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1.  Correction to (2011) 84, e109-e113 doi: 10.1259/bjr/51344661 
The British Journal of Radiology  2011;84(1003):674.
doi:10.1259/bjr/18733907
PMCID: PMC3473488
14.  The multifactorial aetiology of fracture nonunion and the importance of searching for latent infection 
Bone & Joint Research  2016;5(10):512-519.
Objectives
A successful outcome following treatment of nonunion requires the correct identification of all of the underlying cause(s) and addressing them appropriately. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution and frequency of causative factors in a consecutive cohort of nonunion patients in order to optimise the management strategy for individual patients presenting with nonunion.
Methods
Causes of the nonunion were divided into four categories: mechanical; infection; dead bone with a gap; and host. Prospective and retrospective data of 100 consecutive patients who had undergone surgery for long bone fracture nonunion were analysed.
Results
A total of 31% of patients had a single attributable cause, 55% had two causes, 14% had three causes and 1% had all four. Of those (31%) with only a single attributable cause, half were due to a mechanical factor and a quarter had dead bone with a gap. Mechanical causation was found in 59% of all patients, dead bone and a gap was present in 47%, host factors in 43% and infection was a causative factor in 38% of patients.
In all, three of 58 patients (5%) thought to be aseptic and two of nine (22%) suspected of possible infection were found to be infected. A total of 100% of previously treated patients no longer considered to have ongoing infection, had multiple positive microbiology results.
Conclusion
Two thirds of patients had multiple contributing factors for their nonunion and 5% had entirely unexpected infection. This study highlights the importance of identifying all of the aetiological factors and routinely testing tissue for infection in treating nonunion. It raises key points regarding the inadequacy of a purely radiographic nonunion classification system and the variety of different definitions for atrophic nonunion in the current mainstream classifications used for nonunion.
Cite this article: L. Mills, J. Tsang, G. Hopper, G. Keenan, A. H. R. W. Simpson. The multifactorial aetiology of fracture nonunion and the importance of searching for latent infection. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:512–519. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.510.BJR-2016-0138.
doi:10.1302/2046-3758.510.BJR-2016-0138
PMCID: PMC5108351  PMID: 27784669
Delayed union; Infection; Nonunion
15.  Biomechanical analysis of the effect of congruence, depth and radius on the stability ratio of a simplistic ‘ball-and-socket’ joint model 
Bone & Joint Research  2016;5(10):453-460.
Objectives
The bony shoulder stability ratio (BSSR) allows for quantification of the bony stabilisers in vivo. We aimed to biomechanically validate the BSSR, determine whether joint incongruence affects the stability ratio (SR) of a shoulder model, and determine the correct parameters (glenoid concavity versus humeral head radius) for calculation of the BSSR in vivo.
Methods
Four polyethylene balls (radii: 19.1 mm to 38.1 mm) were used to mould four fitting sockets in four different depths (3.2 mm to 19.1mm). The SR was measured in biomechanical congruent and incongruent experimental series. The experimental SR of a congruent system was compared with the calculated SR based on the BSSR approach. Differences in SR between congruent and incongruent experimental conditions were quantified. Finally, the experimental SR was compared with either calculated SR based on the socket concavity or plastic ball radius.
Results
The experimental SR is comparable with the calculated SR (mean difference 10%, sd 8%; relative values). The experimental incongruence study observed almost no differences (2%, sd 2%). The calculated SR on the basis of the socket concavity radius is superior in predicting the experimental SR (mean difference 10%, sd 9%) compared with the calculated SR based on the plastic ball radius (mean difference 42%, sd 55%).
Conclusion
The present biomechanical investigation confirmed the validity of the BSSR. Incongruence has no significant effect on the SR of a shoulder model. In the event of an incongruent system, the calculation of the BSSR on the basis of the glenoid concavity radius is recommended.
Cite this article: L. Ernstbrunner, J-D. Werthel, T. Hatta, A. R. Thoreson, H. Resch, K-N. An, P. Moroder. Biomechanical analysis of the effect of congruence, depth and radius on the stability ratio of a simplistic ‘ball-and-socket’ joint model. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:453–460. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.510.BJR-2016-0078.R1.
doi:10.1302/2046-3758.510.BJR-2016-0078.R1
PMCID: PMC5075797  PMID: 27729312
Shoulder instability; Stability ratio; Bony shoulder stability ratio
16.  Roles of Arterial Baroreceptor Reflex During Bezold-Jarisch Reflex 
Current Cardiology Reviews  2009;5(4):263-267.
