bariatric surgery.
The PubMed database was searched and totally 11 series reporting SILS in bariatric surgery were identified and analyzed. The case reports were excluded. Since 2008, 114 morbidly obese patients receiving SILS bariatric surgeries were reported.
The procedures performed included SILS gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy and gastric bypass. No mortality was reported in the literatures. Sixteen patients (14.05%) needed an additional incision for a liver retractor, a trocar or for conversion. Only one complication of wound infection was reported in these series. All the surgeons reported that the patients were highly satisfied with the scar.
Because of abundant visceral and subcutaneous fat and multiple comorbidities in morbid obesity, it is more challenging for surgeons to perform the procedures with SILS. It is clear that extensive development of new instruments and technical aspects of these procedures as well as randomized studies to compare them with traditional laparoscopy are essential before these procedures can be utilized in day-to-day clinical practice.
Single-incision laparoscopic surgery; single-incision transumbilical laparoscopic surgery; SILS; bariatric surgery
Morbid obesity is a curable systemic disease that can cause several complications, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoarthritis. However, it is not easy to control solely by conservative management. Bariatric surgeries, such as sleeve gastrectomy and gastric banding, are recently developed treatments that are applied to patients with morbid obesity in Korea. However, gastric surgery can cause surgical or metabolic complications, such as thiamine deficiency, which can lead to Wernicke's encephalopathy. This metabolic complication presents with typical symptoms of confusion, ophthalmoplegia, nystagmus, and ataxia. In this case report, we present a case of Wernicke's encephalopathy, which developed slowly following sleeve gastrectomy in a patient with morbid obesity.
Wernicke's encephalopathy; Sleeve gastrectomy; Morbid obesity
Use of bariatric surgery for severe obesity has increased dramatically.
To systematically review 1. the clinical efficacy and safety, 2. cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery, and 3. the association between number of surgeries performed (surgical volume) and outcomes.
MEDLINE (from 1950), EMBASE (from 1980), CENTRAL, EconLit, EURON EED, Harvard Center for Risk Analysis, trial registries and HTA websites were searched to January 2011.
1. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 2. cost-utility and cost-minimisation studies comparing a contemporary bariatric surgery (i.e., adjustable gastric banding, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy) to another contemporary surgical comparator or a non-surgical treatment or 3. Any study reporting the association between surgical volume and outcome.
Outcomes included changes in weight and obesity-related comorbidity, quality of life and mortality, surgical complications, resource utilization, and incremental cost-utility.
RCT data evaluating mortality and obesity-related comorbidity endpoints were lacking. A small RCT of 16 patients reported that adjustable gastric banding reduced weight by 27% (p < 0.01) compared to diet-treated controls over 40 weeks. Six small RCTs reported comparisons of commonly used, contemporary procedures. Gastric banding reduced weight to a lower extent than gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy and resulted in shorter operating times, fewer serious complications, lower weight loss efficacy, and more frequent reoperations compared to gastric bypass. Sleeve gastrectomy and gastric bypass reduced weight to a similar extent. A 2-year RCT in 50 adolescents reported that gastric banding substantially reduced weight compared to lifestyle modification (35 kg vs. 3 kg; p <0.001). Based on findings of 14 observational studies, higher volume centers and surgeons had lower mortality and complication rates. Surgery resulted in long-term incremental cost–utility ratios of $ <1.000–$40,000 (2009 USD) per quality-adjusted-life-year compared with non-surgical treatment.
Contemporary bariatric surgery appears to result in sustained weight reduction with acceptable costs but rigorous, longer-term (≥5 year) data are needed and a paucity of RCT data on mortality and obesity related comorbidity is evident. Procedure-specific variations in efficacy and risks exist and require further study to clarify the specific indications for and advantages of different procedures.
randomized controlled trials; clincical evidence; economic evidence; systematic review
The relationship between obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is well known. Morbidly obese patients with T2DM who undergo bariatric surgery have improvement or remission of their diabetes. Different types of bariatric operations offer varying degrees of T2DM remission. These operations are classified as restrictive, malabsorptive, or a combination of both. The gold-standard operation, known as the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, is a combination operation.
Most often, improvement of the diabetes is seen within days of the operation. Various theories to explain this rapid change include calorie restriction and hormonal changes from exclusion of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Weight loss accounts for the sustained improvements in glucose control. The patients who benefit the most are those who are early in their disease course.
