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1.  Acromioclavicular joint dislocation: a comparative biomechanical study of the palmaris-longus tendon graft reconstruction with other augmentative methods in cadaveric models 
Background
Acromioclavicular injuries are common in sports medicine. Surgical intervention is generally advocated for chronic instability of Rockwood grade III and more severe injuries. Various methods of coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction and augmentation have been described. The objective of this study is to compare the biomechanical properties of a novel palmaris-longus tendon reconstruction with those of the native AC+CC ligaments, the modified Weaver-Dunn reconstruction, the ACJ capsuloligamentous complex repair, screw and clavicle hook plate augmentation.
Hypothesis
There is no difference, biomechanically, amongst the various reconstruction and augmentative methods.
Study Design
Controlled laboratory cadaveric study.
Methods
54 cadaveric native (acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular) ligaments were tested using the Instron machine. Superior loading was performed in the 6 groups: 1) in the intact states, 2) after modified Weaver-Dunn reconstruction (WD), 3) after modified Weaver-Dunn reconstruction with acromioclavicular joint capsuloligamentous repair (WD.ACJ), 4) after modified Weaver-Dunn reconstruction with clavicular hook plate augmentation (WD.CP) or 5) after modified Weaver-Dunn reconstruction with coracoclavicular screw augmentation (WD.BS) and 6) after modified Weaver-Dunn reconstruction with mersilene tape-palmaris-longus tendon graft reconstruction (WD. PLmt). Posterior-anterior (horizontal) loading was similarly performed in all groups, except groups 4 and 5. The respective failure loads, stiffnesses, displacements at failure and modes of failure were recorded. Data analysis was carried out using a one-way ANOVA, with Student's unpaired t-test for unpaired data (S-PLUS statistical package 2005).
Results
Native ligaments were the strongest and stiffest when compared to other modes of reconstruction and augmentation except coracoclavicular screw, in both posterior-anterior and superior directions (p < 0.005).
WD.ACJ provided additional posterior-anterior (P = 0. 039) but not superior (p = 0.250) stability when compared to WD alone.
WD+PLmt, in loads and stiffness at failure superiorly, was similar to WD+CP (p = 0.066). WD+PLmt, in loads and stiffness at failure postero-anteriorly, was similar to WD+ACJ (p = 0.084).
Superiorly, WD+CP had similar strength as WD+BS (p = 0.057), but it was less stiff (p < 0.005).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance
Modified Weaver-Dunn procedure must always be supplemented with acromioclavicular capsuloligamentous repair to increase posterior-anterior stability. Palmaris-Longus tendon graft provides both additional superior and posterior-anterior stability when used for acromioclavicular capsuloligamentous reconstruction. It is a good alternative to clavicle hook plate in acromioclavicular dislocation.
doi:10.1186/1749-799X-2-22
PMCID: PMC2235831  PMID: 18042292
2.  Clinical results of coracoacromial ligament transfer in acromioclavicular dislocations: A review of published literature 
Acromioclavicular joint dislocations are common injuries, which typically occur with trauma in young men. Treatment recommendations for these injuries are highly variable and controversial. There are greater than 100 surgical techniques described for operative treatment of this injury. One of the most widely recommended methods of surgical reconstruction for acromioclavicular joint dislocations is to utilize the coracoacromial ligament for stabilization of the distal clavicle. Several modifications of this procedure have been described which have involved adjunct coracoclavicular fixation or fixation across acromioclavicular joint. Although the literature is replete with descriptive papers, there is paucity of studies evaluating the surgical outcome of this procedure. We systematically reviewed the English language published literature in peer reviewed journals (Medline, EMBASE, SCOPUS) and assigned a level of evidence for available studies. We critically reviewed each paper for the flaws and biases and then evaluated the comparable clinical outcomes for various procedures and their modifications. The published literature consists entirely of case series (Level IV evidence) with variability in surgical technique and outcome measures. On review there is low level evidence to support the use of coracoacromial ligament for acromioclavicular dislocation but it has been associated with high rate of deformity recurrence. Adjunct fixation does not improve clinical results when compared to isolated coracoacromial ligament transfer. This is in part because of the high incidence of fixation related complications. Similar results are reported with coracoacromial ligament reconstruction for acute and chronic cases. The development of secondary acromioclavicular joint symptoms with distal clavicle retention is poorly reported with the incidence rate varying from 12% to 32%. Despite this, the retention or excision of distal clavicle did not affect overall clinical results except in the patients with pre existing acromioclavicular joint osteoarthritis who have inferior results with retention of distal end of clavicle. Further well designed clinical trials with validated outcome measures are required to fully evaluate the clinical results of this procedure.
doi:10.4103/0973-6042.39582
PMCID: PMC3022141  PMID: 21264150
Coracoacromial ligament; weaver-dunn reconstruction; acromioclavicular dislocation; modified weaver-dunn; acromioclavicular stabilization
3.  Kinematic Evaluation of the Modified Weaver-Dunn Acromioclavicular Joint Reconstruction 
Background
Few reconstructive methods to treat displaced acromioclavicular separations have been evaluated using kinematic data. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the modified Weaver-Dunn reconstruction to restore acromioclavicular motion during humeral range of motion.
Hypothesis
We hypothesized that the modified Weaver-Dunn reconstruction restores intact acromioclavicular joint motion during passive scapular plane abduction.
Study Design
Controlled laboratory study using cadaveric torso specimens.
