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1.  Severe Macular Edema in Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis-Related Uveitis 
Purpose. To report the onset of severe macular edema in adolescent female patients affected by juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods. Four female patients affected by JIA-related chronic anterior uveitis (CAU), complicated by severe macular edema, were retrospectively analyzed. Macular area was evaluated by fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Results. CAU was bilateral in three patients. Mean age of uveitis and arthritis onset was, respectively, 4.5 ± 1.7 years and 6.0 ± 3.9 years. All patients underwent cataract extraction surgery. Despite ocular inflammation being controlled by topical/systemic therapy, during adolescence (mean age of appearance/diagnosis: 12.7 ± 3.9 years) patients developed severe unilateral macular edema. OCT revealed massive macular thickening (range from 550 μm to 1214 μm). Conclusions. Macular edema appeared in female adolescent patients in eyes with long-dating CAU submitted to cataract surgery. In such patients, in presence of age-related microvascular changes due to the enhancer effect of sex hormones, cataract extraction should be a factor triggering the retinal complication.
PMCID: PMC3760270  PMID: 24024057
2.  Stage 0 Macular Holes: Observations by Optical Coherence Tomography 
Ophthalmology  2004;111(11):2027-2032.
To introduce the concept of a stage 0 macular hole based on optical coherence tomographic observations of the vitreoretinal interface in fellow eyes of patients with unilateral idiopathic macular holes, and to evaluate the subsequent risk of progression to a full-thickness macular hole.
Retrospective observational case series.
Ninety-four patients with a unilateral stage 2, 3, or 4 full-thickness macular hole.
The medical records of patients with a unilateral macular hole diagnosed between 1994 and 2000 at the New England Eye Center were reviewed.
Main Outcome Measure
Development of a full-thickness macular hole in the fellow eye on biomicroscopic fundoscopy or optical coherence tomography (OCT).
In 27 (28.7%) of 94 clinically normal fellow eyes, OCT detected an abnormality of the vitreoretinal interface but normal foveal anatomy. The vitreoretinal abnormalities were further subclassified into severe (4 eyes), moderate (8 eyes), and mild (15 eyes) based on the intensity and morphology of the OCT signal. One of the 4 (25%) severe cases progressed to a full-thickness macular hole, 4 of the 8 (50%) moderate cases became full-thickness macular holes, and no (0%) mild cases progressed to a full-thickness macular hole. Severe and moderate eyes seemed to share characteristic features on OCT that increased their risk of macular hole development (stage 0 macular hole). The macular hole–free survival at 48 months was 94% for stage 0–negative patients, versus 54% for stage 0–positive patients. Univariate analysis revealed that the presence of a stage 0 macular hole was significantly associated with an almost 6-fold increase in the risk of macular hole formation (relative risk: 5.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.16–28.61, P = 0.03).
A stage 0 macular hole has a normal biomicroscopic appearance clinically, but has salient features on OCT as a result of oblique vitreous traction. Optical coherence tomographic findings consist of a normal foveal contour and normal retinal thickness and must include the presence of a preretinal, minimally reflective, thin band inserting obliquely on at least one side of the fovea. The presence of a stage 0 macular hole in the fellow eye is a significant risk factor for the development of a second macular hole.
PMCID: PMC1941774  PMID: 15522368
3.  Unilateral amblyopia: Optical coherence tomography findings 
Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology  2011;25(4):405-409.
This study was performed to measure the macular and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with unilateral amblyopia.
Measurement of the Retinal nerve fiber layer and Macular Retinal Layer thickness for both amblyopic and normal fellow eyes by (OCT) was carried out at king Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Ninety-three patients with unilateral amblyopia between the ages of 5 years and 12 years were included. The macular retinal thickness and the RNFL thickness were measured using OCT. The mean macular retinal thickness was 259.3 μm and 255.6 μm, and the mean RNFL thickness was 112.16 μm and 106 μm, in the amblyopic eye and the normal eye, respectively. OCT assessment of RNFL thickness revealed a significantly thicker RNFL in amblyopic eye (P < 0.0001), but no statistically significant difference was found in macular retinal thickness (P = 0.195).
The amblyopic process may involve the RNFL, but not the macula. However, further evaluation is needed.
PMCID: PMC3729313  PMID: 23960955
Amblyopia; Macular and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness; Optical coherence tomography
4.  Identifying a Clinically Meaningful Threshold for Change in Uveitic Macular Edema Evaluated by Optical Coherence Tomography 
American journal of ophthalmology  2011;152(6):1044-1052.e5.
To identify a clinically meaningful threshold for change in retinal thickness measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) for patients with uveitic macular edema, using correlation with change in visual acuity.
Cross-sectional and longitudinal study.
