Although peripheral nerves can regenerate after injury, proximal nerve injury in humans results in minimal restoration of motor function. One possible explanation for this is that injury-induced axonal growth is too slow. Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is a regeneration-associated protein that accelerates axonal growth in vitro. Here, we have shown that it can also do this in mice after peripheral nerve injury. While rapid motor and sensory recovery occurred in mice after a sciatic nerve crush injury, there was little return of motor function after sciatic nerve transection, because of the delay in motor axons reaching their target. This was not due to a failure of axonal growth, because injured motor axons eventually fully re-extended into muscles and sensory function returned; rather, it resulted from a lack of motor end plate reinnervation. Tg mice expressing high levels of Hsp27 demonstrated enhanced restoration of motor function after nerve transection/resuture by enabling motor synapse reinnervation, but only within 5 weeks of injury. In humans with peripheral nerve injuries, shorter wait times to decompression surgery led to improved functional recovery, and, while a return of sensation occurred in all patients, motor recovery was limited. Thus, absence of motor recovery after nerve damage may result from a failure of synapse reformation after prolonged denervation rather than a failure of axonal growth.
Peripheral nerve transection or crush induces expression of class 3 semaphorins by epineurial and perineurial cells at the injury site, and of the neuropilins, neuropilin-1 and neuropilin-2, by Schwann and perineurial cells in the nerve segment distal to the injury. Neuropilin-dependent class 3 semaphorin signaling guides axons during neural development, but the significance of this signaling system for regeneration of adult peripheral nerves is not known. To test the hypothesis that neuropilin-2 facilitates peripheral nerve axonal regeneration, we crushed sciatic nerves of adult neuropilin-2 deficient and littermate control mice. Axonal regeneration through the crush site and into the distal nerve segment, repression by the regenerating axons of Schwann cell p75 neurotrophin receptor expression, remyelination of the regenerating axons, and recovery of normal gait were all significantly slower in the neuropilin-2 deficient than control mice. Thus, neuropilin-2 facilitates peripheral nerve axonal regeneration.
peripheral nervous system; axons; Schwann cells; semaphorins; sciatic nerve
The inflammatory response appears to be essential in the modulation of the degeneration and regeneration process after peripheral nerve injury. In injured nerves, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is strongly upregulated around the injury site, possibly playing a role in the regulation of the inflammatory response. In this study we investigated the effect of celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, on functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush in rats. Unilateral sciatic nerve crush injury was performed on 10 male Wistar rats. Animals on the experimental group (n = 5) received celecoxib (10 mg/kg ip) immediately before the crush injury and daily for 7 days after the injury. Control group (n = 5) received normal saline at equal regimen. A sham group (n = 5), where sciatic nerve was exposed but not crushed, was also evaluated. Functional recovery was then assessed by calculating the sciatic functional index (SFI) on days 0,1,7,14 and 21 in all groups, and registering the day of motor and walking onset. In comparison with control group, celecoxib treatment (experimental group) had significant beneficial effects on SFI, with a significantly better score on day 7. Anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib should be considered in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, but further studies are needed to explain the mechanism of its neuroprotective effects.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK-5) appears to play a significant role in peripheral nerve regeneration as CDK-5 inhibition retards nerve regeneration following nerve crush. Anti-inflammatory drug acetyl salicylic acid elevates CDK-5 and reduces ischemia – reperfusion injury in cultured neurons. In this study we have evaluated the effect of acetyl salicylic acid on functional recovery following sciatic nerve crush in mice. Eighteen Swiss albino mice underwent unilateral sciatic nerve crush. Test animals received acetyl salicylic acid (100 mg/kg/day, n = 6 or 50 mg/kg/day, n = 6) and control animals (n = 6) received normal saline for 14 days following surgery. Functional recovery was assessed with improvement in Sciatic Function Index, nociception and gait. In comparison with normal saline treatment, acetyl salicylic acid (100 mg/kg/day) significantly improved functional recovery following sciatic nerve crush. Anti-inflammatory drug acetyl salicylic acid appears to be a promising agent for treating peripheral nerve injuries and hence elucidation of its neuroprotective pathways is necessary.
