Strobilanthes crispus has been traditionally used as antidiabetic, anticancer, diuretic, antilytic and laxative agent. However, cytotoxicity and antiproliferative effect of S. crispus is still unclear.
Strobilanthes cripus was able to reduce cell viability and proliferation in MTT and BrdU assays. Both cell cycle progression and Tunel assay suggested that IC50 of S. crispus ethanol extract induced sub-G1 cell cycle phase, and DNA fragmentation. On the other hand, translocation of mitochondria cytochrome c release, induction of caspase 3/7 and p53 while suppress XIAP on treated MCF-7 cell were also observed in this study.
Our findings suggest that S. crispus ethanol extract induced apoptosis and DNA fragmentation on hormone dependent breast cancer cell line MCF-7 via mitochondria dependent p53 apoptosis pathway.
Strobilanthes crispus; MCF-7; Apoptosis; p53
Bisphosphonates are well established in the management of cancer-induced bone disease. Recent studies have indicated that these compounds have direct inhibitory effects on cultured human breast cancer cells. Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates including zoledronic acid have been shown to induce apoptosis associated with PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation. The aim of this study was to identify the signalling pathways involved. Forced expression of the anti-apoptotic protein bcl-2 attenuated bisphosphonate-induced loss of cell viability and induction of DNA fragmentation in MDA-MB-231 cells. Zoledronic acid-mediated apoptosis was associated with a time and dose-related release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytosol in two cell lines. Rescue of cells by preincubation with a caspase-3 selective inhibitor and demonstration of pro-caspase-3 cleavage products by immunoblotting suggests that at least one of the caspases activated in response to zoledronic acid treatment is caspase-3. In both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells, zoledronic acid impaired membrane localisation of Ras indicating reduced prenylation of this protein. These observations demonstrate that zoledronic acid-mediated apoptosis is associated with cytochrome c release and consequent caspase activation. This process may be initiated by inhibition of the enzymes in the mevalonate pathway leading to impaired prenylation of key intracellular proteins including Ras.
British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 1479–1486. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600297 www.bjcancer.com
© 2002 Cancer Research UK
bisphosphonates; breast cancer; apoptosis; caspases; Ras; cytochrome c
The anticancer potential of Leea indica, a Chinese medicinal plant was investigated for the first time. The crude ethanol extract and fractions (ethyl acetate, hexane, and water) of Leea indica were evaluated their cytotoxicity on various cell lines (Ca Ski, MCF 7, MDA-MB-435, KB, HEP G2, WRL 68, and Vero) by MTT assay. Leea indica ethyl acetate fraction (LIEAF) was found showing the greatest cytotoxic effect against Ca Ski cervical cancer cells. Typical apoptotic morphological changes such as DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation were observed in LIEAF-treated cells. Early signs of apoptosis such as externalization of phosphatidylserine and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential indicated apoptosis induction. This was further substantiated by dose- and time-dependent accumulation of sub-G1 cells, depletion of intracellular glutathione, and activation of caspase-3. In conclusion, these results suggested that LIEAF inhibited cervical cancer cells growth by inducing apoptosis and could be developed as potential anticancer drugs.
JG-03-14, a substituted pyrrole that inhibits microtubule polymerization, was screened against MCF-7 (p53 wild type), MDA-MB 231 (p53 mutant), MCF-7/caspase 3 and MCF-7/ADR (multidrug resistant) breast tumor cell lines. Cell viability and growth inhibition were assessed by the crystal violet dye assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by the TUNEL assay, cell cycle distribution by flow cytometry, autophagy by acridine orange staining of vesicle formation, and senescence based on β-galactosidase staining and cell morphology. Our studies indicate that exposure to JG-03-14, at a concentration of 500 nM, induces time dependent cell death in the MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231 cell lines. In MCF-7 cells, a residual surviving cell population was found to be senescent; in contrast, there was no surviving senescent population in treated MDA-MB 231 cells. No proliferative recovery was detected over a period of 15 days post-treatment in either cell line. Both the TUNEL assay and FLOW cytometry indicated a relatively limited degree of apoptosis (< 10%) in response to drug treatment in MCF-7 cells with more extensive apoptosis (but < 20%) in MDA-MB231 cells; acidic vacuole formation indicative of autophagic cell death was relatively extensive in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 cells. In addition, JG-03-14 induced the formation of a large hyperdiploid cell population in MDA-MB231 cells. JG-03-14 also demonstrated pronounced anti-proliferative activity in MCF-7/caspase 3 cells and in the MCF-7/ADR cell line. The observation that JG-03-14 promotes autophagic cell death and also retains activity in tumor cells expressing the multidrug resistance pump indicates that novel microtubule poisons of the substituted pyrroles class may hold promise in the treatment of breast cancer.
