Stimulated by rapid modernization and industrialization, there is massive rural–urban migration in China. The migrants are highly susceptible to smoking and mental health problems. This study examined the association between both perceived work stress and perceived life stress with smoking behavior among this group during the period of migration.
Participants (n = 1,595) were identified through stratified, multi-stage, systematic sampling. Smoking status separated non-smokers from daily and occasional smokers, and migration history, work stress, and life stress were also measured. Analyses were conducted using the Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression. Two models were utilized. The first was the full model that comprised sociodemographic and migration-related characteristics, as well as the two stress variables. In addressing potential overlap between life and work stress, the second model eliminated one of the two stress variables as appropriate.
Overall smoking prevalence was 64.9% (95% CI: 62.4-67.2%). In the regression analysis, under the full model, migrants with high perceived life stress showed a 45% excess likelihood to be current smokers relative to low-stress counterparts (OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.05 – 2.06). Applying the second model, which excluded the life stress variable, migrants with high perceived work stress had a 75% excess likelihood to be current smokers relative to opposites (OR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.26–2.45).
Rural–urban migrant workers manifested a high prevalence of both life stress and work stress. While both forms of stress showed associations with current smoking, life stress appeared to outweigh the impact of work stress. Our findings could inform the design of tobacco control programs that would target Chinese rural–urban migrant workers as a special population.
Smoking; Work stress; Life stress; Rural–urban migrant workers
Not everyone who experiences a trauma develops posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of this study was to determine the risk and resiliency factors for this disorder in a sample of people exposed to trauma.
Twenty-five people who had developed PTSD following a trauma and 27 people who had not were asked to complete the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. In addition, they completed a questionnaire to provide information autobiographic and other information.
Five variables that discriminated significantly between the two groups using chi-square analysis or t-tests were entered into a logistic regression equation as predictors, namely, being female, perceiving a threat to one's life, having a history of sexual abuse, talking to someone about the event, and the "intentionality" of the trauma.
Only being female and perceiving a threat to one's life were significant predictors of PTSD. Taking base rates into account, 96.0% of participants with PTSD were correctly classified as having the disorder and 37.0% of participants without PTSD were correctly classified as not having the disorder, for an overall success rate of 65.4%
Because women are more likely than men to develop PTSD, more preventive measures should be directed towards them. The same is true for trauma victims (of both sexes) who feel that their life was in danger
One possible explanation for the individual differences in outcomes of stress is the diversity of inputs that produce perceptions of being stressed. The current study examines how combinations of contextual features (e.g., social isolation, neighborhood quality, health problems, age discrimination, financial concerns, and recent life events) of later life contribute to overall feelings of stress. Recursive partitioning techniques (regression trees and random forests) were used to examine unique interrelations between predictors of perceived stress in a sample of 282 community-dwelling adults. Trees provided possible examples of equifinality (i.e., subsets of people with similar levels of perceived stress but different predictors) as well as for the identification both of contextual combinations that separated participants with very high and very low perceived stress. Random forest analyses aggregated across many trees based on permuted versions of the data and predictors; loneliness, financial strain, neighborhood strain, ageism, and to some extent life events emerged as important predictors. Interviews with a subsample of participants provided both thick description of the complex relationships identified in the trees, as well as additional risks not appearing in the survey results. Together, the analyses highlight what may be missed when stress is used as a simple unidimensional construct and can guide differential intervention efforts.
Perceived Stress; Loneliness; Regression Trees; Random Forests; Aging
This study examined whether perceived discrimination was related to antisocial behaviors (ASB) in a probability sample of Puerto Rican children living in the South Bronx, New York and the San Juan Metropolitan area of Puerto Rico (N= 1,271). After adjusting for a host of well-known factors associated with ASB, such as sociodemographic variables (i.e., age, gender, household composition), psychosocial stressors (i.e., stressful life events, exposure to violence), and various forms of violence and abuse (i.e., coercive parental discipline, verbal, psychological, physical and sexual abuse), perceived discrimination remained a robust correlate of ASB among both samples. Findings are discussed with reference to the detrimental associations of perceived discrimination.
discrimination; antisocial behaviors; Puerto Rican; children
It is important to understand the psycho-social context of obesity to inform prevention and treatment of obesity at both the individual and public health level.