128 eyes (101 individuals) with macular edema enrolled in the Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment (MUST) trial. At enrollment and after six months of follow-up, retinal thickness was measured at the central subfield with time domain OCT and visual acuity was measured with logarithmic (ETDRS) visual acuity charts. Participants were classified as having macular edema if the retinal thickness was ≥260μm.
A threshold for change in retinal center subfield thickness of 20% balanced the percentage of false positives and negatives for predicting greater than 10-letter change in visual acuity with sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 75%. The results were similar for greater than 5 or 15 or greater letter changes. Those with a 20% or greater reduction in retinal thickness had a mean 11.0 letter improvement (95% CI: 7.7 to 14.3) as compared to a -0.4 letter change (95% CI: -4.1 to 3.3) in visual acuity for those without a 20% reduction (p < 0.01).
In addition to being above the level of measurement uncertainty, a 20% change in retinal thickness in patients with macular edema appears to be optimal for clinically important changes in visual acuity and may be considered as an outcome for clinical trials of treatments for uveitic macular edema.
PMCID: PMC3223264  PMID: 21861971
5.  Visual function and serous retinal detachment in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion and macular edema: a case series 
BMC Ophthalmology  2011;11:29.
The influence of serous retinal detachment (SRD) on retinal sensitivity in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and macular edema remains unclear. This is despite the frequent co-existence of SRD and cystoid macular edema (CME) in BRVO patients on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the fact that CME is the most common form of macular edema secondary to BRVO. We investigated visual function (visual acuity and macular sensitivity), macular thickness, and macular volume in patients with BRVO and macular edema.
Fifty-three consecutive BRVO patients (26 women and 27 men) were divided into two groups based on optical coherence tomography findings. Macular function was documented by microperimetry, while macular thickness and volume were measured by OCT.
There were 15 patients with SRD and 38 patients with CME. Fourteen of the 15 patients with SRD also had CME. Visual acuity was significantly worse in the SRD group than in the CME group (P = 0.049). Also, macular thickness and macular volume within the central 4°, 10°, and 20° fields were significantly greater in the SRD group (P = 0.008, and P = 0.007, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, and P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). However, macular sensitivity within the central 4°, 10°, and 20° fields was not significantly worse in the SRD group than in the CME group.
SRD itself may decrease visual acuity together with CME, because nearly all SRD patients also had CME. SRD does not seem to influence macular function on microperimetry.
PMCID: PMC3206462  PMID: 21943190
6.  Association of the Extent of Diabetic Macular Edema as Assessed by Optical Coherence Tomography with Visual Acuity and Retinal Outcome Variables 
Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)  2009;29(3):300-305.
To determine whether the extensiveness of diabetic macular edema (DME) using a ten step scale based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) explains pretreatment variation in visual acuity and predicts change in macular thickness or visual acuity after laser photocoagulation.
323 eyes from a randomized clinical trial of two methods of laser photocoagulation for DME were studied. Baseline number of thickened OCT subfields was used to characterize DME on a ten step scale from 0 – 9. Associations were explored between baseline number of thickened subfields and baseline fundus photographic variables, visual acuity (VA), central subfield mean thickness (CSMT), and total macular volume (TMV). Associations were also examined between baseline number of thickened subfields and changes in VA, CSMT, and TMV at 3.5 and 12 months after laser photocoagulation.
For baseline visual acuity, the number of thickened subfields explained no more variation than did CSMT, age and fluorescein leakage. A greater number of thickened subfields was associated with a greater baseline CSMT, TMV, area of retinal thickening, and degree of thickening at the center of the macula (r=0.64, 0.77, 0.61–0.63, and 0.45, respectively) and with a lower baseline visual acuity (r=0.38). Baseline number of thickened subfields showed no association with change in visual acuity (r≤0.01–0.08) and weak associations with change in CSMT and TMV (r from 0.11–0.35).
This OCT based assessment of the extensiveness of DME did not explain additional variation in baseline visual acuity above that explained by other known important variables nor predict changes in macular thickness or visual acuity after laser photocoagulation.
PMCID: PMC2657814  PMID: 19174719
7.  Comparison of Macular Thickness in Diabetic Macular Edema Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and Time-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography 
Journal of Ophthalmology  2012;2012:959721.
Purpose. To compare the macular thicknesses in diabetic macular edema (DME) measured with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and time-domain (TD) OCT. Patients and Methods. The average macular thicknesses of 50 eyes of 29 patients with DME were measured using SD-OCT and TD-OCT. Results. The mean macular thicknesses measured with TD-OCT and SD-OCT were 401.5 ± 117.8 μm (mean ± SD) and 446.2 ± 123.5 μm, respectively. The macular thicknesses measured with the two devices were well correlated (Pearson's product moment correlation, r = 0.977, P < 0.001). A significant correlation was found between the best-corrected visual acuity and the retinal thickness measured by TD-OCT and SD-OCT (Pearson's product moment correlation, TD-OCT, r = 0.34; P < 0.05; SD-OCT, r = 0.32; P < 0.05). Discussion. The mean macular thickness measured with SD-OCT was about 45 μm thicker than that measured with TD-OCT. Attention should be paid when comparing data obtained using different OCT machines.
