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1.  Inhibition of IgE-dependent Mouse Triphasic Cutaneous Reaction by a Boiling Water Fraction Separated from Mycelium of Phellinus linteus 
Phellinus linteus, a mushroom, contains constituents that exhibit potent antitumor effects through activating immune cells. Recently, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties of P. linteus extracts have also been implicated. In the present study, therefore, we separated the constituents of mycelium of P. linteus into five fractions—chloroform-soluble (CF), ethyl acetate-soluble (EA), methanol-soluble (AE), water-soluble (WA) and boiling water-soluble (BW) fractions—and examined their suppressive effects on the IgE-dependent mouse triphasic cutaneous reaction. The triphasic reaction was induced in the ear of BALB/c mice passively sensitized with anti-dinitrophenol IgE by painting with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene 24 h later. Ear swelling appeared triphasically with peak responses at 1 h, 24 h and 8 days after the challenge. ME, WA and BW given orally at a dose of 100 mg kg−1 significantly inhibited the first and second phase ear swelling, and BW also inhibited the third phase response. CF only inhibited the second phase. The inhibition by BW was the most potent and almost dose-dependent at doses of 30–300 mg kg−1. BW also inhibited vascular permeability increase caused by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and histamine, and ear swelling caused by tumor necrosis factor-α. In contrast, BW apparently potentiated the production of interleukin-4 and interferon-γ from anti-CD3-stimulated mouse splenocytes. These results indicate that BW derived from mycelium of P. linteus contains some constituents with anti-allergic as well as immunopotentiating properties.
doi:10.1093/ecam/neh105
PMCID: PMC1193546  PMID: 16136215
allergic reaction; boiling; IgE; mouse; mycelium; Phellinus linteus; water fraction
2.  Phellinus linteus Extract Augments the Immune Response in Mitomycin C-Induced Immunodeficient Mice 
Phellinus linteus is a fungus distributed throughout Japan, Korea and China. Boiled water-soluble extracts from P. linteus (PLW) have shown anti-tumor and immunomodulatory properties in experiments done by intraperitoneal treatment, or in in vitro cell cultures. This is the first investigation on how oral administration of PLW influences immune responses. Here, we established immunodeficient mice by mitomycin C (MMC) and then researched how PLW influenced plaque-forming cell (PFC) production and populations of cytokine [interferon- (IFNγ-) and interleukin-4 (IL-4)]-producing T lymphocytes. PLW samples were administered orally for 19 days (1, 2 or 4 g/kg/day). PFC assay was followed using Jerne's method. IFN- and IL-4-producing T lymphocyte populations were measured by flow-activated cell sorter (FACS). These assays were conducted the day after the last oral administration. MMC groups were given MMC (1 mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally for 6 days with PLW administration. The number of PFC per 106 spleen cells increased significantly in the PLW (2 g/kg/day) group when compared with the MMC-control (P < 0.05) while populations of IFNγ- and IL-4-producing T lymphocytes decreased by MMC treatment. However, the PLW group tended to increase more than the MMC-control. Our results indicated that PLW augments the immune response of the spleen in MMC-induced immunodeficient mice.
doi:10.1093/ecam/nem001
PMCID: PMC2249738  PMID: 18317553
immune response; mitomycin C; Phellinus linteus
3.  Medicinal mushroom Phellinus linteus as an alternative cancer therapy 
Alternative cancer treatment with nutritional/dietary supplements containing a wide variety of herbal products is on the rise in Western countries. Recent epidemiological studies have suggested that mushrooms may prevent against different types of cancers. Phellinus linteus is a well-known Oriental medicinal fungus with a variety of biological activities, including immunomodulatory or direct antitumor activities. The activity of P. linteus and its extracts is associated with the presence of polysaccharides, their peptide/protein complexes and other low molecular weight complexes. Polysaccharide fractions isolated from P. linteus were found to be related to the increased activity of immune cells such as the production of cytokines by macrophages and B-cells or the increased cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells. Moreover, P. linteus was found to modulate the expression or activity of various genes involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasive behavior and chemoprevention. Finally, P. linteus extracts demonstrated tumor regression in three independent case reports, suggesting that an extract from P. linteus or a dietary supplement based on the extract from P. linteus may have potential use for the alternative treatment of cancer.
