For the embryos and tadpoles of amphibian species, exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation (UVBR) can be lethal, or cause a variety of sublethal effects. Low temperatures enhance the detrimental effects of UVBR and this is most likely because the enzyme-mediated processes involved in the repair of UVBR-induced damage function less effectively at low temperatures. Whether these repair processes are also impaired, and thus the negative effects of UVBR similarly enhanced, at high temperatures is not known, but is an ecologically relevant question to ask given that organisms that inhabit environments where the temperature fluctuates widely on a daily timescale are likely to experience high doses of UVBR when temperatures are high. Here we examined the thermal-dependence of UVBR effects in the context of an ecologically-relevant fluctuating UVBR and temperature regime to test the hypothesis that exposure to peak UVBR levels while the temperature is high (35°C) is more detrimental to embryonic and larval Limnodynastes peronii than exposure to peak UVBR levels while the temperature is moderate (25°C). Embryos exposed to peak UVBR levels at 35°C hatched 10 h later than those exposed to peak UVBR levels at 25°C and, as tadpoles, were smaller and consequently swam more slowly but, in an environment with predators, exhibited no difference in survival time. There was also no effect of experimental treatment on the hatching success of embryos, nor on the post-hatch survival of tadpoles. These findings, therefore, are not sufficiently strong to support our hypothesis that high temperatures enhance the negative effects of UVBR in embryonic and larval amphibians.
Amphibian declines; Ultraviolet radiation; Temperature; Locomotor performance; Predation
Ostreococcus spp. are extremely small unicellular eukaryotic green algae found worldwide in marine environments, and they are susceptible to attacks by a diverse group of large DNA viruses. Several biologically distinct species of Ostreococcus are known and differ in the ecological niches that they occupy: while O. tauri (representing clade C strains) is found in marine lagoons and coastal seas, strains belonging to clade A, exemplified by O. lucimarinus, are present in different oceans. We used laboratory cultures of clonal isolates of these two species to assay for the presence of viruses in seawater samples from diverse locations. In keeping with the distributions of their host strains, we found a decline in the abundance of O. tauri viruses from a lagoon in southwest France relative to the Mediterranean Sea, whereas in the ocean, no O. tauri viruses were detected. In contrast, viruses infecting O. lucimarinus were detected from distantly separated oceans. DNA sequencing, phylogenetic analyses using a conserved viral marker gene, and a Mantel test revealed no relationship between geographic and phylogenetic distances in viruses infecting O. lucimarinus.
The reduced concentration of stratospheric ozone results in an increased flux of biologically damaging mid-ultraviolet radiation (UVB, 280 to 320 nm) reaching earth surfaces. Environmentally relevant levels of UVB negatively impact various natural populations of marine organisms, which is ascribed to suppressed embryonic development by increased radiation.
Inspired by strategies in the living systems generated by evolution, we induce an extra UVB-adsorbed coat on the chorion (eggshell surrounding embryo) of zebrafish, during the blastula period. Short and long UV exposure experiments show that the artificial mineral-shell reduces the UV radiation effectively and the enclosed embryos become more robust. In contrast, the uncoated embryos cannot survive under the enhanced UVB condition.
We suggest that an engineered shell of functional materials onto biological units can be developed as a strategy to shield lives to counteract negative changes of global environment, or to provide extra protection for the living units in biological research.
A number of studies have failed to find evidence for negative effects of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVBR) on amphibian early-embryonic performance, leading to the conclusions, first, that the embryonic stages of many species are tolerant to UVBR, and second, that the increased amount of UVBR reaching the Earth's surface is not likely to have any direct negative effects on many amphibian populations. However, possible carry-over effects of exposure to UVBR in the embryonic stages to the larval stages have received less attention. We studied the effects of UVBR experienced during the embryonic stages (age less than 11 days) on the later performance (age 11-75 days) of common frog, Rana temporaria, larvae. In a factorial laboratory experiment, newly fertilized embryos were divided into three different UVBR treatments (no UVBR (control), 1.25 kJm(-2) (normal) and 1.58 kJm(-2) (26% enhanced)), after which the individual larvae were raised until metamorphosis in the absence of UVBR. No effects of UVBR on embryonic survival rates, frequency of developmental anomalies or hatchling size were found, corroborating the earlier results indicating that R. temporaria embryos are tolerant to UVBR. However, analyses of larval performance revealed that larvae exposed to enhanced levels of UVBR as embryos suffered from an increased frequency of developmental anomalies and metamorphosed later and at a smaller size than larvae that had been protected from UVBR as embryos. These results suggest, in contrast to the earlier studies, that UVBR has direct negative effects on R. temporaria embryos, but these effects are expressed mostly or only during the later life stages. To this end, our results support the contention that carry-over effects from one life stage to another may be an important source of phenotypic variation in fitness.
