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1.  Humphrey visual field findings in hydroxychloroquine toxicity 
Eye  2011;25(12):1535-1545.
To analyze Humphrey visual field (HVF) findings in hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinal toxicity.
HVF tests were interpreted retrospectively in this observational case series of 15 patients with HCQ toxicity. Patients seen at Lahey Clinic were identified by diagnosis coding search. Patients with age-related macular degeneration or glaucoma with visual field loss were excluded. HVFs done before the diagnosis were analyzed to see if earlier diagnosis could have been possible.
A total of 66 HVFs were reviewed and categorized. Some abnormalities were subtle. Paracentral defects were seen on 10-2 tests whereas 24-2 tests, due to their compressed scale, showed central changes. The abnormalities were often more obvious on pattern deviation rather than the gray scale. Of those patients with prior HVFs available for review, 50% showed HVF abnormalities typical of HCQ toxicity present several months or years before diagnosis. HVF changes preceded fundus changes in nine patients.
HVF abnormalities indicating HCQ toxicity vary depending on the specific HVF test performed. Clinicians need to be aware of the subtle nature of HVF changes in early toxicity.
PMCID: PMC3234480  PMID: 22094300
hydroxychloroquine toxicity; Plaquenil; toxic maculopathy; Humphrey visual field; retinal toxicity; automated perimetry
2.  Simulating binocular visual field status in glaucoma 
The British Journal of Ophthalmology  1998;82(11):1236-1241.
AIMS—To simulate the central binocular visual field using results from merged left and right monocular Humphrey fields. To assess the agreement between the simulation and the binocular Humphrey Esterman visual field test (EVFT).
METHOD—59 consecutive patients with bilateral glaucoma each recorded Humphrey 24-2 fields for both eyes and binocular EVFT on the same visit. EVFT results were used to identify patients exhibiting at least one defect (<10 dB) within the central 20° of the binocular field. This criterion is relevant to a patient's legal fitness to drive in the UK. Individual sensitivity values from monocular fields are merged to generate a simulated central binocular field. Results are displayed as a grey scale and as symbols representing defects at the <10 dB level. Agreement between patients failing the criterion using the simulation and the EVFT was evaluated.
RESULTS—Substantial agreement was observed between the methods in classifying patients with at least one defect (<10 dB) within the central binocular field (kappa 0.81; SE 0.09). Patients failing this criterion using the EVFT results were identified by the binocular simulation with high levels of sensitivity (100%) and specificity (86%).
CONCLUSIONS—Excellent agreement exists between the simulated binocular results and EVFT in classifying glaucomatous patients with central binocular defects. A rapid estimate of a patient's central binocular field and visual functional capacity can be ascertained without extra perimetric examination.

 Keywords: glaucoma; binocular visual fields; Esterman visual field test
PMCID: PMC1722423  PMID: 9924324
3.  Normal versus High Tension Glaucoma: A Comparison of Functional and Structural Defects 
Journal of glaucoma  2010;19(3):151-157.
To compare visual field defects obtained with both multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) and Humphrey visual field (HVF) techniques to topographic optic disc measurements in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and high tension glaucoma (HTG).
We studied 32 patients with NTG and 32 with HTG. All patients had reliable 24-2 HVFs with a mean deviation (MD) of −10 dB or better, a glaucomatous optic disc and an abnormal HVF in at least one eye. Multifocal VEPs were obtained from each eye and probability plots created. The mfVEP and HVF probability plots were divided into a central 10-degree (radius) and an outer arcuate subfield in both superior and inferior hemifields. Cluster analyses and counts of abnormal points were performed in each subfield. Optic disc images were obtained with the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph III (HRT III). Eleven stereometric parameters were calculated. Moorfields regression analysis (MRA) and the glaucoma probability score (GPS) were performed.
There were no significant differences in MD and PSD values between NTG and HTG eyes. However, NTG eyes had a higher percentage of abnormal test points and clusters of abnormal points in the central subfields on both mfVEP and HVF than HTG eyes. For HRT III, there were no significant differences in the 11 stereometric parameters or in the MRA and GPS analyses of the optic disc images.
The visual field data suggest more localized and central defects for NTG than HTG.
PMCID: PMC2891909  PMID: 19223786
normal tension glaucoma; multifocal visual evoked potential; visual fields; Heidelberg Retina Tomograph
4.  A practical approach to measuring the visual field component of fitness to drive 
The British Journal of Ophthalmology  2004;88(9):1191-1196.
Aims: To determine the level of agreement between merged monocular visual field tests (the integrated visual field) and the binocular Esterman visual field test in classifying patients’ visual status for UK legal fitness to drive. To examine the link between these two tests and the useful field of view (UFOV) test, a test which is considered to be a surrogate for the visual capability for safe driving.
Methods: Primary open angle glaucoma patients with bilateral overlapping visual field defects were recruited prospectively. Patients performed the bilateral monocular field tests (to generate the integrated visual field), the Esterman test and the UFOV test on the same visit. Patients were classified as “pass” or “fail” by both the integrated visual field and the Esterman test. UFOV risk scores were calculated for each patient.
