AIMS—To simulate the central binocular visual field using results from merged left and right monocular Humphrey fields. To assess the agreement between the simulation and the binocular Humphrey Esterman visual field test (EVFT).
METHOD—59 consecutive patients with bilateral glaucoma each recorded Humphrey 24-2 fields for both eyes and binocular EVFT on the same visit. EVFT results were used to identify patients exhibiting at least one defect (<10 dB) within the central 20° of the binocular field. This criterion is relevant to a patient's legal fitness to drive in the UK. Individual sensitivity values from monocular fields are merged to generate a simulated central binocular field. Results are displayed as a grey scale and as symbols representing defects at the <10 dB level. Agreement between patients failing the criterion using the simulation and the EVFT was evaluated.
RESULTS—Substantial agreement was observed between the methods in classifying patients with at least one defect (<10 dB) within the central binocular field (kappa 0.81; SE 0.09). Patients failing this criterion using the EVFT results were identified by the binocular simulation with high levels of sensitivity (100%) and specificity (86%).
CONCLUSIONS—Excellent agreement exists between the simulated binocular results and EVFT in classifying glaucomatous patients with central binocular defects. A rapid estimate of a patient's central binocular field and visual functional capacity can be ascertained without extra perimetric examination.
Keywords: glaucoma; binocular visual fields; Esterman visual field test
Aims: To determine the level of agreement between merged monocular visual field tests (the integrated visual field) and the binocular Esterman visual field test in classifying patients’ visual status for UK legal fitness to drive. To examine the link between these two tests and the useful field of view (UFOV) test, a test which is considered to be a surrogate for the visual capability for safe driving.
Methods: Primary open angle glaucoma patients with bilateral overlapping visual field defects were recruited prospectively. Patients performed the bilateral monocular field tests (to generate the integrated visual field), the Esterman test and the UFOV test on the same visit. Patients were classified as “pass” or “fail” by both the integrated visual field and the Esterman test. UFOV risk scores were calculated for each patient.
Results: 65 patients were recruited. Substantial agreement was found between the integrated visual field and the Esterman test in classifying patients as “pass” or “fail” (kappa = 0.69). No patients classified as “pass” by the integrated visual field test were classified as “fail” by the Esterman test. Eight patients who were classified as “pass” by the Esterman test were classified as “fail” by the integrated visual field test. The UFOV risk characteristics of these eight patients suggested they were more similar to those of the 13 patients who were classified as “fail” by both the tests, than the 44 patients who were classified as “pass” by both tests.
Conclusions: The integrated visual field test agrees well with the current method (Esterman) of classifying visual fields with regard to legal fitness to drive in the United Kingdom in patients with glaucoma; it appears superior to the current method in identifying those with reduced fitness to drive as measured by the UFOV. The integrated visual field test could perform a valuable screening or diagnostic role in the assessment of glaucoma patients’ fitness to drive.
visual fields; perimetry; driving; glaucoma
The aim of this study was to compare the Humphrey MATRIX visual field (frequency doubling technology threshold) and Swedish interactive threshold algorithm (SITA) standard strategy white on white perimetry in detecting glaucomatous visual field loss.
Material and Methods:
Twenty-eight adult subjects, diagnosed to have glaucoma at a tertiary eye care hospital, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were included in this prospective study. All subjects underwent a complete ophthalmic examination. Subjects with glaucomatous optic disc changes underwent repeat perimetric examination on the same day with the Humphrey visual field analyzer (HFA II) and Humphrey MATRIX, the order of testing being random. Only reliable fields, where the HFA results corresponded to the disc changes were considered for analysis. A cumulative defect depth in each hemifield in both HFA and MATRIX reports was calculated.
Thirty-seven eyes of 24 subjects had reliable fields corresponding to optic disc changes. The mean age of the subjects was 56 ± 12 years. There were 12 males and 12 females. The test duration was significantly less on the MATRIX, mean difference in test duration was −81 ± 81.3 sec (p < 0.001). The mean deviation and the pattern standard deviation between the two instruments showed no significant difference (p = 0.55, p = 0.64 respectively) and a positive correlation coefficient of 0.63 and 0.72 respectively. Poor agreement was found with the glaucoma hemifield test.
The Humphrey MATRIX takes less time in performing the test than SITA Standard and shows good correlation for mean deviation and pattern standard deviation. However, the glaucoma hemifield test showed poor agreement. The Humphrey MATRIX diagnoses were similar to established perimetric standards.