Having a single treatment for both obesity and T2DM is ideal. As bariatric surgery has become a safe operation when performed by experienced surgeons, it should be considered a treatment for these diseases. The impact it can have on the lives of individual patients and society as a whole is tremendous.
bariatric; gastric bypass; remission; type 2 diabetes
Sleeve gastrectomy is becoming increasingly popular within bariatric surgery. Initially introduced as a component of complex interventions and later as part of a two-stage operation in high-risk patients, the procedure is now more common as one-stage operation and subject of avid scientific discussion. However, the concept of longitudinal gastric resection is not new. The procedure was already established in ulcer surgery but soon faded into insignificance. This article aims to trace the historical development of resection of the greater curvature with particular reference to its origin in ulcer and bariatric surgery. The contribution of ulcer surgery to modern sleeve gastrectomy is highlighted. Furthermore, the current value of sleeve gastrectomy within the spectrum of bariatric surgical procedures will be discussed. Relevant medical literature from PubMed to April 2010 was reviewed.
Besides bariatric surgery modern sleeve gastrectomy has one more so far largely neglected origin: segmental and later longitudinal gastric resection used in ulcer surgery. Experience and achievements from ulcer surgery simplified and facilitated development of sleeve gastrectomy which is not the desired universal procedure for bariatric surgery but certainly an attractive treatment option. It should be performed in a more standardized manner and with due regard to future long-term results.
Segmental gastric resection; Tube gastrectomy; Longitudinal gastric resection; Sleeve gastrectomy; Bariatric surgery
Bariatric surgery reverses obesity-related comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes mellitus. Several studies have already described differences in anthropometrics and body composition between Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding patients, but the role of adipokines in the outcomes after the different types of surgery is not known.
Differences in weight loss and reversal of insulin resistance exist between the two groups and correlate with changes in adipokines.
Fifteen severely obese women (mean BMI: 46.7 kg/m2) underwent two types of laparoscopic weight loss surgery (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass = 10, adjustable gastric banding = 5). Weight, waist and hip circumference, body composition, plasma metabolic markers, and lipids were measured at set intervals during a 24-month period after surgery.
At 24 months, Roux-en-Y patients were overweight (BMI 29.7 kg/m2) while gastric banding patients remained obese (BMI 36.3 kg/m2). Roux-en-Y patients lost significantly more fat mass than gastric banding patients (mean difference 16.8 kg, p < 0.05). Likewise, leptin levels were lower in the Roux-en-Y patients (p = 0.003) and levels correlated with weight loss, loss of fat mass, insulin levels, and Homeostasis Model of Assessment 2 (HOMA-IR). Adiponectin correlated with insulin levels and HOMA-IR (r = −0.653, p = 0.04 and r = −0.674, p = 0.032, respectively) in the Roux-en-Y patients at 24 months.
After two years weight loss and normalization of metabolic parameters were less pronounced in patients who underwent gastric banding compared to patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Our findings require confirmation in a prospective randomized trial.
obesity; weight loss; bariatric surgery; insulin; leptin; adiponectin
To review how bariatric surgery in obese patients may effectively treat adiposopathy (pathogenic adipose tissue or ‘sick fat’), and to provide clinicians a rationale as to why bariatric surgery is a potential treatment option for overweight patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia.
A group of clinicians, researchers, and surgeons, all with a background in treating obesity and the adverse metabolic consequences of excessive body fat, reviewed the medical literature regarding the improvement in metabolic disease with bariatric surgery.
Bariatric surgery improves metabolic disease through multiple, likely interrelated mechanisms including: (i) initial acute fasting and diminished caloric intake inherent with many gastrointestinal surgical procedures; (ii) favourable alterations in gastrointestinal endocrine and immune responses, especially with bariatric surgeries that reroute nutrient gastrointestinal delivery such as gastric bypass procedures; and (iii) a decrease in adipose tissue mass. Regarding adipose tissue mass, during positive caloric balance, impaired adipogenesis (resulting in limitations in adipocyte number or size) and visceral adiposity are anatomic manifestations of pathogenic adipose tissue (adiposopathy). This may cause adverse adipose tissue endocrine and immune responses that lead to metabolic disease. A decrease in adipocyte size and decrease in visceral adiposity, as often occurs with bariatric surgery, may effectively improve adiposopathy, and thus effectively treat metabolic disease. It is the relationship between bariatric surgery and its effects upon pathogenic adipose tissue that is the focus of this discussion.
In selective obese patients with metabolic disease who are refractory to medical management, adiposopathy is a surgical disease.
The idea of surgery as treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was established in the US and was based on observation of patients after bariatric surgery. Resolution of T2DM is observed within a few weeks after surgery, in some cases even during hospitalization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on diabetes in morbidly obese patients.
We present 73 patients with T2DM who underwent laparoscopic RYGB (LRYGB) to treat morbid obesity. In the group of 73 obese patients (mean BMI = 42.3), there were 41 females and 32 males.
Regression of T2DM was observed in 51 patients (69.8%) while hospitalized. In addition, 14 patients’ (19.1%) glycemia and HBA1c stabilized within 12 weeks after surgery (total regression rate of 88.9%).