The present study aimed to examine the antiproliferative potentiality of an extract derived from the medicinal plant ginger (Zingiber officinale) on growth of breast cancer cells. Ginger treatment suppressed the proliferation and colony formation in breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Meanwhile, it did not significantly affect viability of nontumorigenic normal mammary epithelial cell line (MCF-10A). Treatment of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 with ginger resulted in sequences of events marked by apoptosis, accompanied by loss of cell viability, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase 3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. At the molecular level, the apoptotic cell death mediated by ginger could be attributed in part to upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 proteins. Ginger treatment downregulated expression of prosurvival genes, such as NF-κB, Bcl-X, Mcl-1, and Survivin, and cell cycle-regulating proteins, including cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (CDK-4). On the other hand, it increased expression of CDK inhibitor, p21. It also inhibited the expression of the two prominent molecular targets of cancer, c-Myc and the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). These findings suggested that the ginger may be a promising candidate for the treatment of breast carcinomas.
In the present study, we investigated the effect of Origanum majorana ethanolic extract on the survival of the highly proliferative and invasive triple-negative p53 mutant breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.
We found that O. majorana extract (OME) was able to inhibit the viability of the MDA-MB-231 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The effect of OME on cellular viability was further confirmed by the inhibition of colony growth. We showed, depending on the concentration used, that OME elicited different effects on the MDA-MB 231 cells. Concentrations of 150 and 300 µg/mL induced an accumulation of apoptotic–resistant population of cells arrested in mitotis and overexpressing the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21 and the inhibitor of apoptosis, survivin. On the other hand, higher concentrations of OME (450 and 600 µg/mL) triggered a massive apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway, including the activation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), caspase 8, caspase 3, and cleavage of PARP, downregulation of survivin as well as depletion of the mutant p53 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, OME induced an upregulation of γ-H2AX, a marker of double strand DNA breaks and an overall histone H3 and H4 hyperacetylation.
Our findings provide strong evidence that O. majorana may be a promising chemopreventive and therapeutic candidate against cancer especially for highly invasive triple negative p53 mutant breast cancer; thus validating its complementary and alternative medicinal use.
Withaferin A (WA), a promising anticancer constituent of Ayurvedic medicinal plant Withania somnifera, inhibits growth of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in culture and MDA-MB-231 xenografts in vivo in association with apoptosis induction, but the mechanism of cell death is not fully understood. We now demonstrate, for the first time, that WA-induced apoptosis is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production due to inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. WA treatment caused ROS production in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, but not in a normal human mammary epithelial cell line (HMEC). The HMEC was also resistant to WA-induced apoptosis. WA-mediated ROS production as well as apoptotic histone-associated DNA fragment release into the cytosol was significantly attenuated by ectopic expression of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. ROS production resulting from WA exposure was accompanied by inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation and inhibition of complex III activity. Mitochondrial DNA-deficient Rho-0 variants of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells were resistant to WA-induced ROS production, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, and apoptosis compared with respective wild-type cells. WA treatment resulted in activation of Bax and Bak in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, and SV40 immortalized embryonic fibroblasts derived from Bax and Bak double knockout mouse were significantly more resistant to WA-induced apoptosis compared with fibroblasts derived from wild-type mouse. In conclusion, the present study provides novel insight into the molecular circuitry of WA-induced apoptosis involving ROS production and activation of Bax/Bak.