Frequency doubling perimetry; glaucoma; humphrey MATRIX; Swedish interactive threshold algorithm standard; visual field
Twenty four patients who had undergone temporal lobe surgery
for epilepsy were assessed to determine (a)
whether or not they had developed a visual field defect and
(b) if a field defect was present, were the
visual field criteria, as required by the DVLA, fulfilled using the
monocular Goldmann perimeter test and the automated binocular Esterman
method performed on a Humphrey perimeter. A field deficit was found in
13 of 24 (54%) using the Goldmann perimeter and 11 of 24 (46%) by the
Esterman method. The second was a more lenient assessment with six of
24 (25%) failing the driving criteria compared with 10 of 24 (42%) by
the monocular Goldmann method. Three patients were seizure free but failed the driving criteria. This complication of surgery for temporal
lobe epilepsy needs to be discussed with patients before surgery.
To compare visual field defects obtained with both multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) and Humphrey visual field (HVF) techniques to topographic optic disc measurements in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and high tension glaucoma (HTG).
We studied 32 patients with NTG and 32 with HTG. All patients had reliable 24-2 HVFs with a mean deviation (MD) of −10 dB or better, a glaucomatous optic disc and an abnormal HVF in at least one eye. Multifocal VEPs were obtained from each eye and probability plots created. The mfVEP and HVF probability plots were divided into a central 10-degree (radius) and an outer arcuate subfield in both superior and inferior hemifields. Cluster analyses and counts of abnormal points were performed in each subfield. Optic disc images were obtained with the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph III (HRT III). Eleven stereometric parameters were calculated. Moorfields regression analysis (MRA) and the glaucoma probability score (GPS) were performed.
There were no significant differences in MD and PSD values between NTG and HTG eyes. However, NTG eyes had a higher percentage of abnormal test points and clusters of abnormal points in the central subfields on both mfVEP and HVF than HTG eyes. For HRT III, there were no significant differences in the 11 stereometric parameters or in the MRA and GPS analyses of the optic disc images.
The visual field data suggest more localized and central defects for NTG than HTG.
normal tension glaucoma; multifocal visual evoked potential; visual fields; Heidelberg Retina Tomograph
To analyze Humphrey visual field (HVF) findings in hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinal toxicity.
HVF tests were interpreted retrospectively in this observational case series of 15 patients with HCQ toxicity. Patients seen at Lahey Clinic were identified by diagnosis coding search. Patients with age-related macular degeneration or glaucoma with visual field loss were excluded. HVFs done before the diagnosis were analyzed to see if earlier diagnosis could have been possible.
A total of 66 HVFs were reviewed and categorized. Some abnormalities were subtle. Paracentral defects were seen on 10-2 tests whereas 24-2 tests, due to their compressed scale, showed central changes. The abnormalities were often more obvious on pattern deviation rather than the gray scale. Of those patients with prior HVFs available for review, 50% showed HVF abnormalities typical of HCQ toxicity present several months or years before diagnosis. HVF changes preceded fundus changes in nine patients.
HVF abnormalities indicating HCQ toxicity vary depending on the specific HVF test performed. Clinicians need to be aware of the subtle nature of HVF changes in early toxicity.
hydroxychloroquine toxicity; Plaquenil; toxic maculopathy; Humphrey visual field; retinal toxicity; automated perimetry
extract (GBE) and anthocyanins are considered beneficial for various vascular diseases. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of GBE and anthocyanins on visual function in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) based on the vascular theory of mechanisms of glaucomatous optic nerve damage. Retrospective analysis was carried out by a chart review of 332 subjects (209 men and 123 women) who were treated with anthocyanins (n=132), GBE (n=103), or no medication (control, n=97). Humphrey Visual Field (HVF) test, logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity (logMAR BCVA), intraocular pressure, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose were determined before and after treatment. Complete ocular and systemic examinations were performed. The mean follow-up duration was 23.82±9.84 (range, 12–59) months; the mean anthocyanin treatment duration was 24.32±10.43 (range, 6–53) months, and the mean GBE treatment duration was 23.81±10.36 months (range, 6–59) months. After anthocyanin treatment, the mean BCVA for all eyes improved from 0.16 (±0.34) to 0.11 (±0.18) logMAR units (P=.008), and HVF mean deviation improved from −6.44 (±7.05) to −5.34 (±6.42) (P=.001). After GBE treatment, HVF mean deviation improved from −5.25 (±6.13) to −4.31 (±5.60) (P=.002). A generalized linear model demonstrated that the final BCVA was not affected by demographic differences among the groups. These results suggest that anthocyanins and GBE may be helpful in improving visual function in some individuals with NTG.
anthocyanins; antioxidants; bilberry; gingko
To evaluate correlations between Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer (RNFL) thickness with visual field (VF) sensitivities in eyes with Non-artertic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (NAION).
