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1.  PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES ON Sida acuta Burm.f. 
Ancient Science of Life  2002;22(1):57-66.
Sida acuta Burm.f. (Fam. Malvaceae) is used in Siddha system of medicine and in folk medical practice in Tamil Nadu under the names Arivalmooku pachilai or vattatiruppi. The leaves of this plant are used for their diuretic, demulcent, anthelmintic and wound healing properties. The present paper discusses the anatomy of petiole leaf and stem, microscopic constants, physico-chemical standards and fluorescence analysis of the drug.
PMCID: PMC3330990  PMID: 22557077
2.  Anti-nociceptive properties in rodents and the possibility of using polyphenol-rich fractions from sida urens L. (Malvaceae) against of dental caries bacteria 
Background
Sida urens L. (Malvaceae) is in flora of Asian medicinal herbs and used traditionally in West of Burkina Faso for the treatment of infectious diseases and particularly used against, dental caries bacteria, fever, pain and possesses analgesic properties. This study was conducted to reveal the antibacterial effect against dental caries bacteria on the one hand, and evaluate their analgesic capacity in experimental model with Swiss mice and on the other hand, with an aim to provide a scientific basis for the traditional use of this plant for the management of dental caries bacteria.
Method
The antibacterial assays in this study were performed by using inhibition zone diameters, MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration) and MBC (Minimal bactericidal concentration) methods. On the whole the dental caries bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains) were used. Negative control was prepared using discs impregnated with 10% DMSO in water and commercially available Gentamicin from Alkom Laboratories LTD was used as positive reference standards for all bacterial strains. In acute toxicity test, mice received doses of extract (acetone/water extract) from Sida urens L. by intraperitoneal route and LD50 was determined in Swiss mice. As for analgesic effects, acetic acid writhing method was used in mice. The acetic acid-induced writhing method was used in mice with aim to study analgesic effects.
Results
The results showed that the highest antibacterial activities were founded with the polyphenol-rich fractions against all bacterial strains compared to the standard antibiotic. About preliminary study in acute toxicity test, LD50 value obtained was more than 5000 mg/kg b.w. Polyphenol-rich fractions produced significant analgesic effects in acetic acid-induced writhing method and in a dose-dependent inhibition was observed.
Conclusion
These results validate the ethno-botanical use of Sida urens L. (Malvaceae) and demonstrate the potential of this herbaceous as a potential antibacterial agent of dental caries that could be effectively used for future health care purposes.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-12-14
PMCID: PMC3699430  PMID: 23787152
3.  Investigation on flavonoid composition and anti free radical potential of Sida cordata 
Background
Sida cordata, a member of Family Malvaceae is used in folk medicine for various ailments including liver diseases. In this study we investigated, its flavonoid constituents, in vitro antioxidant potential against different free radicals and hepatoprotection against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in rat.
Methods
Dried powder of S. cordata whole plant was extracted with methanol and the resultant (SCME) obtained was fractionated with escalating polarity to obtain n-hexane fraction (SCHE), ethyl acetate fraction (SCEE), n-butanol fraction (SCBE) and the remaining soluble portion as aqueous fraction (SCAE). Diverse in vitro antioxidants assays such as DPPH, H2O2, •OH, ABTS, β-carotene bleaching assay, superoxide radical, lipid peroxidation, reducing power, and total antioxidant capacity were studied to assess scavenging potential of methanol extract and its derived fractions. On account of marked scavenging activity SCEE was selected to investigate the hepatoprotective potential against CCl4 induced toxicity in Sprague–Dawley male rats by assessing the level of serum markers (alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, bilirubin, and γ-glutamyltransferase) and of liver antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione-S-transfers (GST), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Histology of the liver was performed to study alteration in histoarchitecture. Existence of active flavonoids was established by thin layer chromatographic studies.
Results
Considerable amount of flavonoid and phenolic contents were recorded in the methanol extract and its derived fractions. Although the extract and all its derived fractions exhibited good antioxidant activities however, the most distinguished scavenging potential was observed for SCEE. Treatment of SCEE decreased the elevated level of serum marker enzymes induced with CCl4 administration whereas increased the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, POD, GST, GSR and GSH-Px). Hepatic concentration of GSH was increased while lipid peroxidation was decreased with SCEE administration in CCl4 intoxicated rats. Presence of apigenin with some unknown compounds was observed in SCEE by using thin layer chromatography.