doi:10.3892/etm_00000063
PMCID: PMC3445909  PMID: 22993555
Phellinus linteus; complementary and alternative medicine; cancer
4.  Effect of Phellius linteus water extract on benign prostatic hyperplasia 
Nutrition Research and Practice  2013;7(3):172-177.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common diseases among elderly men. As the old-age population is increasing recently, it is to our interest to observe the growing BPH within them. In BPH, the dihydrotestosterone (DHT) acts as promotes prostate growth. It inhibits enzyme 5α-reductase that is involved in the conversion of testosterone to the DHT activity which reduces the excessive prostate growth. Through experiments, the effects of Phellius linteus water extract performed on the BPH rats were induced by testosterone treatments. For 12 weeks, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with testosterone for the induction of BPH. Rats were divided into four experimental groups: the not treated group (N), the testosterone injection and D.W treatment group (TN), the testosterone injection and Phellinus linteus treatment group (TP) and testosterone injection and finasteride treatment group (TF). Prostate weight, volume and weight ratio in the TP group and the TF group were significantly lower than the TN group. Testosterone and DHT levels in the TN group were significantly higher than that of the N group. And the TP group was significantly decreased than that of the TN group. While prostates of control rats revealed severe acinar gland atrophy and stromal proliferation; the TP and TF groups showed trophic symptoms and were lined by flattened epithelial cells, thus, the stromal proliferation is relatively low as compared to the TN group. These suggest that Phellinus linteus water extracts may be an useful remedy for treating the benign prostatic hyperplasia.
doi:10.4162/nrp.2013.7.3.172
PMCID: PMC3679325  PMID: 23766877
Phellius lineteus; benign prostatic hyperplasia; acne symptoms; hair growth; dihydrotestosterone
5.  Optimal Extraction Conditions of Anti-obesity Lipase Inhibitor from Phellinus linteus and Nutritional Characteristics of the Extracts 
Mycobiology  2010;38(1):58-61.
In an effort to develop novel mushroom-derived anti-obesity nutraceuticals, water and ethanol extracts containing the lipaseinhibitory compound from Phellinus linteus were prepared, and their nutritional components were determined. The optimal conditions for the extraction of P. linteus lipase inhibitor involved the treatment of the fruiting bodies with distilled water at 80℃ for 72 hr and 80% ethanol at 100℃ for 60 hr, respectively. The distilled water extract and ethanol extract contained 10.9% and 6.11% of crude protein, and 0.96% and 15.86% of crude fat, respectively. Additionally, the distilled water extract contained a large quantity of minerals, including 239.5 mg of K, 39.3 mg of Mg, and 39.3 mg of Na. The free amino acid content of the distilled water extracts was also higher than that of the ethanol extracts, and in particular, the distilled water extracts contained 5,139 mg of asparagine, 3,891 mg of tryptophan, 2,598 mg of alanine, and 2,066 mg of serine in 100 g of the distilled water extracts. 100 g of the distilled water and ethanol extracts were found to contain 12.31 g and 8.16 g of malic acid, respectively.
doi:10.4489/MYCO.2010.38.1.058
PMCID: PMC3741596  PMID: 23956626
Anti-obesity; Lipase inhibition; Nutritional characteristic; Phellinus linteus
6.  Extraction and Characteristics of Anti-obesity Lipase Inhibitor from Phellinus linteus 
Mycobiology  2010;38(1):52-57.
To develop a potent anti-obesity lipase inhibitor from mushroom, the lipase inhibitory activities of various mushroom extracts were determined. Methanol extracts from Phellinus linteus fruiting body exhibited the highest lipase inhibitory activity (72.8%). The inhibitor was maximally extracted by treatment of a P. linteus fruiting body with 80% methanol at 40℃ for 24 hr. After partial purification by systematic solvent extraction, the inhibitor was stable in the range of 40~80℃ and pH 2.0~9.0. In addition to lipase inhibitory activity, the inhibitor showed 59.4% of superoxide dismutase-like activity and 56.3% of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.
doi:10.4489/MYCO.2010.38.1.052
PMCID: PMC3741595  PMID: 23956625
Anti-obesity; Lipase inhibitor; Phellinus linteus
7.  Phellinus linteus polysaccharide extracts increase the mitochondrial membrane potential and cause apoptotic death of THP-1 monocytes 
Chinese Medicine  2013;8:25.
Background
The differentiation resp. death of human monocytic THP-1 cells induced by polysaccharide extracts of the medicinal mushrooms Phellinus linteus, Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis have been studied. This study aims to identify leads for the causal effects of these mushroom components on cell differentiation and death.