Representative samples of middle-aged adults aged ≥43 years were recruited in Great Britain (GB) (n = 1182) and Portugal (n = 540) and interviewed to explore associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), demographic factors, physical activity, dietary habits (FFQ), life events (LES), Resilience (RS11), Mood (MS), Hopelessness (BDI) and Perceived Stress (PSS4). BMI (kg/m2) and WC (cm) were dependent variables in separate multiple linear regression models for which predictors were entered in 4 blocks: 1. demographic factors; 2. stressful life events; 3. diet/activity; and, 4. psychological measures.
In the GB sample, BMI (kg/m2) was predicted by less education, illness in a close friend or relative, frequent alcohol consumption and sedentary behaviour. Among the Portuguese, higher BMI (kg/m2) was predicted by lower resilience. Being male and less education were independent predictors of having a larger WC (cm) in both countries. Within GB, not working, illness in a close friend or relative, sedentary lifestyle and lower resilience were also independent predictors of a larger WC (cm).
These data suggest that intervention to treat and/or prevent obesity should target males, particularly those who have left education early and seek to promote resilience. In GB, targeting those with high alcohol consumption and encouraging physical activity, particularly among those who have experienced illness in a close friend or relative may also be effective in reducing obesity.
Waist circumference; BMI; Obesity; Psychological well-being; Stress; Hopelessness; Resilience; Mood; Lifestyle; Life events; Survey; Lipgene
Background & objectives:
Psychosocial stressors leading to allostatic load need to be explored further as these have great scope for early intervention. Stress studies done in India are mostly based on sources of stress and objective measures of stress. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to assess stress appraisal among students (16-17 yr) and to identify institution-specific differences (Private vs. Government) in stress appraisal and coping.
The study was carried out among 16-17 yr old apparently normal students. Eighty students were recruited from six schools ensuring equal representation from gender/category of schools (Government/ Private). Validated and culturally adaptable behavioural scales for perceived stress (PSS), stressful life events (LES) and coping were administered. Psychological morbidity was assessed using GHQ-12. Data on 75 students were available for statistical analysis.
The students of both Government and Private schools showed similar stress perception, though the former tend to have a higher mean score. The scores were significantly higher on avoidance coping (P<0.05). The stepwise regression model showed coping as the independent predictor of perceived stress (R2= 10%).
Interpretation & conclusions:
Students from Government schools had significantly higher scores on avoidance coping and therefore, suitable for a systematic study on chronic stress for early intervention.
Coping; life events; perceived stress
Objectives. Stressors have a serious role in precipitating mental and somatic disorders and are an interesting subject for many clinical and community-based studies. Hence, the proper and accurate measurement of them is very important. We revised the stressful life event (SLE) questionnaire by adding weights to the events in order to measure and determine a cut point. Methods. A total of 4569 adults aged between 18 and 85 years completed the SLE questionnaire and the general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). A hybrid model of genetic algorithm (GA) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) was applied to extract the relation between the stressful life events (evaluated by a 6-point Likert scale) and the GHQ score as a response variable. In this model, GA is used in order to set some parameter of ANN for achieving more accurate results. Results. For each stressful life event, the number is defined as weight. Among all stressful life events, death of parents, spouse, or siblings is the most important and impactful stressor in the studied population. Sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 81% were obtained for the cut point 100. Conclusion. The SLE-revised (SLE-R) questionnaire despite simplicity is a high-performance screening tool for investigating the stress level of life events and its management in both community and primary care settings. The SLE-R questionnaire is user-friendly and easy to be self-administered. This questionnaire allows the individuals to be aware of their own health status.
To study in a large-scale cohort with prospective data the associations between psychosocial stress during pregnancy and placenta weight at birth. Animal data suggest that the placenta is involved in stress-related fetal programming.