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of the potential tools for treatment of the spinal cord injury; however, the survival and differentiation of MSCs in an injured spinal cord still need to be improved. In the present study, we investigated whether Governor Vessel electro-acupuncture (EA) could efficiently promote bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) survival and differentiation, axonal regeneration and finally, functional recovery in the transected spinal cord.
The spinal cords of adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were completely transected at T10, five experimental groups were performed: 1. sham operated control (Sham-control); 2. operated control (Op-control); 3. electro-acupuncture treatment (EA); 4. MSCs transplantation (MSCs); and 5. MSCs transplantation combined with electro-acupuncture (MSCs+EA). After 2-8 weeks of MSCs transplantation plus EA treatment, we found that the neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), cAMP level, the differentiation of MSCs, the 5-HT positive and CGRP positive nerve fibers in the lesion site and nearby tissue of injured spinal cord were significantly increased in the MSCs+EA group as compared to the group of the MSCs transplantation or the EA treated alone. Furthermore, behavioral test and spinal cord evoked potentials detection demonstrated a significantly functional recovery in the MSCs +EA group.
These results suggest that EA treatment may promote grafted MSCs survival and differentiation; MSCs transplantation combined with EA treatment could promote axonal regeneration and partial locomotor functional recovery in the transected spinal cord in rats and indicate a promising avenue of treatment of spinal cord injury.
Misdirection of regenerating axons is one of the factors that can explain the poor results often found after nerve injury and repair. In this study, we quantified the degree of misdirection and the effect on recovery of function after different types of nerve injury and repair in the rat sciatic nerve model; crush injury, direct coaptation, and autograft repair. Sequential tracing with retrograde labeling of the peroneal nerve before and 8 weeks after nerve injury and repair was performed to quantify the accuracy of motor axon regeneration. Digital video analysis of ankle motion was used to investigate the recovery of function. In addition, serial compound action potential recordings and nerve and muscle morphometry were performed. In our study, accuracy of motor axon regeneration was found to be limited; only 71% (±4.9%) of the peroneal motoneurons were correctly directed 2 months after sciatic crush injury, 42% (±4.2%) after direct coaptation, and 25% (±6.6%) after autograft repair. Recovery of ankle motion was incomplete after all types of nerve injury and repair and demonstrated a disturbed balance of ankle plantar and dorsiflexion. The number of motoneurons from which axons had regenerated was not significantly different from normal. The number of myelinated axons was significantly increased distal to the site of injury. Misdirection of regenerating motor axons is a major factor in the poor recovery of nerves that innervate different muscles. The results of this study can be used as basis for developing new nerve repair techniques that may improve the accuracy of regeneration.
Aberrant reinnervation; Accuracy of regeneration; Ankle motion analysis; Double labeling; Sequential retrograde tracing
Transgenic mice whose axons and Schwann cells express fluorescent chromophores enable new imaging techniques and augment concepts in developmental neurobiology. The utility of these tools in the study of traumatic nerve injury depends on employing nerve models that are amenable to microsurgical manipulation and gauging functional recovery. Motor recovery from sciatic nerve crush injury is studied here by evaluating motor endplates of the tibialis anterior muscle, which is innervated by the deep peroneal branch of the sciatic nerve. Following sciatic nerve crush, the deep surface of the tibialis anterior muscle is examined using whole mount confocal microscopy, and reinnervation is characterized by imaging fluorescent axons or Schwann cells (SCs). One week following sciatic crush injury, 100% of motor endplates are denervated with partial reinnervation at two weeks, hyperinnervation at three and four weeks, and restoration of a 1:1 axon to motor endplate relationship six weeks after injury. Walking track analysis reveals progressive recovery of sciatic nerve function by six weeks. SCs reveal reduced S100 expression within two weeks of denervation, correlating with regression to a more immature phenotype. Reinnervation of SCs restores S100 expression and a fully differentiated phenotype. Following denervation, there is altered morphology of circumscribed terminal Schwann cells demonstrating extensive process formation between adjacent motor endplates. The thin, uniformly innervated tibialis anterior muscle is well suited for studying motor reinnervation following sciatic nerve injury. Confocal microscopy may be performed coincident with other techniques of assessing nerve regeneration and functional recovery.