Methods
THP-1 cells were treated with different polysaccharide extracts of mushrooms and controls. Morphological effects were observed by light microscopy. Flow cytometry was applied to follow the cell differentiation by cell cycle shifts after staining with propidium iodide, changes of mitochondrial membrane potential after incubation with JC-1, and occurrence of intracellular reactive oxygen species after incubation with hydroethidine. Principal component analysis of the data was performed to evaluate the cellular effects of the different treatments.
Results
P. linteus polysaccharide extracts induced dose-dependent apoptosis of THP-1 cells within 24 h, while A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts caused differentiation into macrophages. A pure P. linteus polysaccharide had no effect. Apoptosis was inhibited by preincubating THP-1 cells with human serum. The principal component analysis revealed that P. linteus, A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts increased reactive oxygen species production. Both A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, while this was increased by P. linteus polysaccharide extracts.
Conclusions
P. linteus polysaccharide extracts caused apoptosis of THP-1 monocytes while A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis polysaccharide extracts caused these cells to differentiate into macrophages. The protective effects of human serum suggested that P. linteus polysaccharide extract induced apoptosis by extrinsic pathway, i.e. by binding to the TRAIL receptor. The mitochondrial membrane potential together with reactive oxygen species seems to play an important role in cell differentiation and cell death.
doi:10.1186/1749-8546-8-25
PMCID: PMC3878362  PMID: 24344650
8.  Filtrate of Phellinus linteus Broth Culture Reduces Infarct Size Significantly in a Rat Model of Permanent Focal Cerebral Ischemia 
Phellinus linteus, a natural growing mushroom, has been known to exhibit anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and anti-oxidant effects. Aiming to exploit the neuroprotective effects of P. linteus, we evaluated its effects on infarct volume reduction in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to right middle cerebral artery occlusion. Filtrate of P. linteus broth culture (various doses), fractionated filtrate (based on molecular weight) or control medium was administered intraperitoneally to rats before or after ischemia induction. Rats were killed at 24 h after the stroke surgery. Cortical and caudoputaminal infarct volumes were determined separately using an image analysis program following staining with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. Significant cortical infarct volume reductions were found in the pre-treatment groups (30 and 60 minutes before onset of cerebral ischemia) compared with the control group, showing dose dependence. Posttreatment (30 minutes after ischemic onset) also significantly reduced cortical infarct volume. Furthermore, the higher molecular weight (≥12 000) fraction of the culture filtrate was more effective compared with the lower molecular weight fraction. The present findings suggest that P. linteus may be a new promising approach for the treatment of focal cerebral ischemia, with the additional benefit of a wide therapeutic time window since significant infarct volume reduction is obtained by administration even after the ischemic event. Our finding that the higher molecular weight fraction of the P. linteus culture filtrate demonstrated more prominent effect may provide a clue to identify the neuroprotective substances and mechanisms.
doi:10.1093/ecam/nen091
PMCID: PMC3135312  PMID: 19155273
9.  Anti-cancer Activities of Ginseng Extract Fermented with Phellinus linteus 
Mycobiology  2009;37(1):21-27.
In the present study, the anti-cancer effects of ginseng fermented with Phellinus linteus (GFPL) extract were examined through in vitro and in vivo assays. GFPL was produced by co-cultivating ginseng and Phellinus linteus together. Ginsenoside Rg3, Rh1 and Rh2 are important mediators of anti-angiogenesis and their levels in GFPL were enriched 24, 19 and 16 times, respectively, more than that of ginseng itself through the fermentation. GFPL exhibited distinct anti-cancer effects, including growth inhibition of the human lung carcinoma cell line A549, and promotion of immune activation by stimulating nitric oxide (NO) production in Raw 264.7 cells. Further evidence supporting anti-cancer effects of GFPL was its significant prolongment of the survival of B16F10 cancer cell-implanted mice. These results suggest that the GFPL may be a candidate for cancer prevention and treatment through immune activation and anti-angiogenic effects by enriching Rg3, Rh1 and Rh2.
doi:10.4489/MYCO.2009.37.1.021
PMCID: PMC3749450  PMID: 23983502
Antitumor activity; Ginsenoside Rg3; HUVEC; Phellinus linteus
10.  Antitumor Effects and Immunomodulating Activities of Phellinus linteus Extract in a CT-26 Cell-Injected Colon Cancer Mouse Model 
Mycobiology  2009;37(2):128-132.