PMCID: PMC3270434  PMID: 22315663
8.  Evaluation of patients with diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis by spectral domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging 
The purpose of this study was to determine the value of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in assessing patients with diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN).
This was an observational case series with clinical imaging correlation performed at the Retina and Vitreous Institute of Londrina and State University of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. The series comprised ten consecutive patients with a confirmed diagnosis of DUSN, ie, seven patients with late-stage disease and three with early-stage disease, who were assessed by SD-OCT for mean macular, retinal nerve fiber layer, and choroidal thickness using enhanced depth imaging software.
Comparing the affected eye with the healthy fellow eye, significant diffuse atrophy of the retinal layers with a decrease in mean macular (P=0.004) and retinal nerve fiber layer (P=0.002) thickness was found in all cases. There was no difference in choroidal thickness (P=0.262).
The correlation of SD-OCT results with central vision and funduscopic findings may explain the profound loss of visual function in patients with DUSN.
PMCID: PMC4051808  PMID: 24940045
eye infections; parasitic; retinitis; optical coherence tomography; diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis; enhanced depth imaging
9.  Quantitative analysis of macular thickness following uneventful and complicated cataract surgery 
To compare change of macular thickness after uneventful cataract surgery and after cataract surgery complicated with vitreous loss, using optic coherence tomography (OCT).
Twenty eyes of 20 patients who underwent cataract surgery complicated with posterior capsular tear participated in this retrospective study (Group 2). The fellow eyes of those patients who underwent uneventful cataract surgery served as the control group (Group 1). Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), refraction, keratometry, axial length measurement, intraocular lens power calculation, intraocular pressure, and biomicroscopic and posterior segment examinations were done preoperatively. BCVA was evaluated at the postoperative 1st day, 1st week, 1st month, and 3rd month. Macular thickness and volumetric measurements with OCT with MM5 protocol were conducted at the postoperative 3rd month.
Logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution BCVA of Group 1 was significantly better than Group 2 at all intervals (P < 0.05). Foveal, parafoveal (superior and temporal), and perifoveal (superior and temporal) macular thickness measurements were significantly higher in Group 2 at month 3 (P < 0.05). Foveal volume was also significantly higher in Group 2 when compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05). In Group 2, two eyes (10%) were diagnosed with clinically significant cystoid macular edema at the 1-month visit.
Macular thickness was found to be significantly high in eyes undergoing complicated cataract surgery (with posterior capsular tear) when compared with uneventful cataract surgeries of fellow eyes.
PMCID: PMC3460715  PMID: 23055671
BCVA; posterior capsular tear; vitreous loss
10.  Intravitreal vs. subtenon triamcinolone acetonide for the treatment of diabetic cystoid macular edema 
BMC Ophthalmology  2008;8:5.
To assess the efficacy of the intravitreal (IVT) injection of Triamcinolone Acetonide (TA) as compared to posterior subtenon (SBT) capsule injection for the treatment of cystoid diabetic macular edema.
Fourteen patients with type II diabetes mellitus and on insulin treatment, presenting diffuse cystoid macular edema were recruited. Before TA injection all focal lakes were treated by laser photocoagulation. In the same patients one eye was assigned to 4 mg IVT injection of TA and the fellow eye was then treated with 40 mg SBT injection of TA. Before and one, three and six months after treatment we measured visual acuity with ETDRS chart as well as thickness of the macula with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP).
The eyes treated with an IVT injection displayed significant improvement in visual acuity, both after one (0.491 ± 0.070; p < 0.001) and three months (0.500 ± 0.089; p < 0.001) of treatment. Significant improvement was displayed also in eyes treated with an SBT injection, again after one (0.455 ± 0.069; p < 0.001) and three months (0.427 ± 0.065; p < 0.001). The difference between an IVT injection (0.809 ± 0.083) and SBT injection (0.460 ± 0.072) becomes significant six months after the treatment (p < 0.001).
Macular thickness of the eyes treated with IVT injection was significantly reduced both after one (222.7 ± 13.4 μm; p < 0.001) and after three months (228.1 ± 10.6 μm; p < 0.001) of treatment. The eyes treated with SBT injection displayed significant improvement after one (220.1 ± 15.1 μm; p < 0.001) and after three months (231.3 ± 10.9 μm; p < 0.001). The difference between the eyes treated with IVT injection (385.2 ± 11.3 μm) and those treated with SBT injection (235.4 ± 8.7 μm) becomes significant six months after the treatment (p < 0.001).
