The introduction of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) provided a new choice for the reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) in eyes with open angle glaucoma (OAG) and ocular hypertension (OHT). SLT was demonstrated equally as effective as topical medical therapy and argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT) to lower IOP. It is a potentially repeatable procedure because of the lack of coagulation damage to the trabecular meshwork (TM) and also effect in patients with previously failed ALT. SLT can be used to treat patients with OAG, pseudoexfoliation glaucoma, pigmentary glaucoma, normal-tension glaucoma, OHT, juvenile glaucoma, pseudophakic and aphakic glaucoma. Furthermore, SLT can be considered as a primary treatment option in patients who cannot tolerate or are noncompliant with medications, while not interfering with the success of future surgery. Its safety profiles include mild and transient inflammation, ocular pain and a small risk of moderate IOP elevations after the procedure. SLT is a safe and effective means of IOP reduction in eyes with OAG and OHT.
open angle glaucoma; intraocular pressure; selective laser trabeculoplasty
To determine whether 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) affect the risk of developing open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in persons with hyperlipidemia.
Retrospective longitudinal cohort analysis.
Individuals age ≥60 with hyperlipidemia enrolled in a national United States managed care network between 2001 and 2009.
Multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between statin use and the development of OAG (from no prior OAG diagnosis), progression from a prior diagnosis of suspected glaucoma to a diagnosis of OAG, and need for medical or surgical interventions for OAG. Regression models were adjusted for sociodemographic factors, medical and ocular comorbidities.
Main Outcome Measures
Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Of the 524,109 individuals with hyperlipidemia, 316,182 (60%) had at least 1 outpatient prescription for statins. The hazard of developing OAG decreased 0.3% (adjusted HR = 0.997, CI (0.994–0.999)) for every additional month of statin consumption. Individuals with hyperlipidemia who took statins continuously for 2 years had an 8% (adjusted HR = 0.922, CI (0.870–0.976) decreased OAG risk relative to those who received no statin therapy. The hazard of progressing from a diagnosis of suspected glaucoma to OAG decreased 0.4% (adjusted HR = 0.996, CI (0.993–0.999)) for every additional month of statin exposure. Individuals who took statins continuously for 2 years had a 9% (adjusted HR = 0.907, CI (0.846–0.973) decreased risk of progressing from suspected glaucoma to OAG relative to those who received no statin therapy. The hazard of requiring medical treatment for OAG decreased 0.4% (adjusted HR = 0.996, CI (0.993–0.998)) for every additional month of statin exposure. No significant differences in need for glaucoma surgery were noted among those with OAG who were and were not taking statins (adjusted HR = 1.002, CI (0.994–1.010)).
Statin use was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of OAG in persons with hyperlipidemia. Given the mounting evidence of statin protection against OAG including both basic science and observational clinical studies, an interventional prospective study might provide additional insights into the role of statins in the prevention of early OAG.
To assess the prevalence and cumulative incidence of open angle glaucoma (OAG) in a cohort group of siblings of OAG probands.
Between 1994 and 2003, a group of siblings of OAG probands underwent both initial and follow up standardised ophthalmic examinations. Siblings were classified as “definite glaucoma” (primary OAG (POAG) and normal tension glaucoma (NTG)), “glaucoma suspects” (NTG suspects or ocular hypertension (OHT)), and normal. The prevalence and cumulative incidence of OAG over the follow up interval were calculated.
At the initial study, 271 siblings (mean age 63.6 years; female to male ratio 1.2) from 156 probands were examined. 32 (11.8%) were classified as definite glaucoma and 15 (5.5%) as suspects. In the follow up study, 157 of the 224 “normal” siblings from the initial study were examined (mean interval from initial study 7.0 (SD 1.0) years). 11 (7%) were classified as definite glaucoma and 30 (19.1%) as suspects. There were significant trends of increasing prevalence and incidence of OAG with age and a lifetime risk estimated at approximately 20% by age 70.
Siblings of glaucoma patients have an increased risk of developing glaucoma and the risk increases with age. An effective and repeated screening programme should be considered for this high risk group.
primary open angle glaucoma; siblings
Background: The final common pathway for open angle glaucoma (OAG) is retinal ganglion cell apoptosis. Polymorphisms in p53, a major regulator of apoptosis, affect the efficiency of cell death induction. Association studies of p53 haplotypes and OAG have had conflicting results.
Objective: To examine the association between p53 haplotypes and OAG in a larger white population than in previous reports, and extend the analysis to normal tension glaucoma.