Conclusions
These results revealed the presence of some bioactive compound in the ethyl acetate fraction, confirming the utility of S. cordata against liver diseases in folk medicine.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-276
PMCID: PMC3874743  PMID: 24148097
Sida cordata; Phytochemistry; Antioxidant assays; CCl4; Liver toxicity
4.  Phytopharmacological evaluation of ethanol extract of Sida cordifolia L. roots 
Objective
To investigate the phytochemical screening (group determination) and selected pharmacological activities (antioxidant, antimicrobial and analgesic activity) of the plant Sida cordifolia Linn (S. cordifolia).
Methods
Eighty percent concentrated ethanol extract of the roots was used. To identify the chemical constituents of plant extract standard procedures were followed. In phytochemical screening the crude extract was tested for the presence of different chemical groups like reducing sugar, tannins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, gums, alkaloids and glycosides. The antioxidant property of ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia was assessed by DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Analgesic activity of the extract was tested using the model of acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Diclofenac sodium is used as reference standard drug for the analgesic activity test. Antibacterial activity of plant extract was carried out using disc diffusion method with five pathogenic bacteria comparison with kanamycin as a standard.
Results
Phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia indicated the presence of reducing sugar, alkaloids, steroids and saponins. In DPPH scavenging assay the IC50 value was found to be 50 µg/mL which was not comparable to the standard ascorbic acid. The crude extract produced 44.30% inhibition of writhing at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight which is statistically significant (P>0.001). The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of the roots of S. cordifolia showed no antimicrobial activity against five types of microorganisms. The experiment was conducted only with five species of bacteria as test species, which do not at all indicate the total inactivity against micro-organisms.
Conclusions
The obtained results provide a support for the use of this plant in traditional medicine but further pharmacological studies are required.
doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60202-1
PMCID: PMC3819490  PMID: 24144125
Antioxidant; Antimicrobial; Analgesic; DPPH; Phytochemical screening
5.  Cynodon dactylon and Sida acuta extracts impact on the function of the cardiovascular system in zebrafish embryos 
Journal of Biomedical Research  2012;26(2):90-97.
The aim of the present study was to screen cardioactive herbs from Western Ghats of India. The heart beat rate (HBR) and blood flow during systole and diastole were tested in zebrafish embryos. We found that Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon) induced increases in the HBR in zebrafish embryos with a HBR of (3.968±0.344) beats/s, which was significantly higher than that caused by betamethosone [(3.770±0.344) beats/s]. The EC50 value of C. dactylon was 3.738 µg/mL. The methanolic extract of Sida acuta (S. acuta) led to decreases in the HBR in zebrafish embryos [(1.877±0.079) beats/s], which was greater than that caused by nebivolol (positive control). The EC50 value of Sida acuta was 1.195 µg/mL. The untreated embryos had a HBR of (2.685±0.160) beats/s at 3 d post fertilization (dpf). The velocities of blood flow during the cardiac cycle were (2,291.667±72.169) µm/s for the control, (4,250±125.000) µm/s for C. dactylon and (1,083.333±72.169) µm/s for S. acuta. The LC50 values were 32.6 µg/mL for C. dactylon and 20.9 µg/mL for S. acuta. In addition, the extracts exhibited no chemical genetic effects in the drug dosage range tested. In conclusion, we developed an assay that can measure changes in cardiac function in response to herbal small molecules and determine the cardiogenic effects by microvideography.
doi:10.1016/S1674-8301(12)60017-7
PMCID: PMC3597324  PMID: 23554736
cardiogenesis; small molecules; heart beat rate assay; blood flow velocity; zebrafish embryo
6.  Wound healing activity of Sida cordifolia Linn. in rats 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2013;45(5):474-478.
Introduction:
The present study provides a scientific evaluation for the wound healing potential of ethanolic (EtOH) extract of Sida cordifolia Linn. (SCL) plant.
Materials and Methods:
Excision, incision and burn wounds were inflicted upon three groups of six rats each. Group I was assigned as control (ointment base). Group II was treated with 10% EtOH extract ointment. Group III was treated with standard silver sulfadiazine (0.01%) cream. The parameters observed were percentage of wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength including histopathological studies.
Result:
It was noted that the effect produced by the ethanolic extract of SCL ointment showed significant (P < 0.01) healing in all wound models when compared with the control group. All parameters such as wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength and histopathological studies showed significant (P < 0.01) changes when compared with the control.