Results: 65 patients were recruited. Substantial agreement was found between the integrated visual field and the Esterman test in classifying patients as “pass” or “fail” (kappa = 0.69). No patients classified as “pass” by the integrated visual field test were classified as “fail” by the Esterman test. Eight patients who were classified as “pass” by the Esterman test were classified as “fail” by the integrated visual field test. The UFOV risk characteristics of these eight patients suggested they were more similar to those of the 13 patients who were classified as “fail” by both the tests, than the 44 patients who were classified as “pass” by both tests.
Conclusions: The integrated visual field test agrees well with the current method (Esterman) of classifying visual fields with regard to legal fitness to drive in the United Kingdom in patients with glaucoma; it appears superior to the current method in identifying those with reduced fitness to drive as measured by the UFOV. The integrated visual field test could perform a valuable screening or diagnostic role in the assessment of glaucoma patients’ fitness to drive.
PMCID: PMC1772325  PMID: 15317714
visual fields; perimetry; driving; glaucoma
5.  Correlations Between Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer and Visual Field in Eyes with Non-Arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy 
American journal of ophthalmology  2006;143(2):288-294.
To evaluate correlations between Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer (RNFL) thickness with visual field (VF) sensitivities in eyes with Non-artertic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (NAION).
case-control study.
This study was conducted in an academic, institutional setting. One eye from 21 NAION patients and 32 healthy participants were included in this prospective study. Humphrey Visual Field (HVF) sensitivities were obtained from standard achromatic HVF test (24-2 SITA). RNFL was measured with scanning laser polarimetry (GDx-VCC) and optical coherence tomographer (StratusOCT). Correlations were evaluated between RNFL and sensitivities from global, hemifields and regional locations of the VF pertinent to the RNFL distribution. 15 NAION eyes had an inferior altitudinal HVF defects and their global and regional RNFL was compared to that of control eyes. The main outcome measure was correlation between HVF sensitivities and RNFL.
Correlations of global, hemifield and sectorial HVF sensitivities with RNFL were greater when RNFL was measured with StratusOCT than with GDx-VCC, except for nasal and infero-nasal sectors. RNFL thickness was significantly lower in the hemiretinas corresponding to the relative unaffected hemifield in eyes with altitudinal visual field defect compared to controls.
In patients with NAION, RNFL measured by StratusOCT provided better correlation to HVF changes than GDx-VCC did. Both instruments showed decreased RNFL in NAION eyes with altitudinal visual field defects compared to control eyes, demonstrating loss of RNFL even in sectors of the optic disc that corresponded to relatively unaffected hemifield, suggesting greater damaged beyond the extent estimated by visual field methods.
PMCID: PMC1906588  PMID: 17157797
6.  Can Visual Field Progression be Predicted by Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopic Imaging of the Optic Nerve Head in Glaucoma? (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis) 
To determine whether confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopic imaging (Heidelberg retinal tomography [HRT]) can predict visual field change in glaucoma.
The study included 561 patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension whose clinical course was followed at the Mount Sinai Faculty practice. Humphrey visual fields (HVFs) and HRT images were collected on one randomly selected eye per patient. Glaucoma progression was determined by the presence of two sequential statistically significant negative slopes in mean deviation (MD) or visual field index (VFI) at any point during the study period. Trend-based analysis on HRT parameters was used to determine progressive changes and whether these occurred before or after HVF change. Sensitivity and specificity of HRT to predict HVF change were calculated. HVF rate of change was correlated to the rate of change detected by HRT imaging.
Approximately 17% of patients progressed by either MD or VFI criteria. MD and VFI correlated highly and identified overlapping sets of patients as progressing. HRT global parameters had poor sensitivity (∼42%) and moderate specificity (∼67%) to predict HVF progression. Regional stereometric parameters were more sensitive (69%–78%) but significantly less specific (24%–27%). Sensitivity of global stereometric parameters in detecting HVF change was not significantly affected by the level of visual field damage (P=.3, Fisher exact test). HVF rate of change did not correlate with rate of change of HRT parameters.
Trend-based analysis of HRT parameters has poor sensitivity and specificity in predicting HVF change. This may be related specifically to HRT imaging or may reflect the fact that in some patients with glaucoma, functional changes precede structural alterations.
PMCID: PMC4622448  PMID: 26549913
7.  Comparison of Peristat Online Perimetry with the Humphrey Perimetry in a Clinic-Based Setting 
We determined the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for Peristat online perimetry at detecting varying degrees of glaucoma and the correlation between Peristat online perimetry and Humphrey visual field.
A prospective, comparative study of Peristat online perimetry (an achromatic static computer threshold testing program) and Humphrey visual field (HVF) 24-2 SITA standard testing was performed by 63 glaucoma patients and 30 healthy controls in random order. The number of total adjacent abnormal test points were identified for each test, and compared with Spearman correlation. Receive operating characteristic curves were generated for Peristat online perimetry detection of mild and moderate-severe glaucoma patients using contrast sensitivity thresholds of −16.7, −21.7, and −26.7 dB.