The role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) in tumor development and progression is well-established but its effect on tumor growth remains controversial. The present study investigated the effect of HIF-1 on tumor growth using the estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. Using Western blotting, we detected a higher level of HIF-1α protein in MDA-MB-231 cells than in any other breast cancer cell lines analyzed, and this was accompanied by a more rapid growth pattern. Interruption of HIF-1α expression using small interference RNA (siRNA) significantly suppressed cell growth and increased apoptosis, but the cell cycle was not affected. Activated fragments with increased caspase 3 activity and a mobility shift of B cell lymphoma (Bcl-2) were also detected in cells treated with HIF-1α siRNA. HIF-1 allows breast cancer cells to grow under long-term serum deprivation by inactivation of the caspase cascade and thus inhibition of apoptosis. Blocking HIF-1α protein resulted in loss of Bcl-2 function, which may contribute to the activation of the caspase cascade.
hypoxia-inducible factor-1α; cell growth; apoptosis; caspase 3; B cell lymphoma
One-third of women with breast cancer will develop bone metastases and eventually die from disease progression at these sites. Therefore, we analyzed the ability of human MG-63 osteoblast-like cells (MG-63 cells), MG-63 conditioned media (MG-63 CM), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) to alter the effects of adriamycin on cell cycle and apoptosis of estrogen receptor negative (ER-) MDA-MB-231 and positive (ER+) MCF-7 breast cancer cells, using cell count, trypan blue exclusion, flow cytometry, detection of DNA fragmentation by simple agarose gel, and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated nick end-labeling method for apoptosis (TUNEL assay). Adriamycin arrested MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells at G2/M phase in the cell cycle and inhibited cell growth. In addition, adriamycin arrested the MCF-7 cells at G1/G0 phase and induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells. Exogenous IGF-I partially neutralized the adriamycin cytotoxicity/cytostasis of cancer cells. MG-63 CM and TGF-beta1 partially neutralized the adriamycin cytotoxicity of MDA-MB-231 cells but enhanced adriamycin blockade of MCF-7 cells at G1/G0 phase. MG-63 osteoblast-like cells inhibited growth of MCF-7 cells while promoting growth and rescued MDA-MB-231 cells from adriamycin apoptosis in a collagen co-culture system. These data suggest that osteoblast-derived growth factors can alter the chemotherapy response of breast cancer cells. Conceivably, host tissue (bone)-tumor cell interactions can modify the clinical response to chemotherapy in patients with advanced breast cancer.
Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is an important remodeling event contributing to heart failure and adiponectin may mediate cardioprotective effects at least in part via attenuating apoptosis. Here we used hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells to examine the effect of adiponectin and cellular mechanisms of action. We first used TUNEL labeling in combination with laser scanning cytometry to demonstrate that adiponectin prevented H/R-induced DNA fragmentation. The anti-apoptotic effect of adiponectin was also verified via attenuation of H/R-induced phosphatidylserine exposure using annexin V binding. H/R-induced apoptosis via the mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis as assessed by cytochrome c release into cytosol and caspase-3 activation, both of which were attenuated by adiponectin. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that adiponectin enhanced anti-oxidative potential in these cells which led to attenuation of the increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by H/R. To further address the mechanism of adiponctins anti-apoptotic effects we used siRNA to efficiently knockdown adiponectin receptor (AdipoR1) expression and found that this attenuated the protective effects of adiponectin on ROS production and caspase 3 activity. Knockdown of APPL1, an important intracellular binding partner for AdipoR, also significantly reduced the ability of adiponectin to prevent H/R-induced ROS generation and caspase 3 activity. In summary, H/R-induced ROS generation and activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway was prevented by adiponectin via AdipoR1/APPL1 signaling and increased anti-oxidant potential.
