Obese patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing bariatric surgery experience significant and lasting weight loss and improved glycaemic control. However, bariatric surgical procedures such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass are irreversible and associated with considerable short-term and long-term risks. The EndoBarrier Gastrointestinal Liner or duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve (DJBS) is a fully reversible procedure that has been developed to treat obesity and type 2 diabetes. We aim to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of safety and efficacy of DJBS.
Methods and analyses
A systematic review with meta-analysis (as per the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) of randomised controlled trials of the device (vs no intervention, sham and/or low-calorie diet) will be performed. Primary endpoints include change in body weight and glycated haemoglobin and safety. Secondary endpoints constitute changes in other glycaemic parameters and blood lipids and the proportion of patients discontinuing antidiabetic medication. MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library and Science Citation Index will be sought electronically along with manual searches. The primary meta-analysis will use random effects models due to an expected intertrial heterogeneity. Fixed effect meta-analysis will be executed to assess the impact of small trials. Dichotomous data will be analysed using risk difference and continuous data using weighted mean differences, both with 95% CIs.
Ethics and dissemination
The study will describe the impact of DJBS on obesity and type 2 diabetes and possibly contribute to clinical decision-making. The results of this study will be disseminated by peer-reviewed publication and scientific presentations.
DIABETES & ENDOCRINOLOGY
Bariatric surgery, when combined with lifestyle and medical interventions, is a common and successful treatment modality in the obese patient. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is one such procedure that has increased in popularity as a definitive bariatric operation. Although laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy has been shown to be effective in producing weight loss and improving type 2 diabetes mellitus, its effect on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been inconsistent. This paper aims to summarize the available literature regarding GERD prevalence following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, 8 studies demonstrate increased GERD prevalence, and 5 demonstrate decreased GERD prevalence following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. The relationship between GERD and SG is complex and no clear relationship exists. The anatomic and physiologic changes caused by laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy are discussed in the context of these inconsistent results.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a disease with high prevalence, associated with severe co-morbidities as well as being a huge burden on public health. It is known that glycemic control decreases long-term morbidity and mortality. The current standard therapy for T2DM is medical treatment. Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) performed in obese patients showed remission of T2DM after bariatric surgery. Recent RCTs have shown bariatric procedures to produce a similar effect in non-morbidly and non-severely obese, insulin-dependent T2DM patients suggesting procedures currently used in bariatric surgery as new therapeutical approach in patients with T2DM. This study aims at investigating whether Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an efficient treatment for non-severely obese T2DM patients in terms of preventing long-term complications and mortality.
The DiaSurg 2 trial is a multicenter, open randomized controlled trial comparing RYGB including standardized medical treatment if needed to exclusive standardized medical treatment of T2DM (control group). The primary endpoint is a composite time-to-event endpoint (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, coronary bypass, percutaneous coronary intervention, non-fatal stroke, amputation, surgery for peripheral atherosclerotic artery disease), with a follow-up period of 8 years. Insulin-dependent T2DM patients aged between 30 and 65 years will be included and randomly assigned to one of the two groups. The experimental group will receive RYGB and, if needed, standardized medical care, whereas the control group will receive exclusive standardized medical care, both according to the national treatment guidelines for T2DM. Statistical analysis is based on Cox proportional hazards regression for the intention-to-treat population. Assuming a loss to follow-up rate of 20%, 200 patients will be randomly allocated to the comparison groups. A total sample size of n = 400 is sufficient to ensure 80% power in a two-tailed significance test at alpha = 5%.
The DiaSurg2 trial will yield long-term data (8 years) on diabetes-associated morbidity and mortality in patients with insulin-dependent T2DM receiving either RYGB or standardized medical care.
The trial protocol has been registered in the German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004550.