Methods: 345 unrelated people with OAG were recruited (283 subjects with high tension glaucoma and 62 with normal tension glaucoma) and compared with 178 age matched controls. Genomic DNA was analysed for the p53 codon 72 Arg/Pro polymorphism as well as for the presence or absence of a 16 bp intron 3 insertion.
Results: In this white cohort no association was found between glaucoma (high or normal tension) and either sequence variant or haplotype.
Conclusions: The p53 codon 72 Arg/Pro polymorphism is not associated with age of onset or severity of glaucoma.
To estimate the number of people with open angle (OAG) and angle closure glaucoma (ACG) in 2010 and 2020.
A review of published data with use of prevalence models. Data from population based studies of age specific prevalence of OAG and ACG that satisfied standard definitions were used to construct prevalence models for OAG and ACG by age, sex, and ethnicity, weighting data proportional to sample size of each study. Models were combined with UN world population projections for 2010 and 2020 to derive the estimated number with glaucoma.
There will be 60.5 million people with OAG and ACG in 2010, increasing to 79.6 million by 2020, and of these, 74% will have OAG. Women will comprise 55% of OAG, 70% of ACG, and 59% of all glaucoma in 2010. Asians will represent 47% of those with glaucoma and 87% of those with ACG. Bilateral blindness will be present in 4.5 million people with OAG and 3.9 million people with ACG in 2010, rising to 5.9 and 5.3 million people in 2020, respectively.
Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, disproportionately affecting women and Asians.
glaucoma; prevalence; open angle; angle closure
The GLC1A locus for autosomal dominant juvenile and middle age onset primary open angle glaucoma (OAG) has been mapped to chromosome 1q21-q31. OAG, however, is a heterogeneous disease. We tested linkage of OAG and ocular hypertension (OHT), a major risk factor for OAG, to GLC1A in eight French families with multiple cases of juvenile and middle age onset OAG. There was strong evidence of genetic heterogeneity, four families being linked to GLC1A and two or three others being unlinked, depending on whether the complete OAG phenotype was analysed alone or jointly with OHT. Peak intraocular pressure (IOP) did not differ significantly between the two groups of families, while linkage to GLC1A conferred a highly increased risk of developing OAG and of having severe glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Testing linkage of familial OAG to GLC1A may therefore have prognostic value too.
Purpose. To describe the distribution of ocular variables, risk factors, and disease severity in newly diagnosed ocular hypertension (OH) or open-angle glaucoma (OAG).
Methods. Eligible subjects underwent a complete history and examination. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) obtained from multiple logistic regression models were used to compare OAG to OH and advanced to early/moderate OAG.
Results. 405 subjects were enrolled: 292 (72.1%) with OAG and 113 (27.9%) with OH. 51.7% had early, 27.1% moderate, and 20.9% advanced OAG. The OR for OAG versus OH was 8.19 (P < 0.0001) for disc notch, 5.36 (P < 0.0001) for abnormal visual field, 1.45 (P = 0.001) for worsening mean deviation, 1.91 (P < 0.0001) for increased cupping, 1.03 for increased age (P = 0.030), and 0.36 (P = 0.010) for smoking.
Conclusions. Increased age was a risk for OAG, and smoking decreased the risk of OAG compared to OH. Almost half of the OAG subjects had moderate/advanced disease at diagnosis.
To characterize the costs of caring for patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in the United States (US) over time and to identify factors that influence these costs.
Longitudinal cohort study.
Claims data from 19,927 newly-diagnosed OAG patients enrolled in a large US managed care network were reviewed to identify glaucoma-related charges for all incident OAG patients from 2001–2009. Average glaucoma-related charges for enrollees with OAG were characterized in six month blocks from the date of initial OAG diagnosis through the following 5 years. Factors associated with being an enrollee in the costliest 5% for glaucoma-related charges (accruing ≥$5810 in charges in the first 2 years) were identified using logistic regression.
The costliest 5% of enrollees were responsible for $10,202,871 (24%) of all glaucoma-related charges. By comparison, those whose costs fell within the lower 50% of the cost distribution collectively amassed only $7,986,582 (19%) of all glaucoma-related charges. A spike in glaucoma-related charges occurred in the 6 month period around the time of OAG diagnosis, stabilized by 1 year following diagnosis, and remained relatively constant over time. Risk factors associated with being in the costliest 5% for glaucoma-related care included younger age, Northeastern US state residence, undergoing cataract surgery, and possessing ocular co-morbidities.(p<0.006 for all comparisons).
