An association between anthropometric measurements, including waist circumference (WC), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels has been reported among adults. However, studies conducted among population-based elementary schoolchildren to date have been limited, especially in Japan, where the measurement of WC and blood collection are not usually performed in the annual health examination at elementary schools. The present study investigated the association between anthropometric measurements and ALT levels among population-based elementary schoolchildren in Japan.
Subjects were fourth-grade schoolchildren (aged 9 or 10) from the town of Ina in Saitama Prefecture, Japan during 2004–2009. The height, weight, and WC of each subject were measured, and blood samples were drawn to measure ALT levels. Childhood overweight or obesity was defined according to the age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Spearman’s correlation coefficients between anthropometric measurements (body mass index (BMI), WC, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)) and ALT levels were calculated.
Data from 2499 subjects (1293 boys and 1206 girls) were analyzed. BMI, WC, and WHtR were significantly positively correlated with ALT levels; the correlation coefficient of ALT levels with WHtR was higher than that with BMI and WC in boys and girls. In the analysis stratified by physique (non-overweight/obesity, overweight, or obesity), all anthropometric measurements were significantly positively correlated with ALT levels among boys, while only WHtR was significantly positively correlated with ALT levels among girls. Moreover, the correlation coefficient of ALT levels with WHtR was more pronounced than that with BMI and WC in the non-overweight/obesity group, in the overweight group, and in the obesity group for each sex.
The present study showed that WHtR was more closely associated with ALT levels than BMI and WC. Furthermore, only WHtR was significantly positively associated with ALT levels regardless of sex and physique. This study suggests that it is more useful to monitor WHtR than BMI and WC as a surrogate for ALT levels among population-based elementary schoolchildren.
Waist-to-height ratio; Alanine aminotransferase; Schoolchildren; Population-based epidemiological study
There are a limited number of studies regarding the association between abdominal obesity and serum adiponectin complexes (high, medium, and low molecular weight adiponectins) among population-based elementary school children, especially in Japan, where blood collection is not usually performed during annual health examinations of school children. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal obesity and serum adiponectin complexes among population-based elementary school children in Japan.
Subjects were all the fourth-grade school children (9 or 10 years of age) in the town of Ina during 2005–2008 (N = 1675). The height, weight, percent body fat, and waist circumference (WC) of each subject were measured. Blood samples were drawn from subjects to measure adiponectin isoform values. Childhood abdominal obesity was defined as “a waist-to-height ratio greater than or equal to 0.5” or “a WC greater than or equal to 75 cm”. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the logistic regression model were used to analyze the association between abdominal obesity and each adiponectin isoform value.
Data from 1654 subjects (846 boys and 808 girls) were analyzed. Adiponectin complexes were lower in the abdominal obesity group than in the non-abdominal obesity group regardless of sex. Abdominal obesity significantly increased the odds ratio (OR) for each adiponectin isoform level less than or equal to the median value in boys; the OR (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 2.50 (1.59-3.92) for high molecular weight adiponectin (HMW-adn), 2.47 (1.57-3.88) for medium molecular weight adiponectin (MMW-adn), and 1.75 (1.13-2.70) for low molecular weight adiponectin (LMW-adn). In girls, the OR (95% CI) was 1.95 (1.18-3.21) for HMW-adn, 1.40 (0.86-2.28) for MMW-adn, and 1.06 (0.65-1.70) for LMW-adn.
Abdominal obesity was associated with lower adiponectin complexes and the influence of abdominal obesity varied by adiponectin isoform. Furthermore, the impact of abdominal obesity was larger in boys than in girls. The present study results suggest that prevention of abdominal obesity could contribute to the prevention of lower adiponectin levels, especially in boys.
Abdominal obesity; Serum adiponectin complexes; School children; Population-based epidemiological study
Although the correlation coefficient between body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%BF) or waist circumference (WC) has been reported, studies conducted among population-based schoolchildren to date have been limited in Japan, where %BF and WC are not usually measured in annual health examinations at elementary schools or junior high schools. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of BMI to %BF and WC and to examine the influence of gender and obesity on these relationships among Japanese schoolchildren.
Subjects included 3,750 schoolchildren from the fourth and seventh grade in Ina-town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan between 2004 and 2008. Information about subject's age, sex, height, weight, %BF, and WC was collected from annual physical examinations. %BF was measured with a bipedal biometrical impedance analysis device. Obesity was defined by the following two criteria: the obese definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the definition of obesity for Japanese children. Pearson's correlation coefficients between BMI and %BF or WC were calculated separately for sex.
Among fourth graders, the correlation coefficients between BMI and %BF were 0.74 for boys and 0.97 for girls, whereas those between BMI and WC were 0.94 for boys and 0.90 for girls. Similar results were observed in the analysis of seventh graders. The correlation coefficient between BMI and %BF varied by physique (obese or non-obese), with weaker correlations among the obese regardless of the definition of obesity; most correlation coefficients among obese boys were less than 0.5, whereas most correlations among obese girls were more than 0.7. On the other hand, the correlation coefficients between BMI and WC were more than 0.8 among boys and almost all coefficients were more than 0.7 among girls, regardless of physique.
BMI was positively correlated with %BF and WC among Japanese schoolchildren. The correlations could be influenced by obesity as well as by gender. Accordingly, it is essential to consider gender and obesity when using BMI as a surrogate for %BF and WC for epidemiological use.
AIM: To establish percentile curves and to explore prevalence and correlates of central obesity among Yemeni children in a population based cross-sectional study.