Conclusion:
The ethanolic extract ointment of SCL effectively stimulates wound contraction; increases tensile strength of excision, incision and burn wounds.
doi:10.4103/0253-7613.117759
PMCID: PMC3793518  PMID: 24130382
Burn injury; excision injury; incision injury; Sida cordifolia Linn. wound healing
7.  In vitro antibacterial activity and acute toxicity studies of aqueous-methanol extract of Sida rhombifolia Linn. (Malvaceae) 
Background
Many bacteria among the Enterobacteria family are involved in infectious diseases and diarrhoea. Most of these bacteria become resistant to the most commonly used synthetic drugs in Cameroon. Natural substances seem to be an alternative to this problem. Thus the aim of this research was to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the methanol and aqueous-methanol extracts of Sida rhombifolia Linn (Malvaceae) against seven pathogenic bacteria involved in diarrhoea. Acute toxicity of the most active extract was determined and major bioactive components were screened.
Methods
The agar disc diffusion and the agar dilution method were used for the determination of inhibition diameters and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MICs) respectively. The acute toxicity study was performed according WHO protocol.
Results
The aqueous-methanol extract (1v:4v) was the most active with diameters of inhibition zones ranging from 8.7 - 23.6 mm, however at 200 μg/dic this activity was relatively weak compared to gentamycin. The MICs of the aqueous-methanol extract (1v:4v) varied from 49.40 to 78.30 μg/ml. Salmonella dysenteriae was the most sensitive (49.40 μg/ml). For the acute toxicity study, no deaths of rats were recorded. However, significant increase of some biochemical parameters such as aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and creatinine (CRT) were found. The phytochemical analysis of the aqueous methanol extract indicated the presence of tannins, polyphenols, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids and saponins
Conclusion
The results showed that the aqueous-methanol extract of S. rhombifolia exhibited moderate antibacterial activity. Some toxic effects were found when rats received more than 8 g/kg bw of extract.
Antibacterial; Enterobacteria; Acute toxicity; Phytochemical analysis
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-10-40
PMCID: PMC2922083  PMID: 20663208
8.  Screening Togolese medicinal plants for few pharmacological properties 
Pharmacognosy Research  2012;4(2):116-122.
Background:
Terminalia macroptera Guill. et Perr. (Combretaceae), Sida alba L. (Malvaceae), Prosopis africana Guill et Perr. Taub. (Mimosaceae), Bridelia ferruginea Benth. (Euphorbiaceae), and Vetiveria nigritana Stapf. (Asteraceae) are traditionally used in Togolese folk medicine to treat several diseases including microbial infections.
Objective:
This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and hemolytic properties of the crude extracts of the above-mentioned plants.
Materials and Methods:
The antimicrobial and the antioxidant activities were assayed using the NCCLS microdilution method and the DPPH free radical scavenging, respectively. Human A+ red blood cells were used to perform the hemolytic assay. Phenolics were further quantified in the extracts using spectrophotometric methods.
Results:
Minimal inhibitory concentrations in the range of 230-1800 μg/ml were recorded in the NCCLS broth microdilution for both bacterial and fungal strains with methanol extracts. The DPPH radical scavenging assay yielded interesting antioxidant activities of the extracts of P. africana and T. macroptera (IC50 values of 0.003 ± 0.00 μg/ml and 0.05 ± 0.03 μg/ml, respectively). These activities were positively correlated with the total phenolic contents and negatively correlated with the proanthocyanidin content of the extracts. The hemolytic assay revealed that great hemolysis occurred with the methanol extracts of T. macroptera, S. longepedunculata, and B. ferruginea.
Conclusion:
These results support in part the use of the selected plants in the treatment of microbial infections. In addition, the plant showed an interesting antioxidant activity that could be useful in the management of oxidative stress.
doi:10.4103/0974-8490.94737
PMCID: PMC3326758  PMID: 22518084
Antimicrobial; antioxidant; hemolytic; phenolics
9.  Effects of two medicinal plants Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) and Diospyros mespiliformis L. (Ebenaceae) leaf extracts on rat skeletal muscle cells in primary culture 
Crude decoction, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of two medicinal plants (Psidium guajava and Diospyros mespiliformis), widely used in the central plateau of Burkina Faso to treat many diseases were evaluated for their antagonistic effects on caffeine induced calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum of rat skeletal muscle cells. These different extracts showed a decrease of caffeine induced calcium release in a dose dependent manner. Comparison of the results showed that Psidium guajava leaf extracts are more active than extracts of Diospyros mespiliformis and that crude decoctions show better inhibitory activity. The observed results could explaine their use as antihypertensive and antidiarrhoeal agents in traditional medicine, by inhibiting intracellular calcium release.
doi:10.1631/jzus.2006.B0056
PMCID: PMC1361761  PMID: 16365927
Psidium guajava; Diospyros mespiliformis; Myrtaceae; Ebenaceae; Medicinal plants; Intracellular calcium; Sarcoplasmic reticulum; Caffeine
10.  Uterine contractility of plants used to facilitate childbirth in Nigerian ethnomedicine 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology  2012;143(1):377-382.