Objective. To assess the effects of bariatric surgery versus medical therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods. The Cochrane library, PubMed, Embase, Chinese biomedical literature database, and Wanfang database up to February 2012 were searched. The literature searches strategies contained terms (“diabetes∗”, “surg∗”, and “medic∗” were used), combined with the medical subject headings. Randomized controlled trails (RCTs) of frequently used bariatric surgery for obese patients with type 2 diabetes were included. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were performed according to the Cochrane standards. Results. Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 170 patients in the bariatric surgery groups and 100 patients in the medical therapy group were selected. Compared with medical therapy, bariatric surgery for type 2 diabetes can significantly decrease the levels of HbA1c, FBG, weight, triglycerides, and the dose of hypoglycemic, antihypertensive, and lipid-lowering medicine, while increasing the rate of diabetes remission (RR = 9.74, 95%CI, (1.36, 69.66)) and the levels of high-density lipoprotein. However, there are no statistical differences in serious adverse events between the surgical and medical groups (RR = 1.23, 95%CI, (0.80, 1.87)). Conclusions. Surgical procedures were more likely to help patients achieve benefits than medical therapy alone. Further intensive RCTs of high-quality, multiple centers and long-term followup should be carried out to provide more reliable evidence.
AIM: To investigate the weight loss and glycemic control status [blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and hypoglycaemic treatment].
METHODS: The primary risk factor for type 2 diabetes is obesity, and 90% of all patients with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese. Although a remarkable effect of bariatric surgery is the profound and durable resolution of type 2 diabetes clinical manifestations, little is known about the difference among various weight loss surgical procedures on diabetes remission. Data from patients referred during a 3-year period (from January 2009 to December 2011) to the University of Naples “Federico II” diagnosed with obesity and diabetes were retrieved from a prospective database. The patients were split into two groups according to the surgical intervention performed [sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and mini-gastric bypass (MGB)]. Weight loss and glycemic control status (blood glucose, HbA1c and hypoglycaemic treatment) were evaluated.
RESULTS: A total of 53 subjects who underwent sleeve gastrectomy or mini-gastric bypass for obesity and diabetes were screened for the inclusion in this study. Of these, 4 subjects were excluded because of surgical complications, 7 subjects were omitted because young surgeons conducted the operations and 11 subjects were removed because of the lack of follow-up. Thirty-one obese patients were recruited for this study. A total of 15 subjects underwent SG (48.4%), and 16 underwent MGB (51.6%). After adjusting for various clinical and demographic characteristics in a multivariate logistic regression analysis, high hemoglobin A1c was determined to be a negative predictor of diabetes remission at 12 mo (OR = 0.366, 95%CI: 0.152-0.884). Using the same regression model, MGB showed a clear trend toward higher diabetes remission rates relative to SG (OR = 3.780, 95%CI: 0.961-14.872).
CONCLUSION: Although our results are encouraging regarding the effectiveness of mini-gastric bypass on diabetes remission, further studies are needed to provide definitive conclusions in selecting the ideal procedure for diabetes remission.
Bariatric surgery; Sleeve; Bypass; Obesity and diabetes
Morbid obesity, a physiological dysfunction in humans associated with environmental, genetic and endocrinological origins, has significantly increased in the past few decades in the USA. Many methods have emerged for treating morbid obesity, such as diets, exercise, behavior modification, liposuction, drugs, and surgery; among these, bariatric surgery reduces weight and appears to have other curative effects. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the principal form of bariatric surgery, followed by laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, gastric sleeve operation, duodenojejunal bypass and biliopancreatic diversion. This weight-loss surgery may also affect comorbidities of morbid obesity, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), atherosclerosis, hypertension and steatohepatitis. Weight-loss surgery, for example, is associated with a more than 80% diabetes (data indicates > 80%) remission rate in severely obese persons. Empirical evidence also suggests that the use of bariatric surgery reduces atherosclerosis, and may ameliorate other comorbities. This warrants closer examination.
bariatric surgery; atherosclerosis; morbid obesity; diabetes mellitus
Is bariatric surgery as primary therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with body mass index (BMI) <35 kg/m2 justified? Open-label studies have shown that bariatric surgery causes remission of diabetes in some patients with BMI <35 kg/m2. All such patients treated had substantial weight loss. Diabetes remission was less likely in patients with lower BMI than those with higher BMI, in patients with longer than shorter duration and in patients with lesser than greater insulin reserve. Relapse of diabetes increases with time after surgery and weight regain. Deficiencies of data are lack of randomized long-term studies comparing risk/benefit of bariatric surgery to contemporary intensive medical therapy. Current data do not justify bariatric surgery as primary therapy for T2DM with BMI <35 kg/m2.