transgenic mice; chromophore; sciatic nerve crush; motor endplate
The treatment of peripheral nerve injuries with nerve gaps largely consists of autologous nerve grafting utilizing sensory nerve donors. Underlying this clinical practice is the assumption that sensory autografts provide a suitable substrate for motoneuron regeneration, thereby facilitating motor endplate reinnervation and functional recovery. This study examined the role of nerve graft modality on axonal regeneration, comparing motor nerve regeneration through motor, sensory, and mixed nerve isografts in the Lewis rat. A total of 100 rats underwent grafting of the motor or sensory branch of the femoral nerve with histomorphometric analysis performed after 5, 6, or 7 weeks. Analysis demonstrated similar nerve regeneration in motor, sensory, and mixed nerve grafts at all three time points. These data indicate that matching of motor-sensory modality in the rat femoral nerve does not confer improved axonal regeneration through nerve isografts.
Femoral nerve; preferential motor regeneration; nerve architecture; motor graft; sensory graft; modality-specific regeneration
Zofenopril is an antioxidant agent which has been shown to have beneficial effects in hypertension and heart failure. The aim of this study was to test the effects of Zofenopril on nerve regeneration and scarring in a rat model of peripheral nerve crush injury.
Twenty-one adult Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a surgical procedure involving right sciatic nerve crush injury. 15 mg/kg Zofenopril was administered orally to seven rats in group Z for seven days. Seven rats in group S received saline orally for seven days. Seven rats in the control group C received no drug after crush injury. Fourteenth and 42nd days after injury, functional and electromyography assessments of nerves were performed. Functional recovery was analyzed using a walking track assessment, and quantified using the sciatic functional index (SFI). After these evaluations, all rats were sacrificed and microscopic evaluations were performed.
The Sciatic functional Index (SFI) in group Z on 14th day is different significantly from group S and group C (p = 0.037). But on 42nd day there was no difference between groups (p = 0.278). The statistical analyses of electromyelographic (EMG) studies showed that the latency in group Z is significantly different from group S (p = 0.006) and group C (p = 0.045). But on 42nd day there was no difference between groups like SFI (p = 0.147). The amplitude was evaluated better in group Z than others (p < 0.05). In microscopic evaluation, we observed the highest number of nerve regeneration in the group Z and the lowest in the group C. But it was not significant statistically.
Our results demonstrate that Zofenopril promotes the regeneration of peripheral nerve injuries in rat models.
Peripheral nerve injury often results in abnormal neuropathic pain such as allodynia or hyperalgesia. Acupuncture, a traditional Oriental medicine, has been used to relieve pain and related symptoms. However, the efficiency of acupuncture in relieving neuropathic pain is not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-allodynic effects of acupuncture through behavioral and electrophysiological examinations. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to neuropathic surgery consisting of a tight ligation and transection of the left tibial and sural nerves, under pentobarbital anesthesia. The acupuncture experiment consisted of four different groups, one treated at each of three different acupoints (Zusanli (ST36), Yinlingquan (SP9), and a sham-acupoint) and a control group. Behavioral tests for mechanical allodynia and cold allodynia were performed for up to two weeks postoperatively. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings were made from the dorsal roots using platinum wire electrodes. Mechanical and cold allodynia were significantly reduced after acupuncture treatment at the Zusanli and Yinlingquan acupoints, respectively. Electrophysiological neural responses to von Frey and acetone tests were also reduced after acupuncture at the same two acupoints. These results suggest that acupuncture may be beneficial in relieving neuropathic pain.
Neuropathic pain; acupuncture; acupoint; allodynia; electrophysiology
The histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I expression in the central nervous system (CNS) regulates synaptic plasticity events during development and adult life. Its upregulation may be associated with events such as axotomy, cytokine exposition and changes in neuron electrical activity. Since IFNγ is a potent inducer of the MHC I expression, the present work investigated the importance of this pro-inflammatory cytokine in the synaptic elimination process in the spinal cord, as well as the motor recovery of IFN−/−, following peripheral injury.