The antitumor effects of Phellinus linteus extract (Keumsa Linteusan) were investigated in a CT-26 cell-injected colon cancer mouse model. When administered orally (250~1,000 mg/kg body weight), Keumsa Linteusan significantly inhibited the growth of solid colon cancer. The highest dose was highly effective, reducing tumor formation by 26% compared with the control group. The anticomplementary activity of Keumsa Linteusan increased in a dose-dependent manner. Lysosomal enzyme activity of macrophages was increased by 2-fold (100 µg/ml) compared with the control group. Keumsa Linteusan can be regarded as a potent enhancer of the innate immune response, and can be considered as a very promising candidate for antitumor action.
doi:10.4489/MYCO.2009.37.2.128
PMCID: PMC3749402  PMID: 23983521
Anticomplementary; Antitumor; Colon cancer; Keumsa Linteusan; Macrophage lysosomal enzyme; Mouse model; Phellinus linteus
11.  Protein-bound polysaccharide from Phellinus linteus inhibits tumor growth, invasion, and angiogenesis and alters Wnt/β-catenin in SW480 human colon cancer cells 
BMC Cancer  2011;11:307.
Background
Polysaccharides extracted from the Phellinus linteus (PL) mushroom are known to possess anti-tumor effects. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anti-tumor properties of PL remain to be explored. Experiments were carried out to unravel the anticancer effects of PL.
Methods
The anti-cancer effects of PL were examined in SW480 colon cancer cells by evaluating cell proliferation, invasion and matrix metallo-proteinase (MMP) activity. The anti-angiogenic effects of PL were examined by assessing human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and capillary tube formation. The in vivo effect of PL was evaluated in an athymic nude mouse SW480 tumor engraft model.
Results
PL (125-1000 μg/mL) significantly inhibited cell proliferation and decreased β-catenin expression in SW480 cells. Expression of cyclin D1, one of the downstream-regulated genes of β-catenin, and T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancer binding factor (TCF/LEF) transcription activity were also significantly reduced by PL treatment. PL inhibited in vitro invasion and motility as well as the activity of MMP-9. In addition, PL treatment inhibited HUVEC proliferation and capillary tube formation. Tumor growth of SW480 cells implanted into nude mice was significantly decreased as a consequence of PL treatment, and tumor tissues from treated animals showed an increase in the apoptotic index and a decrease in β-catenin expression. Moreover, the proliferation index and microvessel density were significantly decreased.
Conclusions
These data suggest that PL suppresses tumor growth, invasion, and angiogenesis through the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in certain colon cancer cells.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-11-307
PMCID: PMC3154178  PMID: 21781302
12.  Mycelial Extract of Phellinus linteus Induces Cell Death in A549 Lung Cancer Cells and Elevation of Nitric Oxide in Raw 264.7 Macrophage Cells 
Mycobiology  2006;34(3):143-147.
In the present study, in order to investigate the anti-proliferative phenomenon of PLME, the effects of mycelial extract of Phellinus linteus (PLME) on the growth of human lung carcinoma cell line A549 was examined. We studied on the effects of PLME on the release of nitric oxide (NO) in mouse macrophage Raw 264.7 cells. Treatment of PLME to A549 cells resulted in the growth inhibition, morphological change and induction of apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner as measured by MTT assay. We found that PLME stimulated a dose-dependent increase in NO production. These findings suggest that PLME enhances the anti-tumoral activity of macrophage and may be a potential therapeutic agent for the control of human lung carcinoma cells.
doi:10.4489/MYCO.2006.34.3.143
PMCID: PMC3769563  PMID: 24039488
A549; Nitric oxide; Phellinus linteus; PLME; Raw 264.7
13.  Protective effect of Phellinus linteus polysaccharide extracts against thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in rats: a proteomics analysis 
Chinese Medicine  2012;7:23.
Background
The hepatoprotective potential of Phellinus linteus polysaccharide (PLP) extracts has been described. However, the molecular mechanism of PLP for the inhibition of liver fibrosis is unclear. This study aims to investigate the molecular protein signatures involved in the hepatoprotective mechanisms of PLP via a proteomics approach using a thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis rat model.