Ethnopharmacological relevance
Pregnant women in Nigeria use plant preparations to facilitate childbirth and to reduce associated pain. The rationale for this is not known and requires pharmacological validation.
Aim of study
Obtain primary information regarding the traditional use of plants and analyze their uterine contractility at cellular level.
Materials and methods
Semi-structured, open interviews using questionnaires of traditional healthcare professionals and other informants triggered the collection and identification of medicinal plant species. The relative traditional importance of each medicinal plant was determined by its use-mention index. Extracts of these plants were analyzed for their uterotonic properties on an in vitro human uterine cell collagen model.
Result
The plants Calotropis procera, Commelina africana, Duranta repens, Hyptis suaveolens, Ocimum gratissimum, Saba comorensis, Sclerocarya birrea, Sida corymbosa and Vernonia amygdalina were documented and characterized. Aqueous extracts from these nine plants induced significant sustained increases in human myometrial smooth muscle cell contractility, with varying efficiencies, depending upon time and dose of exposure.
Conclusion
The folkloric use of several plant species during childbirth in Nigeria has been validated. Seven plants were for the first time characterized to have contractile properties on uterine myometrial cells. The results serve as ideal starting points in the search for safe, longer lasting, effective and tolerable uterotonic drug leads.
Graphical abstract
Pregnant woman in Nigeria rely on traditional herbal medicine to induce or ease labor, and to treat childbirth-related complications. Nine plant species have been documented and characterized for their uterotonic properties.
doi:10.1016/j.jep.2012.06.042
PMCID: PMC3430860  PMID: 22766472
UM, use-mentions; hTERT-HM, human uterine myometrial smooth muscle cells; Maternal healthcare; Uterus contractility; Labor; Postpartum care
11.  Effect of Aqueous Extract of Passiflora edulis on Biochemical and Hematological Parameters of Wistar Albino Rats 
Toxicology International  2012;19(1):63-67.
Passiflora edulis is traditionally used in folk lore medicine for the treatment of various ailments. To validate its use in traditional medicine, it is important to evaluate its toxicity in the animal system. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of P. edulis in Wistar albino rats. Acute toxicity tests were conducted by the oral administration of 200, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of the animal. In subacute study, they were administered with various doses of aqueous extract of P. edulis (100, 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg body weight) to evaluate its toxicity for a period of 7 days. The effect of aqueous extract of P. edulis on organ weight, hematological, renal, and hepatic markers were analyzed. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was seen with in 24 h of the administration of P. edulis extract. No signs of neurological and behavioral changes were noticed with in 72 h. In the subacute study, the extract intake has not changed the hematological parameters such as RBC, WBC, and platelets and it was also found that the plasma level of amino transferases, ALP, urea, uric acid and, creatinine were also not altered by the administration of P. edulis extract throughout the study. The weight of organ was found to be unaltered in all the doses selected. The acute toxicity study reveals that the oral administration of the extract was found to be safe up to the dose level of 2000 mg/kg. The subacute study indicates that the extract is safe on the bone marrow function and it is neither hepatotoxic nor nephrotoxic. This supports the safety use of the aqueous extract of P. edulis in pharmacological studies.
doi:10.4103/0971-6580.94508
PMCID: PMC3339248  PMID: 22736906
Acute and subacute toxicity studies; hepatotoxic; nephrotoxic; P. edulis
12.  Beneficial Effects of Tinospora cordifolia on Blood Profiles in Male Mice Exposed to Lead 
Toxicology International  2010;17(1):8-11.