Human skin is exposed to solar ultraviolet radiation comprising UVB (280–315 nm) and UVA (315–400 nm) on a daily basis. Within the last two decades, the molecular and cellular response to UVA/UVB and the possible effects on human health have been investigated extensively. It is generally accepted that the mutagenic and carcinogenic properties of UVB is due to the direct interaction with DNA. On the other hand, by interaction with non-DNA chromophores as endogenous photosensitizers, UVA induces formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which play a pivotal role as mediators of UVA-induced injuries in human skin. This review gives a short overview about relevant findings concerning the molecular mechanisms underlying UVA/UVB-induced cell death. Furthermore, we will highlight the potential role of cutaneous antioxidants and photolabile nitric oxide derivates (NODs) in skin physiology. UVA-induced decomposition of the NODs, like nitrite, leads not only to non-enzymatic formation of nitric oxide (NO), but also to toxic reactive nitrogen species (RNS), like peroxynitrite. Whereas under antioxidative conditions the generation of protective amounts of NO is favored, under oxidative conditions, less injurious reactive nitrogen species are generated, which may enhance UVA-induced cell death.
UVA; nitrite; nitric oxide; cell death; lipid peroxidation; apoptosis; necrosis; antioxidants
Marine ecosystems are undergoing substantial changes due to human-induced pressures. Analysis of long-term data series is a valuable tool for understanding naturally and anthropogenically induced changes in plankton communities. In the present study, seasonal monitoring data were collected in three sub-basins of the northern Baltic Sea between 1979 and 2011 and statistically analysed for trends and interactions between surface water hydrography, inorganic nutrient concentrations and phyto- and zooplankton community composition. The most conspicuous hydrographic change was a significant increase in late summer surface water temperatures over the study period. In addition, salinity decreased and dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations increased in some basins. Based on redundancy analysis (RDA), warming was the key environmental factor explaining the observed changes in plankton communities: the general increase in total phytoplankton biomass, Cyanophyceae, Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyceae, and decrease in Cryptophyceae throughout the study area, as well as increase in rotifers and decrease in total zooplankton, cladoceran and copepod abundances in some basins. We conclude that the plankton communities in the Baltic Sea have shifted towards a food web structure with smaller sized organisms, leading to decreased energy available for grazing zooplankton and planktivorous fish. The shift is most probably due to complex interactions between warming, eutrophication and increased top-down pressure due to overexploitation of resources, and the resulting trophic cascades.
Natural and human-induced controls on carbon dioxide (CO2) in tropical waters may be very dynamic (over time and among or within ecosystems) considering the potential role of warmer temperatures intensifying metabolic responses and playing a direct role on the balance between photosynthesis and respiration. The high magnitude of biological processes at low latitudes following eutrophication by nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) inputs into coastal lagoons waters may be a relevant component of the carbon cycle, showing controls on partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) that are still poorly understood. Here we assessed the strength of N control on pCO2 in P-enriched humic and clear coastal lagoons waters, using four experimental treatments in microcosms: control (no additional nutrients) and three levels of N additions coupled to P enrichments. In humic coastal lagoons waters, a persistent CO2 supersaturation was reported in controls and all nutrient-enriched treatments, ranging from 24- to 4-fold the atmospheric equilibrium value. However, both humic and clear coastal lagoons waters only showed significant decreases in pCO2 in relation to the controlled microcosms in the two treatments with higher N addition levels. Additionally, clear coastal lagoons water microcosms showed a shift from CO2 sources to CO2 sinks, in relation to the atmosphere. Only in the two more N-enriched treatments did pCO2 substantially decrease, from 650 µatm in controls and less N-enriched treatments to 10 µatm in more N-enriched microcosms. Humic substrates and N inputs can modulate pCO2 even in P-enriched coastal lagoons waters, thereby being important drivers on CO2 outgassing from inland waters.