Mitochondria play a pivotal role in apoptosis in multicellular organisms by releasing apoptogenic factors such as cytochrome c that activate the caspases effector pathway, and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) that is involved in a caspase-independent cell death pathway. Here we report that cell death in the single-celled organism Dictyostelium discoideum involves early disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) that precedes the induction of several apoptosis-like features, including exposure of the phosphatidyl residues at the external surface of the plasma membrane, an intense vacuolization, a fragmentation of DNA into large fragments, an autophagy, and the release of apoptotic corpses that are engulfed by neighboring cells. We have cloned a Dictyostelium homolog of mammalian AIF that is localized into mitochondria and is translocated from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm and the nucleus after the onset of cell death. Cytoplasmic extracts from dying Dictyostelium cells trigger the breakdown of isolated mammalian and Dictyostelium nuclei in a cell-free system, and this process is inhibited by a polyclonal antibody specific for Dictyostelium discoideum apoptosis-inducing factor (DdAIF), suggesting that DdAIF is involved in DNA degradation during Dictyostelium cell death. Our findings indicate that the cell death pathway in Dictyostelium involves mitochondria and an AIF homolog, suggesting the evolutionary conservation of at least part of the cell death pathway in unicellular and multicellular organisms.
A major challenge in breast cancer therapy is the lack of an effective therapeutic option for a particularly aggressive subtype of breast cancer, triple-negative breast cancer. Here we provide the first preclinical evidence that a second-generation selenium compound, methylseleninic acid, significantly enhances the anticancer efficacy of paclitaxel in triple-negative breast cancer. Through combination-index value calculation, we demonstrated that methylseleninic acid synergistically enhanced the growth inhibitory effect of paclitaxel in triple-negative breast cancer cells. The synergism was attributable to more pronounced induction of caspase-mediated apoptosis, arrest of cell cycle progression at the G2/M checkpoint, and inhibition of cell proliferation. Treatment of SCID mice bearing MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer xenografts for four weeks with methylseleninic acid (4.5 mg/kg/day, orally) and paclitaxel (10 mg/kg/week, through intraperitoneal injection) resulted in a more pronounced inhibition of tumor growth compared with either agent alone. The attenuated tumor growth correlated with a decrease in tumor cell proliferation and an induction of apoptosis. The in vivo study also indicated the safety of using methylseleninic acid in the combination regime. Our findings thus provide strong justification for the further development of methylseleninic acid and paclitaxel combination therapy for the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer.
Plants have proved to be an important source of anti-cancer drugs. Here we have investigated the cytotoxic action of an aqueous extract of Fagonia cretica, used widely as a herbal tea-based treatment for breast cancer.
Using flow cytometric analysis of cells labeled with cyclin A, annexin V and propidium iodide, we describe a time and dose-dependent arrest of the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and apoptosis following extract treatment in MCF-7 (WT-p53) and MDA-MB-231 (mutant-p53) human breast cancer cell lines with a markedly reduced effect on primary human mammary epithelial cells. Analysis of p53 protein expression and of its downstream transcription targets, p21 and BAX, revealed a p53 associated growth arrest within 5 hours of extract treatment and apoptosis within 24 hours. DNA double strand breaks measured as γ-H2AX were detected early in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. However, loss of cell viability was only partly due to a p53-driven response; as MDA-MB-231 and p53-knockdown MCF-7 cells both underwent cell cycle arrest and death following extract treatment. p53-independent growth arrest and cytotoxicity following DNA damage has been previously ascribed to FOXO3a expression. Here, in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, FOXO3a expression was increased significantly within 3 hours of extract treatment and FOXO3 siRNA reduced the extract-induced loss of cell viability in both cell lines.
Our results demonstrate for the first time that an aqueous extract of Fagonia cretica can induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via p53-dependent and independent mechanisms, with activation of the DNA damage response. We also show that FOXO3a is required for activity in the absence of p53. Our findings indicate that Fagonia cretica aqueous extract contains potential anti-cancer agents acting either singly or in combination against breast cancer cell proliferation via DNA damage-induced FOXO3a and p53 expression.