This study was carried out to evaluate in vivo protective role of aqueous extract of stem and leaves of Tinospora cordifolia (TC) on the toxic effects of lead on the hematological values. The lead-treated (5 mg/kg body weight, intraperitonially, once daily) male albino mice concurrently received either T. cordifolia stem or leaves extracts (400 mg/kg body weight, orally, once daily) for the duration of 30 days. The animals exposed to lead showed significant decrease in RBC and Hb level. Significant decline in WBC, DLC, and PCV was also noticed. Increase in MCV values displaying reciprocal relationship with RBC, PCV, and Hb values in lead-treated mice were also recorded. These influences of lead were prevented by concurrent daily administration of T. cordifolia stem and leaves extract. These results suggested that simultaneous supplementation of T. cordifolia protects against lead intoxication.
doi:10.4103/0971-6580.68341
PMCID: PMC2964740  PMID: 21042466
Hematology; lead nitrate; mice; Tinospora cordifolia
13.  Free radical scavenging capacity, anticandicidal effect of bioactive compounds from Sida Cordifolia L., in combination with nystatin and clotrimazole and their effect on specific immune response in rats 
Background
Infectious diseases caused by fungi are still a major threat to public health, despite numerous efforts by researchers. Use of ethnopharmacological knowledge is one attractive way to reduce empiricism and enhance the probability of success in new drug-finding efforts. In this work, the total alkaloid compounds (AC) from Sida cordifolia L. (Malvaceae) have been investigated for their free radical scavenging capacity, antifungal and immunostimulatory properties.
Method
The antifungal activity was investigated against five candida strains using the microplate dilution method and the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI) of compounds was evaluated. The antioxidant activity of the samples was evaluate using three separate methods, at last, the immunostimulatory effect on immunosuppressed wistar rats was performed.
Results
As for the antifungal activity, result varied according to microorganism. The results obtained in this antifungal activity were interesting and indicated a synergistic effect between alkaloid compounds and the antifungal references such as Nystatin and Clotrimazole. Antioxidant capacity noticed that the reduction capacity of DPPH radicals obtained the best result comparatively to the others methods of free radical scavenging. Our results showed a low immunostimulatory effect and this result could be explained by the lack of biologically active antioxidants such as polyphenol compounds lowly contained in the alkaloid compounds.
Conclusion
The results of this study showed that alkaloid compounds in combination with antifungal references (Nystatin and Clotrimazole) exhibited antimicrobial effects against candida strains tested. The results supported the utilization of these plants in infectious diseases particularly in treatment of candida infections.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-11-33
PMCID: PMC3576270  PMID: 23268761
14.  Antimicrobial activity of polyphenol-rich fractions from Sida alba L. (Malvaceae) against co-trimoxazol-resistant bacteria strains 
Background
The increased resistance of microorganisms to the currently used antimicrobials has lead to the evaluation of other agents that might have antimicrobial activity. Medicinal plants are sources of phytochemicals which are able to initiate different biological activities including antimicrobials
Materials and methods
In vitro antibacterial (MIC, MBC and time-kill studies) of polyphenol-rich fractions from Sida alba L. (Malvaceae) was assessed using ten bacteria strains (Gram-negative and Gram-positive).
Results
All test bacteria were susceptible to the polyphenol-rich fractions. Time-kill results showed that after 5 h exposition there was no viable microorganism in the initial inoculum and the effect of polyphenol-rich fractions was faster on Enterococcus faecalis (Gram-positive bacterium) comparatively to the other bacteria strains.
Conclusion
The data analysis indicates that the tested of polyphenol-rich fractions has significant effects when compared with the standard antibiotic. These results therefore justify the traditional use of sida alba L., alone or in combination with other herbs to treat bacterial infections.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-11-5
PMCID: PMC3316130  PMID: 22364123
15.  Safety Assessment of Ocimum Basilicum Hydroalcoholic Extract in Wistar Rats: Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Studies 
Objective(s)
Ocimum basilicum L. is widely used in folk medicine of many countries including . Both O. basilicum and its oil extract have received considerable attention for their potential medicinal properties, but there are a few reports about possible toxicity of this plant. Therefore, in the present study, acute and subchronic toxicity of O. basilicum hydroalcohlic extract have been evaluated in Wistar rats.
Materials and Methods
For the acute toxicity assessment, five groups of 10 animals (5 male, 5 female) received four different single dose of extract orally, the animals were, then, kept under observation for 14 days. For subchronic toxicity, the animals were divided into four groups (5 male, 5 female) and were gavaged daily by 50, 200 and 500 mg/kg of extract. Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical parameters were monitored during the study period. On the 45th day, animals were sacrificed and gross findings, weight of liver and left kidney and liver histological markers were assessed.
Results
The results of acute study indicated that LD50 of O. basilicum is higher than 5 mg/kg. In subchronic study, no adverse effects were observed on serum parameters in male and female rats. The hematological results showed a reduction in the hematocrit, platelets and RBC in both sexes. No abnormalities were observed in other parameters.
Conclusion
Based on the results of this study, present data suggest that hematologic system could serve as a target organ in oral toxicity of this plant.