This study was conducted in an academic, institutional setting. One eye from 21 NAION patients and 32 healthy participants were included in this prospective study. Humphrey Visual Field (HVF) sensitivities were obtained from standard achromatic HVF test (24-2 SITA). RNFL was measured with scanning laser polarimetry (GDx-VCC) and optical coherence tomographer (StratusOCT). Correlations were evaluated between RNFL and sensitivities from global, hemifields and regional locations of the VF pertinent to the RNFL distribution. 15 NAION eyes had an inferior altitudinal HVF defects and their global and regional RNFL was compared to that of control eyes. The main outcome measure was correlation between HVF sensitivities and RNFL.
Correlations of global, hemifield and sectorial HVF sensitivities with RNFL were greater when RNFL was measured with StratusOCT than with GDx-VCC, except for nasal and infero-nasal sectors. RNFL thickness was significantly lower in the hemiretinas corresponding to the relative unaffected hemifield in eyes with altitudinal visual field defect compared to controls.
In patients with NAION, RNFL measured by StratusOCT provided better correlation to HVF changes than GDx-VCC did. Both instruments showed decreased RNFL in NAION eyes with altitudinal visual field defects compared to control eyes, demonstrating loss of RNFL even in sectors of the optic disc that corresponded to relatively unaffected hemifield, suggesting greater damaged beyond the extent estimated by visual field methods.
To determine the extent of visual field loss in patients who had required a pars plana vitrectomy secondary to complications of proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
Patients that had undergone a vitrectomy on at least one eye for treatment of either vitreous haemorrhage or tractional retinal detachment were selected for study. ETDRS acuity and Humphrey binocular Esterman visual field testing were performed and compared to the minimum standards for safe driving as defined by the Royal College of Ophthalmologists in 1999. In addition to this Goldman kinetic visual fields using a III4e and V4e stimulus size and central 24-2 threshold test with the SITA-fast strategy were performed on the vitrectomised eye.
20 patients (n = 20) were recruited. Mean visual acuity in the eye being tested was 0.20 (Snellen 6/9.5). Results from the Humphrey field analyzer showed a mean number of abnormal stimulus locations of 71.2% (p < 0.005). 70% of patients had sufficient binocular acuity to drive and of these 71.4% were shown not to have a minimum visual field for safe driving on binocular Esterman field analysis.
Vitrectomy potentially allows retention/restoration of good visual acuity in patients with complications of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. However patients may be suffering from unrecognized visual impairment consequent upon extensive visual field loss which in over two thirds of patients may be sufficiently severe to preclude safe driving.
To determine if the patterns uncovered with variational Bayesian–independent component analysis–mixture model (VIM) applied to a large set of normal and glaucomatous fields obtained with the Swedish Interactive Thresholding Algorithm (SITA) are distinct, recognizable, and useful for modeling the severity of the field loss.
SITA fields were obtained with the Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc, Dublin, California) on 1,146 normal eyes and 939 glaucoma eyes from subjects followed by the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study and the African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study. VIM modifies independent component analysis (ICA) to develop separate sets of ICA axes in the cluster of normal fields and the 2 clusters of abnormal fields. Of 360 models, the model with the best separation of normal and glaucomatous fields was chosen for creating the maximally independent axes. Grayscale displays of fields generated by VIM on each axis were compared. SITA fields most closely associated with each axis and displayed in grayscale were evaluated for consistency of pattern at all severities.
The best VIM model had 3 clusters. Cluster 1 (1,193) was mostly normal (1,089, 95% specificity) and had 2 axes. Cluster 2 (596) contained mildly abnormal fields (513) and 2 axes; cluster 3 (323) held mostly moderately to severely abnormal fields (322) and 5 axes. Sensitivity for clusters 2 and 3 combined was 88.9%. The VIM-generated field patterns differed from each other and resembled glaucomatous defects (eg, nasal step, arcuate, temporal wedge). SITA fields assigned to an axis resembled each other and the VIM-generated patterns for that axis. Pattern severity increased in the positive direction of each axis by expansion or deepening of the axis pattern.