Artemisia argyi is a widely used medicinal plant in China. The present study was designed to identify the bioactive constituents with antiglioma activity from leaves of Artemesia argyi. A bioactivity guided approach based on MTT assay for cells growth inhibition led to the isolation of a flavonoid, “jaceosidin” from ethanol extract of leaves of Artemesia argyi. The growth inhibitory effect of jaceosidin was explored using flow cytometry and Western blot studies. Our results showed that jaceosidin exerts growth inhibitory effect by arresting the cells at G2/M phase and induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, our study revealed that induction of apoptosis was associated with cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, upregulation of p53 and Bax, decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase 3. This mitochondrial-caspase-3-dependent apoptosis pathway was confirmed by pretreatment with caspase 3 inhibitor, Ac-DEVD-CHO. Our findings suggested that jaceosidin induces mitochondrial-caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in U87 cells by arresting the cell cycle at G2/M phase.
Cancer is one of the most prominent human diseases which has enthused scientific and commercial interest in the discovery of newer anticancer agents from natural sources. Here we demonstrated the anticancer activity of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Pupalia lappacea (L) Juss (Amaranthaceae) (EAPL) on Chronic Myeloid Leukemia K562 cells.
Antiproliferative activity of EAPL was determined by MTT assay using carvacrol as a positive control. Induction of apoptosis was studied by annexin V, mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase activation and cell cycle analysis using flow cytometer and modulation in protein levels of p53, PCNA, Bax and Bcl2 ratio, cytochrome c and cleavage of PARP were studied by Western blot analysis. The standardization of the extract was performed through reverse phase-HPLC using Rutin as biomarker.
The results showed dose dependent decrease in growth of K562 cells with an IC50 of 40 ± 0.01 μg/ml by EAPL. Induction of apoptosis by EAPL was dose dependent with the activation of p53, inhibition of PCNA, decrease in Bcl2/Bax ratio, decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential resulting in release of cytochrome c, activation of multicaspase and cleavage of PARP. Further HPLC standardization of EAPL showed presence 0.024% of Rutin.
Present study significantly demonstrates anticancer activity of EAPL on Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (K562) cells which can lead to potential therapeutic agent in treating cancer. Rutin, a known anti cancer compound is being reported and quantified for the first time from EAPL.
Pupalia lappacea; Anticancer activity; Chronic myeloid leukemia (K562) cells; Cytochrome c; p53; Multicaspase; PCNA
Acquired radioresistance of cancer cells remains a fundamental barrier to attaining the maximal efficacy of radiotherapy for the treatment of breast cancer. Anti-apoptotic proteins, such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, play an important role in the radioresistance of cancer cells. In the present study, we aimed to determine if ABT-737, a BH3-only mimic, could reverse the acquired radioresistance of the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231R by targeting Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL.
The radiosensitivity of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-231R cells was compared using colony formation assays. Reverse-transcription PCR and western blot were performed to detect the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL in the cancer cell lines. Annexin V flow cytometric analysis and caspase-3 colorimetric assay were used to evaluate apoptosis of the cancer cells. Cell viability was measured using the Cell Counting Kit-8. The animals used in this study were 4 to 6-week-old athymic female BALB/c nu/nu mice.
The MDA-MB-231R cells were more radioresistant than the MDA-MB-231 cells, and Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were overexpressed in the MDA-MB-231R cells. While ABT-737 was able to restore the radiosensitivity of the MDA-MB-231R cells in vitro and in vivo experiment, it was not able to enhance the radiosensitivity of the MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, ABT-737 increased radiation-induced apoptosis in the MDA-MB-231R cells. Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were down regulated in the MDA-MB-231R cells following treatment with ABT-737.
Targeting of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL with ABT-737 may reverse the acquired radioresistance of MDA-MB-231R cells in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest an attractive strategy for overcoming the acquired radioresistance of breast cancer cells.
ABT-737; Breast cancer; Acquired radioresistance; Radiation; Bcl-2; Bcl-xL
Former studies have shown that extract from American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) may possess certain antiproliferative effects on cancer cells. In this study, the chemical constituents of both untreated and heat-processed American ginseng and their antiproliferative activities on human breast cancer cells were evaluated.