The area under the ROC curve for glaucoma detection ranged from 0.77 to 0.81 for mild disease (mean deviation [MD], >−6 dB on HVF) and 0.85 to 0.87 for moderate to severe disease (MD, <−6 dB on HVF) depending on contrast threshold. Peristat online perimetry and Humphrey visual field abnormal points were highly correlated with Spearman rank correlations ranging from 0.55 to 0.77 (all P < 0.001).
Peristat online perimetry exhibits a reasonable ROC curve without specialized equipment and exhibited significant correlation with the conventional 24° Humphrey visual field test.
Translational Relevance
Low cost widely available internet-based visual fields may complement traditional office-based visual field testing.
PMCID: PMC4959820  PMID: 27486554
perimetry; glaucoma; online; visual field
8.  Ginkgo biloba Extract and Bilberry Anthocyanins Improve Visual Function in Patients with Normal Tension Glaucoma 
Journal of Medicinal Food  2012;15(9):818-823.
Ginkgo biloba
extract (GBE) and anthocyanins are considered beneficial for various vascular diseases. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of GBE and anthocyanins on visual function in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) based on the vascular theory of mechanisms of glaucomatous optic nerve damage. Retrospective analysis was carried out by a chart review of 332 subjects (209 men and 123 women) who were treated with anthocyanins (n=132), GBE (n=103), or no medication (control, n=97). Humphrey Visual Field (HVF) test, logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity (logMAR BCVA), intraocular pressure, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose were determined before and after treatment. Complete ocular and systemic examinations were performed. The mean follow-up duration was 23.82±9.84 (range, 12–59) months; the mean anthocyanin treatment duration was 24.32±10.43 (range, 6–53) months, and the mean GBE treatment duration was 23.81±10.36 months (range, 6–59) months. After anthocyanin treatment, the mean BCVA for all eyes improved from 0.16 (±0.34) to 0.11 (±0.18) logMAR units (P=.008), and HVF mean deviation improved from −6.44 (±7.05) to −5.34 (±6.42) (P=.001). After GBE treatment, HVF mean deviation improved from −5.25 (±6.13) to −4.31 (±5.60) (P=.002). A generalized linear model demonstrated that the final BCVA was not affected by demographic differences among the groups. These results suggest that anthocyanins and GBE may be helpful in improving visual function in some individuals with NTG.
PMCID: PMC3429325  PMID: 22870951
anthocyanins; antioxidants; bilberry; gingko
9.  Structural and functional assessment of the macular region in patients with glaucoma 
The British Journal of Ophthalmology  2006;90(11):1393-1397.
To investigate the correlation of a structural measure of the macular area (optical coherence tomography (OCT)) with two functional measures (10‐2 Humphrey visual field (HVF) and multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP)) of macular function.
55 eyes with open‐angle glaucoma were enrolled. The 10‐2 HVF was defined as abnormal if clusters of ⩾3 points with p<5%, one of which had p<1%, were present. The mfVEP was abnormal if probability plots had ⩾2 adjacent points with p<1%, or ⩾3 adjacent points with p<5% and at least one of these points with p<1%. Two criteria were used for the macular OCT: (I) ⩾2 sectors with p<5% or 1 sector with p<1% and (II) 1 sector with p<5%.
54 of the 55 eyes showed an abnormal 10‐2 HVF and 50 had central mfVEP defects. The two OCT criteria resulted in sensitivities of 85% and 91%. When both functional tests showed a defect (in 49 eyes), the OCT was abnormal in 45. For the OCT the outer and inner inferior regions were the most likely to be abnormal, and both functional techniques were most abnormal in the superior hemifield.
Good agreement exists between macular thickness and functional defects in patients with glaucoma. Study of the macular region may provide a quantitative measure for disease staging and monitoring.
PMCID: PMC1857480  PMID: 16899526
10.  A Comparison of Functional and Structural Measures for Identifying Progression of Glaucoma 
This study highlights the importance of following up patients with glaucoma with more than one test.
To compare glaucoma progression by functional and structural tests.
The authors prospectively studied 33 glaucoma patients (55 eyes); 20 eyes (15 patients) had disc hemorrhage, and 35 eyes (18 patients) had exfoliation glaucoma. The following tests were performed at two baseline and three follow-up examinations: frequency doubling perimetry (FDT), 24-2 Humphrey visual fields (HVF), multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEP), and optical coherence tomography (OCT). To identify progression, the baseline measurements were averaged and compared to those obtained at the final examination. Stereophotographs of the optic disc were obtained at baseline and compared with those at the final examination.