VIM worked well on SITA fields, separating them into distinctly different yet recognizable patterns of glaucomatous field defects. The axis and pattern properties make VIM a good candidate as a preliminary process for detecting progression.
A population-based study of Latinos (LALES) evaluated the ability of various glaucoma screening tests to detect glaucoma in high-risk subgroups. When screening persons for glaucoma, the assessment of optic disc according to the cup-to-disc ratio was the optimal test.
To evaluate the ability of various screening tests, both individually and in combination, to detect glaucoma in the general Latino population and high-risk subgroups.
The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study is a population-based study of eye disease in Latinos 40 years of age and older. Participants (n = 6082) underwent Humphrey visual field testing (HVF), frequency doubling technology (FDT) perimetry, measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) and central corneal thickness (CCT), and independent assessment of optic nerve vertical cup disc (C/D) ratio. Screening parameters were evaluated for three definitions of glaucoma based on optic disc, visual field, and a combination of both. Analyses were also conducted for high-risk subgroups (family history of glaucoma, diabetes mellitus, and age ≥65 years). Sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated for those continuous parameters independently associated with glaucoma. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to develop a multivariate algorithm for glaucoma screening.
Preset cutoffs for screening parameters yielded a generally poor balance of sensitivity and specificity (sensitivity/specificity for IOP ≥21 mm Hg and C/D ≥0.8 was 0.24/0.97 and 0.60/0.98, respectively). Assessment of high-risk subgroups did not improve the sensitivity/specificity of individual screening parameters. A CART analysis using multiple screening parameters—C/D, HVF, and IOP—substantially improved the balance of sensitivity and specificity (sensitivity/specificity 0.92/0.92).
No single screening parameter is useful for glaucoma screening. However, a combination of vertical C/D ratio, HVF, and IOP provides the best balance of sensitivity/specificity and is likely to provide the highest yield in glaucoma screening programs.
Background: The Humphrey field analyser (HFA), Humphrey-Zeiss frequency doubling perimeter, and the Medmont automated perimeter (MAP) are three commonly used automated perimeters with threshold achromatic methodologies. Visual field loss may be detected earlier with strategies that target cell lines with reduced redundancy or which suffer selective damage.
Method: To compare these three perimeters, 63 subjects who were glaucoma suspects, ocular hypertensives, glaucoma patients, or normal controls were recruited selectively. All subjects underwent testing using MAP central threshold, MAP flicker perimetry, HFA full threshold, HFA SITA perimetry, HFA short wavelength perimetry (SWAP), and frequency doubling perimetry (FDP). After visual field testing, equivalent tests were compared: MAP central threshold with HFA full threshold and HFA SITA perimetry; Medmont flicker perimetry with HFA SWAP and FDP.
Results: On analysis of the MAP central threshold a kappa statistic and an area under the receiver operator curve (AUC) of 0.90 and 0.94, respectively, were found compared with HFA full threshold strategies, and 0.87 and 0.92 respectively, compared with HFA SITA. For MAP flicker a kappa statistic and an AUC of 0.65 and 0.81, respectively, were found compared with HFA SWAP and 0.87 and 0.96, respectively, compared with FDP. A quadrant analysis and comparison of mean defect between tests was also highly significant.
Conclusion: Medmont and Humphrey perimeters correlated well; both may be used for clinical and research purposes with similar confidence.
Medmont perimetry; Humphrey perimetry; visual fields
To compare moderate and advanced glaucoma patients in Ghana.
A retrospective cross-sectional study of 164 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) were separated into moderate and advanced glaucoma groups. Definitions of moderate and advanced POAG were derived from International Geographical and Epidemiologic Ophthalmology criteria and included clinical assessment of optic disc atrophy and Humphrey automated perimetry. Data were collected at the patient’s first visit prior to initiation of therapy. Eligible POAG patients included those ≥30 years old with reliable Humphrey visual field (HVF) results, no past POAG diagnosis, treatment, or evidence of a secondary cause for glaucoma. Main outcome measures included comparisons of intraocular pressure (IOP), cup-to-disk ratio (CDR), best corrected visual acuity (VA), age, Humphrey mean deviation (MD), and pattern standard deviation (PSD).