Materials and Methods
American ginseng roots were steamed at 120°C for 1 h or 2 h. The major ginsenosides in the two steamed and in the unsteamed extracts were quantitatively determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antiproliferative activities of these extracts and individual ginsenosides on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were assayed using the MTS method. The effects of the extracts and the ginsenosides on the induction of cell apoptosis, the expression of cyclins A and D1, and cell cycle arrest were evaluated.
Compared to the untreated extract, heat-processing reduced the content of ginsenosides Rb1, Re, Rc and Rd, and increased the content of Rg2 and Rg3. After 2 h steaming, the percent content of ginsenoside Rg3 was increased from 0.06% to 5.9%. Compared to the unsteamed extract, the 2 h steamed extract significantly increased the antiproliferative activity and significantly reduced the number of viable cells. The steamed extract also significantly reduced the expression of cyclin A and cyclin D1. The cell cycle assay showed that the steamed extract and ginsenoside Rg3 arrested cancer cells in G1-phase.
Heat-processing of American ginseng root significantly increases antiproliferative activity and influences the cell cycle profile.
Panax quinquefolius L.; heat-processing; antiproliferation; human breast cancer; HPLC analysis; ginsenoside Rg3; apoptosis; cell cycle
Chlorpromazine (CPZ), a commonly used antipsychotic drug, was found to play a neuroprotective role in various models of toxicity. However, whether CPZ has the potential to affect brain apoptosis in vivo is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential effect of CPZ on the apoptosis induced by exogenous stimuli.
The ethanol treated infant rat was utilized as a valid apoptotic model, which is commonly used and could trigger robust apoptosis in brain tissue. Prior to the induction of apoptosis by subcutaneous injection of ethanol, 7-day-old rats were treated with CPZ at several doses (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection. Apoptotic cells in the brain were measured using TUNEL analysis, and the levels of cleaved caspase-3, cytochrome c, the pro-apoptotic factor Bax and the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 were assessed by immunostaining or western blot.
Compared to the group injected with ethanol only, the brains of the CPZ-pretreated rats had fewer apoptotic cells, lower expression of cleaved caspase-3, cytochrome c and Bax, and higher expression of Bcl-2. These results demonstrate that CPZ could prevent apoptosis in the brain by regulating the mitochondrial pathway.
CPZ exerts an inhibitory effect on apoptosis induced by ethanol in the rat brain, intimating that it may offer a means of protecting nerve cells from apoptosis induced by exogenous stimuli.
In Korea, chestnut production is increasing each year, but consumption is far below production. We investigated the effect of chestnut extracts on antioxidant activity and anticancer effects. Ethanol extracts of raw chestnut (RCE) or chestnut powder (CPE) had dose-dependent superoxide scavenging activity. Viable numbers of MDA-MD-231 human breast cancer cells, DU145 human prostate cancer cells, and AGS human gastric cancer cells decreased by 18, 31, and 69%, respectively, following treatment with 200 µg/mL CPE for 24 hr. CPE at various concentrations (0-200 µg/mL) markedly decreased AGS cell viability and increased apoptotic cell death dose and time dependently. CPE increased the levels of cleaved caspase-8, -7, -3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in a dose-dependent manner but not cleaved caspase-9. CPE exerted no effects on Bcl-2 and Bax levels. The level of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein decreased within a narrow range following CPE treatment. The levels of Trail, DR4, and Fas-L increased dose-dependently in CPE-treated AGS cells. These results show that CPE decreases growth and induces apoptosis in AGS gastric cancer cells and that activation of the death receptor pathway contributes to CPE-induced apoptosis in AGS cells. In conclusion, CPE had more of an effect on gastric cancer cells than breast or prostate cancer cells, suggesting that chestnuts would have a positive effect against gastric cancer.