The lumbar spinal cords of C57BL/6J (wild type) and IFNγ−/− (mutant) mice, subjected to unilateral sciatic nerve transection, were removed and processed for immunohistochemistry and real time RT-PCR, while the sciatic nerves from animals subjected to unilateral crush, were submitted to immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy for counting of the axons. Gait recovery was monitored using the Cat Walk system. Newborn mice astrocyte primary cultures were established in order to study the astrocytic respose in the absence of the IFNγ expression.
IFNγ−/− mutant mice showed a decreased expression of MHC I and β2-microglobulin mRNA coupled with reduced synaptophysin immunolabelling in the lesioned spinal cord segment. Following unilateral nerve transection, the Iba-1 (ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1) and glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) reactivities increased equally in both strains. In vitro, the astrocytes demonstrated similar GFAP levels, but the proliferation rate was higher in the wild type mice. In the crushed nerves (distal stump), neurofilaments and p75NTR immunolabeling were upregulated in the mutant mice as compared to the wild type and an improvement in locomotor recovery was observed.
The present results show that a lack of IFNγ affects the MHC I expression and the synaptic elimination process in the spinal cord. Such changes, however, do not delay peripheral nerve regeneration after nerve injury.
Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) plays a crucial role in axoglial signaling during the development of the peripheral nervous system, however its importance in adulthood following peripheral nerve injury remains unclear. We utilised Single-neuron Labelling with Inducible Cre-mediated Knockout (SLICK) animals, which enabled visualisation of a subset of adult myelinated sensory and motoneurons neurons in which Nrg1 was inducibly mutated by tamoxifen treatment. In uninjured mice, NRG1 deficient axons and the associated myelin sheath were normal and the neuromuscular junction demonstrated normal apposition of pre- and postsynaptic components. Following sciatic nerve crush, NRG1 ablation resulted in severe defects in remyelination: axons were either hypomyelinated or had no myelin sheath. NRG1 deficient axons were also found to regenerate at a slower rate. Following nerve injury the neuromuscular junction was reinnervated, however excess terminal sprouting was observed. Juxtacrine Neuregulin-1 signaling is therefore dispensable for maintenance of the myelin sheath in adult animals but has a key role in reparative processes following nerve injury.
Neuregulin-1; Schwann cell; myelin; neuromuscular junction; regeneration
Evaluation of functional and structural recovery after peripheral nerve injury is crucial to determine the therapeutic effect of a nerve repair strategy. In the present study, we examined the relationship between the structural evaluation of regeneration by means of retrograde tracing and the functional analysis of toe spreading. Two standardized rat sciatic nerve injury models were used to address this relationship. As such, animals received either a 2 cm sciatic nerve defect (neurotmesis) followed by autologous nerve transplantation (ANT animals) or a crush injury with spontaneous recovery (axonotmesis; CI animals). Functional recovery of toe spreading was observed over an observation period of 84 days. In contrast to CI animals, ANT animals did not reach pre-surgical levels of toe spreading. After the observation period, the lipophilic dye DiI was applied to label sensory and motor neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG; sensory neurons) and spinal cord (motor neurons), respectively. No statistical difference in motor or sensory neuron counts could be detected between ANT and CI animals.
In the present study we could indicate that there was no direct relationship between functional recovery (toe spreading) measured by SSI and the number of labelled (motor and sensory) neurons evaluated by retrograde tracing. The present findings demonstrate that a multimodal approach with a variety of independent evaluation tools is essential to understand and estimate the therapeutic benefit of a nerve repair strategy.
Peripheral nerve injury; Repair strategy; Peripheral nerve regeneration; Neurotmesis; SSI; Sciatic nerve injury; Rat model
Objective (s): Scar formation in injured peripheral nerve bed causes several consequences which impede the process of nerve regeneration. Several animal models are used for scar induction in preclinical studies which target prevention and/or suppression of perineural scar. This study evaluates the translational capacity of four of physical injury models to induce scar formation around the sciatic nerve of rat: laceration, crush, mince and burn.
Materials and Methods: Functional (Toe out angle), macroscopic, and microscopic evaluations were performed weekly for four weeks and correlation of findings were analyzed.
Result: While macroscopic and microscopic findings suggested a well-developed and adhesive fibrosis surrounding the sciatic nerve, functional assessment did not reveal any significant difference between control and experimental groups (P>0.05).