Of 164 charts reviewed, 90 (54.9%) advanced and 74 (45.1%) moderate POAG patients were compared. Mean age was 59.36 versus 55.53 years, respectively. Significant differences in IOP, CDR, CDR asymmetry, and HVF results were described. IOP > 30 mmHg was associated with CDR > 0.7 and MD greater than −12 dB in both eyes.
Significant differences were found between IOP, CDR, MD and PSD values. HVF is predictive of pretreated IOP, CDR, and severity of POAG and it is strongly encouraged as part of the standard glaucoma work up in all Ghanaian patients.
glaucoma; intraocular pressure; Ghana
This study highlights the importance of following up patients with glaucoma with more than one test.
To compare glaucoma progression by functional and structural tests.
The authors prospectively studied 33 glaucoma patients (55 eyes); 20 eyes (15 patients) had disc hemorrhage, and 35 eyes (18 patients) had exfoliation glaucoma. The following tests were performed at two baseline and three follow-up examinations: frequency doubling perimetry (FDT), 24-2 Humphrey visual fields (HVF), multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEP), and optical coherence tomography (OCT). To identify progression, the baseline measurements were averaged and compared to those obtained at the final examination. Stereophotographs of the optic disc were obtained at baseline and compared with those at the final examination.
Patients were followed up for 21.1 ± 1.8 months. For HVF there were significant changes in mean deviation (MD) in eight (14.5%) eyes but in pattern standard deviation (P/SD) in only two (3.6%) eyes. For FDT, there were significant changes in MD in 13 (23.6%) eyes. Five eyes showed changes in MD for HVF and FDT. For mfVEP, there was an increase in abnormal points in nine (16.4%) eyes. Six of these eyes did not show significant HVF or FDT changes. For OCT, RNFL average thickness values were significantly decreased in nine (16.4%) eyes. Nine (16.4%) eyes showed progression on stereophotography; four of these eyes did not show significant changes on OCT and functional tests.
Each test showed evidence of progression in some eyes. However, agreement among tests and stereophotography regarding which eyes showed progression was poor, illustrating the importance of following up patients with a combination of functional and structural tests.
The aim of this study was to compare the visual field test results in healthy children obtained via the Humphrey matrix 24-2 threshold program and standard automated perimetry (SAP) using the Swedish interactive threshold algorithm (SITA)-Standard 24-2 test.
Materials and Methods:
This prospective study included 55 healthy children without ocular or systemic disorders who underwent both SAP and frequency doubling technology (FDT) perimetry visual field testing. Visual field test reliability indices, test duration, global indices (mean deviation [MD], and pattern standard deviation [PSD]) were compared between the 2 tests using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and paired t-test. The performance of the Humphrey field analyzer (HFA) 24-2 SITA-standard and frequency-doubling technology Matrix 24-2 tests between genders were compared with Mann-Whitney U-test.
Fifty-five healthy children with a mean age of 12.2 ± 1.9 years (range from 8 years to 16 years) were included in this prospective study. The test durations of SAP and FDT were similar (5.2 ± 0.5 and 5.1 ± 0.2 min, respectively, P = 0.651). MD and the PSD values obtained via FDT Matrix were significantly higher than those obtained via SAP (P < 0.001), and fixation losses and false negative errors were significantly less with SAP (P < 0.05). A weak positive correlation between the two tests in terms of MD (r = 0.352, P = 0.008) and PSD (r = 0.329, P = 0.014) was observed.
Children were able to complete both the visual test algorithms successfully within 6 min. However, SAP testing appears to be associated with less depression of the visual field indices of healthy children. FDT Matrix and SAP should not be used interchangeably in the follow-up of children.
Frequency doubling technology perimetry; pediatric visual field testing; standard automated perimetry
The authors previously presented the results of their 2001 field investigation to rural Brazil to investigate a 336-member pedigree of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). The present work describes the yearly field investigations 2001 to 2005, utilizing a variety of highly sophisticated psychophysical and electrophysiologic procedures, in asymptomatic LHON carriers, some of whom converted to affected status.
Careful, repeated examinations of 75 carriers of homoplasmic 11778 LHON mtDNA J-haplogroup mutants were performed as part of the field investigation of this pedigree. All subjects underwent a detailed neuro-ophthalmologic investigation, including formal visual fields (Humphrey; HVF) and fundus photography. In addition, many subjects underwent rigorous psychophysical examination, including Cambridge Research Systems color vision and contrast sensitivity testing, OCT, GDx, and multifocal visual evoked response (mfVER) and multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG). Two patients followed as nonsymptomatic LHON carriers converted to affected status.