Materials and Methods
Acromioclavicular joint motion was recorded during passive humeral elevation in three states: an intact shoulder, an ‘injured’ state where the acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments were transected, and finally in a reconstructed state using a modified Weaver-Dunn reconstruction. Measurements were taken with an electromagnetic motion analysis system attached to rigid pins placed in the clavicle, scapula, humerus, and sternum during passive scapular plane humeral elevation.
Results
Total translatory motion of the acromioclavicular joint in the cut state was significantly greater than both the intact and reconstructed states in the medial/lateral (intact = 4.3 mm, cut = 7.9 mm, reconstructed = 2.6 mm), anterior/posterior (intact 4.8 mm, cut = 6.1 mm, reconstructed = 4.9 mm), and superior/inferior (intact = 4.1 mm, cut = 8.0 mm, reconstructed = 4.8 mm) directions. The maximum and minimum positions of the reconstructed state were significantly more anterior and inferior than in the intact state. A significant increase in acromioclavicular axial rotation was also found between the intact and cut state.
Conclusion
The modified Weaver-Dunn reconstruction was found to restore motion of the acromioclavicular joint to near intact values, but created a more anterior and inferior position of the clavicle with respect to the acromion.
Clinical Relevance
This kinematic data supports the modified Weaver-Dunn reconstruction as a kinematically sound procedure to treat displaced acromioclavicular joint injuries.
doi:10.1177/0363546508319048
PMCID: PMC2779258  PMID: 18539949
acromioclavicular joint; shoulder separation; modified Weaver-Dunn reconstruction; shoulder biomechanics
4.  Clinical and radiological outcome following treatment of displaced lateral clavicle fractures using a locking compression plate with lateral extension: a prospective study 
Background
Treatment of lateral fractures of the clavicle is challenging and has been controversially discussed for a long time due to high non-union rates in non-operative treatment and high complication rates in surgical treatment. Acromioclavicular joint instability due to the injury of the closely neighbored coraco-clavicular ligaments can result in a cranialization of the medial clavicle shaft. A recently developed implant showed a promising functional outcome in a small collective of patients.
Methods
In this prospective study, 20 patients with a mean age of 40.7 ± 11.3 years with a dislocated fracture of the lateral clavicle (Jäger&Breitner I-III, Neer I-III) were enrolled. All patients were surgically treated using the locking compression plate (LCP) for the superior anterior clavicle (Synthes®). Functional outcome was recorded using the Munich Shoulder Questionnaire (MSQ) allowing for qualitative self-assessment of the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), of the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score and of the Constant Score. Acromioclavicular joint stability was evaluated using the Taft-Score.
Results
The mean follow-up was 14.2 ± 4.0 months. The mean MSQ was 87.0 ± 7.4 points, the mean SPADI 91.1 ± 11.3 points, the mean DASH score 7.6 ± 7.3 points and the mean normative age- and sex-specific Constant Score 85.6 ± 8.0 points. The mean Taft Score resulted in 10.7 ± 1.0 points. The mean Taft Score in lateral clavicular fractures with fracture gap between the coracoclavicular ligaments in combination with a rupture of the conoid ligament (J&B II a, Neer II B; n =11) was with 10.3 ± 0.9 points significantly lower than the mean Taft Score of all other types of lateral clavicle fractures (J&B I, II b, III; n =9) which resulted in 11.3 ± 0.9 points (p < 0.05).
Conclusions
The Synthes® LCP superior anterior clavicle plate allows for a safe stabilization and good functional outcome with high patient satisfaction in fractures of the lateral clavicle. However, in fractures type Jäger&Breitner II a, Neer II B a significant acromioclavicular joint instability was observed and additional reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments should be performed.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02256059. Registered 02 October 2014.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-15-380
PMCID: PMC4247764  PMID: 25406639
Lateral clavicle fracture; Distal clavicle fracture; Locking compression plate; Superior anterior clavicle plate with lateral extension; Instability
5.  What Role Do Plain Radiographs Have in Assessing the Skeletally Immature Acromioclavicular Joint? 
Background
Because of incomplete ossification of the coracoid process and acromion, acromioclavicular joint configuration in the skeletally immature patient differs from that of adults. Although comparison to radiographic standards for this joint is critical in the evaluation of acromioclavicular joint injuries, these standards are not well defined for children or adolescents.
Questions/purposes
We therefore sought to determine (1) the reliability of numerous radiographic measurements of the skeletally immature acromioclavicular joint, including the vertical and shortest coracoclavicular interval, and the acromioclavicular joint offset; (2) the timing of ossification of the acromion and coracoid in males and females; and (3) the differences in the values of these radiographic measurements based on age and sex.
Methods
This study was based on a total of 485 subjects, 8 to 18 years old, who underwent conventional AP view radiographs of both shoulders. The 485 subjects were included to assess normal configuration around the acromioclavicular joint and 466 of these subjects were evaluated for comparison between both sides. The vertical and shortest coracoclavicular interval, coracoclavicular clavicle width ratio, acromioclavicular joint offset, and difference of the coracoclavicular interval of both sides were measured. A reliability test was conducted before obtaining the main measurements. The relationship of measurements with sex, age, and stage of ossification was evaluated.
Results
The vertical and shortest coracoclavicular interval showed excellent reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient ([ICC], 0.918 and 0.934). The acromioclavicular joint offset showed low reliability (ICC, 0.543). The ossification centers of the acromion and the coracoid processes appeared and fused earlier in females than in males. The vertical coracoclavicular interval, which was not affected by partial ossification of the coracoid process, was less than 11 mm in the 90% quantile of total subjects in males and 10 mm in the 90% quantile in females. The difference of the vertical coracoclavicular interval of both sides was less than 50% in 436 of 466 (93.4%) patients.