A small subset of enrollees account for a large proportion of all glaucoma-related charges. Understanding the characteristics of these individuals and finding ways to reduce disease burden and costs associated with their care can result in substantial cost savings.
To determine whether an association exists between various components of metabolic syndrome (diabetes mellitus (DM), systemic arterial hypertension (HTN), hyperlipidemia, and obesity) and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in a large, diverse group of individuals throughout the United States.
Longitudinal cohort study.
All beneficiaries age ≥40 years continuously enrolled in a managed care network who had ≥1 visit to an eye care provider were identified from 2001–2007.
Billing codes were used to identify individuals with OAG and those with components of metabolic syndrome. Cox regression was used to determine the hazard of developing OAG in enrollees with individual components or combinations of components of metabolic syndrome, with adjustment for sociodemographic factors, systemic medical conditions, and other ocular diseases.
Main Outcome Measures
Hazard of developing OAG.
Of the 2,182,315 enrollees who met inclusion criteria, 54,558 (2.5%) had OAG. After adjustment for confounding factors, those with DM (hazard ratio (HR)=1.35 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21–1.50]) or HTN (HR=1.17 [95% CI: 1.13–1.22]) alone, or in combination, (HR=1.48 [95% CI: 1.39–1.58]) had an increased hazard of developing OAG relative to persons with neither of these conditions. By contrast, persons with hyperlipidemia alone had a 5% decreased hazard of OAG (HR=0.95 [95% CI: 0.91–0.98]). Comorbid hyperlipidemia attenuated the increased hazard between HTN (HR=1.09 [95% CI 1.05–1.12]) or DM (HR=1.13 [95% CI 1.05–1.21]) and OAG.
Given the increasing prevalence of metabolic disorders in the United States, this study furthers our understanding of risk factors associated with OAG and helps identify persons who may be at risk for this condition.
Primary open angle glaucoma (OAG) is a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell death and associated visual field loss. OAG is an emerging disease with increasing costs and negative outcomes, yet its fundamental pathophysiology remains largely undetermined. A major treatable risk factor for glaucoma is elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Despite the medical lowering of IOP, however, some glaucoma patients continue to experience disease progression and subsequent irreversible vision loss. The scientific community continues to accrue evidence suggesting that alterations in ocular blood flow play a prominent role in OAG disease processes. This article develops the thesis that dysfunctional regulation of ocular blood flow may contribute to glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Evidence suggests that impaired vascular autoregulation renders the optic nerve head susceptible to decreases in ocular perfusion pressure, increases in IOP, and/or increased local metabolic demands. Ischemic damage, which likely contributes to further impairment in autoregulation, results in changes to the optic nerve head consistent with glaucoma. Included in this review are discussions of conditions thought to contribute to vascular regulatory dysfunction in OAG, including atherosclerosis, vasospasm, and endothelial dysfunction.
glaucoma; autoregulation; blood flow; atherosclerosis; vasospasm; endothelial dysfunction
To investigate the role of the common OPTN Met98Lys variant as a risk allele in open‐angle glaucoma (OAG), autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON).
The presence of the Met98Lys variant was determined in a total of 498 (128 with normal‐tension glaucoma (NTG)) patients with OAG, 29 patients who had myocilin‐related OAG, 101 patients from ADOA pedigrees, 157 patients from LHON pedigrees and 218 examined OAG age‐matched normal controls.
17 of 218 (7.8%) controls had the Met98Lys variant. 28 (5.6%) patients with OAG were Met98Lys positive. More Met98Lys carriers were found in the NTG group than in the high‐tension glaucoma (HTG) group (p = 0.033). However, no significant difference was observed between the NTG and control cohorts (p = 0.609). Two MYOC mutation carriers were found to have the variant. The variant was found in 1 of 10 pedigrees with ADOA and in 8 of 35 pedigrees with LHON.
Data from this study do not support a strong role for the OPTN Met98Lys variant in glaucoma, ADOA or LHON. However, a weak association was observed of the variant with NTG compared with that with HTG. Meta‐analysis of all published data on the variant and glaucoma confirmed that the association, although weak, is highly statistically significant in the cohort with glaucoma versus controls.
To compare the pattern of intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction following selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) versus argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT) in open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients, and to investigate the ability of initial IOP reduction to predict mid-term success.
A prospective, nonrandomized, interventional case series was carried out. Consecutive uncontrolled OAG glaucoma patients underwent SLT or ALT; the same preoperative medical regimen was maintained during follow-up. Data collected included age, type of OAG, pre- and postoperative IOP, number of glaucoma medications, and surgical complications. Post-treatment assessments were scheduled at day 1 and 7 and months 1, 3, and 6.