Patients were followed up for 21.1 ± 1.8 months. For HVF there were significant changes in mean deviation (MD) in eight (14.5%) eyes but in pattern standard deviation (P/SD) in only two (3.6%) eyes. For FDT, there were significant changes in MD in 13 (23.6%) eyes. Five eyes showed changes in MD for HVF and FDT. For mfVEP, there was an increase in abnormal points in nine (16.4%) eyes. Six of these eyes did not show significant HVF or FDT changes. For OCT, RNFL average thickness values were significantly decreased in nine (16.4%) eyes. Nine (16.4%) eyes showed progression on stereophotography; four of these eyes did not show significant changes on OCT and functional tests.
Each test showed evidence of progression in some eyes. However, agreement among tests and stereophotography regarding which eyes showed progression was poor, illustrating the importance of following up patients with a combination of functional and structural tests.
PMCID: PMC3053295  PMID: 20847115
11.  Comparison of multifocal visual evoked potential, standard automated perimetry and optical coherence tomography in assessing visual pathway in multiple sclerosis patients 
Multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEP) measure local response amplitude and latency in the field of vision
To compare the sensitivity of mfVEP, Humphrey visual field (HVF) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in detecting visual abnormality in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients.
MfVEP, HVF, and OCT (retinal nerve fiber layer [RNFL]) were performed in 47 MS-ON eyes (last optic neuritis (ON) attack ≥ 6 months prior) and 65 MS-no-ON eyes without ON history. Criteria to define an eye as abnormal were: mfVEP 1) amplitude/latency: either amplitude or latency probability plots meeting cluster criteria with 95% specificity 2) amplitude or latency alone (specificity: 97% and 98%, respectively); HVF and OCT, mean deviation and RNFL thickness meeting p < 0.05, respectively.
MfVEP (amplitude/latency) identified more abnormality in MS-ON eyes (89%) than HVF (72%), OCT (62%), mfVEP amplitude (66%) or latency (67%) alone. 18% of MS-no-ON eyes were abnormal for both mfVEP (amplitude/latency) and HVF compared to 8% with OCT. Agreement between tests ranged from 60% to 79%. MfVEP (amplitude/latency) categorized an additional 15% of MS-ON eyes as abnormal compared to HVF and OCT combined.
MfVEP, which detects both demyelination (increased latency) and neural degeneration (reduced amplitude) revealed more abnormality than HVF or OCT in MS patients.
PMCID: PMC2933376  PMID: 20207786
multiple sclerosis; optic neuritis; multifocal visual evoked potentials; optical coherence tomography; subclinical; standard automated perimetry
12.  Population and High-Risk Group Screening for Glaucoma: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study 
A population-based study of Latinos (LALES) evaluated the ability of various glaucoma screening tests to detect glaucoma in high-risk subgroups. When screening persons for glaucoma, the assessment of optic disc according to the cup-to-disc ratio was the optimal test.
To evaluate the ability of various screening tests, both individually and in combination, to detect glaucoma in the general Latino population and high-risk subgroups.
The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study is a population-based study of eye disease in Latinos 40 years of age and older. Participants (n = 6082) underwent Humphrey visual field testing (HVF), frequency doubling technology (FDT) perimetry, measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) and central corneal thickness (CCT), and independent assessment of optic nerve vertical cup disc (C/D) ratio. Screening parameters were evaluated for three definitions of glaucoma based on optic disc, visual field, and a combination of both. Analyses were also conducted for high-risk subgroups (family history of glaucoma, diabetes mellitus, and age ≥65 years). Sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated for those continuous parameters independently associated with glaucoma. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to develop a multivariate algorithm for glaucoma screening.
Preset cutoffs for screening parameters yielded a generally poor balance of sensitivity and specificity (sensitivity/specificity for IOP ≥21 mm Hg and C/D ≥0.8 was 0.24/0.97 and 0.60/0.98, respectively). Assessment of high-risk subgroups did not improve the sensitivity/specificity of individual screening parameters. A CART analysis using multiple screening parameters—C/D, HVF, and IOP—substantially improved the balance of sensitivity and specificity (sensitivity/specificity 0.92/0.92).
No single screening parameter is useful for glaucoma screening. However, a combination of vertical C/D ratio, HVF, and IOP provides the best balance of sensitivity/specificity and is likely to provide the highest yield in glaucoma screening programs.
PMCID: PMC3175989  PMID: 21245400
13.  Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and Adaptive Optics may Detect Hydroxychloroquine Retinal Toxicity before Symptomatic Vision Loss 
To describe spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and adaptive optics (AO) imaging in hydroxychloroquine retinal toxicity.
Two patients with long-term hydroxychloroquine use, subtle perifoveal ophthalmoscopic pigmentary changes, and bilateral perifoveal defects on automated Humphrey visual field (HVF) 10-2 perimetry were imaged using SD-OCT and AO.
SD-OCT images demonstrated loss of photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction and a downward “sink-hole” displacement of inner retinal structures in areas of hydroxychloroquine toxicity corresponding to HVF 10-2 defects and ophthalmoscopic clinical examination findings. SD-OCT irregularities in the IS/OS junction were also seen in areas not detected on HVF 10-2. AO images showed disruption of the cone photoreceptor mosaic in areas corresponding to HVF 10-2 defects and SD-OCT IS/OS junction abnormalities. Additionally, irregularities in the cone photoreceptor density and mosaic were seen in areas with normal HVF 10-2 and SD-OCT findings.