eutrophication; pCO2; nitrogen; humic coastal lagoons; clear water coastal lagoons
Small eukaryotes, cells with a diameter of less than 5 μm, are fundamental components of lacustrine planktonic systems. In this study, small-eukaryote diversity was determined by sequencing cloned 18S rRNA genes in three libraries from lakes of differing trophic status in the Massif Central, France: the oligotrophic Lake Godivelle, the oligomesotrophic Lake Pavin, and the eutrophic Lake Aydat. This analysis shows that the least diversified library was in the eutrophic lake (12 operational taxonomic units [OTUs]) and the most diversified was in the oligomesotrophic lake (26 OTUs). Certain groups were present in at least two ecosystems, while the others were specific to one lake on the sampling date. Cryptophyta, Chrysophyceae, and the strictly heterotrophic eukaryotes, Ciliophora and fungi, were identified in the three libraries. Among the small eukaryotes found only in two lakes, Choanoflagellida and environmental sequences (LKM11) were not detected in the eutrophic system whereas Cercozoa were confined to the oligomesotrophic and eutrophic lakes. Three OTUs, linked to the Perkinsozoa, were detected only in the Aydat library, where they represented 60% of the clones of the library. Chlorophyta and Haptophyta lineages were represented by a single clone and were present only in Godivelle and Pavin, respectively. Of the 127 clones studied, classical pigmented organisms (autotrophs and mixotrophs) represented only a low proportion regardless of the library's origin. This study shows that the small-eukaryote community composition may differ as a function of trophic status; certain lineages could be detected only in a single ecosystem.
Upon UVB irradiation, an alternation of major lipid raft components can lead to the recruitment/activation of rafts-associated proteins and initiation of downstream apoptotic signaling pathways. To identify potential regulators of UVB-induced apoptosis, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry fingerprint analysis to identify proteins that are altered in the rafts after UVB irradiation. Our data shows that levels of several proteins, including prohibitin (PHB), were changed in lipid rafts after UVB irradiation. We also demonstrate that while total PHB expression was not changed, the protein was enriched in lipid rafts after UVB irradiation. Reduced expression of PHB using siRNA knockdown resulted in an increase in cellular apoptosis after UVB irradiation. Based on these results, we propose that PHB protects keratinocytes from UVB-induced apoptosis.
Ultraviolet light; lipid rafts; prohibitin
Most of the positive effects of solar radiation are mediated via ultraviolet-B (UVB) induced production of vitamin D in skin. However, several other pathways may exist for the action of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on humans as focused on in this review. One is induction of cosmetic tanning (immediate pigment darkening, persistent pigment darkening and delayed tanning). UVB-induced, delayed tanning (increases melanin in skin after several days), acts as a sunscreen. Several human skin diseases, like psoriasis, vitiligo, atopic dermatitis and localized scleroderma, can be treated with solar radiation (heliotherapy) or artificial UV radiation (phototherapy). UV exposure can suppress the clinical symptoms of multiple sclerosis independently of vitamin D synthesis. Furthermore, UV generates nitric oxide (NO), which may reduce blood pressure and generally improve cardiovascular health. UVA-induced NO may also have antimicrobial effects and furthermore, act as a neurotransmitter. Finally, UV exposure may improve mood through the release of endorphins.
ultraviolet radiation; tanning; photoprotection; heliotherapy; phototherapy; vitamin D synthesis; nitric oxide
This study focused on the protective actions of Empetrum nigrum against ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation in human HaCaT keratinocytes. An ethyl acetate extract of E. nigrum (ENE) increased cell viability decreased by exposure to UVB rays. ENE also absorbed UVB radiation and scavenged UVB-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HaCaT keratinocytes. In addition, ENE shielded HaCaT keratinocytes from damage to cellular components (e.g., peroxidation of lipids, modification of proteins, and breakage of DNA strands) following UVB irradiation. Furthermore, ENE protected against UVB-induced apoptotic cell death, as determined by a reduction in the numbers of apoptotic bodies and sub-G1 hypodiploid cells, as well as by the recovery of mitochondrial membrane potential. The results of the current study therefore suggest that ENE safeguards human keratinocytes against UVB-induced cellular damage via the absorption of UVB ray and scavenging of UVB-generated ROS.