A total of 45 patients (45 eyes) were enrolled [SLT group (n = 25); ALT group (n = 20)]. Groups were similar for age, baseline IOP, and number of glaucoma medications (P ≥ 0.12). We found no significant differences in mean IOP reduction between SLT (5.1 ± 2.5 mmHg; 26.6%) and ALT (4.4 ± 2.8 mmHg; 22.8%) groups at month 6 (P = 0.38). Success rates (IOP ≤ 16 mmHg and IOP reduction ≥25%) at last follow-up visit were similar for SLT (72%) and ALT (65%) groups (P = 0.36). Comparing the pattern of IOP reduction (% of IOP reduction at each visit) between groups, we found a greater effect following SLT compared with ALT at day 7 (23.7% ± 13.7% vs 8.1% ± 9.5%; P < 0.001). No significant differences were observed at other time points (P ≥ 0.32). Additionally, the percentage of IOP reduction at day 7 and at month 6 were significantly correlated in the SLT group (R2 = 0.36; P < 0.01), but not in the ALT group (P = 0.89). Early postoperative success predicted late success in most SLT cases (82%). No serious complications were observed.
Although mid-term results suggest SLT and ALT as effective and equivalent alternatives, a greater initial IOP reduction was observed following SLT. In addition, the initial IOP reduction was a good predictor of mid-term success in patients undergoing SLT, but not ALT.
open-angle glaucoma; laser trabeculoplasty; intraocular pressure
Purpose of review
A possible connection between ocular perfusion pressure and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) has been hypothesized. This review summarizes the scientific rationale for the proposed relationship, presents recent data, and outlines potential implications.
Population-based epidemiologic studies found strong relationships between low ocular perfusion pressure and OAG prevalence, as well as OAG incidence. Clinical studies report similar associations between low perfusion pressure and OAG progression. These consistent findings suggest that altered blood flow in the optic disc increases both the risk of OAG development and the progression of established OAG. An underlying factor would be impaired vascular autoregulation, which may lead to poor perfusion in OAG. In contrast, there is conflicting evidence on the possible link of glaucoma to blood pressure/hypertension.
Current evidence supports the role of vascular factors as part of the multifactorial etiology of OAG. Since ocular perfusion pressure reflects the vascular status at the optic disc, it may be more relevant than systemic blood pressure alone. While the associations of OAG to perfusion pressure are strong, consistent and biologically plausible, they require careful interpretation. The evidence implicating a vascular etiology in OAG is mounting, but the clinical implications for patient management are still uncertain.
Open-angle glaucoma; ocular perfusion pressure; glaucoma risk factors; blood pressure
AIMS—To evaluate central corneal thickness determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in various types of glaucoma, and its influence on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement.
METHODS—Central corneal thickness (CCT) was determined by using OCT in 167 subjects (167 eyes). 20 had primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), 42 had low tension glaucoma (LTG), 22 had ocular hypertension (OHT), 10 had primary angle closure glaucoma (AC), 24 had pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEX), 13 had pigmentary glaucoma (PIG), and 36 were normal.
RESULTS—CCT was significantly higher in ocular hypertensive subjects (593 (SD 35) µm, p <0.0001) than in the controls (530 (32) µm), whereas patients with LTG (482 (28) µm, p < 0.0001), PEX (493 (33) µm, p <0.0001), and POAG (512 (30) µm, p <0.05) showed significantly lower readings. There was no statistically significant difference between the controls and patients with PIG (510 (39) µm) and AC (539 (37) µm).
CONCLUSIONS—Because of thinner CCT in patients with LTG, PEX, and POAG this may result in underestimation of IOP, whereas thicker corneas may lead to an overestimation of IOP in subjects with OH. By determining CCT with OCT, a new and precise technique to measure CCT, this study emphasises the need for a combined measurement of IOP and CCT in order to obtain exact IOP readings.
To determine which baseline socio-demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric, clinical, and ocular risk factors predict the development of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in an adult population.
A population-based, prospective cohort study.
A total of 3,772 self-identified Latinos aged 40 years and older from Los Angeles, California who were free of OAG at baseline.
Participants from the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study had standardized study visits at baseline and 4-year follow-up with structured interviews and a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination. OAG was defined as the presence of an open angle and a glaucomatous visual field abnormality and/or evidence of glaucomatous optic nerve damage in at least one eye. Multivariate logistic regression with stepwise selection was performed to determine which potential baseline risk factors independently predict the development of OAG.