Among the many cardiopulmonary reflexes, this review specifically examines the roles of the arterial baroreflex during the Bezold-Jarisch reflex (BJR). Activation of cardiopulmonary vagal afferent C-fibers induces hypotension, bradycardia, and apnea, which are known collectively as the BJR; myocardial ischemia and infarction might induce the BJR. Arterial baroreflex has been established as an important negative feedback system that stabilizes arterial blood pressure against exogenous pressure perturbations. Therefore, understanding the functions of the arterial baroreflex during the BJR is crucial for elucidating its pathophysiological implications. The main central pathways of the BJR and the baroreflex are outlined herein, particularly addressing the common pathway between the reflexes. Furthermore, the pathophysiological roles of the arterial baroreflex during the BJR are described along with a brief discussion of pathophysiological merits and shortcomings of the reflexes.
doi:10.2174/157340309789317805
PMCID: PMC2842957  PMID: 21037842
Sympathetic nerve activity; arterial pressure; cardiopulmonary reflex; central pathway; acute myocardial ischemia.
17.  Bacterial Spectrum and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Bloodstream Infections in Children with Febrile Neutropenia: Experience of Single Center in Southeast of Turkey 
Indian Journal of Microbiology  2011;52(2):203-208.
Empirical antimicrobial therapy is usually started in febrile neutropenic patients without having culture results. The aim of this study was to help determine the policies of empirical antibiotic usage in febrile neutropenic children by detecting the antimicrobial susceptibility profile in this group of patients. In this study 811 blood cultures taken from neutropenic children hospitalized at the Department of Oncology of Gaziantep Children Hospital November 2007 and February 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. Blood cultures were routinely collected in aerobic and anaerobic media and incubated using the BACTEC system. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates to antimicrobial agents was performed using the Vitek2® system according to the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Of 811 isolates analyzed, 128 (56.4%) were gram positive cocci, 43 (18.9%) were gram negative bacilli and fungi accounted for 56 (24.7%). The main isolated Gram-positive bacteria from blood were coagulase-negative staphylococcus (56.7%), followed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (14.1%). S. aureus and Streptococcus spp. were all susceptible to linezolid, vancomycin and teicoplanin. S aureus was still susceptible to few other antimicrobial agents such as tetracycline (82.4%), chloramphenicol (55.6%). Seven E. faecium, 7 E. fecalis and 1 E. hirae was isolated from blood cultures. Vancomycin resistance was detected in 6 out of 15 (40%) Enterococcus spp. isolates. Among gram-negative bacteria E. coli (30.2%) was followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (20.9%) and Proteus spp. (18.6%). Imipenem (89.2%), meropenem (86.6%), chloramphenicol (88.9%), amicasin (82.4%) and fosfomycin (81.3%) showed highest susceptibility in vitro activity against all Gram-negative isolates. To know the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the pathogens frequently isolated from febrile neutropenic children and to consider this profile before starting an empirical antibiotic therapy would help the clinics which have any role in the treatment of these patients to determine the empirical antibiotic usage policies.
doi:10.1007/s12088-011-0210-6
PMCID: PMC3386439  PMID: 23729883
Febrile neutropenia; Antibiotic susceptibility; Children
18.  Intra-articular injection of Torin 1 reduces degeneration of articular cartilage in a rabbit osteoarthritis model 
Bone & Joint Research  2016;5(6):218-224.
Objectives
Recent studies have shown that systemic injection of rapamycin can prevent the development of osteoarthritis (OA)-like changes in human chondrocytes and reduce the severity of experimental OA. However, the systemic injection of rapamycin leads to many side effects. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of intra-articular injection of Torin 1, which as a specific inhibitor of mTOR which can cause induction of autophagy, is similar to rapamycin, on articular cartilage degeneration in a rabbit osteoarthritis model and to investigate the mechanism of Torin 1’s effects on experimental OA.
Methods
Collagenase (type II) was injected twice into both knees of three-month-old rabbits to induce OA, combined with two intra–articular injections of Torin 1 (400 nM). Degeneration of articular cartilage was evaluated by histology using the Mankin scoring system at eight weeks after injection. Chondrocyte degeneration and autophagosomes were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Matrix metallopeptidase-13 (MMP-13) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression were analysed by quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR).Beclin-1 and light chain 3 (LC3) expression were examined by Western blotting.
Results
Intra-articular injection of Torin 1 significantly reduced degeneration of the articular cartilage after induction of OA. Autophagosomes andBeclin-1 and LC3 expression were increased in the chondrocytes from Torin 1-treated rabbits. Torin 1 treatment also reduced MMP-13 and VEGF expression at eight weeks after collagenase injection.