Exposure of skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces photo-damage. Ultraviolet B (UVB) is the major component of UV radiation which induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and plays an important role in photo-damage. Hydrogen gas reduces ROS and alleviates inflammation. In this study, we sought to demonstrate that hydrogen-rich saline has the effect on skin injuries caused by UVB radiation. UVB radiation was irradiated on female C57BL/6 rats to induce skin injury. Hydrogen-rich saline and nitrogen-rich saline were administered to rats by intraperitoneal injection. Skin damage was detected by microscope after injury. UVB radiation had a significant affection in tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels, tissue superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide activity. Hydrogen-rich saline had a protective effect by altering the levels of these markers and relieved morphological skin injury. Hydrogen-rich saline protected against UVB radiation injury, possibly by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress.
ultraviolet B; photo-damage; oxidative stress; hydrogen-rich saline; skin
Anthropogenic impacts, including urbanization, deforestation, farming, and livestock grazing have altered riparian margins worldwide. One effect of changes to riparian vegetation is that the ground-level light, temperature, and humidity environment has also been altered. Galaxias maculatus, one of the most widely distributed fishes of the southern hemisphere, lays eggs almost exclusively beneath riparian vegetation in tidally influenced reaches of rivers. We hypothesized that the survival of these eggs is greatly affected by the micro-environment afforded by vegetation, particularly relating to temperature, humidity and UVB radiation. We experimentally reduced riparian vegetation height and altered shading characteristics, tracked egg survival, and used small ground-level temperature, humidity and UVB sensors to relate survival to ground-level effects around egg masses. The ground-level physical environment was markedly different from the surrounding ambient conditions. Tall dense riparian vegetation modified ambient conditions to produce a buffered temperature regime with constant high relative humidity, generally above 90%, and negligible UVB radiation at ground-level. Where vegetation height was reduced, frequent high temperatures, low humidity, and high UVB irradiances reduced egg survival by up to 95%. Temperature effects on egg survival were probably indirect, through reduced humidity, because developing eggs are known to survive in a wide range of temperatures. In this study, it was remarkable how such small variations in relatively small sites could have such a large effect on egg survival. It appears that modifications to riparian vegetation and the associated changes in the physical conditions of egg laying sites are major mechanisms affecting egg survival. The impacts associated with vegetational changes through human-induced disturbances are complex yet potentially devastating. These effects are particularly important because they affect a very small portion of habitat that is required to complete the life history of a species, despite the wide distribution of adults and juveniles across aquatic and marine environments.
Accelerated global warming is predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) due to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The climate changes are anticipated to have a long-term impact on human health, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources and vegetation. Due to rising sea levels, low lying coastal regions will be flooded, farmlands will be threatened and scarcity of fresh water resources will be aggravated. This will in turn cause increased human suffering in different parts of the world. Spread of disease vectors will contribute towards high mortality, along with the heat related deaths. Arid and hot climatic regions will face devastating effects risking survival of the fragile plant species, wild animals, and other desert ecosystems. The paper presents future changes in temperature, precipitation and humidity and their direct and indirect potential impacts on human health in the coastal regions of the Gulf countries including Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Bahrain. The analysis is based on the long-term changes in the values of temperature, precipitation and humidity as predicted by the global climatic simulation models under different scenarios of GHG emission levels. Monthly data on temperature, precipitation, and humidity were retrieved from IPCC databases for longitude 41.25°E to 61.875°E and latitude 9.278°N to 27.833°N. Using an average of 1970 to 2000 values as baseline, the changes in the humidity, temperature and precipitation were predicted for the period 2020 to 2050 and 2070 to 2099. Based on epidemiological studies on various diseases associated with the change in temperature, humidity and precipitation in arid and hot regions, empirical models were developed to assess human health risk in the Gulf region to predict elevated levels of diseases and mortality rates under different emission scenarios as developed by the IPCC. The preliminary assessment indicates increased mortality rates due to cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, thermal stress, and increased frequency of infectious vector borne diseases in the region between 2070 and 2099.