We defined a priori two types of psychosocial stress during pregnancy, life stress (perceived burdens in major areas of life) and emotional symptoms (e.g. anxiety). We estimated the associations of maternal stress during pregnancy with placenta weight at birth, controlled for length of gestation, by predicting gestational age- and sex-specific z-scores of placenta weight through multiple regression analysis, adjusted for potential confounders (N = 78017 singleton pregnancies). Life stress (per increase in stress score by 1, range: 0–18) during pregnancy was associated with increased placenta weight at birth (z-score, reported in 10−3; B, 14.33; CI, 10.12–18.54). In contrast, emotional symptoms during pregnancy were not associated with placenta weight at birth.
Maternal life stress but not emotional symptoms during pregnancy was associated with increased placenta weight at birth; yet, the association-estimate was rather small. Our results may contribute to a better understanding of the role of the placenta in the regulation of intrauterine processes in response to maternal stress.
Fatigue can be triggered by previous perceived stress which may lead to impairment of performance and function. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between fatigue and perceived stress.
Health determinants including sociodemographic factors for associations between fatigue and perceived stress in the general population (N = 2,483) are outlined. Fatigue and stress were assessed with the Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFS) and the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ).
Within the general population, 25.9% of male and 34.5% of female respondents reported moderate fatigue during the last six months; 9.7% of subjects reported substantial fatigue lasting six months or longer. An adjusted regression analysis (R2corr = .28, p < .001) showed that fatigue is highest associated with perceived stress and self-perceived health status. The following factors were correlated with increased rates of fatigue and perceived stress: female gender, divorce/separation, low social class and poor health status.
We conclude that the two conditions overlap most in terms of socio-economic status and self-perceived health status.
Fatigue; stress perception; epidemiology; health determinants
Coping with stressful life events requires a degree of skill in the ability to attend to, comprehend, label, communicate and regulate emotions. Individuals vary in the extent to which these skills are developed, with the term ‘alexithymia’ often applied in the clinical and personality literature to those individuals most compromised in these skills. Although a frontal lobe model of alexithymia is emerging, it is unclear whether such a model satisfactorily reflects brain-related patterns associated with perceived emotional intelligence at the facet level. To determine whether these trait meta-mood facets (ability to attend to, have clarity of and repair emotions) have unique gray matter volume correlates, a voxel-based morphometry study was conducted in 30 healthy adults using the Trait Meta Mood Scale while co-varying for potentially confounding sociodemographic variables. Poorer Attention to Emotion was associated with lower gray matter volume in clusters distributed primarily throughout the frontal lobe, with peak correlation in the left medial frontal gyrus. Poorer Mood Repair was related to lower gray matter volume in three clusters in frontal and inferior parietal areas, with peak correlation in the left anterior cingulate. No significant volumetric correlations emerged for the Clarity of Emotion facet. We discuss the localization of these areas in the context of cortical circuits known to be involved in processes of self-reflection and cognitive control.
perceived emotional intelligence; trait meta-mood; voxel based morphometry; neuroimaging; alexithymia
To determine relationships between chronic stress, fatigue-related quality of life (QOL-F) and related covariates after mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Observational and cross-sectional
A total of 84 community-dwelling individuals with mild-to-moderate TBI recruited from multiple out-patient rehabilitation clinics assessed on average 15 months after injury.
Data were collected with self-report surveys and chart abstraction.
Neurofunctional Behavioral Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale-14, Impact of Events Scale, McGill Pain Short-form Scale, and modified version of the Fatigue Impact Scale.
Fatigue-related quality of life was associated with somatic symptoms, perceived situational stress, but not with event-related stress (PTSD symptoms) related to index TBI, pre-injury demographic, or post-injury characteristics. Somatic symptoms and chronic situational stress accounted for 42% of the variance in QOL (F).
QOL (F) in community-dwelling individuals with mild-to- moderate TBI is associated with chronic situational stress and somatic symptoms. Symptom management strategies may need to include general stress management to reduce fatigue burden and improve quality of life.
traumatic brain injury; fatigue; quality of life; stress; psychological
To describe the levels and identify independent predictors of caregiver burden in partners of patients with heart failure.