Chestnut; ethanol extracts of chestnut; antioxidant activity; anticancer effect; gastric cancer
Non-thermal atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma may provide a novel approach to treat malignancies via induction of apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of DBD plasma to induce apoptosis in melanoma cells. Melanoma cells were exposed to plasma at doses that did not induce necrosis, and cell viability and apoptotic activity were evaluated by Trypan blue exclusion test, Annexin-V/PI staining, caspase-3 cleavage, and TUNEL® analysis. Trypan blue staining revealed that non-thermal plasma treatment significantly decreased the viability of cells in a dose-dependent manner 3 and 24 h after plasma treatment. Annexin-V/PI staining revealed a significant increase in apoptosis in plasma-treated cells at 24, 48, and 72 h post-treatment (p<0.001). Caspase-3 cleavage was observed 48 h post-plasma treatment at a dose of 15 J/cm2. TUNEL® analysis of plasma-treated cells demonstrated an increase in apoptosis at 48 and 72 h post-treatment (p<0.001) at a dose of 15 J/cm2. Pre-treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, significantly decreased apoptosis in plasma-treated cells at 5 and 15 J/cm2. Plasma treatment induces apoptosis in melanoma cells through a pathway that appears to be dependent on production of intracellular ROS. DBD plasma production of intracellular ROS leads to dose-dependent DNA damage in melanoma cells, detected by γ-H2AX, which was completely abrogated by pre-treating cells with ROS scavenger, NAC. Plasma-induced DNA damage in turn may lead to the observed plasma-induced apoptosis. Since plasma is non-thermal, it may be used to selectively treat malignancies.
Apoptosis; Non-thermal plasma; Reactive oxygen species; Cancer therapy; Plasma medicine
Stat3, a member of the signal transducer and activator of transcription family, has the potential to mediate cell survival, growth and differentiation. Stat3 is constitutively activated in numerous cancers, including more than 50% of breast cancers. Previous studies demonstrated that constitutively activated Stat3 plays an important role in breast cancer development and progression by promoting cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. The present study was designed to investigate the potential use of RNA interference (RNAi) to block Stat3 expression and activation, as well as the subsequent effect on human breast cancer cell growth. Our studies show that knockdown of STAT3 expression by siRNA reduced expression of Bcl-xL and survivin in MDA-MB-231 cells, and also led to Fas mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathway by activating Caspases -8, -9, -3 and PARP 1 cleavage. In nude mice, pRNAi-Stat3 significantly suppressed tumor growth compared with controls. It also suppressed Stat3 expression, and downregulated BcL-xL and upregulated Fas, Fas-L and cleaved Caspase 3 expression within the tumor, which significantly induced apoptosis and led to tumor suppression. Thus, targeting Stat3 signaling using siRNA may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of breast cancers expressing constitutively activated Stat3.
Stat3; apoptosis; Fas/Fas-L
The importance of anticancer stem cell research for breast cancer lies in the possibility of providing new approaches for an improved understanding of anticancer activity and cancer treatment. In this study, we demonstrated that the preclinical therapeutic efficacy of combining the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib with radiation was more effective in hypoxia-exposed breast cancer stem cells. We assessed cell viability and Annexin V to evaluate the combined effect of sorafenib and radiation following exposure to hypoxia. Our results showed that the synergistic cytotoxicity increased tumor cell apoptosis significantly and reduced cell proliferation in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells under hypoxic conditions compared to sorafenib or radiation alone in vitro. Additionally, the combined treatment induced G2/M cell cycle arrest. Notably, the combination of sorafenib and radiation eliminated CD44+CD24−/low cells preferentially, which highly expressed hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and effectively inhibited primary and secondary mammosphere formation in MDA-MB-231 cells. A combined effect on MDA-MB-231 cells in response to hypoxia was shown by inhibiting angiogenesis and metastasis by suppression of HIF-1α and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Collectively, these results indicate that the efficacy of sorafenib combined with radiation for treating human breast cancer cells is synergistic and suggest a new therapeutic approach to prevent breast cancer progression by eliminating breast cancer stem cells.