METHODS: A representative sample of 3114 Yemeni children (1564 boys, 1550 girls) aged 6-19 years participating in the HYpertension and Diabetes in Yemen study was studied. Data collection was conducted at home by survey teams composed of two investigators of both genders. Study questionnaire included questions about demographics, lifestyle, and medical history. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and hip circumferences. Waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were then calculated. Age and gender specific smoothed percentiles of WC, WHR, and WHtR were obtained using lambda-mu-sigma parameters (LMS method). The independent predictors of central obesity defined as (1) WC percentile ≥ 90th; (2) WHtR ≥ 0.5; or (3) WC percentile ≥ 90th and WHtR ≥ 0.5, were identified at multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, urban/rural location, years of school education, sedentary/active life-style.
RESULTS: Percentile curves for WC, WHR and WHtR are presented. Average WC increased with age for both genders. Boys had a higher WC than girls until early adolescence and thereafter girls had higher values than boys. WHR decreased both in boys and girls until early adolescence. Thereafter while in boys it plateaued in girls it continued to decrease. Mean WHtR decreased until early adolescence with no gender related differences and thereafter increased more in girls than in boys towards adult age. Prevalence of central obesity largely varied according to the definition used which was 10.9% for WC ≥ 90th percentile, 18.3% for WHtR ≥ 0.5, and 8.6% when fulfilling both criteria. At adjusted logistic regression WC ≥ 90th percentiles and WHtR ≥ 0.5 were less prevalent in rural than in urban areas (OR = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.41-0.67 and 0.66, 0.54-0.79 respectively), being more prevalent in children with sedentary lifestyle rather than an active one (1.52, 95%CI: 1.17-1.98 and 1.42, 95%CI: 1.14-1.75, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Yemeni children central obesity indices percentile curves are presented. Central obesity prevalence varied according to the definition used and was more prevalent in urban sedentary subjects.
Central obesity; Waist circumference; Waist-to-height ratio; Waist to hip ratio; Developing countries
Central obesity has been associated with the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease in children and anthropometric indices predictive of central obesity include waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-height ratio (WHtR). South Asian children have higher body fat distribution in the trunk region but the literature regarding WC and related indices is scarce in this region. The study was aimed to provide age- and gender-specific WC, WHR and WHtR smoothed percentiles, and to explore prevalence and correlates of central obesity, among Pakistani children aged five to twelve years.
A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage random cluster sample of 1860 primary school children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed percentile curves were constructed for WC, WHR and WHtR by the LMS method. Central obesity was defined as having both age- and gender-specific WC percentile ≥90th and WHtR ≥0.5. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Multivariate logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors of central obesity and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% CI were obtained. Linear regression was used to explore the independent determinants of WC and WHtR. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05.
First ever age- and gender-specific smoothed WC, WHR and WHtR reference curves for Pakistani children aged five to twelve years are presented. WC increased with age among both boys and girls. Fiftieth WC percentile curves for Pakistani children were higher as compared to those for Hong Kong and British children, and were lower as compared to those for Iranian, German and Swiss children. WHR showed a plateau pattern among boys while plateau among girls until nine years of age and decreased afterwards. WHtR was age-independent among both boys and girls, and WHtR cut-off of ≥0.5 for defining central obesity corresponded to 85th WHtR percentile irrespective of age and gender. Twelve percent children (95% CI 10.1-13.0) had a WC ≥90th percentile and 16.5% children (95% CI 14.7-18.1) had a WHtR ≥0.5 while 11% children (95% CI 8.9-11.6) had both WC ≥90th percentile and WHtR ≥0.5. Significant predictors of central obesity included higher grade, urban area with high socioeconomic status (SES), high-income neighborhood and higher parental education. Children studying in higher grade (aOR 5.11, 95% CI 1.76-14.85) and those living in urban area with high SES (aOR 82.34, 95% CI 15.76-430.31) showed a significant independent association. Urban area with high SES and higher parental education showed a significant independent association with higher WC and higher WHtR while higher grade showed a significant independent association with higher WC.
Comprehensive worldwide reference values are needed to define central obesity and the present study is the first one to report anthropometric indices predictive of central obesity for Pakistani school-aged children. Eleven percent children were centrally obese and strong predictors included higher grade, urban area with high SES and higher parental education. These findings support the need for developing a National strategy for childhood obesity and implementing targeted interventions, prioritizing the higher social class and involving communities.
The aim of this study was to investigate sex differences and associations of high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, leptin and proinflammatory adipokines, individually or in combinations, with adiposity and insulin resistance (IR) measures in prepubertal childhood.
We studied 305 prepubertal children (boys/girls: 144/161; Tanner stage 1; age: 5-13 yr), included in a cohort of 44,231 adolescents who participated in an extensive Italian school-based survey. According to Cole's criteria, 105 individuals were lean (L; boys/girls: 59/46), 60 overweight (OW; boys/girls: 32/28) and 140 obese (OB; boys/girls: 70/70). Measurements comprised total and HMW adiponectin, leptin, as well as a panel of proinflammatory adipokines/chemokines associated with diabetes risk.