Conclusions
The vertical coracoclavicular interval was the best parameter to assess acromioclavicular joint dislocation in skeletally immature patients. Comparison of both sides of the acromioclavicular joint could help to inform physicians in predicting the need for additional evaluations.
Level of Evidence
Level III, diagnostic study. See the Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-013-3242-x
PMCID: PMC3889446  PMID: 23959906
6.  Management of Type 3 Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation: Comparison of Long-Term Functional Results of Two Operative Methods 
ISRN Surgery  2012;2012:580504.
Introduction. Treatment of Rockwood Type 3 Acromioclavicular joint dislocation is controversial. We compared the long-term functional outcome of early repair of coracoclavicular ligament and internal fixation (Tension Band Wiring) with delayed reconstruction by modified Weaver-Dunn procedure for Type 3 dislocations. Method. Retrospective analysis of case records and telephone review to assess the long-term functional outcome by patient satisfaction and Oxford shoulder score. Results. We had 18 cases of Type 3 Acromioclavicular dislocations over a period of 10 years. 7 cases had Tension Band Wiring and 11 cases had modified Weaver-Dunn procedure. Early repair group has higher risk (71%) of post operative complications compared to that of the delayed reconstruction group (9%). All 5 patients who developed postoperative complications in the early repair group required a second operation for metal work removal. Long-term functional results of both groups were comparable in terms of Oxford shoulder score and patient satisfaction. Conclusions. We recommend modified Weaver-Dunn procedure for failed conservative management of Grade 3 Acromioclavicular joint dislocation for the following reasons (1). better short-term functional outcome, low risk of complications and hence faster recovery (2). no need for a second surgery.
doi:10.5402/2012/580504
PMCID: PMC3384938  PMID: 22779002
7.  Surgical treatment of lateral clavicle fractures associated with complete coracoclavicular ligament disruption: Clinico-radiological outcomes of acromioclavicular joint sparing and spanning implants 
Purpose:
Distal clavicle fracture associated with complete coracoclavicular ligament disruption represents an unstable injury, and osteosynthesis is recommended. This study was performed (1) to retrospectively analyse the clinico-radiological outcomes of two internal fixation techniques, and (2) to identify and analyse radiographic fracture patterns of fracture that are associated with this injury.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 15 patients underwent osteosynthesis with either (1) acromioclavicular joint-spanning implants (Group 1, Hook plate device, n = 10) or (2) joint-sparing implants (Group 2, distal radius plate, n = 5); these were reviewed at a mean period of 26.1 months (12 to 40 months). Clinical outcomes were measured using Constant Score (CS), Simple Shoulder Test (SST), and Walch ACJ score (WS). Radiographs and ultrasonography were used to assess the glenohumeral and acromioclavicular joints, and the subacromial space. Preoperative radiographs were analyzed for assessment of fracture lines to identify radiographic patterns. Statistical analysis of the data was performed to determine any significant differences between the two groups.
Results:
The overall clinical outcome was satisfactory (CS 80.8, SST 11.3, WS 17.6) and a high union rate (93.3%) was observed. Radiographic complications (acromioclavicular degeneration and subluxation, hook migration, abnormal ossification) did not negatively influence the final clinical outcomes. Four distinct radiographic fracture patterns were observed. A statistically significant difference ( P < 0.05) was observed in the reoperation rates between the two groups.
Conclusions:
Internal fixation of this fracture pattern is associated with a high union rate and favorable clinical outcomes with both techniques. A combination of distal radius plate and ligament reconstruction device resulted in stable fixation and significantly lower reoperation rates, and should be used when fracture geometry permits (Types 1 and 2).
Design:
Retrospective review of a consecutive clinical case series.
Setting:
Level 1 academic trauma service, Public Hospital.
doi:10.4103/0973-6042.106224
PMCID: PMC3590702  PMID: 23493665
Acromioclavicular joint; comminution; distal clavicle fracture; fracture patterns; hook plate; locking radius plate; ultrasound
8.  Acromioclavicular third degree dislocation: surgical treatment in acute cases 
Background
The management of acute Rockwood type III acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) dislocation remains controversial, and the debate about whether patients should be conservatively or surgically treated continues. This study aims to compare conservative and surgical treatment of acute type III ACJ injuries in active sport participants (<35 years of age) by analysing clinical and radiological results after a minimum of 24 months follow-up.
Methods
The records of 72 patients with acute type III ACJ dislocations who were treated from January 2006 to December 2011 were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were categorised into two groups. group A included 25 patients treated conservatively, and group B included 30 patients treated surgically with the TightRope™ system. Seventeen patients were lost to follow-up.
All patients were evaluated at final follow-up with these clinical scores: Constant, University of California Los Angeles scale (UCLA), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Scale (ASES) and Acromioclavicular Joint Instability (ACJI) and with a subjective evaluation of the patient satisfaction, aesthetic results and shoulder function. The distance between the acromion and clavicle and between the coracoid process and clavicle were evaluated radiographically and compared with preoperative values. Δ, the difference in mm between the distance at the final follow-up and at T0 in the injured shoulder, and α, the side-to-side difference in mm at follow-up, were calculated. Heterotopic ossification and postoperative osteolysis were evaluated in both groups.