SD-OCT and AO detected abnormalities that correlate topographically with visual field loss from hydroxychloroquine toxicity as demonstrated by HVF 10-2 and may be useful in the detection of subclinical abnormalities that precede symptoms or objective visual field loss.
PMCID: PMC2814561  PMID: 20126479
14.  Lamina depth and thickness correlate with glaucoma severity 
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology  2016;64(5):358-363.
To evaluate the correlation between lamina cribrosa (LC) morphology and glaucoma severity in patients with primary forms of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and Humphrey visual field test (HVF).
Subjects and Methods:
Patients with OAG (n = 166), divided into normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and high-tension glaucoma (HTG) groups (n = 66 and n = 100), were imaged using SD-OCT to obtain horizontal B-scan images of the optic nerve head (ONH). Laminar depth (LD) and laminar thickness (LT) were measured at the center of ONH.
The mean (±standard deviation) values of LD, LT, and visual field mean deviation (MD) were 555.4 ± 142.3 μm, 179.9 ± 49.7 μm, and − 5.7 ± 6.4 dB, respectively. In the multivariate linear regression analysis, LD, LT, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were significantly correlated with MD (P = 0.007, P = 0.037, and P = 0.004, respectively). In the subgroup analyses, only LD was associated with MD in the NTG group (n = 66), whereas LT and IOP were correlated with MD in the HTG group (n = 100). Neither axial length nor central corneal thickness was associated with LD or LT.
Glaucoma severity, as measured by HVF MD, shows significant correlations with LD and LT, with greater severity associated with increasing LD and decreasing LT. Normal- and high-tension OAG patients have different associations with LD and LT, which implies that the pathogenesis of these two entities might be different.
PMCID: PMC4966372  PMID: 27380974
Glaucoma; lamina cribrosa; optic nerve; optical coherence tomography
15.  Comparison of Humphrey MATRIX and Swedish interactive threshold algorithm standard strategy in detecting early glaucomatous visual field loss 
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology  2009;57(3):207-211.
The aim of this study was to compare the Humphrey MATRIX visual field (frequency doubling technology threshold) and Swedish interactive threshold algorithm (SITA) standard strategy white on white perimetry in detecting glaucomatous visual field loss.
Material and Methods:
Twenty-eight adult subjects, diagnosed to have glaucoma at a tertiary eye care hospital, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were included in this prospective study. All subjects underwent a complete ophthalmic examination. Subjects with glaucomatous optic disc changes underwent repeat perimetric examination on the same day with the Humphrey visual field analyzer (HFA II) and Humphrey MATRIX, the order of testing being random. Only reliable fields, where the HFA results corresponded to the disc changes were considered for analysis. A cumulative defect depth in each hemifield in both HFA and MATRIX reports was calculated.
Thirty-seven eyes of 24 subjects had reliable fields corresponding to optic disc changes. The mean age of the subjects was 56 ± 12 years. There were 12 males and 12 females. The test duration was significantly less on the MATRIX, mean difference in test duration was −81 ± 81.3 sec (p < 0.001). The mean deviation and the pattern standard deviation between the two instruments showed no significant difference (p = 0.55, p = 0.64 respectively) and a positive correlation coefficient of 0.63 and 0.72 respectively. Poor agreement was found with the glaucoma hemifield test.
The Humphrey MATRIX takes less time in performing the test than SITA Standard and shows good correlation for mean deviation and pattern standard deviation. However, the glaucoma hemifield test showed poor agreement. The Humphrey MATRIX diagnoses were similar to established perimetric standards.
PMCID: PMC2683443  PMID: 19384015
Frequency doubling perimetry; glaucoma; humphrey MATRIX; Swedish interactive threshold algorithm standard; visual field
To validate a computerized expert system evaluating visual fields in a prospective clinical trial, the Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Decompression Trial (IONDT). To identify the pattern and within-pattern severity of field defects for study eyes at baseline and 6-month follow-up.
Humphrey visual field (HVF) change was used as the outcome measure for a prospective, randomized, multi-center trial to test the null hypothesis that optic nerve sheath decompression was ineffective in treating nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and to ascertain the natural history of the disease.
An expert panel established criteria for the type and severity of visual field defects. Using these criteria, a rule-based computerized expert system interpreted HVF from baseline and 6-month visits for patients randomized to surgery or careful follow-up and for patients who were not randomized.
A computerized expert system was devised and validated. The system was then used to analyze HVFs. The pattern of defects found at baseline for patients randomized to surgery did not differ from that of patients randomized to careful follow-up. The most common pattern of defect was a superior and inferior arcuate with central scotoma for randomized eyes (19.2%) and a superior and inferior arcuate for nonrandomized eyes (30.6%). Field patterns at 6 months and baseline were not different. For randomized study eyes, the superior altitudinal defects improved (P = .03), as did the inferior altitudinal defects (P = .01). For nonrandomized study eyes, only the inferior altitudinal defects improved (P = .02). No treatment effect was noted.