The ultimate evaluation of this method of treating T2DM is still lacking and requires several years of meticulous clinical studies. Despite that, considering the high cost of life-long conservative therapy of T2DM and its complications and the severe impact T2DM has on quality of life, surgical metabolic intervention may become the most reasonable solution in many cases.
Diabetes mellitus type 2; Metabolic surgery; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass; Incretins
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most performed bariatric operation. Reactive hypoglycaemia is a frequent late complication occurring in about 72% of RYGB patients, which can present with various intensities up to the serious form of neuroglycopaenia. However, it seems to occur also after sleeve gastrectomy (SG) although much more rarely.
Methods and analysis
A single centre, open, 1-year randomised trial to compare the incidence of hypoglycaemia after RYGB or SG. A secondary objective is the assessment of the comparative ability of the two surgical procedures in determining the improvement or normalisation of insulin sensitivity, given the established relevance of insulin resistance in the cardiometabolic syndrome of obesity.
Ethics and dissemination
The study will be published and presented to international meetings and, due to the safety issue, it will represent a relevant information for national healthcare systems. The protocol was approved by the Catholic University Ethical Committee (A1534/CE/2012). Clinicaltrials.gov Registration n. NCT01581801.
While repair of giant paraesophageal hernia is associated with a high failure rate in the morbidly obese, laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and repair of giant paraesophageal hernia in the morbidly obese may be safe and effective.
Repair of large paraesophageal hernias by itself is associated with high failure rates in the morbidly obese. A surgical approach addressing both giant paraesophageal hernia and morbid obesity has, to our knowledge, not been explored in the surgical literature.
A retrospective review of a bariatric surgery database identified patients who underwent simultaneous repair of large type 3 paraesophageal hernias with primary crus closure and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Operative time, intraoperative and 30-day morbidity, weight loss, resolution of comorbid conditions and use of anti-reflux medication were outcome measures. Integrity of crural closure was studied with a barium swallow.
Three patients with a mean body mass index of 46kg/m2 and mean age of 46 years underwent repair of a large paraesophageal hernia, primary crus closure, and RYGB. Mean operative time was 241 minutes and length of stay was 4 days. There was no intraoperative or 30-day morbidity. One patient required endoscopic balloon dilatation of the gastrojejunostomy. At 12 months, all patients were asymptomatic with excellent weight loss and resolution of comorbidities. Contrast studies showed no recurrence of the hiatal hernia.
Simultaneous laparoscopic repair of large paraesophageal hernias in the morbidly obese is safe and effective.
Hiatal hernia; Morbid obesity; Paraesophageal hernia; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
Background. We investigated the effect of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on morbidly obese diabetics and examined the short-term impact of LSG on diabetic medication cost. Methods. A prospective database of consecutive bariatric patients was reviewed. Morbidly obese patients with type 2 diabetes who underwent LSG were included in the study. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), diabetic medication use, glucose, insulin, and HbA1c levels were documented preoperatively, and at 2 weeks, 2 months, 6 months, and 12 months postoperatively. Insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). Use and cost of diabetic medications were followed. Results. Of 178 patients, 22 were diabetics who underwent LSG. Diabetes remission was observed in 62% of patients within 2 months and in 75% of patients within 12 months. HOMA-IR improved after only two weeks following surgery (16.5 versus 6.6, P < 0.001). Average number of diabetic medications decreased from 2.2 to <1, within 2 weeks after surgery; corresponding to a diabetes medication cost savings of 80%, 91%, 99%, and 99.7% after 2 weeks, 2 months, 6 months, and 12 months, respectively. Conclusion. Morbidly obese patients with diabetes who undergo LSG have high rates of diabetes remission early after surgery. This translates to a significant medication cost savings.
Morbid obesity has become a global epidemic during the 20th century. Until now bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for this disease leading to sustained weight loss and improvement of comorbidities. The sleeve gastrectomy is becoming a promising alternative for the gold standard the gastric bypass and it is gaining popularity as a stand-alone procedure. The effect of the laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is based on a restrictive mechanism, but a hormonal effect also seems to play an important role. Similar results are achieved in terms of excess weight loss and resolution of comorbidities compared to the gastric bypass. Inadequate weight loss or weight regain can be treated by revisional surgery. Complication rates after LSG appear to be lower compared with gastric bypass. General guidelines recommend bariatric surgery between the age of 18 and 65. However bariatric surgery in the elderly seems safe with respect to weight loss and resolution of comorbidities. At the same time weight loss surgery is more often performed in adolescent patients failing weight loss attempts. Even though more studies are needed describing long-term effects, there is already enough evidence that this technique is an effective single procedure for a considerable proportion of obese patients.