Climate change; Human health; Gulf countries
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, in particular the mid-wavelength range (UVB; 290–320 nm), is one of the most significant risk factors for the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. UVB radiation-induced immunosuppression, which occurs in both humans and laboratory animals, contributes to their pathogenesis. However, there are conflicting reports on the relative role of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in UVB induced skin cancer. The purpose of this study was to delineate the contribution of these two cell subpopulations to UVB induced immunosuppression and tumor development using C3H/HeN (WT), CD4 knockout (CD4−/−) and CD8 knockout (CD8−/−) mice. We observed that UVB induced skin carcinogenesis was retarded in terms of number of tumors per group, tumor volume and percentage of mice with tumors, in mice deficient in CD4+ T-cells compared to wild-type mice, whereas significantly greater (p<0.05) numbers of tumors occurred in CD8−/− mice. These results indicate that, CD4+ T-cells promote tumor development while CD8+ T-cells have the opposite effect. Further, we found that CD4+ T cells from tumor-bearing mice produced IL-4, IL-10, and IL-17 whereas CD8+ T cells produced IFN-γ. Manipulation of T-cell subpopulations that are induced by UVB radiation could be a means of preventing skin cancers caused by this agent.
• Background Depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer leads to an increase in ultraviolet-B (UVB: 280–320 nm) radiation reaching the earth's surface, and the enhanced solar UVB radiation predicted by atmospheric models will result in reduction of growth and yield of crops in the future. Over the last two decades, extensive studies of the physiological, biochemical and morphological effects of UVB in plants, as well as the mechanisms of UVB resistance, have been carried out.
• Scope In this review, we describe recent research into the mechanisms of UVB resistance in higher plants, with an emphasis on rice (Oryza sativa), one of the world's most important staple food crops. Recent studies have brought to light the following remarkable findings. UV-absorbing compounds accumulating in the epidermal cell layers have traditionally been considered to function as UV filters, and to play an important role in countering the damaging effects of UVB radiation. Although these compounds are effective in reducing cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) induction in plants exposed to a challenge exposure to UVB, certain levels of CPD are maintained constitutively in light conditions containing UVB, regardless of the quantity or presence of visible light. These findings imply that the systems for repairing DNA damage and scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential for plants to grow in light conditions containing UVB.
• Conclusion CPD photolyase activity is a crucial factor determining the differences in UVB sensitivity between rice cultivars. The substitution of one or two bases in the CPD photolyase gene can alter the activity of the enzyme, and the associated resistance of the plant to UVB radiation. These findings open up the possibility, in the near future, of increasing the resistance of rice to UVB radiation, by selective breeding or bioengineering of the genes encoding CPD photolyase.
Ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB: 280–320 nm); rice (Oryza sativa); cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD); CPD photolyase; reactive oxygen species (ROS); UV-absorbing compounds; UVB resistance; UVB sensitivity; photorepair; dark repair; bioengineering; selective breeding
The aim of this study was to investigate the cytoprotective properties of the ethyl acetate fraction of Sargassum muticum (SME) against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced cell damage in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). SME exhibited scavenging activity toward the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and UVB-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). SME also scavenged the hydroxyl radicals generated by the Fenton reaction (FeSO4 + H2O2), which was detected using electron spin resonance spectrometry. In addition, SME decreased the level of lipid peroxidation that was increased by UVB radiation, and restored the level of protein expression and the activities of antioxidant enzymes that were decreased by UVB radiation. Furthermore, SME reduced UVB-induced apoptosis as shown by decreased DNA fragmentation and numbers of apoptotic bodies. These results suggest that SME protects human keratinocytes against UVB-induced oxidative stress by enhancing antioxidant activity in cells, thereby inhibiting apoptosis.
Sargassum muticum; ultraviolet B; reactive oxygen species; HaCaT cells; apoptosis
The basic leucine zipper transcription factor, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), is abundantly expressed in keratinocytes of the skin; however, its function in skin is poorly characterized. UVB radiation is responsible for the majority of human skin cancers. In response to UVB-induced DNA damage, keratinocytes activate cell cycle checkpoints that arrest cell cycle progression and prevent replication of damaged DNA, allowing time for DNA repair. We report here that UVB radiation is a potent inducer of C/EBPα in human and mouse keratinocytes, as well as in mouse skin in vivo. UVB irradiation of keratinocytes resulted in the transcriptional up-regulation of C/EBPα mRNA, producing a >70-fold increase in C/EBPα protein levels. N-Methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, etoposide, and bleomycin also induced C/EBPα. UVB-induced C/EBPα was accompanied by an increase in p53 protein and caffeine, an inhibitor of ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated kinase, and ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related kinase inhibited UVB-induced increases in both C/EBPα and p53. UVB irradiation of p53-null or mutant p53-containing keratinocytes failed to induce C/EBPα. UVB irradiation of C/EBPα knockdown keratinocytes displayed a greatly diminished DNA damage G1 checkpoint, and this was associated with increased sensitivity to UVB-induced apoptosis. Our results uncover a novel role for C/EBPα as a p53-regulated DNA damage-inducible gene that has a critical function in the DNA damage G1 checkpoint response in keratinocytes.