Intraocular pressure of the eyes treated with IVT injection significantly increased after one month (17.7 ± 1.1 mm/Hg; p < 0.020), three (18.2 ± 1.2 mm/Hg; p < 0.003) and six month (18.1 ± 1.3 mm/Hg; p < 0.007) when compared to baseline value (16.1 ± 1.402 mm/Hg). In the SBT injection eyes we didn't display a significant increase of intraocular pressure after one (16.4 ± 1.2 mm/Hg; p < 0.450), three (16.3 ± 1.1 mm/Hg; p < 0.630) and six months (16.2 ± 1.1 mm/Hg; p < 0.720) when compared to baseline value (16.2 ± 1.3 mm/Hg).
The parabulbar subtenon approach can be considered a valid alternative to the intravitreal injection.
Trial registration
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN67086909
PMCID: PMC2277375  PMID: 18366650
11.  Vitreo-retinal interface changes on optical coherence tomography in the fellow eyes of patients with macular hole 
To study the vitreo-retinal interface and macular changes on optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the fellow eyes of patients with macular hole.
Patients with idiopathic macular hole in one or both eyes presented to our institute between January 2003 and December 2009 were evaluated retrospectively. Demographic details, best-corrected visual acuity and vitreo-retinal interface, and macular changes of the fellow eye on OCT were studied.
Seventy patients underwent OCT of both eyes during the study period. The average age group was 61.96 years and 35 (50%) were females. Among the fellow eyes, normal foveal contour was noted in 36 (51.4%) eyes and 34 (48.6%) eyes were observed to have vitreo-retinal interface changes. Of them, 13 (18.6%) eyes had some stage of full thickness macular hole and 21 (30.0%) eyes had interface changes. There was no statistical correlation between involved eye lesions (P=0.64) or visual acuity (P=0.55) as predictors of development of either fellow eye lesions or poor visual acuity.
There is a significant chance of having vitreo-retinal interface findings in the fellow eyes of patients presenting with macular hole. OCT should be considered in both eyes of patients with macular hole to detect early changes in the fellow eyes, which may require an early intervention.
PMCID: PMC3755316  PMID: 23991391
macular hole; fellow eye; optical coherence tomography; vitreo-retinal interface
12.  Spectral domain optical coherence tomography in patients after successful management of postoperative endophthalmitis following cataract surgery by pars plana vitrectomy 
BMC Ophthalmology  2014;14:76.
Acute severe postoperative endophthalmitis may lead to severe vision loss. The aim of this study was the analysis of macular microstructure imaged by spectral domain optical coherence tomography in patients after pars plana vitrectomy due to postcataract endophthalmitis.
A cross sectional study was carried out in 17 patients who had cataract surgery in both eyes and underwent unilateral pars plana vitrectomy due to postcataract endophthalmitis. Postoperative best corrected visual acuity was determined in both eyes. Evaluation of macular thickness, macular volume, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and choroidal thickness using enhanced depth imaging technique was performed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. The measurements obtained in the operated eye were compared to the fellow eye by Wilcoxon matched pair test. Correlation test was performed by Spearman rank order.
A mean postoperative best corrected visual acuity of 63 ± 30 ETDRS letters versus 75 ± 21 letters was achieved in the study and fellow eyes, respectively, after a mean of 5.3 ± 4.5 months (p = 0.1). The mean macular thickness was 320.6 ± 28.8 μm SD in the study eyes compared to 318.4 ± 18.8 μm in the fellow eyes (p = 0.767). No differences were noted in macular volume (p = 0.97) and in peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (p = 0.31). Choroidal thickness was significantly lower in the study eyes compared to the fellow eyes (p = 0.018). Epiretinal membrane was found in 7 eyes after endophthalmitis, while in the fellow eyes only in 3 cases (p = 0.13, Fisher’s exact test).
Choroidal thickness decreased significantly after endophthalmitis, but there was no functional correlation with the changes in choroidal microstructure. The development of epiretinal membranes may be associated with either vitrectomy or endophthalmitis in the history. Absence of other significant structural and morphological findings shows that successful treatment may guarantee good clinical results even in long term after this severe postoperative complication.
PMCID: PMC4077685  PMID: 24885759
Spectral domain optical coherence tomography; Postoperative endophthalmitis; Enhanced depth imaging; Choroidal thickness; Vitrectomy
13.  Effects of Vitrectomy on Recurrent Macular Edema due to Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion after Intravitreal Injection of Bevacizumab 
Journal of Ophthalmology  2013;2013:415974.