Leptin-, and the leptin-to-HMW adiponectin ratio (L/HMW)-, increased progressively (p<0.0001) from L to OW to OB boys and girls. When compared with L peers, OW and OB girls exhibited lower (p<0.001) HMW adiponectin levels, while in boys the HMW multimers did not differ significantly across the BMI-stratified groups. OB girls displayed higher (p<0.05) IL-8, IL-18, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels (sICAM-1) than L girls, whereas increased macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) concentrations in OB vs OW boys were seen. HMW adiponectin (negatively), leptin or inflammatory markers (positively) correlated with adiposity and IR measures. In multivariate models, leptin represented a strong and independent determinant of HOMA-IR (R2 0.378; p<0.01). Adjustment for age, BMIz-score, lipids and inflammatory mediators abolished the association between leptin and HOMA-IR in boys, while in girls leptin remained still a significant predictor of IR (R2 0.513; p<0.01). Finally, in both sexes, the joint effect of the L/HMW did not improve the prediction of basal IR as compared with leptin levels alone, which were mainly explained by the BMIz-score.
In prepubertal children, leptin emerges as a sex-independent discrimination marker of adiposity degree and as a useful, sex-associated predictor of the systemic insulin resistance.
Body Mass Index (BMI) is widely used to assess the impact of obesity on cardiometabolic risk in children but it does not always relate to central obesity and varies with growth and maturation. Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR) is a relatively constant anthropometric index of abdominal obesity across different age, sex or racial groups. However, information is scant on the utility of WHtR in assessing the status of abdominal obesity and related cardiometabolic risk profile among normal weight and overweight/obese children, categorized according to the accepted BMI threshold values.
Cross-sectional cardiometabolic risk factor variables on 3091 black and white children (56% white, 50% male), 4-18 years of age were used. Based on the age-, race- and sex-specific percentiles of BMI, the children were classified as normal weight (5th - 85th percentiles) and overweight/obese (≥ 85th percentile). The risk profiles of each group based on the WHtR (<0.5, no central obesity versus ≥ 0.5, central obesity) were compared.
9.2% of the children in the normal weight group were centrally obese (WHtR ≥0.5) and 19.8% among the overweight/obese were not (WHtR < 0.5). On multivariate analysis the normal weight centrally obese children were 1.66, 2.01, 1.47 and 2.05 times more likely to have significant adverse levels of LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin, respectively. In addition to having a higher prevalence of parental history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the normal weight central obesity group showed a significantly higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (p < 0.0001). In the overweight/obese group, those without central obesity were 0.53 and 0.27 times less likely to have significant adverse levels of HDL cholesterol and HOMA-IR, respectively (p < 0.05), as compared to those with central obesity. These overweight/obese children without central obesity also showed significantly lower prevalence of parental history of hypertension (p = 0.002), type 2 diabetes mellitus (p = 0.03) and metabolic syndrome (p < 0.0001).
WHtR not only detects central obesity and related adverse cardiometabolic risk among normal weight children, but also identifies those without such conditions among the overweight/obese children, which has implications for pediatric primary care practice.
Indices predictive of adolescent central obesity include waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Such reference data are lacking for Greek adolescents. The aim of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific WC, WHR and WHtR smoothed reference percentiles for abdominal obesity among Greek adolescents aged 12–17 years, to investigate possible obesity cut-offs of WHR and WHtR and to compare WC percentiles to other adolescent populations.
A representative sample of 1610 high school adolescents (42.2% boys, 57.8% girls; mean age ± sd 14.4 ± 1.72 years) participated in this cross-sectional study in Attica, Greece, in 2013. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), WC, hip circumference (HC), WHR and WHtR were measured and percentiles were calculated using the LMS method. The relation between WHR, WHtR and general obesity, as defined by the International Obesity Task Force, was investigated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The discriminating power of WHR and WHtR was expressed as area under the curve (AUC). Greek adolescents’ WC measurements at the 50th and 90th percentile were compared with their counterparts’ smoothed percentiles from Norway, Turkey, Poland, South India, Germany and Kuwait.
Boys had significantly higher mean in all measures than girls, except for BMI where there was no statistical difference in terms of gender. BMI, WC and HC showed an increasing trend with age. WC leveled off in both genders at the age of 17 years. WHR and WHtR showed a continuous decrease with advancing age. WHtR was a better predictor for general obesity in both boys and girls (AUC 95% CI 0.945-0.992) than the WHR (AUC 95% CI 0.758-0.870); the WHtR cut-off of 0.5 had sensitivity 91% and specificity 95% for both genders and all age groups combined. International comparisons showed that Greek adolescents had relatively high levels of abdominal obesity in early-middle adolescence but this did not persist at the age of 17 years.
These reference percentile curves could be used provisionally for early detection of abdominal obesity in Greek adolescents aged 12–17 years; WHtR of 0.5 could also be used as a threshold for obesity in this age group.
Percentiles; Waist circumference; Waist-hip ratio; Waist-height ratio; Abdominal obesity; Greece; Adolescents
The Body Mass Index (BMI) has long been used as an anthropometric measurement. Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) have been proposed as alternatives to BMI. Recently, two new anthropometric indices, the A Body Shape Index (ABSI) and Body Roundness Index (BRI) have been developed as possible improved alternatives to BMI and WC. The main research aim is to assess the capacity of the ABSI and BRI to identify subjects with diabetes mellitus (DM) and the secondary aim is to determine whether ABSI and/or BRI is superior to the traditional body indices (BMI, WC, and WHtR).