Many LHON carriers did, in fact, show subclinical or occult abnormalities. Focal edema was often seen involving the arcuate nerve fiber bundles, and this corresponded with areas of relative paracentral or arcuate scotomas on HVF testing. Compared to controls, LHON carriers had significant losses in color vision affecting mostly the red-green system and reduction in spatial but not temporal contrast sensitivity. The mfVER and mfERG data showed that most carriers had depressed central responses and abnormal interocular asymmetries.
In this very large pedigree of 11778 LHON, the carriers frequently showed manifestations of optic nerve impairments. Their occult disease reflected low-grade compromise that waxed and waned. In two cases, these changes led to a crescendo of dramatic impairments that characterize conversion to affected status.
To investigate the correlation of a structural measure of the macular area (optical coherence tomography (OCT)) with two functional measures (10‐2 Humphrey visual field (HVF) and multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP)) of macular function.
55 eyes with open‐angle glaucoma were enrolled. The 10‐2 HVF was defined as abnormal if clusters of ⩾3 points with p<5%, one of which had p<1%, were present. The mfVEP was abnormal if probability plots had ⩾2 adjacent points with p<1%, or ⩾3 adjacent points with p<5% and at least one of these points with p<1%. Two criteria were used for the macular OCT: (I) ⩾2 sectors with p<5% or 1 sector with p<1% and (II) 1 sector with p<5%.
54 of the 55 eyes showed an abnormal 10‐2 HVF and 50 had central mfVEP defects. The two OCT criteria resulted in sensitivities of 85% and 91%. When both functional tests showed a defect (in 49 eyes), the OCT was abnormal in 45. For the OCT the outer and inner inferior regions were the most likely to be abnormal, and both functional techniques were most abnormal in the superior hemifield.
Good agreement exists between macular thickness and functional defects in patients with glaucoma. Study of the macular region may provide a quantitative measure for disease staging and monitoring.
To validate a computerized expert system evaluating visual fields in a prospective clinical trial, the Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Decompression Trial (IONDT). To identify the pattern and within-pattern severity of field defects for study eyes at baseline and 6-month follow-up.
Humphrey visual field (HVF) change was used as the outcome measure for a prospective, randomized, multi-center trial to test the null hypothesis that optic nerve sheath decompression was ineffective in treating nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and to ascertain the natural history of the disease.
An expert panel established criteria for the type and severity of visual field defects. Using these criteria, a rule-based computerized expert system interpreted HVF from baseline and 6-month visits for patients randomized to surgery or careful follow-up and for patients who were not randomized.
A computerized expert system was devised and validated. The system was then used to analyze HVFs. The pattern of defects found at baseline for patients randomized to surgery did not differ from that of patients randomized to careful follow-up. The most common pattern of defect was a superior and inferior arcuate with central scotoma for randomized eyes (19.2%) and a superior and inferior arcuate for nonrandomized eyes (30.6%). Field patterns at 6 months and baseline were not different. For randomized study eyes, the superior altitudinal defects improved (P = .03), as did the inferior altitudinal defects (P = .01). For nonrandomized study eyes, only the inferior altitudinal defects improved (P = .02). No treatment effect was noted.
A novel rule-based expert system successfully interpreted visual field defects at baseline of eyes enrolled in the IONDT.
To compare visual field abnormalities obtained with standard automated perimetry (SAP) to those obtained with the multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) technique in strabismic amblyopes.
Humphrey 24-2 visual fields (HVF) and mfVEPs were obtained from each eye of 12 strabismic amblyopes. For the mfVEP, amplitudes and latencies were analyzed and probability plots derived. Multifocal VEP and HVF hemifields were abnormal if they had clusters of 2 or more contiguous points at p<0.01, or 3 or more contiguous points at p<0.05 with at least one at p<0.01. An eye was abnormal if it had an abnormal hemifield.
On SAP, amblyopic eyes had significantly higher foveal thresholds (p=0.003) and lower mean deviation values (p=0.005) than fellow eyes. For the mfVEP, 11 amblyopic and 6 fellow eyes were abnormal. Of the 11 amblyopic eyes, 6 were abnormal on SAP. The deficits extended from the center to mid-periphery. Monocular mfVEP latencies were significantly decreased for amblyopic eyes compared to control eyes (p<0.0002).