Purpose. To evaluate the effects of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) on recurrent macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) after intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (IVB). Methods. This retrospective study included 22 eyes of 22 patients who underwent single or multiple IVB injections for macular edema due to BRVO and showed a recurrence of macular edema. All patients then underwent PPV and were followed up for more than 6 months after the surgery with examinations of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT parameters were central macular thickness (CMT) and average retinal thickness in a 1-mm-diameter circular region at the fovea (MRT). Results. Mean BCVA, CRT, and MRT were significantly improved from the baseline after PPV. Greater improvement of BCVA, CRT, and MRT was obtained after 1 month of IVB than after 6 months of PPV. No eyes showed worsening of macular edema after the surgery. Conclusion. PPV improved BCVA and recurrent macular edema due to BRVO, but PPV that was less effective than IVB had been in the same patients. PPV may be one of the treatment options for recurrent macular edema due to BRVO after IVB.
PMCID: PMC3590779  PMID: 23533707
14.  Kinetics of central macular thickness reduction in patients with macular edema after intravitreal drug therapy 
The purpose of this study was to characterize central macular thickness and retinal volume following intravitreal injections using time domain and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT and SD-OCT, respectively).
Nine patients with macular edema secondary to diabetes or retinal vein occlusion treated with intravitreal triamcinolone 4.0 mg and/or bevacizumab 1.25 mg were enrolled. Central macular thickness and volume was measured by SD-OCT and TD-OCT scan at baseline, and 1, 3, 6, 24, 48 hours, and 1 week postinjection.
Equations were derived to describe central macular thickness and volume reduction in the hours following intravitreal injection. Measurements of central macular thickness by SD-OCT were significantly reduced by 3 hours (P = 0.03) and retinal volume by 6 hours (P = 0.03). Central macular thickness measured 40.9 (28.6–53.2) μm thicker on the SD-OCT instrument while volume measured 3.47 (3.27–3.66) mm3 higher.
Significant central macular thickness and volume reductions occur in the first hours after injection with triamcinolone and/or bevacizumab.
PMCID: PMC3245197  PMID: 22205836
retinal vein occlusion; intravitreal injection; diabetic retinopathy
15.  Evaluation of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer, macula and ganglion cell thickness in amblyopia using spectral optical coherence tomography 
To investigate peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), macula and ganglion cell layer thicknesses (GCC) in amblyopic eyes with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).
Thirty six patients with a history of unilateral amblyopia and thirty two children who had emmetropia without amblyopia were included in this study. In this institutional study, 36 eyes of 36 patients with amblyopia (AE), 36 fellow eyes without amblyopia (FE), and 32 eyes of 32 normal subjects (NE) were included. RNFL, GCC and macular thickness measurements were performed with RS-3000 OCT Retina Scan (Nidek Inc CA. USA).
The mean global thicknesses of the RNFL were 113.22±21.47, 111.57±18.25, 109.96±11.31µm in the AE, FE, and NE, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for mean global RNFL thickness among the eyes (P=0.13). The mean thicknesses of the macula were 258.25±18.31, 258.75±19.54, 248.62±10.57µm in the AE, FE and NE, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for thickness of macula among the eyes (P=0.06). The GCC was investigated into two parts: superior and inferior. The mean thicknesses of superior GCC were 102.57±13.32, 103.32±10.64, 100.52±5.88µm in the AE, FE, and NE, respectively. The mean thicknesses of inferior GCC were 103.82±12.60, 107.82±12.33, 105.86±10.79µm in the AE, FE and NE, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for thickness of superior and inferior GCC between the eyes (P=0.63, P=0.46).
The macular thicknesses of AE and FE were greater than the NE, although it was not statistically significant. Amblyopia does not seem to have a profound effect on the RNFL, macula and GCC.
PMCID: PMC3580258  PMID: 23550060
amblyopia; retinal nerve fiber layer; macula; ganglion cell complex
16.  Characterization of serous retinal detachments in uveitis patients with optical coherence tomography 
To determine the prevalence of serous retinal detachments (SRD) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in a large database of patients with uveitis from a tertiary referral setting, to describe clinical features of patients with SRD, and to ascertain retinal architectural features found in association with SRD.
Main outcome measures
Prevalence of SRD in uveitis patients imaged with OCT, correlation of visual acuity with SRD, anatomic subtypes of uveitis identified, and association of SRD with various subtypes of macular edema (focal and diffuse) and retinal architectural abnormalities.
Retrospective, single-setting cross-sectional study of all OCTs in a digital imaging base ordered on patients from a tertiary referral uveitis clinic between July 2006 and March 2008.
SRD were identified in 17 of 111 uveitis patients (15 %) reviewed; bilateral SRD were found in 5 of 17 patients (29 %). Intermediate uveitis was the most common disease association (47 %), but other conditions identified included Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, multifocal choroiditis/panuveitis, and sarcoidosis. Retinal architectural features identified in association with SRD included focal macular edema (59 %), diffuse macular edema (50 %), any intraretinal edema (77 %), both diffuse and focal macular edema (32 %), and retinal pigment epithelial alteration (27 %). Moderate or severe visual impairment, defined as visual acuity 20/50 or poorer was seen in 71 % of patients with SRD. Poorer visual acuity was correlated with increased central subfield thickness in patients with SRD (r2 = 0.41, p < 0.001).