Very small eukaryotic organisms (picoeukaryotes) are fundamental components of marine planktonic systems, often accounting for a significant fraction of the biomass and activity in a system. Their identity, however, has remained elusive, since the small cells lack morphological features for identification. We determined the diversity of marine picoeukaryotes by sequencing cloned 18S rRNA genes in five genetic libraries from North Atlantic, Southern Ocean, and Mediterranean Sea surface waters. Picoplankton were obtained by filter size fractionation, a step that excluded most large eukaryotes and recovered most picoeukaryotes. Genetic libraries of eukaryotic ribosomal DNA were screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and at least one clone of each operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was partially sequenced. In general, the phylogenetic diversity in each library was rather great, and each library included many different OTUs and members of very distantly related phylogenetic groups. Of 225 eukaryotic clones, 126 were affiliated with algal classes, especially the Prasinophyceae, the Prymnesiophyceae, the Bacillariophyceae, and the Dinophyceae. A minor fraction (27 clones) was affiliated with clearly heterotrophic organisms, such as ciliates, the chrysomonad Paraphysomonas, cercomonads, and fungi. There were two relatively abundant novel lineages, novel stramenopiles (53 clones) and novel alveolates (19 clones). These lineages are very different from any organism that has been isolated, suggesting that there are previously unknown picoeukaryotes. Prasinophytes and novel stramenopile clones were very abundant in all of the libraries analyzed. These findings underscore the importance of attempts to grow the small eukaryotic plankton in pure culture.
Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces various harmful effects in the tissues, particularly disruption of the epidermal barrier. However, ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation has been applied in the treatment of atopic dermatitis, a skin disease in which the epidermal barrier is defective. We reviewed the homeostasis of the epidermal barrier and several studies investigating the adverse and beneficial effects caused by different doses of UVB irradiation in the epidermal barrier. It may be concluded that, despite the harmful effects of UVB irradiation on the skin, UVB irradiation is able to exert beneficial effects in the epidermal barrier when administered in suberythemal doses and over a relatively short period of time, with no clinically evident inflammation or barrier disruption. This may be a useful therapeutic strategy for the use of UVB irradiation in the treatment of skin diseases with a disrupted epidermal barrier, such as atopic dermatitis, while reducing or avoiding the side-effects.
epidermal barrier; ultraviolet B; suberythemal dose; covalently bound ceramides; calcium gradient; vitamin D3
Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a common complication of herpes zoster that is frequently unresponsive to most of the available treatment modalities. Broad band ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) has a well-known anti-inflammatory effect. Moreover, it decreases neural damage and cutaneous nerve density. It was found that broad band UVB might have a role in the prevention and treatment of PHN.
This study was carried out to evaluate the effect ofnarrow band UVB (nbUVB) in the treatment PHN.
Patients and Methods:
The study included 17 patients with distressing post herpetic neuralgia. Patients were evaluated using the Verbal Rating Scale (VRS). The patients received nbUVB sessions, three times a week, for a total of 15 sessions or until the pain disappeared. Patients were followed up for a period of 3 months after the end of therapy.
Using intention to treat analysis, more than 50% improvement was achieved in 6 (35.29%) and 8 (47.06%) patients, at the end of therapy and after 3 months follow up, respectively. An improvement less that 50% was achieved in 11 (64.71%) and 9 (52.94%) patients, at the end of therapy and after 3 months follow up, respectively. The pain severity assessed by the VRS significantly improved both at the end of sessions (P = 0.005) and after 3 months follow up (P = 0.005).
nbUVB may be of beneficial use in the treatment of PHN.
Small number of patients and limited follow-up period.
Postherpetic neuralgia; narrow band ultraviolet B; neuropathic pain
The aim of our study was to compare serum concentration of
IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α in 105
healthy volunteers before and after exposure to UVR: 25 subjects
(10 days of UVB), 55 (10 days of UVB or solar-simulated radiation,
followed by acute UVB dose), and 25 (local high dose of UVB). In
all the individuals blood samples were analyzed before and after
final irradiation by chemiluminescence assay. After 10 days of UVB
irradiation a statistically significant increase in serum
concentration only in IL-8 (P < .05) and strong tendency in
TNF-α (P = .05) were observed. The applied
schedules of irradiation have minor impact on serum cytokine level
and still a threshold dose of UVR causing systemic immune
impairment is unknown.