Methods and Results
This cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural areas of northeast China from January 2012 to August 2013, and the final analysis included data obtained form 5253 men and 6092 women. 1182 participants (10.4 %) suffered from DM. Spearman rank test showed that BRI and WHtR showed the highest Spearman correlation coefficient for DM whereas ABSI showed the lowest. The prevalence of DM increased across quartiles for ABSI, BMI, BRI, WC and WHtR. A multivariate logistic regression analysis of the presence of DM for the highest quartile vs. the lowest quartile of each anthropometric measure, showed that the WHtR was the best predictor of DM (OR: 2.40, 95 % CI: 1.42–3.39 in men; OR: 2.67, 95 % CI: 1.60–3.74 in women, both P < 0.001), and the ABSI was the poorest predictor of DM (OR: 1.51, 95 % CI: 1.05–1.97 in men; OR: 1.55, 95 % CI: 1.07–2.04 in women, both P < 0.05). ABSI showed the lowest AUCs (AUC: 0.61, 95 % CI: 0.58–0.63 for men; AUC: 0.61, 95 % CI: 0.59–0.63 for women) for DM in both sexes, while BRI (AUC: 0.66, 95 % CI: 0.63–0.68 for men; AUC: 0.67, 95 % CI: 0.65–0.69 for women) had high AUCs for DM that equaled those of WHtR.
Our results showed neither ABSI nor BRI were superior to BMI, WC, or WHtR for predicting the presence of DM. ABSI showed the weakest predictive ability, while BRI showed potential for use as an alternative obesity measure in assessment of DM.
Objectives: While available data exist on total body fat of rural South African children, as measured by body mass index, little is known concerning the abdominal obesity of rural South African children. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of abdominal obesity among rural South African children.
: Participants involved 1 172 rural black school children (541 boys and 631 girls) aged 10−16 years, residing in Mankweng and Toronto, both rural black settlements in Capricorn district, Limpopo province, South Africa. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured using standard techniques. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) was calculated. A WHtR ≤ 0.50 was used to determine abdominal obesity. Results were analysed using student t-test and Chi-squared statistics, with a p-value of < 0.05.
: Waist-to-height ratio showed inconsistent results in both sexes and across age groups, with no significant differences among boys and girls in all age groups. The proportion of boys with a WHtR ≥ 0.5 was 69 (12.8%), while girls were 92 (14.6%). The highest proportion of WHtR occurs at age 11 in boys, while this proportionality increases with age in girls, peaking at ages 14-16 years. Overall, 161 (13.7%) children had central obesity.
: This study indicates that abdominal obesity as measured by WHtR is prevalent among rural black South African children. The prevalence of WHtR ≥ 0.5 (13.7%) among the children is worrisome, as its signals the presence of obesity-related problems and the likely susceptibility of these sample children to future health risks. Therefore, interventions strategies are needed to reduce central obesity among children.
Abdominal obesity; Waist-to-height ratio; Rural children
Background and Purpose
Infections are important causes of postoperative morbidity after gastric surgery; currently, no factors have been identified that can predict postoperative infection. Adiponectin (ADN) mediates energy metabolism and functions as an immunomodulator. Perioperative ADN levels and perioperative immune functioning could be mutually related. Here we evaluated a potential biological marker to reliably predict the incidence of postoperative infections to prevent such comorbidities.
We analyzed 150 consecutive patients who underwent elective gastric cancer surgery at the Shiga University of Medical Science Hospital (Shiga, Japan) from 1997 to 2009; of these, most surgeries (n = 100) were performed 2008 onwards. The patient characteristics and surgery-related factors between two groups (with and without infection) were compared by the paired t-test and χ2 test, including preoperative ADN levels, postoperative day 1 ADN levels, and ADN ratio (postoperative ADN levels/preoperative ADN levels) as baseline factors. Logistic regression analysis was performed to access the independent association between ADN ratio and postoperative infection. Finally, receiver operating curves (ROCs) were constructed to examine its clinical utility.
Sixty patients (40%) experienced postoperative infections. The baseline values of age, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status, total operating time, blood loss, surgical procedure, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, preoperative ADN levels, and ADN ratio were significantly different between groups. Logistic regression analysis using these factors indicated that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and ADN ratio were significantly independent variables (*p<0.05, ** p<0.01, respectively). ROC analysis revealed that the useful cutoff values (sensitivity/specificity) for preoperative ADN levels, ADN ratio, blood loss, operating time, and CRP levels were 8.81(0.567/0.568), 0.76 (0.767/0.761), 405 g (0.717/0.693), 342 min (0.617/0.614), and 8.94 mg/dl (0.583/0.591), respectively.
T2DM and ADN ratio were independent predictors of postoperative infection and ADN ratio was the most useful predictor for postoperative infection.
This study aimed to describe the distribution of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) percentiles and cutoffs for obesity in Brazilian adolescents. A cross-sectional study including adolescents aged 10 to 15 years was conducted in the city of São Paulo, Brazil; anthropometric measurements (weight, height, and waist-circumference) were taken, and WHtRs were calculated and then divided into percentiles derived by using Least Median of Squares (LMS) regression. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used in determining cutoffs for obesity (BMI ≥97th percentile) and Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for comparing variables. The study included 8,019 adolescents from 43 schools, of whom 54.5% were female, and 74.8% attended public schools. Boys had higher mean WHtR than girls (0.45±0.06 vs 0.44±0.05; p=0.002) and higher WHtR at the 95th percentile (0.56 vs 0.54; p<0.05). The WHtR cutoffs according to the WHO criteria ranged from 0.467 to 0.506 and 0.463 to 0.496 among girls and boys respectively, with high sensitivity (82.8-95%) and specificity (84-95.5%). The WHtR was significantly associated with body adiposity measured by BMI. Its age-specific percentiles and cutoffs may be used as additional surrogate markers of central obesity and its co-morbidities.