A novel rule-based expert system successfully interpreted visual field defects at baseline of eyes enrolled in the IONDT.
PMCID: PMC1280106  PMID: 15747764
17.  Early Clinical and Subclinical Visual Evoked Potential and Humphrey's Visual Field Defects in Cryptococcal Meningitis 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e52895.
Cryptococcal induced visual loss is a devastating complication in survivors of cryptococcal meningitis (CM). Early detection is paramount in prevention and treatment. Subclinical optic nerve dysfunction in CM has not hitherto been investigated by electrophysiological means. We undertook a prospective study on 90 HIV sero-positive patients with culture confirmed CM. Seventy-four patients underwent visual evoked potential (VEP) testing and 47 patients underwent Humphrey's visual field (HVF) testing. Decreased best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was detected in 46.5% of patients. VEP was abnormal in 51/74 (68.9%) right eyes and 50/74 (67.6%) left eyes. VEP P100 latency was the main abnormality with mean latency values of 118.9 (±16.5) ms and 119.8 (±15.7) ms for the right and left eyes respectively, mildly prolonged when compared to our laboratory references of 104 (±10) ms (p<0.001). Subclinical VEP abnormality was detected in 56.5% of normal eyes and constituted mostly latency abnormality. VEP amplitude was also significantly reduced in this cohort but minimally so in the visually unimpaired. HVF was abnormal in 36/47 (76.6%) right eyes and 32/45 (71.1%) left eyes. The predominant field defect was peripheral constriction with an enlarged blind spot suggesting the greater impact by raised intracranial pressure over that of optic neuritis. Whether this was due to papilloedema or a compartment syndrome is open to further investigation. Subclinical HVF abnormalities were minimal and therefore a poor screening test for early optic nerve dysfunction. However, early optic nerve dysfunction can be detected by testing of VEP P100 latency, which may precede the onset of visual loss in CM.
PMCID: PMC3528708  PMID: 23285220
18.  Epilepsy surgery, visual fields, and driving: a study of the visual field criteria for driving in patients after temporal lobe epilepsy surgery with a comparison of Goldmann and Esterman perimetry 
Twenty four patients who had undergone temporal lobe surgery for epilepsy were assessed to determine (a) whether or not they had developed a visual field defect and (b) if a field defect was present, were the visual field criteria, as required by the DVLA, fulfilled using the monocular Goldmann perimeter test and the automated binocular Esterman method performed on a Humphrey perimeter. A field deficit was found in 13 of 24 (54%) using the Goldmann perimeter and 11 of 24 (46%) by the Esterman method. The second was a more lenient assessment with six of 24 (25%) failing the driving criteria compared with 10 of 24 (42%) by the monocular Goldmann method. Three patients were seizure free but failed the driving criteria. This complication of surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy needs to be discussed with patients before surgery.

PMCID: PMC1760599  PMID: 10601407
19.  Spectral domain optical coherence tomography as an effective screening test for hydroxychloroquine retinopathy (the “flying saucer” sign) 
While the long-term incidence of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinopathy is low, there remains no definitive clinical screening test to recognize HCQ toxicity before ophthalmoscopic fundus changes or visual symptoms. Patients receiving HCQ were evaluated with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) to assess the feasibility of identifying HCQ retinopathy at an early stage.
Twenty-five patients referred for the evaluation of hydroxychloroquine toxicity underwent a comprehensive ocular examination, Humphrey visual field (HVF) perimetry, time domain OCT, and SD OCT. Some patients with screening abnormalities also underwent further diagnostic testing at the discretion of the treating providers.
Five patients were found to have SD OCT findings corresponding to HCQ toxicity and retinal damage as seen by clinical exam and/or HVF perimetry. Two patients with advanced toxicity were found to have significant outer retina disruption in the macula on SD OCT. Three patients with early HCQ toxicity and HVF 10-2 perifoveal defects were found to have loss of the perifoveal photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction with intact outer retina directly under the fovea, creating the “flying saucer” sign. While two of these three patients had early ophthalmoscopic fundus changes, one had none.
Outer retinal abnormalities including perifoveal photoreceptor IS/OS junction disruption can be identified by SD OCT in early HCQ toxicity, sometimes even before ophthalmoscopic fundus changes are apparent. SD OCT may have a potential complementary role in screening for HCQ retinopathy due to its quick acquisition and because it is more objective than automated perimetry.
PMCID: PMC2964950  PMID: 21060664
drug toxicity; hydroxychloroquine; photoreceptors; screening test; spectral domain optical coherence tomography
20.  Comparison of moderate and advanced glaucoma patients in Ghana 
To compare moderate and advanced glaucoma patients in Ghana.