SRD were present in 15 % of the uveitis patients reviewed. Moderate to severe vision impairment was present in the majority of eyes (71 %) with SRD. Diffuse macular edema and focal cystoid macular edema were the OCT features most commonly associated with SRD. Intermediate and panuveitis were the most common anatomic sites of inflammation. A variety of pathogenic mechanisms, both inflammatory and non-inflammatory, may be involved in SRD in uveitis patients; identification of the precise mechanism is important for appropriate therapy.
PMCID: PMC3500985  PMID: 22661129
Optical coherence tomography; OCT; Uveitis; Serous retinal detachment; Macular edema; Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome; Sarcoidosis; Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy; Pars planitis; Hypotony maculopathy; Choroidal neovascularization
17.  Evaluation of Time Domain and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in the Measurement of Diabetic Macular Edema 
To evaluate macular thickness and volume measurements and their intrasession repeatability in two optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems: the Stratus OCT, a time domain system, and the Cirrus HD-OCT, a spectral domain system (both by Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, CA), in the context of diabetic macular edema (DME).
Thirty-three eyes of 33 diabetic patients with clinically significant macular edema (CSME) were scanned in a single session by a single operator on both OCT systems. Macular thickness measurements of nine standard macular subfields and total macular volume were obtained and analyzed. Bland-Altman plots were constructed to assess agreement in macular measurements. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), coefficients of repeatability (CRW), and coefficients of variation (CVW) were used to assess intrasession repeatability.
Macular thickness in nine retinal subfields and macular volume were significantly higher in the Cirrus HD-OCT system compared with the Stratus OCT system. Subfield thickness and total volume measurements, respectively, were 30 to 55 μm and 3.2 mm3 greater for the Cirrus HD-OCT system compared with the Stratus OCT system. Both Stratus OCT and Cirrus HD-OCT systems demonstrated high intrasession repeatability, with overlapping ranges for CRW, CVW, and ICC. Repeatability measures (CRW and CVW) differed significantly between systems in only one of nine subfields (outer temporal subfield).
Absolute measures of macular thickness and volume in patients with DME differed significantly in magnitude between the Stratus OCT and Cirrus HD-OCT systems. However, both OCT systems demonstrated high intrasessional repeatability. Although the two systems may not be used interchangeably, they appear equally reliable in generating macular measurements for clinical practice and research.
PMCID: PMC2574838  PMID: 18515567
18.  Cental macular thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without clinical retinopathy 
BMC Ophthalmology  2013;13:11.
An increase in macular thickness due to fluid accumulation in the macula in patients with diabetes mellitus. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been shown to be highly reproducible in measuring macular thickness in normal individuals and diabetic patients. OCT can detect subtle changes of macular thickness. The aim of this study is to compare central macular thickness (CMT) of diabetic patients with type 2 diabetes without clinical retinopathy and normal controls, in order to assess possible increased macular thickness associated with diabetes mellitus.
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements were performed in 124 eyes of 62 subjects with diabetes mellitus without clinically retinopathy (study group: 39 female, 23 male, mean age: 55.06 ± 9.77 years) and in 120 eyes of 60 healthy subjects (control group: 35 female, 25 male, mean age: 55.78 ± 10.34 years). Blood biochemistry parameters were analyzed in all cases. The data for central macular thickness (at 1 mm) and the levels of the fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were compared in both groups.
The mean central macular thickness was 232.12 ±24.41 μm in the study group and 227.19 ± 29.94 μm in the control group.
The mean HbA1c level was 8.92 ± 2.58% in the study group and 5.07 ± 0.70% in the control group (p=0.001). No statistically significant relationship was found between CMT, HbA1c, and fasting plasma glucose level in either group (p=0.05).
Central macular thickness was not significantly thicker in patients with type 2 diabetes without clinical retinopathy than in healthy subjects.
PMCID: PMC3623885  PMID: 23570310
Diabetes mellitus; Central macular thickness; Glycosylated hemoglobin; Fasting plasma glucose level
19.  Focal Laser Photocoagulation in Non-Center Involved Diabetic Macular Edema 
This study was performed to evaluate the functional and anatomic outcomes of focal macular laser photocoagulation in eyes with non-center involved macular edema (non-CI ME). Forty-nine eyes of 43 patients with non-CI ME were included. Focal macular laser photocoagulation was conducted on twenty-nine eyes of 25 patients, while 20 eyes of 18 patients with non-CI ME were followed without treatment and served as the control group. Data relating to best corrected visual acuity (BCVA; Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study) and central subfield thickness (CST), inner zone thickness (IZT), outer zone thickness (OZT), and total macular volume (TMV) as determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT) were collected and compared between the groups. At 12 months, VA decreased by a mean of 0.4 letters in the treatment group and 3.3 letters in the control group (p=0.03). Gain in VA ≥5 letters was noted in 6 (21%) of the eyes in the treatment group versus 1 (5%) eye in the control group (p=0.12). At 12 months, average IZT decreased by 22.6 microns in the treatment group and increased by 10.9 microns in the control group (p<0.001). The treatment group revealed significant reduction in CST, average OZT, and TMV as compared to the control group at 12 months (all p<0.05).Generally, focal laser photocoagulation may have more favourable visual outcomes in this specific group of diabetic patients than does observation. In addition, focal laser treatment provided better outcomes with improvement in OCT parameters as compared to the control group.