Results
There were no major intraoperative complications in the surgical group. The subjective parameters significantly differed between the two groups. Constant, ASES and UCLA scores were similar in both groups (P > 0.05), whereas ACJI results favoured the surgical group (group A, 72.4; group B, 87.9; P < 0.05). All measurements of radiographic evaluation were significantly reduced in the surgical group compared with the conservative group. In group A, we detected calcifications in 30% of patients; in group B we detected two cases of moderate osteolysis and calcifications in 70% of patients.
Conclusion
Although better subjective and radiographic results were achieved in surgically treated patients, traditional objective scores did not show significant differences between the two groups. Our results cannot support routine use of surgery to treat type III ACJ dislocations.
doi:10.1186/s13018-014-0150-z
PMCID: PMC4318207  PMID: 25627466
Acromioclavicular joint dislocation; TightRope; Rockwood type III dislocation; Shoulder
9.  Surgical treatment of dislocations of the acromioclavicular joint in the athlete. 
The treatment of the sports related dislocation of the acromioclavicular joint remains controversial. This study was carried out to determine whether or not a combined surgical procedure consisting of repair and polydioxanone (PDS)-cord augmentation of the coracoclavicular ligaments, fixation of the acromioclavicular joint with a single Kirschner wire as well as the repair of the acromioclavicular ligament permitted return to athletic activity. Athletes were examined with regard to their range of motion, pain and their ability to return to the performance level achieved before the injury. During the period 1986-1989, 21 athletes were treated. Follow-up averaged 22 months. Return of athletes to previous performance level was related to their original degree of activity. Two recreational once-a-week athletes did not return to this level, 19 patients, including five competitive athletes, continued their previous activities. There was no correlation between coracoclavicular ossification or post-traumatic arthritis and a good or excellent result. We recommend the operative treatment of acromioclavicular separations in athletes.
Images
PMCID: PMC1332134  PMID: 8358583
10.  Locking plates for displaced fractures of the lateral end of clavicle: Potential pitfalls 
Roughly a quarter of all clavicle fractures occur at the lateral end. Displaced fractures of the lateral clavicle have a higher rate of nonunion. The management of fractures of the lateral clavicle remains controversial. Open reduction internal fixation with a superiorly placed locking plate is a recently developed technique. However, there are no randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy of this procedure. We present a series of four cases which highlight the technical drawbacks with this method of fixation for lateral clavicle fractures. Two cases show that failure of the plate to negate the displacing forces at the fracture site can lead to plate pullout. Two cases illustrate an unusual complication of an iatrogenic injury to the acromioclavicular joint capsule which led to joint instability and dislocation. We advise caution in using this method of fixation. Recent studies have described the success of lateral clavicle locking plate fixation augmented with a coracoclavicular sling. This augmentation accounts for the displacing forces at the fracture site. We would recommend that when performing lateral clavicle locking plate fixation, it should be reinforced with a coracoclavicular sling to prevent plate failure by lateral screw pullout.
doi:10.4103/0973-6042.106226
PMCID: PMC3590704  PMID: 23493822
Lateral clavicle fracture; locking plate; screw pullout
11.  Acromioclavicular Dislocation: Conservative or Surgical Therapy 
Journal of Athletic Training  2004;39(1):10-11.
Reference:
Phillips AM, Smart C, Groom AFG. Acromioclavicular dislocation: conservative or surgical therapy. Clin Orthop. 1998;353:10–17.
Clinical Question:
Among patients with acromioclavicular (AC) dislocation, does surgical intervention produce better outcomes than conservative therapy?
Data Sources:
Studies were identified by a MEDLINE search (1966–1997) and a manual search of the reference lists of each relevant study identified. The medical subject heading of acromioclavicular dislocation was used as the primary search term.
Study Selection:
The search was limited to English-language journals listed in Index Medicus. Studies were included if they described severely displaced dislocations of the AC joint, mostly characterized as grade III injuries (Allman or Rockwood classification) or if there was at least 1-cm displacement of the clavicle. If more than 1 study included the same group or subgroups of patients, the study with the best assessed methods was used. Studies were divided into 4 classifications: group 1, randomized trials of surgery versus conservative therapy; group 2, nonrandomized trials of surgery versus conservative therapy; group 3, surgical trials only; and group 4, conservative trials only.
Data Extraction:
Data-extraction and study quality-assessment procedures were not explained in detail. The primary outcome measures were overall outcome, return to work, return to premorbid activities, complications, and radiographic features. Secondary measures were pain, range of motion, and strength. RevMan software (version 1.05; Cochrane Centre, Oxford, UK) was used for statistical analysis.
Main Results:
Specific search criteria identified 600 articles for review, of which 24 met inclusion and exclusion criteria: 2 in group 2, 3 in group 3, 14 in group 4, and 5 in group 4. A total of 1172 patients were represented (surgical treatment = 833, mean = 43.7 months' follow-up; conservative treatment = 339, mean = 60.4 months' follow-up). Both surgically and conservatively treated patients reported similar overall satisfactory outcome (88% surgical versus 87% conservative). Patients with surgical treatment reported longer time to return to work and premorbid activities. Among patients treated surgically, 59% had additional surgery, 6% had wound breakdown, 20% had fixation failure, and 3% reported residual deformity. Only 1% of conservatively treated patients reported wound problems, 6% had additional surgery, and 37% reported residual deformity. In only 1 study did the authors report the incidence of posttraumatic arthritis: 25% among surgically treated and 43% among conservatively treated patients. Analysis of secondary outcomes suggests that both groups had little or no pain (93% surgical, 96% conservative) but more conservatively treated patients had normal to near-normal range of motion (95% versus 86%) and normal strength (92% versus 87%). Conservative treatment of AC dislocations is 21% more likely to result in a satisfactory outcome than surgical treatment (odds ratio = 0.79, 95% confidence interval = 0.36, 1.71). The need for additional surgery is 7.4 times more likely and infection is 3.2 times more likely with surgical management.