Metabolic surgery; Type 2 diabetes; Body mass Index <35 kg/m2; Remission of diabetes
Metabolic syndrome is strictly associated with morbid obesity and leads to an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and related mortality. Bariatric surgery is considered an effective option for the management of these patients. We searched MEDLINE, Current Contents, and the Cochrane Library for papers published on bariatric surgery outcomes in English from 1 January 1990 to 20 July 2012. We reported the effect of gastrointestinal manipulation on metabolic syndrome after bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery determines an important resolution rate of major obesity-related comorbidities. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and biliopancreatic diversion appear to be more effective than adjustable gastric banding in terms of weight loss and comorbidities resolution. However, the results obtained in terms of weight loss and resolution of comorbidities after a “new bariatric procedure” (sleeve gastrectomy) encouraged and stimulated the diffusion of this operation.
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is considered the gold standard bariatric procedure with documented safety and effectiveness. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a newer procedure being done with increasing frequency. Randomized comparisons of LSG and other bariatric procedures are limited. We present the results of the first prospective randomized trial comparing LSG and RYGB in the Polish population.
To assess the efficacy and safety of LSG versus RYGB in the treatment of morbid obesity and obesity-related comorbidities.
Material and methods
Seventy-two morbidly obese patients were randomized to RYGB (36 patients) or LSG (36 patients). Both groups were comparable regarding age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and comorbidities. The follow-up period was at least 12 months. Baseline and 6 and 12 month outcomes were analyzed including assessment of percent excess weight lost (%EWL), reduction in BMI, morbidity (minor, major, early and late complications), mortality, reoperations, comorbidities and nutritional deficiencies.
There was no 30-day mortality and no significant difference in major complication rate (0% after RYGB and 8.3% after LSG, p > 0.05) or minor complication rate (16.6% after RYGB and 10.1% after LSG, p > 0.05). There were no early reoperations after RYGB and 2 after LSG (5.5%) (p > 0.05). Weight loss was significant after RYGB and LSG but there was no difference between both groups at 6 and 12 months of follow-up. At 12 months %EWL in RYGB and LSG groups reached 64.2% and 67.6% respectively (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the overall prevalence of comorbidities and nutritional deficiencies.
Both LSG and RYGB produce significant weight loss at 6 and 12 months after surgery. The procedures are equally effective with regard to %EWL, reduction in BMI and amelioration of comorbidities at 6 and 12 months of follow-up. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and RYGB are comparably safe techniques with no significant differences in minor and major complication rates at 6 and 12 months.
bariatric surgery; morbid obesity; gastric bypass; sleeve gastrectomy; randomized trial
Diminished dopaminergic neurotransmission contributes to decreased reward and negative eating behaviors in obesity. Bariatric surgery is the most effective therapy for obesity and rapidly reduces hunger and improves satiety through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that dopaminergic neurotransmission would be enhanced after Roux-en-Y-Gastric Bypass (RYGB) and Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy (VSG) surgery and that these changes would influence eating behaviors and contribute to the positive outcomes from bariatric surgery.
Five females with obesity were studied preoperatively and at ~ 7 weeks after RYGB or VSG surgery. Subjects underwent positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with a dopamine type 2 (DA D2) receptor radioligand whose binding is sensitive to competition with endogenous dopamine. Regions of interest (ROI) relevant to eating behaviors were delineated. Fasting enteroendocrine hormones were quantified at each time point.
Body weight decreased as expected after surgery. DA D2 receptor availability decreased after surgery. Regional decreases (mean ± SEM) were, caudate 10±3%, putamen 9±4%, ventral striatum 8±4%, hypothalamus 9±3%, substantia nigra 10±2%, medial thalamus 8±2%, and amygdala 9±3%. These were accompanied by significant decreases in plasma insulin (62%) and leptin (41%).