The aim of this study was to investigate high molecular weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA) protection on human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells against ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation-induced toxic effects.
The HCE cell line was incubated with HMW-HA or phosphate-buffered salt solution (PBS), rinsed, and exposed to UVB radiation. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) levels, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) release, p53 phosphorylation, caspase-3, -8, -9 activation, and interleukin (IL)-6 and -8 production were assessed to evaluate and to compare UVB-induced toxicity between cells treated with HMW-HA and cells treated with PBS.
Data indicate that HMW-HA had significant protective effects against UVB radiation. HMW-HA increased HCE cell viability, decreased IL-6 and -8 production, and decreased caspase-3 and -8 activation. However, HMW-HA had no significant effect on ROS and GSH levels, 8-oxo-dG release, and p53 phosphorylation.
To our knowledge, we report for the first time the ability of HMW-HA to protect cells against UV irradiation. According to our results, HMW-HA provides anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic signals to cells exposed to UVB.
Different wavelengths of ultraviolet (UV) radiation elicit different responses in the skin. UVA induces immediate tanning and persistent pigment darkening through oxidation of pre-existing melanin or melanogenic precursors, while UVB induces delayed tanning which takes several days or longer to develop and requires activation of melanocytes. We compared the effects of a two-week repetitive exposure of human skin to solar-simulated radiation (SSR), UVA or UVB at doses eliciting comparable levels of visible tanning and measured levels of melanins and melanin-related metabolites. Levels of eumelanin and pheomelanin were significantly higher in the order of SSR, UVB, UVA or unexposed control skin. Levels of free 5-S-cysteinyldopa (5SCD) were elevated about four-fold in SSR- or UVB-exposed skin compared with UVA-exposed or control skin. Levels of protein-bound form of 5SCD tended to be higher in SSR- or UVB-exposed skin than in UVA-exposed or control skin. Total levels of 5-hydroxy-6-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (5H6MI2C) and 6H5MI2C were higher in SSR- than in UVB-exposed or control skin. These results show that SSR is more effective in promoting delayed tanning than UVB radiation alone, suggesting a synergistic effect of UVA radiation. Furthermore, free 5SCD may serve as a good marker of the effect of SSR and UVB.
ultraviolet; solar radiation; melanin; eumelanin; pheomelanin; 5-S-cysteinyldopa; 5(6)-hydroxy-6(5)-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid
Due to the stratospheric ozone depletion, several organisms will become exposed to increased biologically active UVB (280–320 nm) radiation, not only at polar but also at temperate and tropical latitudes. Bloom forming cyanobacteria are exposed to UVB radiation on a mass scale, particularly during the surface bloom and scum formation that can persist for long periods of time. All buoyant species of cyanobacteria are at least periodically exposed to higher irradiation during their vertical migration to the surface that usually occurs several times a day. The aim of this study is to assess the influence on cyanobacteria of UVB radiation at realistic environmental intensities. The effects of two UVB intensities of 0.5 and 0.99 W/m2 in up to 0.5 cm water depth were studied in vitro on Microcystis aeruginosa strains, two microcystin producing and one non-producing. After UVB exposure their ability to proliferate was estimated by cell counting, while cell fitness and integrity were evaluated using light microscopy, autofluorescence and immunofluorescence. Gene damage was assessed by TUNEL assay and SYBR Green staining of the nucleoide area. We conclude that UVB exposure causes damage to the genetic material, cytoskeletal elements, higher sedimentation rates and consequent cell death. In contrast to microcystin producers (PCC7806 and FACHB905), the microcystin non-producing strain PCC7005 is more susceptible to the deleterious effects of radiation, with weak recovery ability. The ecological relevance of the results is discussed using data from eleven years’ continuous UVB radiation measurements within the area of Ljubljana city (Slovenia, Central Europe). Our results suggest that increased solar radiation in temperate latitudes can have its strongest effect during cyanobacterial bloom formation in spring and early summer. UVB radiation in this period may significantly influence strain composition of cyanobacterial blooms in favor of microcystin producers.