Methods
Male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into three groups of six as follows: Normal group; TAA group, in which rats received TAA only; and PLP group, in which rats received PLP and TAA. Liver fibrosis was induced in the rats by repeated intraperitoneal injections of TAA at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight twice a week for 4 weeks. PLP was given orally at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight twice a day from the beginning of the TAA treatment until the end of the experiment. The development of liver cirrhosis was verified by histological examination. Liver proteomes were established by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteins with significantly altered expression levels were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry and the differentially expressed proteins were validated by immunohistochemical staining and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.
Results
Histological staining showed a remarkable reduction in liver fibrosis in the rats with PLP treatment. A total of 13 differentially expressed proteins including actin, tubulin alpha-1C chain, preprohaptoglobin, hemopexin, galectin-5, glutathione S-transferase alpha-4 (GSTA4), branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase hterotetrameric E1 subunit alpha (BCKDHA), glutathione S-transferase mu (GSTmu); glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH); thiosulfate sulfurtransferase (TFT); betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1 (BHMT1); quinoid dihydropteridine reductase (QDPR); ribonuclease UK114 were observed between the TAA and PLP groups. These proteins are involved in oxidative stress, heme and iron metabolism, cysteine metabolism, and branched-chain amino acid catabolism.
Conclusion
The proteomics data indicate that P. linteus may be protective against TAA-induced liver fibrosis via regulation of oxidative stress pathways, heat shock pathways, and metabolic pathways for amino acids and nucleic acids.
doi:10.1186/1749-8546-7-23
PMCID: PMC3536605  PMID: 23075396
14.  Phellinus linteus activates different pathways to induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells 
British Journal of Cancer  2007;96(4):583-590.
It is known that polysaccharides extracted from the Phellinus linteus (PL) mushroom possess antitumour activity. We previously have demonstrated that high doses of PL render murine or human lung cancer cells susceptible to apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms of PL-mediated apoptosis have not been fully explored. In this study, we demonstrate that LNCaP cells expressing the androgen receptor (AR) are highly susceptible to apoptosis in response to treatment with high doses of PL. In this process, caspase 8 and its downstream effectors (such as BID), as well as ER stress-related, apoptotic signalling, are activated. In contrast, a moderate amount of apoptosis occurs in PC3 cells (that lack AR) after the same treatment, which does not activate ER-mediated apoptotic signalling. We also show that, in the process of PL-induced apoptosis, caspase 2 is induced in LNCaP cells, but not in PC3 cells. However, LNCaP cells that express a mutated AR or LNCaP cells treated with a caspase 2 inhibitor blocked ER stress-induced apoptotic signals. The magnitudes of the induction of apoptosis in these cells are comparable with what occurred in the PC3 cells. The data demonstrate that high doses of PL activate the AR-dependent and independent apoptotic pathways. Our study also suggests that caspase 2 is a key target in the determination of the susceptibility of prostate cancer cells to PL-induced apoptosis.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603595
PMCID: PMC2360058  PMID: 17262078
PL; apoptosis; caspases; ER
15.  Phellinus Linteus Extract Sensitizes Advanced Prostate Cancer Cells to Apoptosis in Athymic Nude Mice 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(3):e9885.
Phellinus linteus (PL) mushroom possesses anti-tumor property. We previously reported that the treatment with PL caused cultured human prostate cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. To further studying the mechanisms of PL-mediated apoptosis, we performed xenograft assay, together with in vitro assays, to evaluate the effect of PL on the genesis and progression of the tumors formed from the inoculation of prostate cancer PC3 or DU145 cells. After the inoculation, nude mice were injected with PL every two days for 12 days. Although PL treatment did not prevent the formation of the inoculated tumors, the growth rate of the tumors after PL treatment was dramatically attenuated. We then tested the effect of PL on the tumors 12 days after the inoculation. After inoculated tumors reached a certain size, PL was administrated to the mice by subcutaneous injection. The histochemistry or immunochemistry analysis showed that apoptosis occurred with the activation of caspase 3 in the tumors formed by inoculating prostate cancer DU145 or PC3 cells. The data was in a good agreement with that from cultured cells. Thus, our in vivo study suggests that PL not only is able to attenuate tumor growth, but also to cause tumor regression by inducing apoptosis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009885
PMCID: PMC2847601  PMID: 20360989
16.  Phellinus linteus sensitises apoptosis induced by doxorubicin in prostate cancer 
British Journal of Cancer  2006;95(3):282-288.