The decreases in DA D2 receptor availability after RYGB and VSG most likely reflect increases in extracellular dopamine levels. Enhanced dopaminergic neurotransmission may contribute to improved eating behavior (e.g. reduced hunger and improved satiety) following these bariatric procedures.
dopamine; obesity; bariatric surgery; receptor
Morbid obesity is strongly associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. The current best treatment of NAFLD and NASH is weight reduction through life style modifications, antiobesity medication, and bariatric surgery. Importantly, bariatric surgery is the best alternative option for weight reduction if lifestyle modifications and pharmacological therapy have not yielded long-term success. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment option for individuals who are grossly obese and associated with marked decrease in obesity-related morbidity and mortality. The most common performed bariatric surgery is Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The current evidence suggests that bariatric surgery in these patients will decrease the grade of steatosis, hepatic inflammation, and fibrosis. NAFLD per se is not an indication for bariatric surgery. Further research is urgently needed to determine (i) the benefit of bariatric surgery in NAFLD patients at high risk of developing liver cirrhosis (ii) the role of bariatric surgery in modulation of complications of NAFLD like diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The outcomes of the future research will determine whether bariatric surgery will be one of the recommended choice for treatment of the most progressive type of NAFLD.
Increases in the prevalence of obesity and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) have paralleled one another over the past decade, which suggests the possibility of a linkage between these two processes. In both instances, surgical therapy is recognized as the most effective treatment for severe, refractory disease. Current surgical therapies for severe obesity include (in descending frequency) Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, adjustable gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy, and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch, while fundoplication remains the mainstay for the treatment of severe GERD. In several large series, however, the outcomes and durability of fundoplication in the setting of severe obesity are not as good as those in patients who are not severely obese. As such, bariatric surgery has been suggested as a potential alternative treatment for these patients. This article reviews current concepts in the putative pathophysiological mechanisms by which obesity contributes to gastroesophageal reflux and their implications with regards to surgical therapy for GERD in the setting of severe obesity.
Morbid obesity; Gastroesophageal reflux disease; Fundoplication; Bariatric surgery; Gastric bypass; Sleeve gastrectomy
Background. We investigated the effect of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on morbidly obese diabetics and examined the short-term impact of LSG on diabetic medication cost. Methods. A prospective database of consecutive bariatric patients was reviewed. Morbidly obese patients with type 2 diabetes who underwent LSG were included in the study. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), diabetic medication use, glucose, insulin, and HbA1c levels were documented preoperatively, and at 2 weeks, 2 months, 6 months, and 12 months postoperatively. Insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). Use and cost of diabetic medications were followed. Results. Of 178 patients, 22 were diabetics who underwent LSG. Diabetes remission was observed in 62% of patients within 2 months and in 75% of patients within 12 months. HOMA-IR improved after only two weeks following surgery (16.5 versus 6.6, P < 0.001). Average number of diabetic medications decreased from 2.2 to <1, within 2 weeks after surgery; corresponding to a diabetes medication cost savings of 80%, 91%, 99%, and 99.7% after 2 weeks, 2 months, 6 months, and 12 months, respectively. Conclusion. Morbidly obese patients with diabetes who undergo LSG have high rates of diabetes remission early after surgery. This translates to a significant medication cost savings.
Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) in obese patients, with the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass being the technique preferred by many surgeons. Published data reporting the results of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in patients with GERD are contradictory. In a previous observational study, we found that relative narrowing of the distal sleeve, hiatal hernia (HH), and dilation of the fundus predispose to GERD after LSG. In this study, we evaluated the effects of standardization of our LSG technique on the incidence of postoperative symptoms of GERD.
This was a concurrent cohort study. Patients who underwent bariatric surgery at our center were followed prospectively. LSG was performed in all patients in this series.