Adolescents; Central adiposity; Obesity; Waist-to-height ratio; Brazil
Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are reported to provide direct protection to many organs by controlling inflammation and decreasing oxidant stress in patients without arteriosclerosis. This study aimed to evaluate (1) whether an ARB (candesartan) decreases values for inflammatory parameters in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus of long duration accompanied by arteriosclerosis and (2) whether there any predictors of which patients would receive the benefits of organ protection by candesartan.
We administered candesartan therapy (12 mg daily) for 6 months and evaluated whether there was improvement in serum inflammatory parameters high molecular weight adiponectin (HMW-ADN), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), highly sensitive C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in serum and urinary-8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (U-8-OHdG). We then analyzed the relationship between the degree of lowering of blood pressure and inflammatory factors and the relationship between pulse pressure and inflammatory factors. Finally, we analyzed predictive factors in patients who received the protective benefit of candesartan.
After 6 months of treatment, significant improvements from baseline values were observed in all patients in HMW-ADN and PAI-1 but not in Hs-CRP, VCAM-1 and U-8-OHdG. Multilinear regression analysis was performed to determine which factors could best predict changes in HMW-ADN and PAI-1. Changes in blood pressure were not significant predictors of changes in metabolic factors in all patients. We found that the group with baseline pulse pressure <60 mmHg had improved HMW-ADN and PAI-1 values compared with the group with baseline pulse pressure ≥ 60 mmHg. These results suggest that pulse pressure at baseline could be predictive of changes in HMW-ADN and PAI-1.
Candesartan improved inflammatory parameters (HMW-ADN and PAI-1) in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus of long duration independent of blood pressure changes. Patients with pulse pressure <60 mmHg might receive protective benefits by candesartan.
Candesartan; Angiotensin receptor blockers; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Inflammatory parameters; Pulse pressure
Evidence indicates that central adiposity has increased to a higher degree than general adiposity in children and adolescents in recent decades. However, waist circumference is not a routine measurement in clinical practice.
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abdominal obesity based on waist circumferences (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) in Spanish children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years. Further, the prevalence of abdominal obesity (AO) among normal and overweight individuals was analyzed.
Data were obtained from a study conducted from 1998 to 2000 in a representative national sample of 1521 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years (50.0% female) in Spain. WC and WHtR measurements were obtained in addition to BMI. AO was defined as WHtR ≥0.50 (WHtR-AO), sex and age specific WC≥90th percentile (WC-AO1), and sex and age specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2).
IOTF- based overweight and obsity prevalence was 21.5% and 6.6% in children and 17.4% and 5.2% in adolescents, respectively. Abdominal obesity (AO) was defined as WHtR≥0.50 (WHtR-AO), sex- and age-specific WC≥90th percentile (WC-AO1), and sex- and age-specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2). The respective prevalence of WHtR-AO, WC-AO1, and WC-AO2 was 21.3% (24.6% boys; 17.9% girls), 9.4% (9.1% boys; 9.7% girls), and 26.8% (30.6% boys;22.9% girls) in children and 14.3% (20.0% boys; 8.7% girls), 9.6% (9.8% boys; 9.5% girls), and 21.1% (28.8% boys; 13.7% girls) in adolescents.
The prevalence of AO in Spanish children and adolescents is of concern. The high proportion of AO observed in young patients who are normal weight or overweight indicates a need to include waist circumference measurements in routine clinical practice.
To clarify predictive values of C-reactive protein (CRP) and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin for development of metabolic syndrome.
Research Design and Methods
We conducted a prospective cohort study of Japanese workers who had participated in an annual health checkup in 2007 and 2011. A total of 750 subjects (558 men and 192 women, age 46±8 years) who had not met the criteria of metabolic syndrome and whose CRP and HMW-adiponectin levels had been measured in 2007 were enrolled in this study. Associations between CRP, HMW-adiponectin and development of metabolic syndrome after 4 years were assessed by logistic regression analysis and their predictive values were compared by receiver operating characteristic analysis.
Among 750 subjects, 61 (8.1%) developed metabolic syndrome defined by modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) criteria and 53 (7.1%) developed metabolic syndrome defined by Japan Society for the Study of Obesity (JASSO) in 2011. Although CRP and HMW-adiponectin were both significantly correlated with development of metabolic syndrome, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that HMW-adiponectin but not CRP was associated with metabolic syndrome independently of BMI or waist circumference. Adding these biomarkers to BMI or waist circumference did not improve the predictive value for metabolic syndrome.
Our findings indicate that the traditional markers of adiposity such as BMI or waist circumference remain superior markers for predicting metabolic syndrome compared to CRP, HMW-adiponectin, or the combination of both among the Japanese population.