Conclusion: Our study suggests that none of the applied animal models reproduce all essential features of clinical perineural scar formation. Therefore, more studies are needed to develop optimal animal models for translating preclinical investigations.
Scar; Sciatic nerve; Translational research
To examine the mechanisms responsible for the more rapid nerve regeneration observed after a previous (conditioning) nerve injury, adult rats were subjected to a midthigh sciatic nerve transection by using one of three protocols designed to facilitate or restrict nerve regeneration: 1) ligation, in which transected axons were prevented from regenerating; 2) cut, in which transected axons were permitted to extend into peripheral target tissue but were separated from the denervated peripheral nerve stump; and 3) crush, in which axons could regenerate normally through the denervated distal nerve tract. The affected dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were subsequently removed, dissociated, and cultured for up to 3 days, and the timing of neurite initiation, rate of outgrowth, and arborization pattern of previously injured neurons were compared with control DRG. Our results indicate that conditioning lesions have at least four distinct and differentially regulated effects on neuronal morphogenesis: 1) conditioning lesions promote earlier neurite initiation, 2) prior nerve injury decreases the ability of neurons to extend long neurites following a second axotomy, 3) exposure to the environment of a denervated peripheral nerve stimulates greater initial rates of neurite outgrowth, and 4) conditioning lesions reduces initial neuritic branching frequency, resulting in straighter neurites whose growth cones extend further distances from their cell bodies. The primary effect of all conditioning lesions on cultured DRG neurons appeared to be to advance the timing of morphogenesis, resulting in conditioning-lesioned neurons that exhibited characteristics consistent with control neurons that had been cultured for an additional day or more. A secondary effect of conditioning lesions on neurite outgrowth rates was dependent on the local environment of the axons prior to culturing.
neurite outgrowth; neurite initiation; nerve regeneration; conditioning lesion; neurite arborization
Recent work has demonstrated that apo E secretion and accumulation increase in the regenerating peripheral nerve. The fact that apoE, in conjunction with apoA-I and LDL receptors, participates in a well-established lipid transfer system raised the possibility that apoE is also involved in lipid transport in the injured nerve. In the present study of the crushed rat sciatic nerve, a combination of techniques was used to trace the cellular associations of apoE, apoA-I, and the LDL receptor during nerve repair and to determine the distribution of lipid at each stage. After a crush injury, as axons died and Schwann cells reabsorbed myelin, resident and monocyte-derived macrophages produced large quantities of apoE distal to the injury site. As axons regenerated in the first week, their tips contained a high concentration of LDL receptors. After axon regeneration, apoE and apoA-I began to accumulate distal to the injury site and macrophages became increasingly cholesterol-loaded. As remyelination began in the second and third weeks after injury, Schwann cells exhausted their cholesterol stores, then displayed increased LDL receptors. Depletion of macrophage cholesterol stores followed over the next several weeks. During this stage of regeneration, apoE and apoA-I were present in the extracellular matrix as components of cholesterol-rich lipoproteins. Our results demonstrate that the regenerating peripheral nerve possesses the components of a cholesterol transfer mechanism, and the sequence of events suggests that this mechanism supplies the cholesterol required for rapid membrane biogenesis during axon regeneration and remyelination.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) stimulates peripheral nerve regeneration. However, the origin of BNDF and its precise effect on nerve repair have not been clarified. In this study, we examined the role of BDNF from bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) in post-injury nerve repair. Control and heterozygote BDNF knockout mice (BDNF+/−) received a left sciatic nerve crush using a cerebral blood clip. Especially, for the evaluation of BDNF from BMDCs, studies with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) were performed before the injury. We evaluated nerve function using a rotarod test, sciatic function index (SFI), and motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) simultaneously with histological nerve analyses by immunohistochemistry before and after the nerve injury until 8 weeks. BDNF production was examined by immunohistochemistry and mRNA analyses. After the nerve crush, the controls showed severe nerve dysfunction evaluated at 1 week. However, nerve function was gradually restored and reached normal levels by 8 weeks. By immunohistochemistry, BDNF expression was very faint before injury, but was dramatically increased after injury at 1 week in the distal segment from the crush site. BDNF expression was mainly co-localized with CD45 in BMDCs, which was further confirmed by the appearance of GFP-positive cells in the BMT study. Variant analysis of BDNF mRNA also confirmed this finding. BDNF+/− mice showed a loss of function with delayed histological recovery and BDNF+/+→BDNF+/− BMT mice showed complete recovery both functionally and histologically. These results suggested that the attenuated recovery of the BDNF+/− mice was rescued by the transplantation of BMCs and that BDNF from BMDCs has an essential role in nerve repair.