A total of 234 patients underwent surgery. There were no cases of death, fistula, or conversion to open surgery. All 134 patients who completed 6–12 months of postoperative follow-up were evaluated. Excess weight loss at 1 year was 73.5 %. In the study group, 66 patients (49.2 %) were diagnosed with GERD preoperatively, and HH was detected in 34 patients (25.3 %) intraoperatively. HH was treated by reduction in three patients, anterior repair in 28, and posterior repair in three. Only two patients (1.5 %) had symptoms of GERD at 6–12 months postoperatively.
Our results confirm that careful attention to surgical technique can result in significantly reduced occurrence of symptoms of GERD up to 12 months postoperatively, compared with previous reports of LSG in the literature.
Sleeve; Gastroesophageal reflux; Laparoscopic; Technique; Hiatal hernia
It is well known that bariatric surgery provides excellent weight loss and resolution of comorbid conditions. We propose an additional benefit: Because body proportion is an independent predictor of diabetes and cardiovascular risk, we hypothesize that bariatric surgery results in improved body proportion and may thus improve health risk independent of overall weight loss and resolution of comorbid conditions.
A total of 168 patients underwent laparoscopic bariatric surgery at our institution from December 2006 to September 2009. Prospective data gathered preoperatively and at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively included body mass index (BMI); excess weight loss (EWL); waist-hip ratio (WHR); and discontinuation of hypertensive, hyperlipidemic, and diabetic medications.
Of the 168 patients, 122 underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 40 gastric band, and 6 gastric sleeve procedures. Mean preoperative BMI was 48.6 kg/m2 (SD = 7.8 kg/m2). Mean EWL was 33.7 lbs (SD = 11.9 lbs) at 3 months, 46.35 lbs (SD = 15.58 lbs) at 6 months, and 52.48 lbs (SD = 24.19 lbs) at 1 year. Mean WHR was 0.91 (SD = 0.1) preoperatively, 0.87 (SD = 0.1) at 3 months (P < .0001), 0.87 (SD = 0.09) at 6 months (P < .0001), and 0.86 (SD = 0.1) at 1 year (P = .0006). At 1-year follow-up, 52% of patients had discontinued hypertensive medications, 64% had discontinued diabetic medications, and 56% had discontinued hyperlipidemic medications.
Along with well-known improvements in overall weight and comorbid conditions, bariatric surgery significantly improves body proportion, which may decrease health risk. Continued follow-up will determine if this change is long term or if patients will revert to preoperative WHRs. Future studies with sufficient power to study individual bariatric procedures will determine which procedures, if any, provide patients with the greatest improvement in WHR and if inferior WHR results are associated with cardiovascular events.
Bariatric surgery; body mass index; waist-hip ratio
Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy was found to be a safe and effective stand-alone procedure for severe, morbid, and super obese patients in a high-risk veteran population.
The laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is emerging as an effective bariatric operation and is especially attractive in high-risk populations. In this study we examine the efficacy of LSG as a stand-alone operation in the veteran population.
This is a retrospective review of consecutive patients who underwent LSG as a stand-alone procedure at the Palo Alto Veterans Affairs medical center with a minimum 12-month follow-up.
Of 205 patients undergoing bariatric surgery, 71 patients had a sleeve gastrectomy, 40 of whom had the operation performed at least 12 months previously. Thirty-six (90%) were available for 1-year follow-up, with a mean follow-up duration of 22 months (range: 12–42), a mean body mass index of 48.3 kg/m2, and an 83% male population. Mean percent excess weight loss was 61% at an average of 22 months, with no significant difference between severely obese, morbidly obese, and super obese cohorts. Diabetes remission was seen in 56% of patients, hypertension remission in 51.6%, and obstructive sleep apnea remission in 46.4%, and gastroesophageal reflux disease improved or did not change in 83%. Medication use significantly decreased after surgery.
LSG is safe and effective as a stand-alone bariatric operation in the high-risk veteran population. It is effective in severely obese, morbidly obese, and super obese patients. LSG induces remission or improvement in comorbidities of nearly all patients, translating to a decrease in medication use.