Main Outcome Measure
Odds ratios for various risk factors.
Over the 4-year follow-up, 87 participants developed OAG. The baseline risk factors that predict the development of OAG include: older age (odds ratio [OR] per decade, 2.19; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.74-2.75; P<0.001), higher intraocular pressure (OR per mmHg, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.10-1.26; P<0.001), longer axial length (OR per mm, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.22-1.80; P<0.001), thinner central cornea (OR per 40 μm thinner, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.00-1.70; P=0.050) higher waist to hip ratio (OR per 0.05 higher, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.05-1.39; P=0.007) and lack of vision insurance (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.26-3.41; P=0.004).
Despite a mean baseline IOP of 14 mmHg in Latinos, higher intraocular pressure is an important risk factor for developing OAG. Biometric measures suggestive of less structural support such as longer axial length and thin CCT were identified as important risk factors. Lack of health insurance reduces access to eye care and increases the burden of OAG by reducing the likelihood of early detection and treatment of OAG.
We present cases of primary open angle glaucoma patients without previous history of pseudoexfoliation who developed pseudoexfoliative materials on the anterior surface of the intraocular lens after cataract surgery. Among 5 unilateral pseudophakic pseudoexfoliation cases, 3 showed a more advanced state of glaucoma in the affected eye. The other 2 cases showed progression of glaucoma in the affected eye after the development of pseudophakic pseudoexfoliation, while the unaffected eyes remained stable. In the latter 2 cases, control of intraocular pressure was difficult, and more glaucoma medication was needed in the affected eye. Pseudophakic pseudoexfoliation in glaucoma patients with no history of pseudoexfoliation syndrome or pseudoexfoliative glaucoma has not been reported. In our cases, the eyes which developed pseudophakic pseudoexfoliation showed a more advanced state of glaucoma, more difficulty controlling intraocular pressure, and faster progression of glaucoma. More observation is needed, but we cautiously postulate that pseudophakic pseudoexfoliation may have a role as a clinical risk factor in the prediction of glaucoma progression.
Glaucoma; Glaucoma progression; Pseudophakic pseudoexfoliation
To determine the incidence and prevalence rates of different glaucoma types among Asian Americans, contrast glaucoma incidence and prevalence rates for Asian Americans with other races, and evaluate the hazard of developing glaucoma among different Asian ethnicities and other races.
Retrospective longitudinal cohort study
2,259,061 beneficiaries aged ≥40 enrolled in a large, national managed-care network in the United States (US) in 2001–2007
Incidence and prevalence rates of open-angle glaucoma (OAG), narrow-angle glaucoma (NAG), and normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) were determined for the beneficiaries and stratified by race and Asian ethnicity. Cox regression analyses determined the hazard of developing OAG, NAG, and NTG for Asian Americans compared with other races and among different Asian ethnicities, with adjustment for confounding factors.
Main Outcome Measures
Multivariable hazard of OAG, NAG, and NTG among different races and Asian ethnicities.
The OAG prevalence rate for Asian Americans of 6.52% was similar to that of Latinos (6.40%) and higher than that of non-Hispanic whites (5.59%). The NAG and NTG prevalence rates (3.01% and 0.73%, respectively) were considerably higher among Asian Americans compared with each of the other races. After adjustment for confounding factors, Asian Americans had a 51% increased hazard of OAG (Hazard ratio (HR)=1.51 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42–1.60), a 123% increased hazard of NAG (HR=2.23 (95% CI 2.07–2.41), and a 159% increased hazard of NTG (HR=2.59 (95% CI 2.22–3.02) compared with non-Hispanic whites. Vietnamese Americans (HR=3.78, (95% CI 3.19–4.48), Pakistani Americans (HR=2.45, 95% CI 1.50–4.01) and Chinese Americans (HR=2.31, 95% CI 2.06–2.59) had considerably higher hazards of NAG while Japanese Americans (HR=4.37, 95% CI 3.24–5.89) had a substantially higher hazard of NTG, compared with non–Asian Americans.
Given the rapid rise in the number of Asian Americans in the US population, resources need to be devoted to identifying and treating glaucoma among these individuals. Eye-care providers should be aware of the increased hazard of developing OAG, NAG, and NTG among Asian Americans relative to other races. When evaluating Asian Americans, inquiring about ethnicity can provide additional information on risk of specific glaucoma types.
The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
Aims: To compare trabeculectomy with viscocanalostomy for the control of intraocular pressure (IOP) in open angle glaucoma (OAG) uncontrolled by medical therapy.