It has been demonstrated that the Phellinus linteus (PL) mushroom, which mainly consists of polysaccharides, possesses antitumour activity. The mechanisms of PL against malignant growth remain unknown. The anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) has been shown to induce apoptosis via initiating a caspase cascade. In this investigation, we tested the effect of PL on Dox-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer LNCaP cells. We showed that PL or Dox, at relatively low doses, does not induce apoptosis in the cells. However, combination treatment with low doses of PL and Dox results in a synergistic effect on the induction of apoptosis. In this apoptotic process, caspases 8, 3 and BID are cleaved, and the addition of caspase inhibitor z-VADfmk completely blocks apoptosis. In addition, JNK is activated in response to PL or the combination treatment in LNCaP cells. The suppression of JNK partially inhibits the induction of apoptosis elicited by the co-treatment. These findings indicate that PL has a synergistic effect with Dox to activate caspases in prostate cancer LNCaP cells. Our study also suggests that PL has therapeutic potential to augment the magnitude of apoptosis induced by antiprostate cancer drugs.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603277
PMCID: PMC2360641  PMID: 16868541
Phellinus linteus; doxorubicin; apoptosis; caspase; prostate cancer
17.  Submerged Culture of Phellinus linteus for Mass Production of Polysaccharides 
Mycobiology  2008;36(3):178-182.
In order to increase the mycelial production of Phellinus linteus, which exhibits potent anticancer activity, some ingredients of the medium used to culture P. linteus were investigated. The optimal medium composition for the production of Phellinus linteus was determined to be as follows: fructose, 40 g/l; yeast extract, 20 g/l; K2HPO4, 0.46 g/l; KH2PO4, 1.00 g/l; MgSO4·7H2O, 0.50 g/l; FeCl2·62O, 0.01 g/l; MnCl2·4H2O, 0.036 g/l; ZnCl2, 0.03 g/l; and CuSO4·7H2O, 0.005 g/l. The optimal culture conditions were determined to be as follows: temperature, 28℃; initial pH, 5.5; aeration, 0.6 vvm; and agitation, 100 rpm, respectively. Under optimal composition and conditions, the maximum mycelial biomass achieved in a 5 l jar fermentor was 29.9 g/l.
doi:10.4489/MYCO.2008.36.3.178
PMCID: PMC3755190  PMID: 23997621
Cultural condition; Optimal media; Phellinus linteus; Polysaccharide
18.  The Culture Conditions for the Mycelial Growth of Phellinus spp. 
Mycobiology  2006;34(4):200-205.
Phellinus genus belonged to Hymenochaetaceae of Basidiomycetes and has been well known as one of the most popular medicinal mushrooms due to high antitumor activity. This study was carried out to obtain the basic information for mycelial culture conditions of Phellinus linteus, P. baumii, and P. gilvus. According to colony diameter and mycelial density, the media for suitable mycelial growth of them were shown in MEA, glucose peptone, and MCM. The optimum temperature for mycelial growth was 30℃. Carbon and nitrogen sources were mannose and malt extract, respectively. The optimum C/N ratio was 10 : 1 to 5 : 1 with 2% glucose concentration, vitamin was thiamine-HCl, organic acid was succinic acid, and mineral salt was MgSO4·7H2O.
doi:10.4489/MYCO.2006.34.4.200
PMCID: PMC3769574  PMID: 24039499
Culture condition; Medicinal mushroom; Phellinus baumii; Phellinus gilvus; Phellinus linteus
19.  Antitumor and Antioxidant Activities of the Extracts from Fruiting Body of Phellinus linteus 
Mycobiology  2006;34(4):230-235.
Fruiting bodies of Phellinus linteus were extracted by hot water and alkali methods. Sugar contents of PL-H (hot water extract) and PL-A (alkali water extract) were 81.1%, 37.4% and protein contents were 6.2%, 21.8%, respectively. Amino acid pattern showed that two extracts contained large amount of aspartic acid and alanine. Two extracts showed characteristic IR absorption pattern for glycosidic bond at 890 cm-1. PL-H was divided two fractions by gel filtration chromatography and the molecular weights of each fraction were estimated to be about 10 kD and 225 kD, respectively and also PL-A was estimated 10 kD. Two extracts showed strong antitumor, immunomodulating and antioxidant activities, and were compared with commercialized glycopeptide anticancer drugs.
doi:10.4489/MYCO.2006.34.4.230
PMCID: PMC3769579  PMID: 24039504
Antioxidant; Antitumor; Immunostimulation; Phellinus linteus; Polysaccharide
20.  Identification of an anticancer compound against HT-29 cells from Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice 
Objective
To isolate and identify the anticancer compound against proliferation of human colon cancer cells from ethyl acetate (EtOAC) extract of Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice (PB).