Both techniques revealed deficits in visual function across the visual field in strabismic amblyopes, but the mfVEP revealed deficits in fellow eyes and in more amblyopic eyes. In addition, mfVEP response latencies for amblyopic eyes were shorter than normal.
To describe visual field (VF) outcome in three adolescents with damage to the optic radiation and to focus on mechanisms that may compensate the practical functional limitations of VF defects.
Descriptive, prospective multi-case study in a hospital setting.
Three teenagers with cerebral visual dysfunction because of damage to the retro-geniculate visual pathways.
Best-corrected visual acuity and eye alignment were assessed. Visual field function was tested with Goldmann perimetry, and with Rarebit, Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer and Esterman computerized techniques. Fixation was registered with video oculography during Rarebit examination. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain illustrated brain damage and its relation to the posterior visual system.
One of the three subjects had bilateral asymmetric white matter damage of immaturity, early-onset exotropia, and a relative homonymous VF defect, but normal binocular VF. The second subject also had bilateral asymmetric white matter damage of immaturity and showed an inferior right quadrantanopia, confirmed by the binocular field. Registration of fixation revealed automatic scanning during perimetry. The third subject had an almost total left homonymous hemianopia after resection of a brain tumour in the right temporal lobe. The hemianopia could be compensated for by fast voluntary scanning.
Congenital and later-acquired homonymous VF defects may, at least in young subjects, be compensated for by scanning. Exotropia may compensate VF defects and, therefore, the VF should be tested before strabismus surgery.
VF defects; retro-geniculate visual system; compensating mechanisms; adolescents
PURPOSE: To determine how glaucoma patients with various degrees of vision loss rate their vision, and to determine if the Esterman binocular visual field test and other visual function tests correlate with those ratings. METHODS: Two hundred thirty-seven glaucoma patients evaluated their vision using 2 utility tests, the linear rating scale and the time trade-off test, and 2 quality-of-life instruments, the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ) and the Short Form 36 (SF-36). Their results were compared to clinical tests of their vision and to persons with normal vision (n = 12) and blind persons (n = 12). RESULTS: On a scale of 0 (blind) to 100 (ideal), subjects with normal vision rated their vision higher (90 +/- 8.0) than did glaucoma subjects and suspects (75.7 +/- 17.6) and "blind" subjects (15.6 +/- 15.3), P = .001. Mean scores for the Esterman test were 89.7 +/- 13.4 for the glaucoma group. The Esterman test correlated moderately with the overall VFQ score (partial correlation coefficient [PCC] = 0.32, P = .001), but only weakly with the linear rating scale (PCC = 0.17, P = .02) and the time trade-off test (PCC = -0.16, P = .06). Correlation between the linear rating scale and the overall VFQ score was good (PCC = 0.56, P = .0001) and was moderate with several domains of the SF-36 (e.g., social function PCC = 0.32, P = .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Utility values that glaucoma patients assign to their vision do not correlate well with Esterman test results. A challenge for the future will be designing clinical tests that better correlate with patient perceptions.
While the long-term incidence of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinopathy is low, there remains no definitive clinical screening test to recognize HCQ toxicity before ophthalmoscopic fundus changes or visual symptoms. Patients receiving HCQ were evaluated with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) to assess the feasibility of identifying HCQ retinopathy at an early stage.
Twenty-five patients referred for the evaluation of hydroxychloroquine toxicity underwent a comprehensive ocular examination, Humphrey visual field (HVF) perimetry, time domain OCT, and SD OCT. Some patients with screening abnormalities also underwent further diagnostic testing at the discretion of the treating providers.
Five patients were found to have SD OCT findings corresponding to HCQ toxicity and retinal damage as seen by clinical exam and/or HVF perimetry. Two patients with advanced toxicity were found to have significant outer retina disruption in the macula on SD OCT. Three patients with early HCQ toxicity and HVF 10-2 perifoveal defects were found to have loss of the perifoveal photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction with intact outer retina directly under the fovea, creating the “flying saucer” sign. While two of these three patients had early ophthalmoscopic fundus changes, one had none.