PMCID: PMC3586872  PMID: 23493182
Acute toxicity; Ocimum basilicum; Rats; Subchronic toxicity
16.  Effect of aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia on functions of peritoneal macrophages isolated from CCl4 intoxicated male albino mice 
Background
The current practice of ingesting phytochemicals for supporting the immune system or fighting infections is based on centuries-old tradition. Macrophages are involved at all the stages of an immune response. The present study focuses on the immunostimulant properties of Tinospora cordifolia extract that are exerted on circulating macrophages isolated from CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight) intoxicated male albino mice.
Methods
Apart from damaging the liver system, carbon tetrachloride also inhibits macrophage functions thus, creating an immunocompromised state, as is evident from the present study. Such cell functions include cell morphology, adhesion property, phagocytosis, enzyme release (myeloperoxidase or MPO), nitric oxide (NO) release, intracellular survival of ingested bacteria and DNA fragmentation in peritoneal macrophages isolated from these immunocompromised mice. T. cordifolia extract was tested for acute toxicity at the given dose (150 mg/kg body weight) by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay.
Results
The number of morphologically altered macrophages was increased in mice exposed to CCl4. Administration of CCl4 (i.p.) also reduced the phagocytosis, cell adhesion, MPO release, NO release properties of circulating macrophages of mice. The DNA fragmentation of peritoneal macrophages was observed to be higher in CCl4 intoxicated mice. The bacterial killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages was also adversely affected by CCl4. However oral administration of aqueous fraction of Tinospora cordifolia stem parts at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight (in vivo) in CCl4 exposed mice ameliorated the effect of CCl4, as the percentage of morphologically altered macrophages, phagocytosis activity, cell adhesion, MPO release, NO release, DNA fragmentation and intracellular killing capacity of CCl4 intoxicated peritoneal macrophages came closer to those of the control group. No acute toxicity was identified in oral administration of the aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight.
Conclusion
From our findings it can be suggested that, polar fractions of Tinospora cordifolia stem parts contain major bioactive compounds, which directly act on peritoneal macrophages and have been found to boost the non-specific host defenses of the immune system. However, the molecular mechanism of this activity of Tinospora cordifolia on immune functions needs to be elucidated.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-102
PMCID: PMC3215963  PMID: 22035196
17.  A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF PLANT EXTRACTS WITH THE ANTIBIOTICS ON ORGANISMS OF HOSPITAL ORIGIN 
Ancient Science of Life  2006;26(1-2):65-72.
Thirty five plants belonging to twenty families were studied for their antimicrobial activity. Among the plants tested, 43 % showed antimicrobial activity. Fifteen plants belonging to 10 families exhibited activity against gram positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria. Four plants namely Azadirachta indica, Garadenia jasminoides, Magnifera indica, and Wrightia tinctora showed an appreciable activity against the gram positive bacteria and seven plants against gram negative organisms. Leaf extract of Tabermontana coronaria showed a maximum zone of inhibition (24 mm) against Staphylococcus aureus and the leaf extract of Sida cordifolia showed a maximum zone (20 mm) against Corynebacteriun diphtheriae. Mentha piperanta gave a maximum zone size against E,coli (22 mm) and Vibrio cholerae (20mm). The inhibitory percentage of the leaf extracts against various pathogens were observed to be Staphylococcus aureus (40%), E.coli (28%), Shigella sp (25%), Salmonella  sp (22%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis (20%), Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris (17%), Vibrio cholera (14%) and Corynebacterium diphtheriae (11%). The results suggested that the leaf extracts of various plants has significant antibacterial activity against the tested microorganisms. The present study is done to compare the activity of the plant extracts with the activity of currently used antibiotics against the selected organisms.
PMCID: PMC3335233  PMID: 22557227
18.  Aqueous Ethanolic Extract of Tinospora cordifolia as a Potential Candidate for Differentiation Based Therapy of Glioblastomas  
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e78764.