Obesity; Sleeve gastrectomy; Bariatric surgery; Veterans; Diabetes; Hypertension; Obstructive sleep apnea; Gastroesphageal reflux
The relationship between obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is well known. Morbidly obese patients with T2DM who undergo bariatric surgery have improvement or remission of their diabetes. Different types of bariatric operations offer varying degrees of T2DM remission. These operations are classified as restrictive, malabsorptive, or a combination of both. The gold-standard operation, known as the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, is a combination operation.
Most often, improvement of the diabetes is seen within days of the operation. Various theories to explain this rapid change include calorie restriction and hormonal changes from exclusion of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Weight loss accounts for the sustained improvements in glucose control. The patients who benefit the most are those who are early in their disease course.
Having a single treatment for both obesity and T2DM is ideal. As bariatric surgery has become a safe operation when performed by experienced surgeons, it should be considered a treatment for these diseases. The impact it can have on the lives of individual patients and society as a whole is tremendous.
bariatric; gastric bypass; remission; type 2 diabetes
Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is a relatively new bariatric procedure with a number of advantages compared with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. However, SG also has a number of disadvantages and associated risks. We sought to examine perioperative complications and outcomes of laparoscopic SG (LSG) in a single major Canadian bariatric surgery centre (Victoria, BC).
Since June 2008, LSG has been performed at our centre and we reviewed the cases of all patients. We conducted a retrospective chart review in April 2010.
Thirty-four patients had LSG, and none was lost to follow-up. Indications for LSG over other bariatric procedures were patient preference (n = 28), severe obesity with a body mass index (BMI) greater than 60 kg/m2 (n = 5) and severe upper abdominal adhesions (n = 1). All but 1 of the cohort were women, and the average age was 48 (standard deviation [SD] 11) years. Preoperatively, the average BMI was 50.3 (SD 7.7) kg/m2. Preoperative obesity-related comorbidity rates were 56% (n = 19) for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 50% (n = 17) for hypertension, 32% (n = 11) for dyslipidemia, 62% (n = 21) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), 62% (n = 21) for knee and/or hip pain and 44% (n = 15) for depression and/or anxiety. The mean duration of surgery was 74 (SD 21) minutes. There were 2 major perioperative complications: 1 staple line leak and 1 staple line hemorrhage. The median stay in hospital was 1 day. Postoperative upper gastrointestinal imaging studies were conducted in 11 patients; 1 was positive for staple line leak. Histopathology on the excised gastric segments revealed chronic helicobacter pylori gastritis in 2 patients and small gastrointestinal stromal tumours in 1 patient. The mean postoperative follow-up interval was 10 months. Weight loss averaged 27.4 (SD 9.0) kg. Overall weight loss was 3.3 (SD 1.8) kg/month. Resolution occurred in 74% of patients with T2DM, 53% with hypertension, 45% with dyslipidemia, 76% with OSA, 38% with joint pain and 20% with depression/anxiety. Overall satisfaction was rated as excellent by 68% of patients, good by 29% and poor by 3% of patients.
Preliminary analysis of our experience with LSG indicates that this is an effective and safe procedure for the treatment of obesity.
This review will summarize current indications, limitations and outcomes of bariatric surgery in adolescents, as well as provide an overview of the physiologic effects of bariatric surgery on enteric hormones involved in regulating appetite, satiation and maintenance of weight.
Extreme obesity (BMI ≥ 99 percentile) now affects 4% of children and adolescents in the United States. Traditional dietary and behavioral weight management methods have no demonstrated efficacy for extremely obese children and adolescents, in contrast with bariatric surgery which has produced significant and sustainable weight loss and associated improvements in comorbid diseases for the extremely obese. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) are the most commonly performed bariatric surgical procedures in adolescents, but vertical sleeve gastrectomy may be a promising new option for selected extremely obese adolescents. A mean weight loss of 37–40% is achieved in adolescents after RYGB, with LAGB showing similar results, albeit attained at a slower rate.
Alterations in the enteric hormones involved in the gut–brain axis that regulates appetite and energy expenditure may play a role in both the anorexigenic and weight-reducing effects of certain bariatric surgical procedures. In particular, RYGB induces a rise in both fasting and post-prandial peptide tyrosine–tyrosine which could contribute to the more rapid and greater degree of weight loss than is seen with LAGB. Limitations of bariatric surgery however include the potential for post-operative morbidity and mortality, as well as possible weight regain in a small proportion of patients.