We recently found that S100A4, a member of the multifunctional S100 protein family, protects neurons in the injured brain and identified two sequence motifs in S100A4 mediating its neurotrophic effect. Synthetic peptides encompassing these motifs stimulated neuritogenesis and survival in vitro and mimicked the S100A4-induced neuroprotection in brain trauma. Here, we investigated a possible function of S100A4 and its mimetics in the pathologies of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). We found that S100A4 was expressed in the injured PNS and that its peptide mimetic (H3) affected the regeneration and survival of myelinated axons. H3 accelerated electrophysiological, behavioral and morphological recovery after sciatic nerve crush while transiently delaying regeneration after sciatic nerve transection and repair. On the basis of the finding that both S100A4 and H3 increased neurite branching in vitro, these effects were attributed to the modulatory effect of H3 on initial axonal sprouting. In contrast to the modest effect of H3 on the time course of regeneration, H3 had a long-term neuroprotective effect in the myelin protein P0 null mice, a model of dysmyelinating neuropathy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 disease), where the peptide attenuated the deterioration of nerve conduction, demyelination and axonal loss. From these results, S100A4 mimetics emerge as a possible means to enhance axonal sprouting and survival, especially in the context of demyelinating neuropathies with secondary axonal loss, such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 disease. Moreover, our data suggest that S100A4 is a neuroprotectant in PNS and that other S100 proteins, sharing high homology in the H3 motif, may have important functions in PNS pathologies.
To compare the long-term recovery of gene
expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG)
neurons under conditions of regeneration vs.
non-regeneration, Northern blotting and in situ
hybridization were used to assess steady-state
neurofilament (NF) and beta tubulin mRNA
levels 12 weeks following axonal injury. Adult
male rats sustained either a crush lesion of the
mid-sciatic nerve (regeneration occurs), or a cut
lesion of the sciatic nerve combined with ligation
of the proximal nerve stump and removal of a
large segment of the distal nerve (regeneration
does not occur). In the latter case, neuroma
formation physically prevented axonal regeneration.
Results of Northern blotting of total RNA
obtained from the DRG indicated that NF-L and NF-Μ
mRNA levels had largely returned to
control levels at 12 weeks following crush
axotomy but were still substantially depressed
following cut/ligation injury of the sciatic nerve
at that time. in situ hybridization studies
indicated that both crush and cut/ligation
axotomy resulted in significantly lower NF-L
mRNA levels in large-sized (>1000 μm2) DRG
neurons at 12 weeks post-axotomy. Discrepancies
in the conclusions from Northern
blotting and in situ hybridization experiments
were also noted in the case of tubulin
mRNA changes at long intervals after axotomy. in situ
hybridization data derived from the large-sized
DRG neurons using a coding region β-tubulin
cDNA (which recognizes both βII
mRNAs) showed complete recovery of β-tubulin
mRNA levels in surviving, large-sized DRG
neurons after crush axotomy, but significantly
elevated tubulin mRNA levels in surviving large
DRG cells at 12 weeks after cut/ligation
axotomy. In contrast, Northern blotting results
indicated that βII-tubulin mRNA levels in the
crush axotomy condition remained elevated
relative to control while they were substantially
lower than control in cut/ligation axotomy
samples. Results from analysis of βIII-tubulin
mRNA changes were not conclusive. The lack of
complete correspondence in the results from the
two different methods of analysis of mRNA
changes (blotting vs. in situ) is likely to be due to
selective loss of large-sized DRG neurons in the
long-standing cut/ligation injury condition. This
would influence results from blotting data,
where RNA is derived from the DRG as a whole,
more so than in situ hybridization experiments
which specifically focus on the surviving largesized
neurons. Overall, data from these
experiments indicate that altered patterns of
gene expression remain in the DRG for long
intervals after axonal injury, whether or not
axonal regeneration has been successful.