Glioblastomas are the most aggressive primary brain tumors and their heterogeneity and complexity often renders them non responsive to various conventional treatments. Search for herbal products having potential anti-cancer activity is an active area of research in the Indian traditional system of medicine i.e., Ayurveda. Tinospora cordifolia, also named as ‘heavenly elixir’ is used in various ayurvedic decoctions as panacea to treat several body ailments. The current study investigated the anti-brain cancer potential of 50% ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (TCE) using C6 glioma cells. TCE significantly reduced cell proliferation in dose-dependent manner and induced differentiation in C6 glioma cells, resulting in astrocyte-like morphology as indicated by phase contrast images, GFAP expression and process outgrowth data of TCE treated cells which exhibited higher number and longer processes than untreated cells. Reduced proliferation of cells was accompanied by enhanced expression of senescence marker, mortalin and its translocation from perinuclear to pancytoplasmic spaces. Further, TCE showed anti-migratory and anti-invasive potential as depicted by wound scratch assay and reduced expression of plasticity markers NCAM and PSA-NCAM along with MMP-2 and 9. On analysis of the cell cycle and apoptotic markers, TCE treatment was seen to arrest the C6 cells in G0/G1 and G2/M phase, suppressing expression of G1/S phase specific protein cyclin D1 and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL, thus supporting its anti-proliferative and apoptosis inducing potential. Present study provides the first evidence for the presence of anti-proliferative, differentiation-inducing and anti-migratory/anti-metastatic potential of TCE in glioma cells and possible signaling pathways involved in its mode of action. Our primary data suggests that TCE and its active components may prove to be promising phytotherapeutic interventions in gliobalstoma multiformae. 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078764
PMCID: PMC3811968  PMID: 24205314
19.  Antistress, Adoptogenic Activity of Sida cordifolia Roots in Mice 
Ethanol extract of roots of Sida cordifolia was evaluated for antistress, adaptogenic activity using cold restraint stress and swim endurance in mice. Mice pretreated with extract of Sida cordifolia showed significant improvement in the swim duration and reduced the elevated WBC, blood glucose and plasma cortisone.
doi:10.4103/0250-474X.56027
PMCID: PMC2865797  PMID: 20490305
Sida cordifolia; swim endurance test; blood glucose and plasma cortisol
20.  Acute Toxicity and Vascular Properties of Seed of Parkia Biglobosa (JACQ) R. Br Gift (Mimosaceae) on Rat Aorta 
The authors report here the results of study on Parkia biglobosa seeds used in Burkina Faso for arterial hypertension treatment. Investigations were done on acute toxicity and vascular properties of fermented and roasted seeds. Acute toxicity test using mice, revealed by the intraperitoneal route a lethal dose 50 (LD50) of 1800 mg/kg and 1600 mg/kg of body weight for aqueous extract from roasted and fermented seeds respectively. According to the scale of Hodge and Sterner and that of the World Health Organization, such drugs would be classified lightly toxic. Oral administration (up to 3000 mg/kg) did not induce any death of animal. For the vascular properties, the effects of these products were tested on the aorta isolated from rats. The cumulative administration of extract from roasted and fermented seeds (0.1–10 mg/mL) in an organ bath induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of the aorta pre contracted by phenylephrine, with or without functional endothelium. The extracts (10 mg/mL) inhibited for 100% the contraction induced by phenylephrine. The EC50 values in presence and absence of endothelium were respectively of 5.37 ± 0.12 and 4.19 ± 1.02 mg/mL for fermented seeds; for roasted seeds these values were respectively, 5.39 ± 1.12 and 5.93 ± 0.95 mg/mL. Nevertheless, low concentration of roasted seeds (1–4 mg/mL) induced endothelium-dependent relaxation and this effect was inhibited by indomethacin (10−5M), and not by L-NAME (310−4M). These experimental results revealed a vasorelaxant effect of P. biglobosa seeds. P. biglobosa seems to act directly on the smooth muscle and via endothelium involving the generation of vasodilatating prostaglandins. This vasodilator effect would be in favor of an anti hypertensive property of P. biglobosa seeds.
PMCID: PMC3746632  PMID: 23983344
Acute toxicity; vasodilator; endothelium; Parkia biglobosa
21.  ANTIPSYCHOTIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA IN AMPHETAMINE CHALLENGED MICE MODEL 
Tinospora cordifolia is reported to have CNS active principle and is used for the treatment of various neurological disorders. Hence, the effect of aqueous ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia was investigated for its putative antipsychotic activity using amphetamine challenged mice model. Haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p.) was administered acutely to mice as standard drug. Control animals received vehicle (10% DMSO). The in vivo receptor binding studies were carried out to correlate the antipsychotic activity of the extract with its capacity to bind to the DAD2 receptor. The results in SLA showed that the hydro alcoholic extract of the stems of Tinospora cordifolia at a dose level of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg showed no significant antipsychotic activity in amphetamine induced hyperactivity in mice when compared to standard. Extract alone treated group at a dos level of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg showed a decreased in locomotor activity when compared to the control. The plant extract increased the DAD2 receptor binding in a dose dependent manner in treated mice compared to the control group.