PMCID: PMC4010918  PMID: 24804275
Diabetic Macular Edema; Laser Photocoagulation; Focal Macular Laser Photocoagulation; Visual Acuity
20.  Macular sensitivity and morphology after intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion 
It has been reported that microperimetry is effective for evaluating macular function. The aim of this paper is to report and discuss changes seen in macular sensitivity and macular thickness after intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) in two patients with macular edema and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Two eyes from two patients with CRVO (one each with ischemic and nonischemic CRVO) received IVTA for macular edema. Microperimetry was performed to measure macular sensitivity within the central 4, 10, and 20 degree fields, while the macular thickness within these fields was measured by optical coherence tomography. The mean macular thickness and macular sensitivity within the central 4, 10, and 20 degree fields improved after IVTA in the patient with nonischemic CRVO. In contrast, the mean macular thickness and sensitivity within the central 4, 10, and 20 degree fields showed little change after IVTA in the patient with ischemic CRVO. IVTA improves macular sensitivity and morphology in nonischemic CRVO, so further evaluation of this treatment is justified.
PMCID: PMC3508742  PMID: 23204832
central retinal vein occlusion; macular edema; triamcinolone acetonide; macular sensitivity
21.  Comparison of Time Domain and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Measurement of Macular Thickness in Macular Edema Secondary to Diabetic Retinopathy and Retinal Vein Occlusion 
Journal of Ophthalmology  2012;2012:354783.
Purpose. To evaluate macular thickness, agreement, and intraclass repeatability in three optical coherence tomography (OCT) devices: the time domain (TD) Stratus OCT and two spectral domain (SD) OCTs, Spectralis and Cirrus SD-OCT, in eyes with macular edema secondary to diabetic retinopathy (DR) and retinal vein occlusion (VO). Methods. In a prospective observational study at a university-based retina practice, retinal thickness tomography was performed simultaneously for fifty-eight patients (91 eyes) with DR and VO employing a time domain and two spectral domain OCTs. Agreement in macular measurements was assessed by constructing Bland-Altman plots. Intraclass repeatability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Results. Based on the Bland-Altman plots for central macular thickness, there was low agreement between the measurements of Cirrus SD-OCT and Stratus OCT, Spectralis OCT and Stratus OCT, as well as Spectralis OCT and Cirrus SD-OCT among DR and RVO patients. All three devices demonstrated high intraclass repeatability, with ICC of 98% for Stratus OCT, 97% for Cirrus SD-OCT, and 100% for Spectralis OCT among DR patients. The ICC was 97% for Stratus OCT, 79% for Cirrus SD-OCT, and 91% for Spectralis OCT among RVO patients. Conclusion. There are low agreements among interdevice measurements. However, intraclass repeatability is high in both TD and SD-OCT devices.
PMCID: PMC3410350  PMID: 22888403
22.  Macular laser photocoagulation guided by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography versus fluorescein angiography for diabetic macular edema 
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and fluorescein angiography (FA) in the guidance of macular laser photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema.
This was a prospective interventional clinical comparative pilot study. Forty eyes from 24 consecutive patients with diabetic macular edema were allocated to receive laser photocoagulation guided by SD-OCT or FA. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness, and retinal volume were assessed at baseline and two months after treatment.
Subjects treated using FA-guided laser improved BCVA from the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) 0.52 ± 0.2 to 0.37 ± 0.2 (P < 0.001), and decreased mean central macular thickness from 397.25 ± 139.1 to 333.50 ± 105.7 μm (P < 0.001) and retinal volume from 12.61 ± 1.6 to 10.94 ± 1.4 mm3 (P < 0.001). Subjects treated using SD-OCT guided laser had improved BCVA from 0.48 ± 0.2 to 0.33 ± 0.2 logMAR (P < 0.001), and decreased mean central macular thickness from 425.90 ± 149.6 to 353.4 ± 140 μm (P < 0.001) and retinal volume from 12.38 ± 2.1 to 11.53 ± 1.1 mm3 (P < 0.001). No significant differences between the groups were found in two-month BCVA (P = 0.505), two-month central macular thickness (P = 0.660), or two-month retinal volume (P = 0.582).