However, recovery of “normal8221; patterns of
cytoskeletal gene expression in the DRG is
considerably more complete after crush injury
than after cut/ligation injury.
Dorsal root injury results in substantial and often irreversible loss of sensory functions as a result of the limited regenerative capacity of sensory axons and the inhibitory barriers that prevent both axonal entry into and regeneration in the spinal cord. Here, we describe previously unknown effects of the growth factor artemin after crush injury of the dorsal spinal nerve roots in rats. Artemin not only promoted re-entry of multiple classes of sensory fibers into the spinal cord and re-establishment of synaptic function and simple behavior, but it also, surprisingly, promoted the recovery of complex behavior. These effects occurred after a 2-week schedule of intermittent, systemic administration of artemin and persisted for at least 6 months following treatment, suggesting a substantial translational advantage. Systemic artemin administration produced essentially complete and persistent restoration of nociceptive and sensorimotor functions, and could represent a promising therapy that may effectively promote sensory neuronal regeneration and functional recovery after injury.
Background and Objective
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used in limited settings to study peripheral nerve injury. The purpose of the study is to determine whether high-resolution OCT can be used to monitor nerve injury and regeneration in the rat sciatic nerve following crush injury, ligation, and transection with microsurgical repair.
Study Design/Materials and Methods
Forty-five rats were segregated into three groups. The right sciatic nerve was suture ligated (n = 15), cut then microsurgically repaired (n = 15), or crushed (n = 15). The left sciatic nerve served as the control; only surgical exposure and skin closure were performed. Each group was further divided into three subgroups where they were assigned survival durations of 4, 15, or 24 weeks. Following euthanasia, nerves were harvested, fixed in formalin, and imaged at the injury site, as well as proximal and distal ends. The OCT system resolution was approximately 7 μm in tissue with a 1,060 nm central wavelength.
Control (uninjured) nerve tissue showed homogenous signal distribution to a relatively uniform depth; in contrast, damaged nerves showed irregular signal distribution and intensity. Changes in signal distribution were most significant at the injury site and distal regions. Increases in signal irregularity were evident during longer recovery times. Histological analysis determined that OCT imaging was limited to the surrounding perineurium and scar tissue.
OCT has the potential to be a valuable tool for monitoring nerve injury and repair, and the changes that accompany wound healing, providing clinicians with a non-invasive tool to treat nerve injuries.
nerve injury; peripheral nerve; optical coherence tomography and nerve
Nerves of the peripheral nervous system have, to some extent, the ability to regenerate after injury, particularly in instances of crush or contusion injuries. After a controlled crush injury of the rat sciatic nerve, demyelination and remyelination are followed with functional assessments and imaged both ex vivo and in vivo over the course of 4 weeks with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. A new procedure compatible with live animal imaging is developed for performing histomorphometry of myelinated axons. This allows quantification of demyelination proximal and remyelination distal to the crush site ex vivo and in vivo respectively.
(170.3880) Medical and biological imaging; (190.4180) Multiphoton processes; (180.4315) Nonlinear microscopy; (180.5655) Raman microscopy
Injury to a peripheral nerve is followed by a remodeling process consisting of axonal degeneration and regeneration. It is not known how Schwann cell–derived basement membrane is preserved after injury or what role matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors play in axonal degeneration and regeneration. We showed that the MMPs gelatinase B (MMP-9), stromelysin-1 (MMP-3), and the tissue inhibitor of MMPs (TIMP)-1 were induced in crush and distal segments of mouse sciatic nerve after injury. TIMP-1 inhibitor activity was present in excess of proteinase activity in extracts of injured nerve. TIMP-1 protected basement membrane type IV collagen from degradation by exogenous gelatinase B in cryostat sections of nerve in vitro. In vivo, during the early phase (1 d after crush) and later phase (4 d after crush) after injury, induction of TNF-α and TGF-β1 mRNAs, known modulators of TIMP-1 expression, were paralleled by an upregulation of TIMP-1 and gelatinase B mRNAs. At 4 days after injury, TIMP-1, gelatinase B, and TNF-α mRNAs were localized to infiltrating macrophages and Schwann cells in the regions of nerve infiltrated by elicited macrophages. TIMP-1 and cytokine mRNA expression was upregulated in undamaged nerve explants incubated with medium conditioned by macrophages or containing the cytokines TGF-β1, TNF-α, and IL-1α. These results show that TIMP-1 may protect basement membrane from uncontrolled degradation after injury and that cytokines produced by macrophages may participate in the regulation of TIMP-1 levels during nerve repair.