Care and support from a partner are important for the well-being of patients with heart failure and may potentially delay disease progression. However, caregiving may be associated with burden and stress and it is therefore important to understand which factors that influence caregiver burden. Theoretical models of caregiving describe the concept of burden as an outcome variable, including decreased well-being and health.
Data for this descriptive cross-sectional study were collected between January 2005 and September 2008. The dependent variable consisted of the Caregiver Burden Scale total score index. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, health-related quality of life, symptoms of depression, perceived control, and knowledge on heart failure were included in a regression analysis to determine independent predictors of caregiver burden.
The 135 partners had a mean-age of 69 years and 75% were females. Caregiver burden was perceived as medium in 30% of the partners. The patients’ Physical Component Score of SF-36 (p<0.001), partners’ Mental Component Score of SF-36 (p<0.001) and perceived control (p<0.01) accounted for 39% of the variance in caregiver burden.
Caregiver burden was lower when the mental health of the partner and the physical health of the patient were better and the partner experienced higher control over the heart disease. A partner-centered approach to educate and support partners of patients with heart failure is essential to improve the life situation for patient–partner dyads.
Caregiver burden; Depression; Health-related quality of life; Heart failure; Partner; Nursing
Coping with the stresses of chronic disease is considered as a key factor in the perceived impairment of health related quality of life (HRQL). Little is known though about these associations in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The present study aimed to investigate the relationship of defensive coping and HRQL among patients in different CKD stages, after adjusting for psychological distress, sociodemographic and disease-related variables.
The sample consisted of 98 CKD patients, attending a university nephrology department. Seventy-nine (79) pre-dialysis patients of disease stages 3 to 4 and 19 dialysis patients were included. HRQL was assessed by the 36-item Short-Form health survey (SF-36), defensive coping by the Rationality/Emotional Defensiveness (R/ED) scale of the Lifestyle Defense Mechanism Inventory (LDMI) and psychological distress by the depression and anxiety scales of the revised Hopkins Symptom CheckList (SCL-90-R). Regression analyses were carried out to examine the association between SF-36 dimensions and defensive coping style.
Patients on dialysis had worse scores on SF-36 scales measuring physical aspects of HRQL. In the fully adjusted analysis, a higher defensive coping score was significantly associated with a lower score on the mental component summary (MCS) scale of the SF-36 (worse mental health). In contrast, a higher defensive score showed a small positive association with the physical component summary (PCS) scale of the SF-36 (better health), but this was marginally significant.
The results provided evidence that emotional defensiveness as a coping style tends to differentially affect the mental and the physical component of HRQL in CKD. Clinicians should be aware of the effects of long-term denial and could examine the possibility of screening for defensive coping and depression in recently diagnosed CKD patients with the aim to improve both physical and mental health.
We examined the extent to which perceived life change following experiences of stressful life events, differentiated by type of stressor, influenced mental health during adulthood.
The analytic sample of 2073 cohort members was drawn from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, a sample followed since their birth in March 1946. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between stressors reported at 36 and 43 years and common mental disorder at 36, 43, and 53 years. Common mental disorder was measured using the Present State Exam at 36 years, the Psychiatric Symptom Frequency at 43 years, and the 28-item General Health Questionnaire at 53 years.
Data spanning across nearly 20 years suggest that stressors perceived to have contributed to a notable life change increased the likelihood of scoring above the cut off score for common mental disorder in comparison to stressors experienced without subsequent life change. Models were adjusted for gender, educational attainment, social class, relationship status, and past episodes of common mental disorder. This relationship appears to be most evident for proximal family and economic stressors and distal interpersonal relationship stressors experienced by close friends and relatives.
All study information is based on self-reports and details about the nature of the life change or cognitive attribution style were not available.
Appraisals of changes following stressful life events may be more important than the occurrence of stressors alone in assessing the impact of stressful life events on adult mental health.