Convention defines pediatric adiposity by the body mass index z-score (BMIz) referenced to normative growth charts. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) does not depend on sex-and-age references. In the HEALTHY Study enrollment sample, we compared BMIz with WHtR for ability to identify adverse cardiometabolic risk. Among 5,482 sixth-grade students from 42 middle schools, we estimated explanatory variations (R2) and standardized beta coefficients of BMIz or WHtR for cardiometabolic risk factors: insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipids, blood pressures, and glucose. For each risk outcome variable, we prepared adjusted regression models for four subpopulations stratified by sex and high versus lower fatness. For HOMA-IR, R2 attributed to BMIz or WHtR was 19%–28% among high-fatness and 8%–13% among lower-fatness students. R2 for lipid variables was 4%–9% among high-fatness and 2%–7% among lower-fatness students. In the lower-fatness subpopulations, the standardized coefficients for total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol and triglycerides tended to be weaker for BMIz (0.13–0.20) than for WHtR (0.17–0.28). Among high-fatness students, BMIz and WHtR correlated with blood pressures for Hispanics and whites, but not black boys (systolic) or girls (systolic and diastolic). In 11-12 year olds, assessments by WHtR can provide cardiometabolic risk estimates similar to conventional BMIz without requiring reference to a normative growth chart.
The preschool years are a crucial time to study the determinants of childhood obesity, as it is when eating and physical activity habits are becoming established. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of overweight and obesity among preschoolers living in the capital of Iran and to determine relationships between overweight and obesity and selected motor- and health-related fitness parameters.
Materials and Methods:
This exploratory cross-sectional study was conducted with 190 boys and 191 girls aged 5−6 years. Study children were selected from the kindergartens in Tehran, the capital of Iran. All children underwent anthropometric, motor- and health-related fitness tests. Height, body mass, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and percentage of body fat (PBF) were measured for anthropometric assessments. Sit-and-reach, modified sit-ups, modified pull-ups, the 4 m × 9 m shuttle run, the 20 m sprint test and the 20 m multistage shuttle run test were measured for motor- and health-related fitness tests. Overweight and obesity prevalence was determined by the International Obesity Task Force, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization standard criteria.
International Obesity Task Force criteria indicate almost 12% (23/190) of boys and 22.5% (43/191) of girls were overweight or obese with 4.73% (9/190) of boys and 10.99% (21/191) of girls in the obese category. Significant correlations were found between modified pull-ups test and body mass, BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, PBF in boys and modified pull-ups and modified sit-ups tests were significantly correlated with body mass, BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, and PBF in girls. Compared to their counterparts, overweight and obese boys demonstrated inferior performance in modified pull-ups and predicted VO2max and overweight and obese girls demonstrated inferior performance in modified pull-ups, modified sit-ups, 4 m × 9 m agility shuttle run and predicted VO2max
This study highlighted the relatively high prevalence of overweight and obesity in both genders of preschoolers and found that overweight and obesity were associated with poor fitness performances. The findings provided evidence to support the establishment of tailored physical fitness intervention programs to manage and prevent obesity in preschoolers.
Anthropometric measures; body mass index; childhood obesity; physical fitness; preschool children
Body mass index (BMI) is a common indirect method to assess weight status among children. There is evidence that BMI data alone can underestimate overweight-related health risk and that waist circumference (WC) should also be measured. In this study we investigated the agreement between BMI and WC and BMI and the waist-height ratio (WHtR) when used to identify overweight among children.
This cross-sectional population-based study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds (n = 7703) collected by healthcare professionals for the ‘Be active, eat right’ study.
According to age-specific and sex-specific cut-off points for BMI (IOTF, 2000) and WC (Fredriks et al., 2005), the prevalence of overweight (obesity included) was 7.0% and 7.1% among boys, and 11.6% and 10.1% among girls, respectively. For the WHtR the 90th percentile was used as the cut-off point. Among boys, observed proportion of agreement between BMI and WC classification was 0.95, Cohen’s kappa 0.58 (95% CI; 0.53-0.63), and proportions of positive and negative agreement were 0.61 and 0.97, respectively. Observed proportion of agreement between BMI and WHtR classification was 0.92, Cohen’s kappa 0.46 (95% CI; 0.41-0.51), and proportions of positive and negative agreement were 0.51 and 0.95. Children identified as overweight according to WC were relatively tall, and children classified as overweight according to the WHtR only were relatively short (comparable results for girls).
There is moderate agreement between BMI and measures of WC on the presence of overweight among 5-year-olds. If BMI data and cut-offs continue to be used, then part of the group of children identified as overweight according to WC and the WHtR will be omitted. Follow-up of the children classified as overweight according to BMI only, WC only, and WHtR only, will give indications whether WC should be measured in addition to BMI or whether WC should only be measured in certain subgroups (e.g. relatively tall or short children) to identify and monitor overweight in children. This may improve early identification and prevention of overweight and overweight-related health problems in children.
Body mass index; Waist circumference; Overweight; Preschool child; Pediatrics; Prevalence
Childhood obesity is a public health problem worldwide. Visceral obesity, particularly associated with cardio-metabolic risk, has been assessed by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, but both methods use sex-and age-specific percentile tables and are influenced by sexual maturity. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is easier to obtain, does not involve tables and can be used to diagnose visceral obesity, even in normal-weight individuals. This study aims to compare the WHtR to the 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) reference for BMI in screening for the presence of cardio-metabolic and inflammatory risk factors in 6–10-year-old children.
A cross-sectional study was undertaken with 175 subjects selected from the Reference Center for the Treatment of Children and Adolescents in Campos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The subjects were classified according to the 2007 WHO standard as normal-weight (BMI z score > −1 and < 1) or overweight/obese (BMI z score ≥ 1). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting glycemia, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride (TG), Homeostatic Model Assessment – Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), leukocyte count and ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) were also analyzed.