Obesity; Adolescent obesity; Bariatric surgery; Gastric bypass; Ghrelin; PYY; GLP-1
The past decade has seen an enormous increase in the number of bariatric, or weight loss, operations performed. This trend is likely to continue, mirroring the epidemic of obesity around the world and its rising prevalence among children. Bariatric surgery is considered by many to be the most effective treatment for obesity in terms of maintenance of long-term weight loss and improvement in obesity-related comorbid conditions. Although overly simplified, the primary mechanisms of the surgical interventions currently utilized to treat obesity are the creation of a restrictive or malabsorptive bowel anatomy. Operations based on these mechanisms include the laparoscopic adjustable gastric band and laparoscopic vertical sleeve gastrectomy (considered primarily restrictive operations), the laparoscopic biliopancreatic diversion with or without a duodenal switch (primarily malabsorptive operation), and the laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (considered a combination restrictive and selective malabsorptive procedure). Each operation has pros and cons. Important considerations, for the patient and surgeon alike, in the decision to proceed with bariatric surgery include the technical aspects of the operation, postoperative complications including long-term nutritional problems, magnitude of initial and sustained weight loss desired, and correction of obesity-related comorbidities. Herein, the pros and cons of the contemporary laparoscopic bariatric operations are reviewed and ongoing controversies relating to bariatric surgery are discussed: appropriate patient selection, appropriate operation selection for an individual patient, surgeon selection, and how to measure success after surgery.
To assess the effects of different bariatric surgical procedures on the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance in high fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mice.
Bariatric surgery is currently considered the most effective treatment for morbid obesity and its comorbidities; however, a systematic study of their mechanisms is still lacking.
We developed bariatric surgery models, including gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), modified RYGB (mRYGB) and biliopancreatic diversion (BPD), in DIO mice. Body weight, body fat and lean mass, liver steatosis, glucose tolerance and pancreatic beta cell function were examined.
All bariatric surgeries resulted in significant weight loss, reduced body fat and improved glucose tolerance in the short term (4 weeks), compared to mice with sham surgery. Of the bariatric surgery models, sleeve gastrectomy and mRYGB had higher success rates and lower mortalities and represent reliable restrictive and gastrointestinal (GI) bypass mouse bariatric surgery models, respectively. In the long term, the GI bypass procedure produced more profound weight loss, significant improvement of glucose tolerance and liver steatosis than the restrictive procedure. DIO mice had increased insulin promoter activity, suggesting over-activation of pancreatic beta cells, which was regulated by the mRYGB procedure. Compared to the restrictive procedure, the GI bypass procedure showed more severe symptoms of malnutrition following bariatric surgery.
Both restrictive and GI bypass procedures provide positive effects on weight loss, fat composition, liver steatosis and glucose tolerance; however, in the long term, the GI bypass shows better results than restrictive procedures.
Obesity is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Weight loss improves the major factors involved in the pathogenesis of T2D, namely insulin action and β-cell function, and is considered a primary therapy for obese patients who have T2D. Unfortunately, most patients with T2D fail to achieve successful weight loss and adequate glycemic control from medical therapy. In contrast, bariatric surgery causes marked weight loss and complete remission of T2D in most patients. Moreover, bariatric surgical procedures that divert nutrients away from the upper gastrointestinal tract are more successful in producing weight loss and remission of T2D than those that simply restrict stomach capacity. Although upper gastrointestinal tract bypass procedures alter the metabolic response to meal ingestion, by increasing early post-prandial plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide 1 and insulin, it is not clear whether these effects make an important contribution to long-term control of glycemia and T2D once substantial surgery-induced weight loss has occurred. Nonetheless, the effects of surgery on body weight and metabolic function indicate that bariatric surgery should be part of the standard therapy for T2D. More research is needed to advance our understanding of the physiological effects of different bariatric surgical procedures and possible weight loss-independent factors that improve metabolic function and contribute to the resolution of T2D.
insulin sensitivity; beta-cell function; insulin secretion; roux-en-Y gastric bypass
To assess the safety and effectiveness of the laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) as compared to the Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Band(LAGB), the Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass(LRYGB) and the Open Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass(ORYGB) for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases.