Depression; Anxiety; Stressful life events; Birth cohort
Childhood adversity is associated with adult mental disorders, but the mechanisms underlying this association remain inadequately understood. Stress sensitization, whereby childhood adversity increases vulnerability to mental disorders following adult stressful life events, has been proposed as a potential mechanism. We provide a test of the stress sensitization hypothesis in a national sample.
We investigated whether the association between past-year stressful life events and the 12-month prevalence of major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other anxiety disorders, and perceived stress varies according to exposure to childhood adversity. We used data from the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=34,653).
Past-year stressful life events were associated with an increased risk of major depression, PTSD, anxiety disorders, and perceived stress. However, the magnitude of the increased risk varied according to respondents’ history of childhood adversity. For example, past-year major stressors were associated with a 27.3% increase in the 12-month risk of depression among individuals with 3+ childhood adversities and a 14.8% increased risk among individuals without childhood adversities. Stress sensitization effects were present for depression, PTSD, and other anxiety disorders in women and men, although gender differences were found in the threshold of past-year stress needed to trigger such effects. Stress sensitization was most evident among individuals with 3+ childhood adversities.
Childhood adversity is associated with increased vulnerability to the deleterious mental health effects of adult stressors in both men and women. High levels of childhood adversity may represent a general diathesis for multiple types of psychopathology that persists throughout the life-course.
To examine the effect of depressive symptoms and satisfaction with family support (FS) on physical and mental Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL).
Data were obtained from the Hong Kong FAMILY Project baseline survey in 2009–2011, which included 16,039 community residents (age ≥20). The FS was measured using the Family Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, Resolve (APGAR, range 0–10) Questionnaire. HRQoL were assessed using the SF-12 version 2. Depressive symptoms were recorded using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Demographic and lifestyle variables, stressful life events, perceived neighborhood cohesion were also assessed.
In a multilevel regression model, socio-demographic and behavioral variables explained 21% and 19% of the variance in physical and mental HRQoL. The presence of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score ≥10, standardized coefficients, β of −1.73) and high FS (APGAR score 7–10, 1.15) were associated with mental HRQoL, after adjustment for age, education, household monthly income, drinking status, physical activity, chronic conditions, life stress and neighborhood cohesion. Not FS but the presence of depressive symptoms (β of −0.88) was associated with physical HRQoL. The presence of depressive symptoms in women than men were more associated with a poorer physical HRQoL (p<0.01) while depressive symptoms in men were associated with a decrease in mental HRQoL (p<0.001). The interaction between FS and depressive symptoms was nonsignificant in relation to HRQoL. Among those with depressive symptoms, high FS was associated with a better mental HRQoL (41.1 vs. 37.9, p<0.001) in women but not contribute to variance in men.
Higher FS and presence of depressive symptoms were significantly associated with HRQoL in general population in Hong Kong. Among those with depressive symptoms, high FS was associated with a favorable mental HRQoL in women but not men.
Since the stress and coping are the most reported problems by adolescents, this study aims to apprise the stressors, coping strategies and influential factors among male adolescents.
The effect of stressors, coping strategies and some demographics variables were studied in 402 male adolescents in Tehran, Iran. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. A multiple regression was performed to assess factors related to perceived stress.
The mean age of adolescents was 15.44 (SD=0.68) years. The mean value of perceived stress for the whole sample was 17.99 (SD=6.02). Cognitive/emotional coping was the most frequent coping style. The findings revealed that there was a significant correlation between perceived and accumulative stress. In multiple regression analysis, the accumulative stress, social resources, parent`s education and grade point average were found to be significant predictors of perceived stress.
The findings suggest that increased level of perceived stress is associated with accumulative stress, social resources and parent`s education that are modifiable factors. Stress management education might be a solution to overcome increased perceived stress.
Perceived stress; Adolescents; Coping; Iran
Only half of older adults with a mental disorder use mental health services, and little is known about the causes of perceived need for mental health care (MHC). We used logistic regression to examine relationships among depression, anxiety, chronic physical illness, alcohol abuse and/or dependence, sociodemographics, and perceived need among a national sample of community-dwelling individuals 65 years of age and older (the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys data set). Less than half of respondents with depression or anxiety perceived a need for care. Perceived need was greater for respondents with more symptoms of depression regardless of whether they met diagnostic criteria for a mental illness. History of chronic physical conditions, history of depression or anxiety, and more severe mental illness were associated with greater perceived need for MHC. Future studies of perceived need should account for individual perceptions of mental illness and treatment and the influence of social networks.