There were significant correlations between WHtR and BMI z score (r = 0.88, p < 0.0001), SBP (r = 0.51, p < 0.0001), DBP (r = 0.49, p < 0.0001), LDL (r = 0.25, p < 0.0008, HDL (r = −0.28, p < 0.0002), TG (r = 0.26, p < 0.0006), HOMA-IR (r = 0.83, p < 0.0001) and CRP (r = 0.51, p < 0.0001). WHtR and BMI areas under the curve were similar for all the cardio-metabolic parameters. A WHtR cut-off value of > 0.47 was sensitive for screening insulin resistance and any one of the cardio-metabolic parameters.
The WHtR was as sensitive as the 2007 WHO BMI in screening for metabolic risk factors in 6-10-year-old children. The public health message “keep your waist to less than half your height” can be effective in reducing cardio-metabolic risk because most of these risk factors are already present at a cut point of WHtR ≥ 0.5. However, as this is the first study to correlate the WHtR with inflammatory markers, we recommend further exploration of the use of WHtR in this age group and other population-based samples.
Waist-to-height ratio; Obesity; Insulin resistance; Cardiovascular disease; Body mass index
Background and Objectives:
Anthropometric variables and their relation to conventional coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors in railway employees have been inadequately studied in India. This cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Solapur division of the Central railway in the year 2004, to assess the anthropometric variables in railway employees and their relation to conventional CAD risk factors.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 995 railway employees, with 872 males and 123 females participated in this cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, fasting lipid profile, and blood sugar level. Various anthropometric indices were calculated for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and abdominal volume index (AVI). Statistical analysis was done by EPI Info 6 statistical software.
Compared to all other obesity indices, WHtR was most prevalent in both genders. High WHtR was present in 699 (80.16%) males and 103 (83.73%) females. Age ≥45 years, high systolic BP, high diastolic BP, low HDL, high triglyceride, and diabetes mellitus were positively correlated with high BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI. High BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI were negatively associated with physical inactivity.
Over all, anthropometric variables in both genders were significantly deranged in subjects with coronary risk factors. Compared to all other anthropometric variables, WHtR was statistically significantly associated with a majority of coronary artery risk factors. Hence we recommend inclusion of WHtR as a parameter of obesity to predict coronary artery disease risk factor along with WC, WHR, and BMI in epidemiologic studies.
Anthropometric variables; abdominal volume index; body mass index; waist circumference; waist-to-hip ratio; waist-to-height ratio
An increase in overweight and obesity rates among children is a major social problem; however, interpretation and comparability of estimations may be affected by the reference values and cut-off points used. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity and central obesity in 7-year-old to 10-year-old urban children and to compare the results obtained through various standards of BMI or waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) indicators.
The research was conducted on a sample group of 367 girls and 424 boys aged 6.5–10.5 years, randomly chosen from a number of primary schools in Warsaw, Poland. In all participants, basic somatic features were assessed, and based on BMI and WHtR values, participants were then classified according to different standards. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity and central obesity in boys and girls was compared using the chi-square test; fractions obtained from various BMI and WHtR standards were compared through a test for proportions; and the conformity of classification methods was assessed using Cohen’s kappa coefficient.
Approximately 9 % of girls and 6 % of boys were underweight, 15 % of all participants was classified as overweight, and approximately 4 % of girls and 6 % of boys aged 7–10 were obese. Central obesity was diagnosed in 18.6–20.9 % of all participants, while another 7.1 % of girls and 7.5 % of boys displayed symptoms of excessive fat deposition characterized by elevated body fat percentages. Even though the prevalence estimations varied depending on the standards used, the overall classification compliance reached 86–94 % with a Cohen’s kappa coefficient ranging from 0.676 to 0.841.
The prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity among urban children is comparable to estimates for the general population. Of particular concern, in terms of health and proper physical development, is the problem of central obesity that affects one out of five children. The use of reference values representing body fat percentage seems justified as it allows for a more precise diagnosis of weight-related disorders, including the particularly threatening abdominal obesity.
Weight-height relationships; Central obesity; Classification consistency; Children
Latinos in the United States have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes than non-Latino whites, even after controlling for adiposity. Decreased adiponectin is associated with insulin resistance and predicts T2DM, and therefore may mediate this ethnic difference. We compared total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin in Latino versus white individuals, identified factors associated with adiponectin in each ethnic group, and measured the contribution of adiponectin to ethnic differences in insulin resistance.
We utilized cross-sectional data from subjects in the Latinos Using Cardio Health Actions to reduce Risk study. Participants were Latino (n = 119) and non-Latino white (n = 60) men and women with hypertension and at least one other risk factor for CVD (age 61 ± 10 yrs, 49% with T2DM), seen at an integrated community health and hospital system in Denver, Colorado. Total and HMW adiponectin was measured by RIA and ELISA respectively. Fasting glucose and insulin were used to calculate the homeostasis model insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Variables independently associated with adiponectin levels were identified by linear regression analyses. Adiponectin's contribution to ethnic differences in insulin resistance was assessed in multivariate linear regression models of Latino ethnicity, with logHOMA-IR as a dependent variable, adjusting for possible confounders including age, gender, adiposity, and renal function.
Mean adiponectin levels were lower in Latino than white patients (beta estimates: -4.5 (-6.4, -2.5), p < 0.001 and -1.6 (-2.7, -0.5), p < 0.005 for total and HMW adiponectin), independent of age, gender, BMI/waist circumference, thiazolidinedione use, diabetes status, and renal function. An expected negative association between adiponectin and waist circumference was seen among women and non-Latino white men, but no relationship between these two variables was observed among Latino men. Ethnic differences in logHOMA-IR were no longer observed after controlling for adiponectin levels.