Conclusions:
These data suggest that the current evidence does not support surgical treatment of grade III AC dislocations with respect to overall patient satisfaction as well as clinical outcomes such as pain, range of motion, and strength.
PMCID: PMC385255  PMID: 15085205
12.  Reconstruction of displaced acromio-clavicular joint dislocations using a triple suture-cerclage: description of a safe and efficient surgical technique 
Purpose
In this retrospective study we investigated the clinical and radiological outcome after operative treatment of acute Rockwood III-V injuries of the AC-joint using two acromioclavicular (AC) cerclages and one coracoclavicular (CC) cerclage with resorbable sutures.
Methods
Between 2007 and 2009 a total of 39 patients fit the inclusion criteria after operative treatment of acute AC joint dislocation. All patients underwent open reduction and anatomic reconstruction of the AC and CC-ligaments using PDS® sutures (Polydioxane, Ethicon, Norderstedt, Germany). Thirty-three patients could be investigated at a mean follow up of 32±9 months (range 24–56 months).
Results
The mean Constant score was 94.3±7.1 (range 73–100) with an age and gender correlated score of 104.2%±6.9 (88-123%). The DASH score (mean 3.46±6.6 points), the ASES score (94.6±9.7points) and the Visual Analogue Scale (mean 0.5±0,6) revealed a good to excellent clinical outcome. The difference in the coracoclavicular distance compared to the contralateral side was <5 mm for 28 patients, between 5-10 mm for 4 patients, and more than 10 mm for another patient. In the axial view, the anterior border of the clavicle was within 1 cm (ventral-dorsal direction) of the anterior rim of the acromion in 28 patients (85%). Re-dislocations occured in three patients (9%).
Conclusion
Open AC joint reconstruction using AC and CC PDS cerclages provides good to excellent clinical results in the majority of cases. However, radiographically, the CC distance increased significantly at final follow up, but neither the amount of re-dislocation nor calcifications of the CC ligaments or osteoarthritis of the AC joint had significant influence on the outcome.
Level of evidence
Case series, Level IV
doi:10.1186/1754-9493-6-25
PMCID: PMC3503776  PMID: 23098339
Acromioclavicular joint; Dislocation; Rockwood; Cerclage
13.  Suture repair using loop technique in cases of acute complete acromioclavicular joint dislocation 
Background
Acromioclavicular joint dissociation may not be a common injury, yet it may cause limitations in activity. Types IV, V, and VI dissociations need operative repair. In this study, a simple technique is advocated to reduce and maintain reduction of the acromioclavicular joint using no. 5 nonabsorbable suture material while the resutured coracoclavicular (CC) ligament heals.
Methods and methods
Twenty-one patients (16 men and five women) with types IV and V acromioclavicular joint dissociation were studied. In all cases, acromioclavicular joint was reduced and reduction was maintained using no. 5 nonabsorbable suture material passed as a loop under the knuckle of the coracoid process and through a tunnel drilled through the lateral third of the clavicle. The CC ligament was then resutured.
Results
Patients were followed up over a period of 6–9 years. At the final follow-up, all patients had returned to their preinjury level of activity, with significant improvement in the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Shoulder (ASES), and the Constant scores.
Conclusions
This technique provided good results with no loss of reduction, except in a single case, during the long follow-up period. We could not prove that the good results are due to the healing of the CC ligament. However, patients were able to return to their daily activities and even contact sports without any noticeable deformity, feeling of weakness, pain, or limitation of range of motion (compared with the contralateral side). This technique does not involve the use of metallic implants, which require another surgery to remove them, the use of expensive synthetic graft, or a graft harvested from a distant donor site.
doi:10.1007/s10195-011-0130-6
PMCID: PMC3052425  PMID: 21327898
Acromioclavicular; Dislocation; Repair
14.  Suture repair using loop technique in cases of acute complete acromioclavicular joint dislocation 
Background
Acromioclavicular joint dissociation may not be a common injury, yet it may cause limitations in activity. Types IV, V, and VI dissociations need operative repair. In this study, a simple technique is advocated to reduce and maintain reduction of the acromioclavicular joint using no. 5 nonabsorbable suture material while the resutured coracoclavicular (CC) ligament heals.
Methods and methods
Twenty-one patients (16 men and five women) with types IV and V acromioclavicular joint dissociation were studied. In all cases, acromioclavicular joint was reduced and reduction was maintained using no. 5 nonabsorbable suture material passed as a loop under the knuckle of the coracoid process and through a tunnel drilled through the lateral third of the clavicle. The CC ligament was then resutured.
Results
Patients were followed up over a period of 6–9 years. At the final follow-up, all patients had returned to their preinjury level of activity, with significant improvement in the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Shoulder (ASES), and the Constant scores.
Conclusions
This technique provided good results with no loss of reduction, except in a single case, during the long follow-up period. We could not prove that the good results are due to the healing of the CC ligament. However, patients were able to return to their daily activities and even contact sports without any noticeable deformity, feeling of weakness, pain, or limitation of range of motion (compared with the contralateral side). This technique does not involve the use of metallic implants, which require another surgery to remove them, the use of expensive synthetic graft, or a graft harvested from a distant donor site.
doi:10.1007/s10195-011-0130-6
PMCID: PMC3052425  PMID: 21327898
Acromioclavicular; Dislocation; Repair
15.  Restoration of horizontal stability in complete acromioclavicular joint separations: surgical technique and preliminary results 
Background
Our purpose was to investigate the clinical efficacy of arthroscope-assisted acromioclavicular ligament reconstruction in combination with double endobutton coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction for the treatment of complete acromioclavicular joint dislocation.