Anxiety; Attitudes; Beliefs; Depression; Mental health
Medical students report high levels of stress related to their medical training as well as to other personal and financial factors. The aim of this study is to investigate whether there are differences in course-related stressors reported by medical students on undergraduate problem-based learning (PBL) and non-PBL programmes in the UK.
A cross-sectional study of second-year medical students in two UK medical schools (one PBL and one non-PBL programme) was conducted. A 16-question self-report questionnaire, derived from the Perceived Medical Student Stress Scale and the Higher Education Stress Inventory, was used to measure course-related stressors. Following univariate analysis of each stressor between groups, multivariate logistic regression was used to determine which stressors were the best predictors of each course type, while controlling for socio-demographic differences between the groups.
A total of 280 students responded. Compared to the non-PBL students (N = 197), the PBL students (N = 83) were significantly more likely to agree that: they did not know what the faculty expected of them (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.38, p = 0.03); there were too many small group sessions facilitated only by students resulting in an unclear curriculum (OR = 0.04, p < 0.0001); and that there was a lack of opportunity to explore academic subjects of interest (OR = 0.40, p = 0.02). They were significantly more likely to disagree that: there was a lack of encouragement from teachers (OR = 3.11, p = 0.02); and that the medical course fostered a sense of anonymity and feelings of isolation amongst students (OR = 3.42, p = 0.008).
There are significant differences in the perceived course-related stressors affecting medical students on PBL and non-PBL programmes. Course designers and student support services should therefore tailor their work to minimise, or help students cope with, the specific stressors on each course type to ensure optimum learning and wellbeing among our future doctors.
Police work tends to impose a high degree of stress and a multiplicity of stressful situations which can affect the physical, mental and interpersonal relationships of police personnel. The objective of the present study was to assess the level of stress among police personnel and to find the association of various factors with the level of stress among police personnel.
A cross-sectional study was conducted among 102 police personnel in Wardha city. A structured questionnaire based on The Professional Life Stress Test by Fontana was given to all participants. A grading scale was used to link participant’s verbal descriptions of perceived stress to a numerical scoring system being given scores between zero and five. The total score obtained for each respondent was considered as a measure of stress level.
Different stressors that were identified among the police personnel included criticism by superiors, excess work, no rewards, inadequate value given to abilities and commitments and no satisfaction from work. Seventy participants scored >15 which indicated that stress in the workplace was a problem, while 32 participants scored ≤15, indicating stress in the workplace was not a problem. A significant association was found with between age group, marital status, education and working hours and the level of stress among police personnel.
The majority of police personnel studied were under stress at their workplace due to a variety of stressors. This indicates the necessity to modify the organizational environment within the police force
Occupational stress; Police personnel; Stress level
For women with breast cancer, rates of depression are the third highest of any cancer diagnostic group. Stress, defined as life events or perceptions of stress, is associated with depressive symptoms. However, little is known about the relationships between different types of stress and these symptoms in women with breast cancer. This relationship was tested in 210 women assessed after initial surgical treatment for regional breast cancer. Using Hierarchical Multiple Regression, three types of stress were examined: the occurrence of five stressful life events in the year prior to cancer diagnosis, perceptions of global stress, and perceptions of cancer-related traumatic stress. Other potentially relevant correlates of depressive symptoms were also examined, including the personality trait neuroticism, sociodemographics, and disease/treatment characteristics. Fifty-three percent of the variance in depressive symptoms was accounted for by three stress variables (perceptions of global and cancer-related traumatic stress and the life event-major financial difficulty) and two control variables (neuroticism and racial group). Specifically, global stress perceptions coupled with cancer-related intrusive thoughts and financial concerns along with the tendency towards negativity (neuroticism) may conspire to heighten a women’s risk for depressive symptoms. Assessing multiple sources of stress would improve our ability to identify women ‘at risk’ for depressive symptoms and provide appropriate intervention.