Methods
EtOAC extract of PB was partitioned with n-hexane, EtOAC, and water-saturated n-butanol. Anticancer compound of n-hexane layer was isolated and identified by HPLC and NMR, respectively. Cytotoxicity against HT-29 cells was tested by SRB assay.
Results
The n-hexane layer obtained after solvent fractionation of PB EtOAC extracts showed a potent anticancer activity against the HT-29 cell line. Atractylenolide I, a eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactone, a major anticancer substance of PB, was isolated from the n-hexane layer by silica gel column chromatography and preparative-HPLC. This structure was elucidated by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic data. Atractylenolide I has not been reported in mushrooms or rice as of yet. The isolated compound dose-dependently inhibited the growth of HT-29 human colon cancer cells.
Conclusions
Atractylenolide I might contribute to the anticancer effect of PB.
doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60156-2
PMCID: PMC3761137  PMID: 24075343
Atractylenolide I; Human colon cancer cells; NMR; Phellinus linteus; Germinated brown rice
21.  Antioxidative and Antimutagenic Activities of 70% Ethanolic Extracts from Four Fungal Mycelia-Fermented Specialty Rices 
The health-promoting potential of 70% ethanolic extracts of 4 rice varieties fermented with Monascus ruber, Phellinus linteus, Cordyceps sinensis and Agaricus blazei was evaluated mainly focusing on their antioxidative and antimutagenic capacities based on the following parameters: phenolic compound and phytic acid content; inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation; scavenging activity on DPPH radical; suppressing ability on mitomycin C-induced mutagenesis in E. coli cells; and protective effect on 4-nitroquinoline oxide-triggered DNA lesion in V79 hamster cells. The fermented rice extracts were superior in overall health-promoting parameters compared to the source material. The higher antimutagenic activity of the fermented rice extracts might be in part caused by a larger amount of antioxidant constituents such as phenolic compounds or phytic acid. Of the fungal species, Monascus ruber was found to impart a marked increase in both the antioxidative and antimutagenic abilities to the source material. The current study suggests a possibility that such fermented rice may contribute to the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases such as cancer through a daily intake of rice-based diets.
doi:10.3164/jcbn.2008056
PMCID: PMC2533716  PMID: 18818745
antioxidation; antimutagenesis; anticarcinogenesis; fermented rice; fungal mycelia
22.  Phellinus linteus suppresses growth, angiogenesis and invasive behaviour of breast cancer cells through the inhibition of AKT signalling 
British Journal of Cancer  2008;98(8):1348-1356.
The antitumour activity of a medicinal mushroom Phellinus linteus (PL), through the stimulation of immune system or the induction of apoptosis, has been recently described. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the inhibition of invasive behaviour of cancer cells remain to be addressed. In the present study, we demonstrate that PL inhibits proliferation (anchorage-dependent growth) as well as colony formation (anchorage-independent growth) of highly invasive human breast cancer cells. The growth inhibition of MDA-MB-231 cells is mediated by the cell cycle arrest at S phase through the upregulation of p27Kip1 expression. Phellinus linteus also suppressed invasive behaviour of MDA-MB-231 cells by the inhibition of cell adhesion, cell migration and cell invasion through the suppression of secretion of urokinase-plasminogen activator from breast cancer cells. In addition, PL markedly inhibited the early event in angiogenesis, capillary morphogenesis of the human aortic endothelial cells, through the downregulation of secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor from MDA-MB-231 cells. These effects are mediated by the inhibition of serine-threonine kinase AKT signalling, because PL suppressed phosphorylation of AKT at Thr308 and Ser473 in breast cancer cells. Taken together, our study suggests potential therapeutic effect of PL against invasive breast cancer.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604319
PMCID: PMC2361714  PMID: 18362935
Phellinus linteus; invasiveness; angiogenesis; AKT
23.  Analgesic Effects and the Mechanisms of Anti-Inflammation of Hispolon in Mice 
Hispolon, an active ingredient in the fungi Phellinus linteus was evaluated with analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Treatment of male ICR mice with hispolon (10 and 20 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the numbers of acetic acid-induced writhing response. Also, our result showed that hispolon (20 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the formalin-induced pain in the later phase (P<.01). In the anti-inflammatory test, hispolon (20 mg/kg) decreased the paw edema at the fourth and fifth hour after λ-carrageenin (Carr) administration, and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRx) in the liver tissue. We also demonstrated that hispolon significantly attenuated the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the edema paw at the fifth hour after Carr injection. Hispolon (10 and 20 mg/kg) decreased the nitric oxide (NO) levels on both the edema paw and serum level at the fifth hour after Carr injection. Also, hispolon (10 and 20 mg/kg) diminished the serum TNF-α at the fifth hour after Carr injection. The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of hispolon might be related to the decrease in the level of MDA in the edema paw by increasing the activities of SOD, GPx and GRx in the liver. It probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects through the suppression of TNF-α and NO.