Methods
During the period from February 2010 to October 2012, ten patients with Rockwood types IV and V acromioclavicular joint dislocation were hospitalized and nine were treated with acromioclavicular ligament reconstruction combined with double endobutton of coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction. The improvement in shoulder functions was assessed using a Constant score and visual analog scale (VAS) system.
Results
The mean follow-up period was 33.6 ± 5.4 months. The mean Constant scores improved from 25.2 ± 6.6 preoperatively to 92.4 ± 6.5 postoperatively, while the mean VAS score decreased from 5.9 ± 1.4 to 1.2 ± 0.9; significant differences were observed. The final follow-up revealed that excellent outcomes were achieved in eight patients and good outcome in two patients.
Conclusion
Arthroscope-assisted acromioclavicular ligament reconstruction in combination with double endobutton of coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction is an effective approach for treatment of acute complete acromioclavicular joint dislocation.
doi:10.1186/2047-783X-18-42
PMCID: PMC3835421  PMID: 24225119
Acromioclavicular joint dislocation; Acromioclavicular ligament; Arthroscope-assisted; Horizontal stability; Reconstruction
16.  Radiographic changes in the operative treatment of acute acromioclavicular joint dislocation – tight rope technique vs. K-wire fixation 
Polish Journal of Radiology  2013;78(4):15-20.
Summary
Background
Operative treatment of higher degree acromioclavicular joint luxation is common. A new option is made available by the tight rope technique. It claims to provide adequate outcome with the use of a minimally invasive technique. First clinical studies justified its medical use, but the equivalence to established surgical methods remains unclear. We therefore analyzed radiographic data from patients that were treated with the tight rope system (TR) and compared them to those treated with K-wires (KW) fixation.
Material/Methods
Retrospective study with inclusion criteria: surgery for acromioclavicular joint luxation between 2004 and 2011, classified as Rockwood type III, no concomitant injury, first event injury. We compared pre- and post-operative X-rays with those taken at the end of treatment. Clinical data from follow-ups and radiographic data were evaluated. The main outcome variable was the remaining distance between the acromion and clavicle (ACD), as well as the coracoid process and clavicle (CCD).
Results
27 patients (TR: n=16; KW: n=11) with comparable demographics and injury severity were included. Surgery reduced ACD (TR: p=0.002; KW: p<0.001) and CCD (TR: p=0.001; KW: p=0.003). Heterotopic ossification or postoperative osteolysis was not significantly associated with either one of the procedures. Three patients (18.75%) in the TR group showed impaired wound healing, migrating K-wires were recorded in 2 patients (18.2%) and impingement syndrome occurred in 1 patient (9.1%) with K-wires. Posttraumatic arthritis was not seen. There was a loss of reduction in 2 cases within the TR-group (12.51%) and 1 in the KW-group (9.1%). At last follow up, ACD and CCD were wider in both groups compared to the healthy side.
Conclusions
This study shows that the Tight rope system is an effective alternative in the treatment of higher degree acromioclavicular luxation and comparable to the established methods.
doi:10.12659/PJR.889615
PMCID: PMC3908503  PMID: 24505220
radiographic changes; K-wire; tight rope
17.  Acromioclavicular Reconstruction using Autogenous Semitendinosus Tendon Graft and the Importance of Postoperative Rehabilitation: A Case Report 
Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal  2013;7(3):30-32.
Abstract
We present a case of chronic acromioclavicular joint dislocation (Rockwood type 5) in which the choice of acromioclavicular reconstruction using autogenous semitendinosus tendon graft was made due to its superiority in anatomical reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments, and the impact of postoperative rehabilitation on the recovery of this patient. We also discuss the rationale behind this.
Key Words
acromioclavicular joint dislocation, acromioclavicular reconstruction, autogenous semitendinosus tendon graft, rehabilitation approach
doi:10.5704/MOJ.1311.012
PMCID: PMC4322141
18.  Arthroscopy-assisted reconstruction of coracoclavicular ligament by Endobutton fixation for treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation 
Objective
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of arthroscopy-assisted reconstruction of the coracoclavicular (CC) ligament using Endobutton for treating acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation.
Methods
From March 2012 to May 2013, a total of 22 patients with fresh AC joint dislocation (Rockwood type III and type V) were treated with arthroscopy-assisted Endobutton reconstruction of the CC ligament. The regular post-operation follow-up was performed. Shoulder joint function was assessed with Constant–Murley scores. Postoperative efficacy of the surgery was evaluated using the Karlsson criterion.
Results
The 22 patients were followed postoperatively for an average of 24 months (16–31 months). Among them, 20 patients achieved good functional recovery with no pain. Two patients had slight pain in the acromion during shoulder joint motion with limited abduction at 3 months, both of whom had recovered at 6 months. Radiography confirmed anatomical reduction of the AC joint in all patients. At 1 year, the Constant–Murley scores were 93.1 ± 2.4 points on the injured side versus 94.2 ± 2.7 points on the uninjured side. The difference did not reach statistical significance (P > 0.05). Postoperative Karlsson evaluation ranked 20 patients (90.9 %) as grade A and 2 as grade B (9.1 %) at the 3-month follow-up. All patients had become grade A at 6 months. None of the patients had brachial plexus or peripheral vascular injuries.