Conclusion
Our results demonstrate that intra-articular injection of Torin 1 reduces degeneration of articular cartilage in collagenase-induced OA, at least partially by autophagy activation, suggesting a novel therapeutic approach for preventing cartilage degeneration and treating OA.
Cite this article: N-T. Cheng, A. Guo, Y-P. Cui. Intra-articular injection of Torin 1 reduces degeneration of articular cartilage in a rabbit osteoarthritis model. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:218–224. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.56.BJR-2015-0001.
doi:10.1302/2046-3758.56.BJR-2015-0001
PMCID: PMC4921044  PMID: 27301478
Osteoarthritis; Articular cartilage degradation; Intra-articular injection; Torin 1; Autophagy
19.  The pathobiology and pathology of aseptic implant failure 
Bone & Joint Research  2016;5(5):162-168.
Pathological assessment of periprosthetic tissues is important, not only for diagnosis, but also for understanding the pathobiology of implant failure. The host response to wear particle deposition in periprosthetic tissues is characterised by cell and tissue injury, and a reparative and inflammatory response in which there is an innate and adaptive immune response to the material components of implant wear. Physical and chemical characteristics of implant wear influence the nature of the response in periprosthetic tissues and account for the development of particular complications that lead to implant failure, such as osteolysis which leads to aseptic loosening, and soft-tissue necrosis/inflammation, which can result in pseudotumour formation. The innate response involves phagocytosis of implant-derived wear particles by macrophages; this is determined by pattern recognition receptors and results in expression of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors promoting inflammation and osteoclastogenesis; phagocytosed particles can also be cytotoxic and cause cell and tissue necrosis. The adaptive immune response to wear debris is characterised by the presence of lymphoid cells and most likely occurs as a result of a cell-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to cell and tissue components altered by interaction with the material components of particulate wear, particularly metal ions released from cobalt-chrome wear particles.
Cite this article: Professor N. A. Athanasou. The pathobiology and pathology of aseptic implant failure. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:162–168. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.55.BJR-2016-0086.
doi:10.1302/2046-3758.55.BJR-2016-0086
PMCID: PMC4921050  PMID: 27146314
implant; biology
20.  A new bromelain-based enzyme for the release of Dupuytren’s contracture 
Bone & Joint Research  2016;5(5):175-177.
Objectives
Injectable Bromelain Solution (IBS) is a modified investigational derivate of the medical grade bromelain-debriding pharmaceutical agent (NexoBrid) studied and approved for a rapid (four-hour single application), eschar-specific, deep burn debridement. We conducted an ex vivo study to determine the ability of IBS to dissolve-disrupt (enzymatic fasciotomy) Dupuytren’s cords.
Materials and Methods
Specially prepared medical grade IBS was injected into fresh Dupuytren’s cords excised from patients undergoing surgical fasciectomy. These cords were tested by tension-loading them to failure with the Zwick 1445 (Zwick GmbH & Co. KG, Ulm, Germany) tension testing system.
Results
We completed a pilot concept-validation study that proved the efficacy of IBS to induce enzymatic fasciotomy in ten cords compared with control in ten cords. We then completed a dosing study with an additional 71 cords injected with IBS in descending doses from 150 mg/cc to 0.8 mg/cc. The dosing study demonstrated that the minimal effective dose of 0.5 cc of 6.25 mg/cc to 5 mg/cc could achieve cord rupture in more than 80% of cases.
Conclusions
These preliminary results indicate that IBS may be effective in enzymatic fasciotomy in Dupuytren’s contracture.
Cite this article: Dr G. Rubin. A new bromelain-based enzyme for the release of Dupuytren’s contracture: Dupuytren’s enzymatic bromelain-based release. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:175–177. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.55.BJR-2016-0072.
doi:10.1302/2046-3758.55.BJR-2016-0072
PMCID: PMC4921045  PMID: 27174554
Bromelain; Collagenase; Dupuytren’s contracture; Enzyme; Fasciotomy
21.  Retractions in orthopaedic research 
Bone & Joint Research  2016;5(6):263-268.
Objectives
Despite the fact that research fraud and misconduct are under scrutiny in the field of orthopaedic research, little systematic work has been done to uncover and characterise the underlying reasons for academic retractions in this field. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of retractions and identify the reasons for retracted publications in the orthopaedic literature.