Among patients with CVD risk, total and HMW adiponectin is lower in Latinos, independent of adiposity and other known regulators of adiponectin. Ethnic differences in adiponectin regulation may exist and future research in this area is warranted. Adiponectin levels accounted for the observed variability in insulin resistance, suggesting a contribution of decreased adiponectin to insulin resistance in Latino populations.
Monitoring secular trends in blood pressure (BP) among children is important in predicting subsequent hypertension and cardiovascular disease. We investigated secular trends in BP using data from population-based annual screenings of Japanese schoolchildren.
The participants were 10 894 children (all fourth graders between 1994 and 2010 and all seventh graders between 1997 and 2010) living in the town of Ina in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. Body height, weight, and BP were measured, after which children were classified as non-overweight, overweight, or obese. Trends in variables relative to calendar year were analyzed using regression models.
Systolic BP was significantly associated with calendar year among fourth- and seventh-grade boys (−0.350 and −0.434 mm Hg/year, respectively) and fourth- and seventh-grade girls (−0.513 and −0.473 mm Hg/year, respectively) (all P < 0.001), respectively, over time. Systolic BP and calendar year were significantly negatively correlated regardless of physique or sex among all fourth graders, but not among obese seventh-grade girls. In addition, diastolic BP and calendar year did not significantly correlate among seventh-grade overweight or obese boys or obese seventh-grade girls.
BP decreased among fourth-grade schoolchildren in Ina during the past 17 years, regardless of sex or physique. However, BP and calendar year did not significantly correlate among obese seventh graders.
blood pressure; body mass index; schoolchildren; secular trends
The body mass index (BMI) is the most commonly used marker for evaluating obesity related risks, however, central obesity measures have been proposed to be more informative. Lipid accumulation product (LAP) is an alternative continuous index of lipid accumulation, which is computed from waist circumference (WC, cm) and triglycerides (TGs, mmol/l): (WC-65) ×TG (men) and (WC-58) ×TG (women). We sought in this study to assess if LAP can outperform BMI, waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR), or waist-to-hip-ratio (WHpR) in identifying prevalent and predicting incident diabetes.
The cross-sectional analyses were performed on a sample included 3,682 men and 4,989 women who were not pregnant, aged ≥ 20 years. According to the age (≥ 50 and <50 years) - and sex-specific analyses, odds ratios (ORs) of LAP for prevalent diabetes were higher than those of BMI, WHpR, or WHtR among women, after adjustment for mean arterial pressure and family history of diabetes. The OR of LAP in old men was lower than those of other adiposity measures; in young men, however, LAP was superior to BMI but identical to WHpR and WHtR in identifying prevalent diabetes. Except in young men, LAP showed highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AROC) for prevalent diabetes (P for trend ≤ 0.005).
For longitudinal analyses, a total of 5,018 non-diabetic subjects were followed for ~6 years. The ORs of BMI, WHpR, and WHtR were the same as those of LAP in both sexes and across age groups; except in young men where LAP was superior to the BMI. AROCs of LAP were relatively the same as anthropometric adiposity measures.
LAP was a strong predictor of diabetes and in young individuals had better predictability than did BMI; it was, however, similar to WHpR and WHtR in prediction of incident diabetes.
Paediatric research analysing the relationship between the easy-to-use anthropometric measures for adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors remains highly controversial in youth. Several studies suggest that only body mass index (BMI), a measure of relative weight, constitutes an accurate predictor, whereas others highlight the potential role of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (Waist C), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). In this study, we examined the effectiveness of adding anthropometric measures of body fat distribution (Waist C Z Score, WHR Z Score and/or WHtR) to BMI Z Score to predict cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese youth. We also examined the consistency of these associations with the “total fat mass + trunk/legs fat mass” and/or the “total fat mass + trunk fat mass” combinations, as assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the gold standard measurement of body composition.
Anthropometric and DXA measurements of total and regional adiposity, as well as a comprehensive assessment of cardiometabolic, inflammatory and adipokines profiles were performed in 203 overweight and obese 7–17 year-old youths from the Paediatrics Clinic, Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg.
Adding only one anthropometric surrogate of regional fat to BMI Z Score improved the prediction of insulin resistance (WHR Z Score, R2: 45.9 %. Waist C Z Score, R2: 45.5 %), HDL-cholesterol (WHR Z Score, R2: 9.6 %. Waist C Z Score, R2: 10.8 %. WHtR, R2: 6.5 %), triglycerides (WHR Z Score, R2: 11.7 %. Waist C Z Score, R2: 12.2 %), adiponectin (WHR Z Score, R2: 14.3 %. Waist C Z Score, R2: 17.7 %), CRP (WHR Z Score, R2: 18.2 %. WHtR, R2: 23.3 %), systolic (WHtR, R2: 22.4 %), diastolic blood pressure (WHtR, R2: 20 %) and fibrinogen (WHtR, R2: 21.8 %). Moreover, WHR Z Score, Waist C Z Score and/or WHtR showed an independent significant contribution according to these models. These results were in line with the DXA findings.
Adding anthropometric measures of regional adiposity to BMI Z Score improves the prediction of cardiometabolic, inflammatory and adipokines profiles in youth.
Obesity; Overweight; Body mass index; Body fat distribution; DXA; Anthropometry