Conclusion
Arthroscopy-assisted reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligament by Endobutton fixation is a safe, easy method for treating AC joint dislocation. It provides reliable fixation, causes little trauma, and has a fast recovery.
doi:10.1007/s00402-014-2117-2
PMCID: PMC4281352  PMID: 25421528
Arthroscopy; Endobutton; Coracoclavicular ligament; Acromioclavicular dislocation; Ligament repair
19.  Effects of hook plate on shoulder function after treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation 
Introduction: Internal fixation with hook plate has been used to treat acromioclavicular joint dislocation. This study aims to evaluate the effect of its use on shoulder function, to further analyze the contributing factors, and provide a basis for selection and design of improved internal fixation treatment of the acromioclavicular joint dislocation in the future. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on patients treated with a hook plate for acromioclavicular joint dislocation in our hospital from January 2010 to February 2013. There were 33 cases in total, including 25 males and 8 females, with mean age of 48.27 ± 8.7 years. There were 29 cases of Rockwood type III acromioclavicular dislocation, 4 cases of type V. The Constant-Murley shoulder function scoring system was used to evaluate the shoulder function recovery status after surgery. Anteroposterior shoulder X-ray was used to assess the position of the hook plate, status of acromioclavicular joint reduction and the occurrence of postoperative complications. Results: According to the Constant-Murley shoulder function scoring system, the average scores were 78 ± 6 points 8 to 12 months after the surgery and before the removal of the hook plate, the average scores were 89 ± 5 minutes two months after the removal of hook plate. Postoperative X-ray imaging showed osteolysis in 10 cases (30.3%), osteoarthritis in six cases (18.1%), osteolysis associated with osteoarthritis in four cases(12.1%), and steel hook broken in one case (3%). Conclusion: The use of hook plate on open reduction and internal fixation of the acromioclavicular joint dislocation had little adverse effect on shoulder function and is an effective method for the treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Osteoarthritis and osteolysis are the two common complications after hook plate use, which are associated with the impairment of shoulder function. Shoulder function will be improved after removal of the hook plate.
PMCID: PMC4211760  PMID: 25356110
Acromioclavicular joint; dislocation; hook plate; function; osteolysis; osteoarthritis
20.  Operative versus non-operative management following Rockwood grade III acromioclavicular separation: a meta-analysis of the current evidence base 
Background
Whilst there is little debate over the treatment of Rockwood grade V and VI acromioclavicular dislocation, the management of grade III acromioclavicular dislocation remains less clear. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of patients managed operatively and non-operatively following grade III acromioclavicular dislocation.
Materials and methods
A systematic review of published and unpublished material was conducted. All included studies were reviewed against the PEDro appraisal tool. Where appropriate, a meta-analysis of pooled results was conducted.
Results
Among 724 citations, six studies met the eligibility criteria. All six studies were retrospective case series (level 4 evidence). The findings of this study indicated that operative management of grade III acromioclavicular dislocation results in a better cosmetic outcome (P < 0.0001) but greater duration of sick leave compared to non-operative management (P < 0.001). There was no difference in strength, pain, throwing ability and incidence of acromioclavicular joint osteoarthritis compared to non-operative management. Only one study recorded and showed a higher Constant score for operative management compared to non-operative management (P = 0.003).
Conclusions
There is a lack of well-designed studies in the literature to justify the optimum mode of treatment of grade III acromioclavicular dislocations.
doi:10.1007/s10195-011-0127-1
PMCID: PMC3052422  PMID: 21344264
Acromioclavicular; Dislocation; ACJT; Rockwood type; Systematic review
21.  Operative versus non-operative management following Rockwood grade III acromioclavicular separation: a meta-analysis of the current evidence base 
Background
Whilst there is little debate over the treatment of Rockwood grade V and VI acromioclavicular dislocation, the management of grade III acromioclavicular dislocation remains less clear. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of patients managed operatively and non-operatively following grade III acromioclavicular dislocation.
Materials and methods
A systematic review of published and unpublished material was conducted. All included studies were reviewed against the PEDro appraisal tool. Where appropriate, a meta-analysis of pooled results was conducted.
Results
Among 724 citations, six studies met the eligibility criteria. All six studies were retrospective case series (level 4 evidence). The findings of this study indicated that operative management of grade III acromioclavicular dislocation results in a better cosmetic outcome (P < 0.0001) but greater duration of sick leave compared to non-operative management (P < 0.001). There was no difference in strength, pain, throwing ability and incidence of acromioclavicular joint osteoarthritis compared to non-operative management. Only one study recorded and showed a higher Constant score for operative management compared to non-operative management (P = 0.003).
Conclusions
There is a lack of well-designed studies in the literature to justify the optimum mode of treatment of grade III acromioclavicular dislocations.