The short-term results of this pilot study suggest that SD-OCT is a safe and effective technique and could be considered as a valid alternative to FA in the guidance of macular laser photocoagulation treatment for diabetic macular edema.
PMCID: PMC3102594  PMID: 21654890
spectral-domain optical coherence tomography; fluorescein angiography; macular laser photocoagulation; diabetic macular edema
23.  Evaluation of Changes of Macular Thickness in Diabetic Retinopathy after Cataract Surgery 
To assess the macular thickness changes after cataract surgery in diabetic patients using optical coherence tomography (OCT).
We retrospectively reviewed the records of 104 diabetic patients who underwent cataract surgery. We examined the changes of macular thickness using OCT before cataract surgery and 1 week, 1-, 2- and 6-months after surgery. The central subfield mean thickness (CSMT) was used to evaluate macular edema which was defined as an increase of CSMT (ΔCSMT) > 30% from the baseline. The association between prior laser treatment or severity of diabetic retinopathy and macular thickness were also analyzed.
Macular edema occurred in 19 eyes (18%) from the diabetic group and 63% of macular edema developed at 1 month after surgery. Thirteen (68%) out of 19 eyes with macular edema showed the resolution of macular edema by 6 months after surgery without treatment. ΔCSMT of eyes without a history of laser treatment was statistically greater compared to eyes with a history of laser treatment in at 1- and 2-months after surgery, but was not different than eyes who had laser treatment at 6-months after surgery. The severity of diabetic retinopathy was not significantly correlated to macular edema, but there was statistical difference when patients who had a history of prior laser treatment were excluded.
The incidence of macular edema after cataract surgery in diabetic patients was 18%. Its peak incidence was at 1 month post surgery and it resolved spontaneously in 68% of patients by 6 months post surgery. Prior laser treatment might prevent postoperative macular edema until 2 months after cataract surgery in diabetic patients. However, macular edema did not affect the severity of diabetic retinopathy.
PMCID: PMC3149133  PMID: 21860569
Cataract extraction; Diabetic retinopathy; Macular edema; Macular thickness
24.  Dorzolamide Chlorhydrate Versus Acetazolamide in the Management of Chronic Macular Edema in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa: Description of Three Case Reports 
To assess the efficacy of topical dorzolamide for treating cystoid macular edema in patients with retinitis pigmentosa and minimize the secondary effects of maintenance therapy in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) who present with chronic microcystic macular edema.
To replace acetazolamide systemic treatment, with a topical treatment using 2% dorzolamide in three patients. The methods performed were OCT scan with a Spectralis HRA-OCT, for the measurement of macular thickness and morphology; best corrected visual acuity was assessed using Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS), was assessed slit-lamp biomicroscopy, ocular tonometry, fundus biomiocrosopy, and color fundus photography. This therapeutic protocol has been applied and described in three patients.
In all three tested patients, following the administration of dorzolamide in eye drop, we observed a remarkable decrease in macular edema, almost comparable to that obtained with acetazolamide per os.
The study confirms the anti-edematogenic effect of topical dorzolamide in RP with recurring macular cysts, as this can have a favorable response with topical dorzolamide. In all the three examined patients, the instillation of topical dorzolamide caused a remarkable reduction in their macular edema, as highlighted on OCT.
PMCID: PMC4051820  PMID: 24932106
retinitis pigmentosa; cystoid macular edema; dorzolamide; acetazolamide
25.  Effect of a single intravitreal bevacizumab injection on different optical coherence tomographic patterns of diabetic macular oedema 
Eye  2013;27(6):716-721.
The aim of this study is to compare the therapeutic effect of a single intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection in eyes with diabetic macular oedema (DMO) of different patterns determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT).
Medical records of patients who had a single IVB injection for DMO were analysed retrospectively. Eyes with a clinically significant DMO and a central foveal thickness (CFT) of 250 μm or more determined by OCT were included in the analysis. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), CFT and total macular volume values before and after the injection were recorded. Eyes were divided into sponge-like diffuse retinal thickening (DRT), cystoid macular oedema (CMO) and serous retinal detachment (SRD) groups according to the morphology on OCT.
A total of 92 eyes (42 with DRT, 31 with CMO and 19 with SRD) were included in the study. There was no statistically significant variation between three groups regarding the change in BCVA (P=0.695). CMO and SRD groups had greater reductions in their mean CFT, and the amount of reduction showed statistically significant variation between three groups (P=0.048). However, no statistically significant difference was found between groups in terms of percentage of change in CFT (P=0.278).
CMO and SRD subtypes are associated with a greater reduction in the CFT than the DRT subtype. Although the change in BCVA was not significantly different between groups, the DRT group showed markedly better visual improvement in proportion to the decrease in CFT.
PMCID: PMC3682346  PMID: 23470789
diabetic macular oedema; intravitreal bevacizumab; optical coherence tomography

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