Methods: 48 patients (50 eyes) with uncontrolled OAG were randomised to either trabeculectomy (25 eyes) or a viscocanalostomy technique (25 eyes). Preoperatively, eyes were graded in terms of risk factors for drainage failure. Those undergoing trabeculectomy were given intraoperative antimetabolites (5-fluorouracil 25 mg/ml (5-FU), mitomycin C (MMC) 0.2 mg/ml and 0.4 mg/ml) according to a standard protocol. Antimetabolites were not used intraoperatively in eyes undergoing viscocanalostomy, but they were randomised to the use of viscoelastic (Healonid GV) for intraoperative intracanalicular injection.
Results: There were no significant differences between the groups in age, sex, type of OAG, preoperative medications, risk factors for drainage failure, and preoperative IOP. Mean follow up was 19 months (range 6–24 months). It was 12 months or longer in all eyes, except one lost to follow up at 6 months. At 12 months, complete success (IOP <21 mm Hg without antiglaucoma medications) was seen in all eyes undergoing trabeculectomy (100%), but in only 64% of eyes undergoing viscocanalostomy (p<0.001). The mean IOP was lower at 12 months (p<0.001) with trabeculectomy and the number of eyes with IOPs of 15 mm Hg or less was greater (p<0.05). The mean IOP at 12 months was lower in eyes that had undergone viscocanalostomy using intraoperative intracanalicular Healonid GV injection compared to those where only balanced saline solution had been used (p<0.01). However, in terms of complete success there was no difference between the viscocanalostomy groups (p<0.1). With the exception of measurements at 1 week, visual recovery (logMAR acuity) was similar and laser flare and cell values showed little differences between the groups. Corneal topography and keratometry at 12 months were little different from preoperative values. Postoperative interventions (subconjunctival 5-FU and needling procedures) were similar between the groups. Transient complications such as early bleb leak and hyphaema were more common in the trabeculectomy group (p<0.05). Postoperative cataract formation was more common after trabeculectomy (p<0.05).
Conclusions: IOP control appears to be better with trabeculectomy. Viscocanalostomy is associated with fewer postoperative complications, although significant complications permanently impairing vision did not occur with either technique.
To evaluate, both at initial glaucoma diagnosis and during treatment, the role of demographic and clinical factors on intraocular pressure (IOP).
Cohort study of patients enrolled in a randomized clinical trial.
607 patients with newly diagnosed, open-angle glaucoma (OAG) were enrolled at 14 U.S. centers.
After randomization to initial surgery or medications, patients were followed at six-month intervals. IOP was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry. Predictive factors for IOP at baseline and during follow-up were analyzed using linear mixed models.
Main Outcome Measure
IOP at baseline and during follow-up.
The mean baseline IOP was 27.5 mmHg (standard deviation, 5.6 mmHg). Predictive factors for higher baseline IOP included younger age (0.7 mmHg per 10 years), male sex (2.4 mmHg higher than females), pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (5.4 mmHg higher than primary OAG), and pupillary defect (2.2 mmHg higher than those without a defect). During nine years of follow-up, both surgery and medications dramatically reduced IOP from baseline levels, but the extent of IOP reduction was consistently greater in the surgery group. Over follow-up years 2–9, mean IOP was 15.0 vs. 17.2 mmHg for surgery vs. medicine, respectively. Predictive associations with higher IOP during follow-up included higher baseline IOP (P<0.0001), worse baseline visual field (mean deviation; P<0.0001), and lower level of education (P=0.0019). Treatment effect was modified by smoking status: non-smokers treated surgically had lower IOP than smokers treated surgically (14.6 vs. 16.7 mmHg, respectively; P=0.0013). Clinical center effects were significant (P<0.0001) in both the baseline and follow-up models.
In this large cohort of newly diagnosed glaucoma patients, predictors of pre-treatment IOP and IOP measurements over nine years of follow-up were identified. Our findings lend credence to the postulate that sociodemographic, economic, compliance, or other environmental influences play a role in IOP control during treatment.
Aims: To compare trabeculectomy with viscocanalostomy augmented with adjunctive antimetabolite use for the control of intraocular pressure (IOP) in open angle glaucoma (OAG).
Methods: 45 patients (50 eyes) with uncontrolled OAG were randomised to either trabeculectomy (25 eyes) or a viscocanalostomy technique (25 eyes). Preoperatively, all eyes were graded in terms of risk factors for drainage failure and were given intraoperative antimetabolites (5-fluorouracil 25 mg/ml (5-FU), mitomycin C (MMC) 0.2 mg/ml and 0.4 mg/ml) according to a standard protocol.