doi:10.1093/ecam/nep027
PMCID: PMC3136186  PMID: 19349477
24.  Therapeutic Effects and Immunomodulation of Suanbo Mineral Water Therapy in a Murine Model of Atopic Dermatitis 
Annals of Dermatology  2013;25(4):462-470.
Background
Balneotherapy is widely used as an alternative treatment modality for AD. Although the clinical benefit of some mineral waters has been established, their mechanisms of action in alleviating AD are only partly understood.
Objective
The clinical modification and immunomodulatory or anti-inflammatory effects of mineral water from the Suanbo hot springs on the differentiation and cytokine production of Th1, Th2, and regulatory T cells (Treg) were investigated using spleen, skin tissue, and serum from NC/Nga mice.
Methods
The therapeutic effects of bathing in mineral water in a Dermatophagoides farinae body extract ointment (Dfb ointment)-induced AD mouse model were assessed by measuring the modified Scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) index scores, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), histological and immunohistochemical changes of the skin lesion, serum levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and immunoglobulin E, mRNA expression of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5 of dorsal skin, and helper T cell differentiation in the spleen.
Results
Bathing in mineral water significantly reduced the modified SCORAD index scores, TEWL, epidermal hyperplasia, and inflammatory cell infiltration. IL-4 production and Th2 cell differentiation showed a decreasing tendency with mineral water bathing, but the Th1 cells did not. On the contrary, differentiation to Treg cells was promoted with mineral water bathing.
Conclusion
Balneotherapy not only has anti-inflammatory activity, but also shows positive effects on cutaneous barrier homeostasis. These results suggest that the favorable effects of balneotherapy may be mediated by modifying the Th2 response, and possibly in part by inducing Treg cell differentiation.
doi:10.5021/ad.2013.25.4.462
PMCID: PMC3870215  PMID: 24371394
Atopic dermatitis; Balneotherapy; Mineral waters; NC/Nga mice
25.  Probiotics and Atopic Dermatitis in Children 
Pharmaceuticals  2012;5(7):727-744.
There is increasing interest in the potential beneficial role of probiotic supplementation in the prevention and treatment of atopic diseases in children. Probiotics are defined as ingested live microorganisms that, when administered in an adequate amount, confer a health benefit to the host. They are mainly represented by Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria. Several epidemiological data demonstrate that intestinal microflora of atopic children is different from the one of healthy children. Many literature data show that probiotics may modulate the intestinal microflora composition and may have immunomodulatory effect. Based on this hypothesis, probiotics are supposed to confer benefits to allergic diseases. Administration of probiotics when a natural population of indigenous intestinal bacteria is still developing could theoretically influence immune development by favoring the balance between Th1 and Th2 inflammatory responses. For this reason, some studies have evaluated the potential impact of probiotics supplementation in the prevention of atopic dermatitis, with contrasting results. Clinical improvement in immunoglobulin (Ig)E-sensitized (atopic) eczema following probiotic supplementation has been reported in some published studies and the therapeutic effects of probiotics on atopic dermatitis seemed to be encouraging. However, as far as the usefulness of probiotics as a prevention strategy is concerned, results are still inconclusive. In fact, the clinical benefits of probiotic therapy depend upon numerous factors, such as the type of bacteria, dosing regimen, delivery method and other underlying host factors, such as age and diet. More studies are still needed to definitively prove the role of probiotics in the treatment of allergic eczema.
doi:10.3390/ph5070727
PMCID: PMC3763666  PMID: 24281709
probiotics; atopic dermatitis; prevention; treatment

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