Summary of Background Data
LSG is a newer procedure being done with increasing frequency. However, limited data are currently available comparing LSG to the other established procedures. We present the first prospective, multi-institutional, nationwide, clinically-rich, bariatric-specific data comparing sleeve gastrectomy to the adjustable gastric band and the gastric bypass.
This is the initial report analyzing data from the American College of Surgeons – Bariatric Surgery Center Network accreditation program, and its prospective, longitudinal, data collection system based on standardized definitions and collected by trained data reviewers. Univariate and multivariate analyses compare 30-day, 6-month, and one-year outcomes including morbidity and mortality, readmissions and reoperations as well as reduction in body mass index (BMI) and weight-related comorbidities.
109 hospitals submitted data for 28,616 patients, from 7/2007 to 9/2010. The LSG has higher risk-adjusted morbidity, readmission and reoperation/intervention rates compared to the LAGB, but lower reoperation/intervention rates compared to the LRYGB and ORYGB. There were no differences in mortality. Reduction in BMI and most of the weight-related comorbidities following the LSG also lies between those of the LAGB and the LRYGB/ORYGB.
LSG has morbidity and effectiveness positioned between the LAGB and the LRYGB/ORYGB for data up to one year. As obesity is a lifelong disease, longer term comparative effectiveness data are most critical, and are yet to be determined.
Bariatric surgery is now widely accepted for treatment of morbid obesity. This study compared the effects of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) on excess weight loss (EWL) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). PubMed and Embase were searched for publications concerning LAGB and LSG from 2000 to 2012, with the last search on August 17, 2012. EWL and T2DM improvement over 6 and 12 months were pooled and compared by meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and mean differences were calculated with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Eleven studies involving 1,004 patients met the inclusion criteria. Compared with LAGB, LSG achieved greater EWL. The mean percentage EWL for LAGB was 33.9 % after 6 months in six studies and 37.8 % after 12 months in four studies; for LSG, EWL was 50.6 % after 6 months and 51.8 % after 12 months in the same studies. LSG was also superior to LAGB in treating T2DM. In five studies, T2DM was improved in 42 of 68 (61.8 %) patients after LAGB and 66 of 80 (82.5 %) after LSG, representing a pooled OR of 0.34 (95 % CI 0.16–0.73) and pooled mean differences of −12.55 (95 % CI −15.66 to −9.43) and −4.97 (95 % CI −7.58 to −8.36), respectively. LSG is more effective than LAGB in morbid obesity, with higher percentage EWL and greater improvement in T2DM.
Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy; Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Morbid obesity; Bariatric surgery
Bariatric surgery has been established as the best option of treatment for morbid obesity. In recent years single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) has emerged as another modality of carrying out the bariatric procedures. While SILS represents an advance, its application in morbid obesity at present is limited. In this article, we review the technique and results of SILS in bariatric surgery.
The PubMed database was searched and totally 11 series reporting SILS in bariatric surgery were identified and analyzed. The case reports were excluded. Since 2008, 114 morbidly obese patients receiving SILS bariatric surgeries were reported.
The procedures performed included SILS gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy and gastric bypass. No mortality was reported in the literatures. Sixteen patients (14.05%) needed an additional incision for a liver retractor, a trocar or for conversion. Only one complication of wound infection was reported in these series. All the surgeons reported that the patients were highly satisfied with the scar.
Because of abundant visceral and subcutaneous fat and multiple comorbidities in morbid obesity, it is more challenging for surgeons to perform the procedures with SILS. It is clear that extensive development of new instruments and technical aspects of these procedures as well as randomized studies to compare them with traditional laparoscopy are essential before these procedures can be utilized in day-to-day clinical practice.
Single-incision laparoscopic surgery; single-incision transumbilical laparoscopic surgery; SILS; bariatric surgery