Methods
Two reviewers independently searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (1995 to current) using MeSH keyword headings and the ‘retracted’ filter. We also searched an independent website that reports and archives retracted scientific publications (www.retractionwatch.com). Two reviewers independently extracted data including reason for retraction, study type, journal impact factor, and country of origin.
Results
One hundred and ten retracted studies were included for data extraction. The retracted studies were published in journals with impact factors ranging from 0.000 (discontinued journals) to 13.262. In the 20-year search window, only 25 papers were retracted in the first ten years, with the remaining 85 papers retracted in the most recent decade. The most common reasons for retraction were fraudulent data (29), plagiarism (25) and duplicate publication (20). Retracted articles have been cited up to 165 times (median 6; interquartile range 2 to 19).
Conclusion
The rate of retractions in the orthopaedic literature is increasing, with the majority of retractions attributed to academic misconduct and fraud. Orthopaedic retractions originate from numerous journals and countries, indicating that misconduct issues are widespread. The results of this study highlight the need to address academic integrity when training the next generation of orthopaedic investigators.
Cite this article: J. Yan, A. MacDonald, L-P. Baisi, N. Evaniew, M. Bhandari, M. Ghert. Retractions in orthopaedic research: A systematic review. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:263–268. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.56.BJR-2016-0047.
doi:10.1302/2046-3758.56.BJR-2016-0047
PMCID: PMC4957175  PMID: 27354716
Orthopaedic research; Research ethics; Retractions
22.  The medial and lateral epicondyle as a reliable landmark for intra-operative joint line determination in revision knee arthroplasty 
Bone & Joint Research  2016;5(7):280-286.
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to develop an accurate, reliable and easily applicable method for determining the anatomical location of the joint line during revision knee arthroplasty.
Methods
The transepicondylar width (TEW), the perpendicular distance between the medial and lateral epicondyles and the distal articular surfaces (DMAD, DLAD) and the distance between the medial and lateral epicondyles and the posterior articular surfaces (PMAD, DLAD) were measured in 40 knees from 20 formalin-fixed adult cadavers (11 male and nine female; mean age at death 56.9 years, sd 9.4; 34 to 69). The ratios of the DMAD, PMAD, DLAD and PLAD to TEW were calculated.
Results
The mean TEW, DMAD, PMAD, DLAD and PLAD were 82.76 mm (standard deviation (sd) 7.74), 28.95 mm (sd 3.3), 28.57 mm (sd 3), 23.97 mm (sd 3.27) and 24.42 mm (sd 3.14), respectively. The ratios between the TEW and the articular distances (DMAD/TEW, DLAD/TEW, PMAD/TEW and PLAD/TEW) were calculated and their means were 0.35 (sd 0.02), 0.34 (sd 0.02), 0.28 (sd 0.03) and 0.29 (sd 0.03), respectively.
Conclusion
This method provides a simple, reproducible and reliable technique enabling accurate anatomical joint line restoration during revision total knee arthroplasty.
Cite this article: B. Ozkurt, T. Sen, D. Cankaya, S. Kendir, K. Basarır, Y. Tabak. The medial and lateral epicondyle as a reliable landmark for intra-operative joint line determination in revision knee arthroplasty. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:280–286. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.57.BJR-2016-0002.R1.
doi:10.1302/2046-3758.57.BJR-2016-0002.R1
PMCID: PMC4969630  PMID: 27388715
Knee; Joint line; Arthroplasty; Cadaver; Revision arthroplasty
23.  Circulating exosome levels in the diagnosis of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head 
Bone & Joint Research  2016;5(6):276-279.
Objectives
Circulating exosomes represent novel biomarkers for multiple diseases. In this study, we investigated whether circulating exosome levels could be used as a diagnostic biomarker for steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH).
Methods
We assessed the serum exosome level of 85 patients with steroid-induced ONFH and 115 healthy donors by Nanosight detection. We then assessed the diagnostic accuracy of serum exosomes by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis.
Results
The circulating exosome level of the ONFH group was significantly lower than that of control group. The area under the curve was 0.72, suggesting that the level of serum exosomes has moderate diagnostic accuracy for steroid-induced ONFH.
Conclusion
Circulating exosome levels are valuable in the diagnosis of steroid-induced ONFH.
Cite this article: H-Y. Zhu, Y-C. Gao, Y. Wang, C-Q. Zhang. Circulating exosome levels in the diagnosis of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:276–279. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.56.BJR-2015-0014.R1.
doi:10.1302/2046-3758.56.BJR-2015-0014.R1
PMCID: PMC4969629  PMID: 27357384
Exosome; Osteonecrosis; Steroid
24.  Incisional negative pressure wound therapy dressings (iNPWTd) in routine primary hip and knee arthroplasties 
Bone & Joint Research  2016;5(8):328-337.