To evaluate the effects of personal factors such as lifestyle and Thpe A behavior on the life-stress process, we analyzed data randomly collected from 428 metropolitan Tokyo residents. Path analysis techniques were implemented to examine the direct and indirect effects of lifestyle and the Type A behavior pattern between life events, subjective stress and depressive symptoms. The following results were obtained:Persons with a healthy lifestyle perceived a lower subjective stress level.Although females with a healthy lifestyle had fewer direct depressive symptoms, males with a healthy lifestyle had fewer indirect depressive symptoms due to alleviation of subjective stress.Type A males perceived a lower subjective stress level and Type A females experienced more life events.
It is suggested that mental health is modified not only by lifestyle but also by Type A behavior in the life-stress process. In particular, the preservation and promotion of a healthy lifestyle appear to reduce subjective stress and may be an important factor for the improvement of mental ill health.
Life event; Lifestyle; Stress; Type A behavior; Health practice; Depressive symptom
This study highlights respondent sensitivity to daily hassles as it relates to situational cocaine use and perceived long-term effects of adverse events in childhood. Data were drawn from a larger study on stress reactivity in cocaine dependent individuals. Participants (n=104) were cocaine dependent men and women without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They completed the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI), the Daily Hassles Scale (DHS), the Inventory of Drug-Taking Situations (IDTS), and the Time-Line Follow-Back (TLFB; for 90 days prior to interview). There were no gender differences in amount or frequency of cocaine use, although the patterns of use differed between male and female users. Overall, there were some associations in patterns of cocaine use and sensitivity to daily hassles, particularly use in response to conflict with others. Early negative life events were positively related to response to daily hassles, but current triggers were more relevant. Reactivity to cocaine cues was related to daily hassle sensitivity among women only. Limitations and implications of the findings are discussed.
cocaine; coping; stress; human sex differences
Using an open ended question along with Holme's and Rahe's Social Readjustment Rating Schedule on a sample of two hundred adult subjects, a suitable scale of stressful life events experienced by the Indian population was constructed and standardized for two time spaces, that is, last one year and life time. Analysis of various demographic variables for this population revealed no differences on this scale for age, marital state, education and occupation. However, marked sex differences in the perceived stressfulness were observed for three of the items. The scale items were further divided into desirable, undesirable and ambiguous and also into personal and impersonal Categories. Statistically significant difference were observed between the desirable and undesirable items, the latter being perceived as more stressful. Norms for total number of life events experienced as well as the presumptive stress score were established for each event for this population. The frequency of occurrence of each event in our population was also obtained. It was Calculated that individuals in our society are likely to experience an average of two stressful life events in the past one year and ten events in a life time without suffering any adverse physical or psychological disturbance. The scale is simple to administer to literate and illiterate subjects.
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether perceived job stress affects mental health in occupational settings. METHODS: A 2 year cohort study was conducted. Initially, a survey including the general health questionnaire (GHQ) and a questionnaire about perceived job stress was carried out. Of 462 workers who initially showed a GHQ score of < or = 7,310 were successfully followed up for 2 years. The 2 year risks of developing mental ill health (a GHQ score > or = 8) were assessed relative to perceived job stress. To control for potential confounding factors, multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: The overall 2 year risk for developing mental ill health was high at 57.7%. Workers who reported aspects of perceived job stress showed a greater 2 year risk than those without stress. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that some components of perceived job stress were associated with a higher 2 year risk, among which "not allowed to make mistakes" showed the largest adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 2.37 (1.32 to 4.29). "Poor relationship with superior" had a significant effect on mental health only in women, with an adjusted OR (95% CI) of 3.79 (1.65 to 8.73). CONCLUSIONS: Certain specific items of perceived job stress seem to be associated with mental ill health in workers. These could broadly be described as job strain, or job demand items. The type of job stress that predicts mental health may be dependent on the characteristics of the workplace investigated.