Results: There were no significant differences between the groups in age, sex, type of OAG, preoperative medications, risk factors for drainage failure, and preoperative IOP. Mean follow up was 20 months (range 3–24 months). It was 12 months or longer in all eyes, except two lost to follow up at 3 months. At 12 months, complete success (IOP<21 mm Hg without antiglaucoma medications) was seen in 91% of eyes undergoing trabeculectomy, but in only 60% of eyes undergoing viscocanalostomy (p<0.02). Similarly, at the last follow up visit (mean 20 months) complete success was seen in 68% of eyes undergoing trabeculectomy and 34% with viscocanalostomy (p<0.05). In terms of qualified success (IOP<21 mm Hg with or without glaucoma medications) and mean IOP measurements postoperatively there were no difference between the groups, although the mean number of antiglaucomatous medications required postoperatively was less with trabeculectomy (0.39) than viscocanalostomy (1.04) (p<0.05). Needling procedures were more commonly required after trabeculectomy (p<0.02). YAG goniotomy was required in three eyes (13%) after viscocanalostomy. Early transient complications such as anterior chamber shallowing and encysted blebs were more common in the trabeculectomy group (p<0.05). Late postoperative cataract formation was similar between the two groups.
Conclusion: In terms of complete success and number of antiglaucomatous medications required postoperatively, IOP control appears to be better with trabeculectomy. Viscocanalostomy is associated with fewer early transient postoperative complications.
The specialist's role in caring for managed care patients is likely to grow. Thus, assessing the correlates of patient satisfaction with specialty care is essential.
To examine the association between characteristics of eye care practices and satisfaction with eye care among working age patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or diabetic retinopathy (DR).
A total of 913 working age patients with OAG or DR enrolled in six commercial managed care health plans. The patients were treated in 144 different eye care practices.
We used a patient survey to obtain information on patient characteristics and satisfaction with eye care, measured by scores on satisfaction subscales of the 18-item Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire. We used a survey of eye care practices to obtain information on practice characteristics, including provider specialties, practice organization, financial features, and utilization and quality management systems. We estimated logistic regression models to assess the association of patient and practice characteristics with high levels of patient satisfaction.
Treatment in a practice with a glaucoma specialist (for OAG patients) or a retina specialist (for DR patients) was associated with higher satisfaction, whereas treatment in a practice that obtained a high proportion of its revenues from capitation payments or in a group practice where providers obtained a high proportion of their incomes from bonuses was associated with lower satisfaction.
Many eye care patients prefer to be treated by specialists with expertise in their conditions. Financial arrangement features of eye care practices also are associated with patient satisfaction with care. The most likely mechanisms underlying these associations are effects on provider behavior and satisfaction, which in turn influence patient satisfaction. Managed care plans and provider groups should aim to minimize the negative impact of managed care features on patient satisfaction.
Satisfaction; quality of care; managed care; financial incentives
To estimate the prevalence and distribution of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in the United States by age, race/ethnicity, and gender.
Summary prevalence estimates of OAG were prepared separately for black, Hispanic, and white subjects in 5-year age intervals starting at 40 years. The estimated rates were based on a meta-analysis of recent population-based studies in the United States, Australia, and Europe. These rates were applied to 2000 US census data and to projected US population figures for 2020 to estimate the number of the US population with OAG.
The overall prevalence of OAG in the US population 40 years and older is estimated to be 1.86% (95% confidence interval, 1.75%-1.96%), with 1.57 million white and 398000 black persons affected. After applying race-, age-, and gender-specific rates to the US population as determined in the 2000 US census, we estimated that OAG affects 2.22 million US citizens. Owing to the rapidly aging population, the number with OAG will increase by 50% to 3.36 million in 2020. Black subjects had almost 3 times the age-adjusted prevalence of glaucoma than white subjects.
Open-angle glaucoma affects more than 2 million individuals in the United States. Owing to the rapid aging of the US population, this number will increase to more than 3 million by 2020.
To determine if overexpression of the glaucoma gene MYOC is involved in the development of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and if its promoter variants are associated with glaucoma in the Korean population.