Objectives
Wound complications are reported in up to 10% hip and knee arthroplasties and there is a proven association between wound complications and deep prosthetic infections. In this randomised controlled trial (RCT) we explore the potential benefits of a portable, single use, incisional negative pressure wound therapy dressing (iNPWTd) on wound exudate, length of stay (LOS), wound complications, dressing changes and cost-effectiveness following total hip and knee arthroplasties.
Methods
A total of 220 patients undergoing elective primary total hip and knee arthroplasties were recruited into in a non-blinded RCT. For the final analysis there were 102 patients in the study group and 107 in the control group.
Results
An improvement was seen in the study (iNPWTd) group compared to control in all areas. Peak post-surgical wound exudate was significantly reduced (p = 0.007). Overall LOS reduction (0.9 days, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.2 to 2.5) was not significant (p = 0.07) but there was a significant reduction in patients with extreme values of LOS in the iNPWTd group (Moses test, p = 0.003). There was a significantly reduced number of dressing changes (mean difference 1.7, 95% CI 0.8 to 2.5, p = 0.002), and a trend to a significant four-fold reduction in reported post-operative surgical wound complications (8.4% control; 2.0% iNPWTd, p = 0.06).
Conclusions
Based on the results of this RCT incisional negative pressure wound therapy dressings have a beneficial role in patients undergoing primary hip and knee arthroplasty to achieve predictable length of stay, especially to eliminate excessive hospital stay, and minimise wound complications.
Cite this article: S. L. Karlakki, A. K. Hamad, C. Whittall, N. M. Graham, R. D. Banerjee, J. H. Kuiper. Incisional negative pressure wound therapy dressings (iNPWTd) in routine primary hip and knee arthroplasties: A randomised controlled trial. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:328–337. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.58.BJR-2016-0022.R1
doi:10.1302/2046-3758.58.BJR-2016-0022.R1
PMCID: PMC5013893  PMID: 27496913
NPWT; iNPWTd; Incisional wound; TKA; THA; Wound complications
25.  The inter-rater reliability of the diagnosis of surgical site infection in the context of a clinical trial 
Bone & Joint Research  2016;5(8):347-352.
Objectives
The diagnosis of surgical site infection following endoprosthetic reconstruction for bone tumours is frequently a subjective diagnosis. Large clinical trials use blinded Central Adjudication Committees (CACs) to minimise the variability and bias associated with assessing a clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to determine the level of inter-rater and intra-rater agreement in the diagnosis of surgical site infection in the context of a clinical trial.
Materials and Methods
The Prophylactic Antibiotic Regimens in Tumour Surgery (PARITY) trial CAC adjudicated 29 non-PARITY cases of lower extremity endoprosthetic reconstruction. The CAC members classified each case according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) criteria for surgical site infection (superficial, deep, or organ space). Combinatorial analysis was used to calculate the smallest CAC panel size required to maximise agreement. A final meeting was held to establish a consensus.
Results
Full or near consensus was reached in 20 of the 29 cases. The Fleiss kappa value was calculated as 0.44 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35 to 0.53), or moderate agreement. The greatest statistical agreement was observed in the outcome of no infection, 0.61 (95% CI 0.49 to 0.72, substantial agreement). Panelists reached a full consensus in 12 of 29 cases and near consensus in five of 29 cases when CDC criteria were used (superficial, deep or organ space). A stable maximum Fleiss kappa of 0.46 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.35) at CAC sizes greater than three members was obtained.
Conclusions
There is substantial agreement among the members of the PARITY CAC regarding the presence or absence of surgical site infection. Agreement on the level of infection, however, is more challenging. Additional clinical information routinely collected by the prospective PARITY trial may improve the discriminatory capacity of the CAC in the parent study for the diagnosis of infection.
Cite this article: J. Nuttall, N. Evaniew, P. Thornley, A. Griffin, B. Deheshi, T. O’Shea, J. Wunder, P. Ferguson, R. L. Randall, R. Turcotte, P. Schneider, P. McKay, M. Bhandari, M. Ghert. The inter-rater reliability of the diagnosis of surgical site infection in the context of a clinical trial. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:347–352. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.58.BJR-2016-0036.R1.
doi:10.1302/2046-3758.58.BJR-2016-0036.R1
PMCID: PMC5013894  PMID: 27528711
Infection; Reliability; Endoprosthetic reconstruction

Results 1-25 (142832)