doi:10.1007/s10195-011-0127-1
PMCID: PMC3052422  PMID: 21344264
Acromioclavicular; Dislocation; ACJT; Rockwood type; Systematic review
22.  Mid-term results after operative treatment of rockwood grade III-V Acromioclavicular joint dislocations with an AC-hook-plate 
Acromioclavicular joint dislocations often occur in athletic, young patients after blunt force to the shoulder. Several static and dynamic operative procedures with or without primary ligament replacement have been described. Between February 2003 and March 2009 we treated 313 patients suffering from Rockwood III-V lesions of the AC joint with an AC-hook plate. 225 (72%) of these patients could be followed up. Mean operation time was 42 minutes in the conventional group and 47 minutes in the minimal invasive group. The postoperative pain on a scale from 1 to 10 (VAS-scale) was rated 2.7 in the conventional group and 2.2 in the minimal invasive group. Taft score showed very good and good results in 189 patients (84%). Constant score showed an average of 92.4 of 100 possible points with 89% excellent and good results and 11% satisfying results. All patients had some degree of pain or discomfort with the hookplate in place. These symptoms were relieved after removal of the plate. The overall complication rate was 10.6%. There were 6 superficial soft tissue infections, 1 fracture of the acromion, 7 redislocations after removal of the hook-plate. We observed 4 broken hooks which could be removed at the time of plate removal, 4 seromas and 2 cases of lateral clavicle bone infection, which required early removal of the plate. We can conclude that clavicle hook plate is a convenient device for the surgical treatment of Rockwood Grade III-V dislocations, giving good mid-term results with a low overall complication rate compared to the literature. Early functional therapy is possible and can avoid limitations in postoperative shoulder function.
doi:10.1186/2047-783X-16-2-52
PMCID: PMC3353421  PMID: 21463981
Acromioclavicular luxation; AC-hook plate; mid-term results; Rockwood III-V
23.  Conservative management of a type III acromioclavicular separation: a case report and 10-year follow-up 
Journal of Chiropractic Medicine  2011;10(4):261-271.
Objective
The purpose of this study is to present a 10-year prospective case of a right incomplete type III acromioclavicular (AC) separation in a 26-year-old patient.
Clinical Features
A 26-year-old male patient fell directly on his right shoulder with the arm in an outstretched and overhead position. Pain and swelling were immediate and were associated with a “step deformity.” The patient had limited right shoulder range of motion (ROM), strength, and function. Radiographic findings confirmed a type III AC separation on the right. At 1-year follow-up, the patient did not report any deficits in ROM or function, but did note a prominent distal clavicle on the right. At 3-, 5-, 7-, and 10-year follow-up, the patient did not report changes from 1 year. The radiographic findings at the 10-year follow-up indicated mild degenerative joint disease in both AC joints and mild elevation of the distal clavicle on the right.
Intervention and Outcome
The patient received chiropractic care to control for pain, swelling, and loss of ROM. The patient received acupuncture, joint mobilizations, palliative adhesive taping of the AC joint, Active Release Technique, and progressive resisted exercises. Radiographic study was done at the time of the injury and at 10 years to observe for any osseous changes in the AC joint.
Conclusion
The patient yielded excellent results from conservative chiropractic management that was reflected in a prompt return to work 19 days after the injury. Follow-up at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years exhibited absence of residual deficits in ROM and function. The “step deformity” was still present after the injury on the right.
doi:10.1016/j.jcm.2011.01.009
PMCID: PMC3315870  PMID: 22654684
Case report; Shoulder; Acromioclavicular joint; Chiropractic; Acupuncture therapy
24.  Functional Anatomy of the Shoulder 
Journal of Athletic Training  2000;35(3):248-255.
Objective:
Movements of the human shoulder represent the result of a complex dynamic interplay of structural bony anatomy and biomechanics, static ligamentous and tendinous restraints, and dynamic muscle forces. Injury to 1 or more of these components through overuse or acute trauma disrupts this complex interrelationship and places the shoulder at increased risk. A thorough understanding of the functional anatomy of the shoulder provides the clinician with a foundation for caring for athletes with shoulder injuries.
Data Sources:
We searched MEDLINE for the years 1980 to 1999, using the key words “shoulder,” “anatomy,” “glenohumeral joint,” “acromioclavicular joint,” “sternoclavicular joint,” “scapulothoracic joint,” and “rotator cuff.”
Data Synthesis:
We examine human shoulder movement by breaking it down into its structural static and dynamic components. Bony anatomy, including the humerus, scapula, and clavicle, is described, along with the associated articulations, providing the clinician with the structural foundation for understanding how the static ligamentous and dynamic muscle forces exert their effects. Commonly encountered athletic injuries are discussed from an anatomical standpoint.
Conclusions/Recommendations:
Shoulder injuries represent a significant proportion of athletic injuries seen by the medical provider. A functional understanding of the dynamic interplay of biomechanical forces around the shoulder girdle is necessary and allows for a more structured approach to the treatment of an athlete with a shoulder injury.
PMCID: PMC1323385  PMID: 16558636
anatomy; static; dynamic; stability; articulation
25.  Acromioclavicular joint reconstruction with coracoacromial ligament transfer using the docking technique 
Background
Symptomatic Acromioclavicular (AC) dislocations have historically been surgically treated with Coracoclavicular (CC) ligament reconstruction with transfer of the Coracoacromial (CA) ligament. Tensioning the CA ligament is the key to success.
Methods
Seventeen patients with chronic, symptomatic Type III AC joint or acute Type IV and V injuries were treated surgically. The distal clavicle was resected and stabilized with CC ligament reconstruction using the CA ligament. The CA ligament was passed into the medullary canal and tensioned, using a modified 'docking' technique. Average follow-up was 29 months (range 12–57).
Results
Postoperative ASES and pain significantly improved in all patients (p = 0.001). Radiographically, 16 (94%) maintained reduction, and only 1 (6%) had a recurrent dislocation when he returned to karate 3 months postoperatively. His ultimate clinical outcome was excellent.
Conclusion
The docking procedure allows for tensioning of the transferred CA ligament and healing of the ligament in an intramedullary bone tunnel. Excellent clinical results were achieved, decreasing the risk of recurrent distal clavicle instability.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-10-6
PMCID: PMC2637828  PMID: 19144190

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