A retrospective cross-sectional study of 164 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) were separated into moderate and advanced glaucoma groups. Definitions of moderate and advanced POAG were derived from International Geographical and Epidemiologic Ophthalmology criteria and included clinical assessment of optic disc atrophy and Humphrey automated perimetry. Data were collected at the patient’s first visit prior to initiation of therapy. Eligible POAG patients included those ≥30 years old with reliable Humphrey visual field (HVF) results, no past POAG diagnosis, treatment, or evidence of a secondary cause for glaucoma. Main outcome measures included comparisons of intraocular pressure (IOP), cup-to-disk ratio (CDR), best corrected visual acuity (VA), age, Humphrey mean deviation (MD), and pattern standard deviation (PSD).
Of 164 charts reviewed, 90 (54.9%) advanced and 74 (45.1%) moderate POAG patients were compared. Mean age was 59.36 versus 55.53 years, respectively. Significant differences in IOP, CDR, CDR asymmetry, and HVF results were described. IOP > 30 mmHg was associated with CDR > 0.7 and MD greater than −12 dB in both eyes.
Significant differences were found between IOP, CDR, MD and PSD values. HVF is predictive of pretreated IOP, CDR, and severity of POAG and it is strongly encouraged as part of the standard glaucoma work up in all Ghanaian patients.
PMCID: PMC3292413  PMID: 22393281
glaucoma; intraocular pressure; Ghana
21.  Driving with Binocular Visual Field Loss? A Study on a Supervised On-Road Parcours with Simultaneous Eye and Head Tracking 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e87470.
Post-chiasmal visual pathway lesions and glaucomatous optic neuropathy cause binocular visual field defects (VFDs) that may critically interfere with quality of life and driving licensure. The aims of this study were (i) to assess the on-road driving performance of patients suffering from binocular visual field loss using a dual-brake vehicle, and (ii) to investigate the related compensatory mechanisms. A driving instructor, blinded to the participants' diagnosis, rated the driving performance (passed/failed) of ten patients with homonymous visual field defects (HP), including four patients with right (HR) and six patients with left homonymous visual field defects (HL), ten glaucoma patients (GP), and twenty age and gender-related ophthalmologically healthy control subjects (C) during a 40-minute driving task on a pre-specified public on-road parcours. In order to investigate the subjects' visual exploration ability, eye movements were recorded by means of a mobile eye tracker. Two additional cameras were used to monitor the driving scene and record head and shoulder movements. Thus this study is novel as a quantitative assessment of eye movements and an additional evaluation of head and shoulder was performed. Six out of ten HP and four out of ten GP were rated as fit to drive by the driving instructor, despite their binocular visual field loss. Three out of 20 control subjects failed the on-road assessment. The extent of the visual field defect was of minor importance with regard to the driving performance. The site of the homonymous visual field defect (HVFD) critically interfered with the driving ability: all failed HP subjects suffered from left homonymous visual field loss (HL) due to right hemispheric lesions. Patients who failed the driving assessment had mainly difficulties with lane keeping and gap judgment ability. Patients who passed the test displayed different exploration patterns than those who failed. Patients who passed focused longer on the central area of the visual field than patients who failed the test. In addition, patients who passed the test performed more glances towards the area of their visual field defect. In conclusion, our findings support the hypothesis that the extent of visual field per se cannot predict driving fitness, because some patients with HVFDs and advanced glaucoma can compensate for their deficit by effective visual scanning. Head movements appeared to be superior to eye and shoulder movements in predicting the outcome of the driving test under the present study scenario.
PMCID: PMC3921141  PMID: 24523869
22.  Microperimetric sensitivity in patients on hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) therapy 
Eye  2013;27(9):1044-1052.
The purpose of this study was to measure macular sensitivity using microperimetry in patients on Plaquenil therapy without evidence of retinopathy as assessed by recommended screening standards.
Sixteen patients from a clinical practice treated with 200 or 400 mg/day of Plaquenil for more than 5 years, without visual complaints (visual acuity 20/25 or better), and without a history of diabetes or macular disease were included. Participants underwent a complete ophthalmic examination with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), 10-2 Humphrey visual field (HVF), fundus autofluoresecene (FAF), multifocal electroretinography (mfERG), and microperimetry that covered the central 12° of the visual field. Ten age-similar, visually normal subjects served as controls.
The average age of the study cohort was of 54.5 years, with an average daily Plaquenil dose of 4.00 mg/kg/day (range, 1.77–6.67 mg/kg/day) and an average cumulative dose of 1485 g (range, 256–3650 g). All patients had normal ocular exams, and no evidence of retinopathy based on 10-2 HVF, FAF, mfERG, and SD-OCT. The mean retinal sensitivity by microperimetry was 15.0 dB (OD) and 14.6 dB (OS). The overall mean microperimetry sensitivity of the patients (14.7±1.9 dB) was significantly lower (P<0.001) than that of the controls (16.5±2.1 dB).