PMCID: PMC3255393  PMID: 22247829
Tinospora cordifolia; amphetamine; locomortar activity; ethanolic extract
22.  Phytochemical constituents of some Indian medicinal plants 
Ancient Science of Life  2008;27(4):1-8.
Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardie glycoside distribution in seven medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Aegle marmelos, Cynodon dactylon, Eclipta prostrata, Moringa pterygosperma, Pongamia pinnata, Sida acuta and Tridax procumbens. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in India.
PMCID: PMC3330865  PMID: 22557280
23.  Protective Role of Tinospora cordifolia against Lead-induced Hepatotoxicity 
Toxicology International  2010;17(1):12-17.
The importance of Tinospora cordifolia stem and leaves extract was investigated for its possible hepatoprotective effect in Swiss albino male mice against lead nitrate induced toxicity. Oral administration of plant extracts prevented the occurrence of lead nitrate induced liver damage. The decreased level of tissue enzymes, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and increased level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and acid phosphatase (ACP) were observed in mice treated with lead. Administration of aqueous stem extract (400 mg/kg body weight, orally) and aqueous leaves extract (400 mg/kg body weight, orally) along with the lead nitrate (5 mg/kg body weight, i.p. for 30 days) increased the activities of SOD and CAT and decreased the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and ACP enzymes in mice. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathology/histological examinations of liver section. Results of this study revealed that plant extract could afford protection against lead-induced hepatic damage.
doi:10.4103/0971-6580.68343
PMCID: PMC2964743  PMID: 21042467
Biochemical changes; histopathology; lead nitrate; liver; mice; Tinospora cordifolia
24.  Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on experimental diabetic neuropathy 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2012;44(5):580-583.
Objectives:
To evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of stem of Tinospora cordifolia (TC) on hyperalgesia in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and in- vitro aldose reductase inhibition.
Materials and Methods:
Wistar albino rats, rendered diabetic with streptozotocin, were divided into 5 groups, namely the diabetic control treated with vehicle (DC), standard control which received glibenclamide+metformin (SC), test groups treated with 100, 200and 400 mg/kg b.w. of Tinospora cordifolia (TC1, TC2 and TC3 respectively). A group of five normal animals served as normal control (NC). Fasting blood glucose, body weight and reaction time to tail flick were measured one week after induction of diabetes. The animals were then treated orally for two weeks after which the same parameters were repeated. In-vitro aldose reductase inhibition assay was carried out at concentrations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mcg/ml of Tinospora cordifolia using rat lens from normal rats. The in-vivo results were analysed with Mann Whitney test.
Results:
The DC group demonstrated a decrease in the reaction time (hyperalgesia) compared to NC while a significant increase in the reaction time was observed with SC, TC2 and TC3 groups (p<0.05) as compared to the DC group. TC1 and TC2 showed a significant reduction in body weight compared to their baseline values (p<0.05). There was no significant change in the fasting blood glucose (FBS) in any of the groups. In-vitro aldose reductase inhibition was observed with TC with an IC50 of 103 mcg/ml.
Conclusions:
Tinospora cordifolia prevents the hyperalgesia in experimental diabetic neuropathy. It has an aldose reductase inhibitory activity in-vitro which may contribute to the beneficial effects.
doi:10.4103/0253-7613.100380
PMCID: PMC3480788  PMID: 23112417
Aldose reductase; hyperalgesia; neuropathy; Tinospora cordifolia
25.  Screening of Antibacterial Potentials of Some Medicinal Plants from Melghat Forest in India 
Cyperus rotundus, Caesalpinia bonducella, Tinospora cordifolia, Gardenia gummifera, Ailanthus excelsa, Acacia arabica, Embelia ribes and Ventilago maderspatana from Melghat forest were screened for their antibacterial potential against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes by disc diffusion method. Out of these medicinal plants Caesalpinia bonducella, Gardenia gummifera and Acacia arabica showed remarkable antibacterial potential. The phytochemical analysis had showed the presence of Cardiac glycosides in all extracts (aqueous, acetone, ethanol and methanol) of Acacia arabica, Gardenia gummifera and ethanol, methanol extracts of Caesalpinia bonducella. Flavonoids were present in Gardenia gummifera, Ailanthus excelsa and acetone, methanol extracts of Acacia Arabica. Tannins and phenolic were present in Cyperus rotundus, Embelia ribes, and organic extracts of Ventilago maderspatana.
PMCID: PMC2816464  PMID: 20448847
Antibacterial activity; Melghat; Medicinal Plants; Phytochemical

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