Human trabecular meshwork cells were cultured in the presence of ophthalmic steroids such as fluorometholone, fluorometholone acetate, dexamethasone, prednisolone acetate and rimexolone. The cells were cultured at a hydrostatic pressure of 32 mm Hg above atmospheric pressure and induction of MYOC was evaluated by northern blot analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples obtained from 74 normal controls and 168 unrelated Korean patients with OAG, including primary OAG, normal tension glaucoma and steroid-induced glaucoma. A 461 base pair (bp) DNA fragment of the MYOC promoter region was amplified using PCR and its genotype was analysed by directly sequencing the product.
The potencies of steroid eye drops in MYOC induction in vitro was the same regardless of their potential for elevating intraocular pressure in vivo. Hydrostatic pressure had no effect on MYOC induction. A dinucleotide repeat polymorphism and three single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified, but no obvious differences in the genotype distribution and allele frequency of the variants between the control group and any type of OAG were observed.
Our data suggest that MYOC overexpression is not a cause or an effect of intraocular pressure elevation and that MYOC itself is not associated with OAG.
Experimental and laboratory, intraocular pressure; linkage disequilibrium; myocilin; open-angle glaucoma; steroid eye drop
Open-angle glaucoma (OAG) is the commonest cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Apart from an increased intraocular pressure (IOP), oxidative stress and an impaired ocular blood flow are supposed to contribute to OAG. The aim of this study was to determine whether the dietary intake of nutrients that either have anti-oxidative properties (carotenoids, vitamins, and flavonoids) or influence the blood flow (omega fatty acids and magnesium) is associated with incident OAG. We investigated this in a prospective population-based cohort, the Rotterdam Study. A total of 3502 participants aged 55 years and older for whom dietary data at baseline and ophthalmic data at baseline and follow-up were available and who did not have OAG at baseline were included. The ophthalmic examinations comprised measurements of the IOP and perimetry; dietary intake of nutrients was assessed by validated questionnaires and adjusted for energy intake. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was applied to calculate hazard ratios of associations between the baseline intake of nutrients and incident OAG, adjusted for age, gender, IOP, IOP-lowering treatment, and body mass index. During an average follow-up of 9.7 years, 91 participants (2.6%) developed OAG. The hazard ratio for retinol equivalents (highest versus lowest tertile) was 0.45 (95% confidence interval 0.23–0.90), for vitamin B1 0.50 (0.25–0.98), and for magnesium 2.25 (1.16–4.38). The effects were stronger after the exclusion of participants taking supplements. Hence, a low intake of retinol equivalents and vitamin B1 (in line with hypothesis) and a high intake of magnesium (less unambiguous to interpret) appear to be associated with an increased risk of OAG.
Glaucoma; Nutrition; Magnesium; Vitamin A; Vitamin B1; Population-based; Dietary intake
To assess trends in the use of ancillary diagnostic tests in the evaluation of patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and glaucoma suspects over the past decade.
Retrospective longitudinal cohort analysis.
169,917 individuals with OAG and 395,721 with suspected glaucoma age ≥40 enrolled in a national United States managed care network between 2001–2009.
Claims data were analyzed to assess trends in visual field (VF) testing, fundus photography (FP), and other ocular imaging (OOI) testing for patients with OAG or suspected glaucoma in 2001–2009. Repeated measures logistic regression was performed to identify differences in the odds of undergoing these procedures in 2001, 2005, and 2009 and whether differences exist for patients under the exclusive care of optometrists versus ophthalmologists.
Main Outcome Measures
Odds and annual probabilities of undergoing VF testing, FP, and OOI for OAG from 2001–2009.
For patients with OAG, the odds of undergoing VF testing decreased by 36% from 2001 to 2005, 12% from 2005 to 2009, and 44% from 2001 to 2009. By comparison, the odds of having OOI increased by 100% from 2001 to 2005, 24% from 2005 to 2009, and 147% from 2001 to 2009. Probabilities of undergoing FP were relatively low (13–25%) for both provider types and remained fairly steady over the decade. For patients cared for exclusively by optometrists, the probability of VF testing decreased from 66% in 2001 to 44% in 2009. Among those seen exclusively by ophthalmologists, the probability of VF testing decreased from 65% in 2001 to 51% in 2009. The probability of undergoing OOI increased from 26% in 2001 to 47% in 2009 for patients of optometrists and from 30% in 2001 to 46% in 2009 for patients of ophthalmologists. By 2008, patients with OAG receiving care exclusively by optometrists had a higher probability of undergoing OOI than VF testing.
During 2001–2009 OOI rose dramatically whereas VF testing declined considerably. Since OOI has not been shown to be as effective at detecting OAG or disease progression compared to VF testing, increased reliance upon OOI technology, in lieu of VF testing, may be detrimental to patient care.