Patients on Plaquenil without clinical evidence of retinal toxicity can have reduced retinal sensitivity, as assessed by microperimetry. The mean sensitivity difference between the patients and controls suggests that microperimetry can provide important information regarding visual function in patients on Plaquenil therapy.
PMCID: PMC3772354  PMID: 23764990
plaquenil toxicity; microperimetry; retinopathy; screening
23.  Ocular perfusion pressure and ophthalmic artery flow in patients with normal tension glaucoma 
BMC Ophthalmology  2016;16:39.
Vascular insufficiency has been reported to be a cause of normal tension glaucoma (NTG). The aim of this study was to compare ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) and ophthalmic artery flow (OAF) between patients with NTG and those without glaucoma.
We considered one eye each from 31 NTG and 15 non-glaucoma control patients. Blood pressure and intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured in the sitting position, for calculation of OPP. Humphrey visual field (HVF) assessment was then carried out on NTG patients. All patients then underwent Transcranial Doppler ultrasound measurements of OAF parameters, including mean flow velocity (MFV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), peak systolic velocity (PSV) and resistive index (RI). We looked at differences in OPP and OAF parameters between the two groups, and their correlations in NTG patients. T-tests, χ2, ANOVA and Pearson Correlation tests were performed, with p < 0.05 considered statistically significant.
There were no statistically significant differences in OPP between the NTG and control groups (60.5+/-8.7 mmHg and 62.9+/-10.2 mmHg respectively, p = 0.393), and also no statistically significant differences in MFV, EDV, PSV and RI (all p > 0.05). In the NTG group, there were positive correlations between OPP and both MFV (r = 0.416, p = 0.020) and EDV (r = 0.369, p = 0.041). There were no statistically significant correlations between HVF mean deviation and OPP or OAF parameters (all p > 0.05).
There is no difference in OPP and OAF parameters between patients with NTG and non-glaucoma controls, suggesting that vascular insufficiency or dysregulation by themselves may not account for the pathogenesis of NTG.
PMCID: PMC4832465  PMID: 27079202
The authors previously presented the results of their 2001 field investigation to rural Brazil to investigate a 336-member pedigree of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). The present work describes the yearly field investigations 2001 to 2005, utilizing a variety of highly sophisticated psychophysical and electrophysiologic procedures, in asymptomatic LHON carriers, some of whom converted to affected status.
Careful, repeated examinations of 75 carriers of homoplasmic 11778 LHON mtDNA J-haplogroup mutants were performed as part of the field investigation of this pedigree. All subjects underwent a detailed neuro-ophthalmologic investigation, including formal visual fields (Humphrey; HVF) and fundus photography. In addition, many subjects underwent rigorous psychophysical examination, including Cambridge Research Systems color vision and contrast sensitivity testing, OCT, GDx, and multifocal visual evoked response (mfVER) and multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG). Two patients followed as nonsymptomatic LHON carriers converted to affected status.
Many LHON carriers did, in fact, show subclinical or occult abnormalities. Focal edema was often seen involving the arcuate nerve fiber bundles, and this corresponded with areas of relative paracentral or arcuate scotomas on HVF testing. Compared to controls, LHON carriers had significant losses in color vision affecting mostly the red-green system and reduction in spatial but not temporal contrast sensitivity. The mfVER and mfERG data showed that most carriers had depressed central responses and abnormal interocular asymmetries.
In this very large pedigree of 11778 LHON, the carriers frequently showed manifestations of optic nerve impairments. Their occult disease reflected low-grade compromise that waxed and waned. In two cases, these changes led to a crescendo of dramatic impairments that characterize conversion to affected status.
PMCID: PMC1809912  PMID: 17471325
25.  Retinal Damage in Chloroquine Maculopathy, Revealed by High Resolution Imaging: A Case Report Utilizing Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy 
A 53-year-old Asian woman was treated with hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine for lupus erythematosus. Within a few years, she noticed circle-shaped shadows in her central vision. Upon examination, the patient's visual acuity was 20 / 25 in both eyes. Humphrey visual field (HVF) testing revealed a central visual defect, and fundoscopy showed a ring-shaped area of parafoveal retinal pigment epithelium depigmentation. Fundus autofluorescence imaging showed a hypofluorescent lesion consistent with bull's eye retinopathy. Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO) revealed patch cone mosaic lesions, in which cones were missing or lost. In addition, the remaining cones consisted of asymmetrical shapes and sizes that varied in brightness. Unlike previous studies employing deformable mirrors for wavefront aberration correction, our AO-SLO approach utilized dual liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulators. Thus, by using AO-SLO, we were able to create a photographic montage consisting of high quality images. Disrupted cone AO-SLO images were matched with visual field test results and functional deficits were associated with a precise location on the montage, which allowed correlation of histological findings with functional changes determined by HVF. We also investigated whether adaptive optics imaging was more sensitive to anatomical changes compared with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.
PMCID: PMC3913974  PMID: 24505207
Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy; Bull's eye maculopathy; Chloroquine maculopathy; Hydroxychloroquines; Photoreceptor

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