Outer retinal abnormalities including perifoveal photoreceptor IS/OS junction disruption can be identified by SD OCT in early HCQ toxicity, sometimes even before ophthalmoscopic fundus changes are apparent. SD OCT may have a potential complementary role in screening for HCQ retinopathy due to its quick acquisition and because it is more objective than automated perimetry.
drug toxicity; hydroxychloroquine; photoreceptors; screening test; spectral domain optical coherence tomography
We used the Swedish interactive threshold algorithms (SITA) standard strategy of Humphrey perimetry, to analyze the pattern of visual field (VF) defects and evaluate the quantitative correlation between the tumor volume and severity of VF defects in patients with pituitary macroadenoma.
We reviewed 50 patients with pituitary macroadenoma who received VF test and 11 patients were excluded. VF analysis was performed with Humphrey perimeter using the SITA standard strategy. The tumor volume was assessed radiologically via brain magnetic resonance images and was calculated using Cavalieri's principle. We used the mean deviation (MD) and pattern standard deviation (PSD) of the Humphrey parameter to measure VF defect severity, and then analyzed the correlation of tumor volume with VF defects.
Twenty nine patients (74%) showed abnormal VF and bitemporal field changes, which were the most common field defects on presentation. Seven patients (18%) had unilateral VF defects, 22 patients (56%) had bilateral VF defects. The tumor volume of the patients with VF defects was significantly larger than that of patients with normal VF (p = 0.006). The tumor volume exhibited significant negative correlation with MD (r = -0.693; p < 0.001) and significant positive correlation with PSD (r = 0.589; p < 0.001).
In patients with pituitary macroadenoma, there was a variety of VF defects and a high correlation between the tumor volume and the severity of VF defects. SITA standard strategy can be a fast and quantitative method for evaluating central VF defects.
Mean deviation; Pattern standard deviation; Pituitary macroadenoma; Swedish interactive threshold algorithms standard strategy; Visual field defects
To describe spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and adaptive optics (AO) imaging in hydroxychloroquine retinal toxicity.
Two patients with long-term hydroxychloroquine use, subtle perifoveal ophthalmoscopic pigmentary changes, and bilateral perifoveal defects on automated Humphrey visual field (HVF) 10-2 perimetry were imaged using SD-OCT and AO.
SD-OCT images demonstrated loss of photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction and a downward “sink-hole” displacement of inner retinal structures in areas of hydroxychloroquine toxicity corresponding to HVF 10-2 defects and ophthalmoscopic clinical examination findings. SD-OCT irregularities in the IS/OS junction were also seen in areas not detected on HVF 10-2. AO images showed disruption of the cone photoreceptor mosaic in areas corresponding to HVF 10-2 defects and SD-OCT IS/OS junction abnormalities. Additionally, irregularities in the cone photoreceptor density and mosaic were seen in areas with normal HVF 10-2 and SD-OCT findings.
SD-OCT and AO detected abnormalities that correlate topographically with visual field loss from hydroxychloroquine toxicity as demonstrated by HVF 10-2 and may be useful in the detection of subclinical abnormalities that precede symptoms or objective visual field loss.
Multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEP) measure local response amplitude and latency in the field of vision
To compare the sensitivity of mfVEP, Humphrey visual field (HVF) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in detecting visual abnormality in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients.
MfVEP, HVF, and OCT (retinal nerve fiber layer [RNFL]) were performed in 47 MS-ON eyes (last optic neuritis (ON) attack ≥ 6 months prior) and 65 MS-no-ON eyes without ON history. Criteria to define an eye as abnormal were: mfVEP 1) amplitude/latency: either amplitude or latency probability plots meeting cluster criteria with 95% specificity 2) amplitude or latency alone (specificity: 97% and 98%, respectively); HVF and OCT, mean deviation and RNFL thickness meeting p < 0.05, respectively.
MfVEP (amplitude/latency) identified more abnormality in MS-ON eyes (89%) than HVF (72%), OCT (62%), mfVEP amplitude (66%) or latency (67%) alone. 18% of MS-no-ON eyes were abnormal for both mfVEP (amplitude/latency) and HVF compared to 8% with OCT. Agreement between tests ranged from 60% to 79%. MfVEP (amplitude/latency) categorized an additional 15% of MS-ON eyes as abnormal compared to HVF and OCT combined.
MfVEP, which detects both demyelination (increased latency) and neural degeneration (reduced amplitude) revealed more abnormality than HVF or OCT in MS patients.
multiple sclerosis; optic neuritis; multifocal visual evoked potentials; optical coherence tomography; subclinical; standard automated perimetry