We investigated the effects of treadmill training (10 weeks) on hindlimb motor function and nerve morphometric parameters in diabetic rats submitted to sciatic nerve crush.
MATERIALS AND METHOD:
Wistar rats (n = 64) were divided into the following groups: non-diabetic; trained non-diabetic; non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush; trained non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush; diabetic; trained diabetic; diabetic with sciatic nerve crush or trained diabetic with sciatic nerve crush. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection (50 mg/kg, iv). Hindlimb motor function was evaluated weekly by assessing sciatic functional indices, and the proximal and distal portions of the sciatic nerve were used for morphometric analysis.
At 13 weeks post-injury, the distal nerve portion of all injured groups and the proximal nerve portion of the diabetic with sciatic nerve crush group presented altered morphometric parameters such as decreased myelinated fiber diameter (∼7.4±0.3µm vs ∼4.8±0.2µm), axonal diameter (∼5±0.2µm vs ∼3.5±0.1µm) and myelin sheath thickness (∼1.2±0.07µm vs ∼0.65±0.07µm) and an increase in the percentage of area occupied by endoneurium (∼28±3% vs ∼60±3%). In addition, in the non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush group the proximal nerve portion showed a decreased myelinated fiber diameter (7.4±0.3µm vs 5.8±0.3µm) and myelin sheath thickness (1.29±0.08µm vs 0.92±0.08µm). The non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush, trained non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush, diabetic with sciatic nerve crush and trained diabetic with sciatic nerve crush groups showed normal sciatic functional index from the 4th, 4th, 9th and 7th week post-injury, respectively. Morphometric alterations in the proximal nerve portion of the diabetic with sciatic nerve crush and non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush groups were either prevented or reverted to values similar to the non-diabetic group by treadmill training.
Diabetic condition promoted delay in sciatic nerve regeneration. Treadmill training is able to accelerate hindlimb motor function recovery in diabetic injured rats and prevent or revert morphometric alterations in proximal nerve portions in non-diabetic and diabetic injured rats.
Diabetes; Sciatic nerve crush; Motor function; Nerve morphometry; Treadmill training
In the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells (SCs) surrounding damaged axons undergo an injury response that is driven by an intricate transcriptional program and is critical for nerve regeneration. To examine whether these injury-induced changes in SCs are also regulated posttranscriptionally by miRNAs, we performed miRNA expression profiling of mouse sciatic nerve distal segment after crush injury. We also characterized the SC injury response in mice containing SCs with disrupted miRNA processing due to loss of Dicer. We identified 87 miRNAs that were expressed in mouse adult peripheral nerve, 48 of which were dynamically regulated after nerve injury. Most of these injury-regulated SC miRNAs were computationally predicted to inhibit drivers of SC dedifferentiation/proliferation and thereby re-enforce the transcriptional program driving SC remyelination. SCs deficient in miRNAs manifested a delay in the transition between the distinct differentiation states required to support peripheral nerve regeneration. Among the miRNAs expressed in adult mouse SCs, miR-34a and miR-140 were identified as functional regulators of SC dedifferentiation/proliferation and remyelination, respectively. We found that miR-34a interacted with positive regulators of dedifferentiation and proliferation such as Notch1 and Ccnd1 to control cell cycle dynamics in SCs. miR-140 targeted the transcription factor Egr2, a master regulator of myelination, and modulated myelination in DRG/SC cocultures. Together, these results demonstrate that SC miRNAs are important modulators of the SC regenerative response after nerve damage.