breast cancer stem cell; sorafenib; radiation; hypoxia
The induction of cell death by aspirin was analysed in HT-29 colon carcinoma cells. Aspirin induced two hallmarks of apoptosis: nuclear chromatin condensation and increase in phosphatidylserine externalization. However, aspirin did not induce either oligonucleosomal fragmentation of DNA, decrease in DNA content or nuclear fragmentation. The effect of aspirin on Annexin V binding was inhibited by the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD.fmk, indicating the involvement of caspases in the apoptotic action of aspirin. However, aspirin did not induce proteolysis of PARP, suggesting that aspirin does not increase nuclear caspase 3-like activity in HT-29 cells. This finding may be related with the ‘atypical’ features of aspirin-induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign
aspirin; apoptosis; caspases; colon cancer; HT-29
Marine microalgae have been prominently featured in cancer research. Here, we examined cytotoxic effect and apoptosis mechanism of crude ethanol extracts of an indigenous microalga, Chaetoceros calcitrans (UPMAAHU10) on human breast cell lines. MCF-7 was more sensitive than MCF-10A with IC50 value of 3.00 ± 0.65, whilst the IC50 value of Tamoxifen against MCF-7 was 12.00 ± 0.52 μg/mL after 24 hour incubation. Based on Annexin V/Propidium iodide and cell cycle flow cytometry analysis, it was found that inhibition of cell growth by EEC on MCF-7 cells was through the induction of apoptosis without cell cycle arrest. The apoptotic cells at subG0/G1 phase in treated MCF-7 cells at 48 and 72 hours showed 34 and 16 folds increased compared to extract treated MCF-10A cells which showed only 6 and 7 folds increased at the same time points, respectively. Based on GeXP study, EEC induced apoptosis on MCF-7 cells via modulation of CDK2, MDM2, p21Cip1, Cyclin A2, Bax and Bcl-2. The EEC treated MCF-7 cells also showed an increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio that in turn activated the caspase-dependent pathways by activating caspase 7. Thus, marine microalga, Chaetoceros calcitrans may be considered a good candidate to be developed as a new anti-breast cancer drug.
Inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 are being extensively studied as anticancer agents. In the present study we evaluated the mechanisms by which a highly selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, affects tumor growth of two differentially invasive human breast cancer cell lines.
MDA-MB-231 (highly invasive) and MDA-MB-468 (moderately invasive) cell lines were treated with varying concentrations of celecoxib in vitro, and the effects of this agent on cell growth and angiogenesis were monitored by evaluating cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and vasculogenic mimicry. The in vitro results of MDA-MB-231 cell line were further confirmed in vivo in a mouse xenograft model.
The highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells express higher levels of COX-2 than do the less invasive MDA-MB-468 cells. Celecoxib treatment inhibited COX-2 activity, indicated by prostaglandin E2 secretion, and caused significant growth arrest in both breast cancer cell lines. In the highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells, the mechanism of celecoxib-induced growth arrest was by induction of apoptosis, associated with reduced activation of protein kinase B/Akt, and subsequent activation of caspases 3 and 7. In the less invasive MDA-MB-468 cells, growth arrest was a consequence of cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 checkpoint. Celecoxib-induced growth inhibition was reversed by addition of exogenous prostaglandin E2 in MDA-MB-468 cells but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, MDA-MB-468 cells formed significantly fewer extracellular matrix associated microvascular channels in vitro than did the high COX-2 expressing MDA-MB-231 cells. Celecoxib treatment not only inhibited cell growth and vascular channel formation but also reduced vascular endothelial growth factor levels. The in vitro findings corroborated in vivo data from a mouse xenograft model in which daily administration of celecoxib significantly reduced tumor growth of MDA-MB-231 cells, which was associated with reduced vascularization and increased necrosis in the tumor mass.
The disparate molecular mechanisms of celecoxib-induced growth inhibition in human breast cancer cells depends upon the level of COX-2 expression and the invasive potential of the cell lines examined. Data suggest a role for COX-2 not only in the growth of cancer cells but also in activating the angiogenic pathway through regulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor.