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1.  Hemodialysis catheter insertion: is increased PO2 a sign of arterial cannulation? A case report 
BMC Nephrology  2014;15:127.
Background
Ultrasound-guided Central Venous Catheterization (CVC) for temporary vascular access, preferably using the right internal jugular vein, is widely accepted by nephrologists. However CVC is associated with numerous potential complications, including death. We describe the finding of a rare left-sided partial anomalous pulmonary vein connection during central venous catheterization for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT).
Case presentation
Ultrasound-guided cannulation of a large bore temporary dual-lumen Quinton-Mahurkar catheter into the left internal jugular vein was performed for CRRT initiation in a 66 year old African-American with sepsis-related oliguric acute kidney injury. The post-procedure chest X-ray suggested inadvertent left carotid artery cannulation. Blood gases obtained from the catheter showed high partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) of 140 mmHg and low partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) of 22 mmHg, suggestive of arterial cannulation. However, the pressure-transduced wave forms appeared venous and Computed Tomography Angiography located the catheter in the left internal jugular vein, but demonstrated that the tip of the catheter was lying over a left pulmonary vein which was abnormally draining into the left brachiocephalic (innominate) vein rather than into the left atrium.
Conclusion
Although several mechanical complications of dialysis catheters have been described, ours is one of the few cases of malposition into an anomalous pulmonary vein, and highlights a sequential approach to properly identify the catheter location in this uncommon clinical scenario.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-15-127
PMCID: PMC4131228  PMID: 25073708
Hemodialysis; Catheter; Central venous cannulation; Vein anomaly
2.  Placement of Hemodialysis Catheters with a Technical, Functional, and Anatomical Viewpoint 
Aims. Vascular access is of prime importance for hemodialysis patients. We aimed to study early complications of hemodialysis catheters placed in different central veins in patients with acute or chronic renal failure with or without ultrasound (US ) guidance. Material and Methods. Patients who were admitted to our unit between March 2008 and December 2010 with need for vascular access have been included. 908 patients were examined for their demographic parameters, primary renal disease, and indication for catheterization, type and location of the catheter, implantation technique, and acute complications. Results. The mean age of the patients was 60.6 ± 16.0 years. 643 (70.8 %) of the catheters were temporary while 265 (29.2%) were permanent. 684 catheters were inserted to internal jugular veins, 213 to femoral, and 11 to subclavian veins. Arterial puncture occurred in 88 (9.7%) among which 13 had resultant subcutaneous hematoma. No patient had lung trauma and there had been no need for removal of the catheter or a surgical intervention for complications. US guidance in jugular vein and experience of operator decreased arterial puncture rate. Conclusion. US-guided replacement of catheter to internal jugular vein would decrease complication rate. Referral to invasive nephrologists may decrease use of subclavian vein. Experience improves complication rates even under US guidance.
doi:10.1155/2012/302826
PMCID: PMC3433137  PMID: 22966456
3.  Ultrasonography as a guide during vascular access procedures and in the diagnosis of complications 
Journal of Ultrasound  2013;16(4):161-170.
Vascular access used in the treatment of patients involves central and peripheral vein accesses and arterial accesses. Catheterization of central veins is widely used in clinical practice; it is a necessary part of the treatment of patients in various settings. The most commonly involved vessels are the internal jugular, subclavian, and femoral veins. The mechanical, infectious, and thrombotic complications of central venous catheterization are markedly reduced when the procedure is performed with real-time ultrasound guidance or (to a slightly lesser extent) ultrasound assistance. Ultrasound guidance is also used to create peripheral venous accesses, for catheterization of peripheral veins and for peripheral insertion of central venous catheters. In this setting, it increases the catheterization success rate, especially during difficult procedures (e.g., obese patients, children) and reduces complications such as catheter-related infections and venous thrombosis. Arterial cannulation is used for invasive monitoring of arterial pressure and for access during diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Ultrasound guidance reduces the risk of catheterization failure and complications. It is especially useful for arterial catheterization procedures performed in the absence of a palpable pulse (e.g., patient in shock, ECMO). Imaging support is being used increasingly to facilitate the creation of vascular accesses under difficult conditions, in part because of the growing use of ultrasonography as a bedside procedure. In clinical settings where patients are becoming increasingly vulnerable as a result of advanced age and/or complex disease, the possibility to reduce the risks associated with these invasive procedures should motivate clinicians to acquire the technical skills needed for routine use of sonographic support during vascular access procedures.
doi:10.1007/s40477-013-0046-5
PMCID: PMC3846948  PMID: 24432170
Vascular access; Ultrasound
4.  A minimally invasive technique for closing an iatrogenic subclavian artery cannulation using the Angio-Seal closure device: two case reports 
Introduction
In the two cases described here, the subclavian artery was inadvertently cannulated during unsuccessful access to the internal jugular vein. The puncture was successfully closed using a closure device based on a collagen plug (Angio-Seal, St Jude Medical, St Paul, MN, USA). This technique is relatively simple and inexpensive. It can provide clinicians, such as intensive care physicians and anesthesiologists, with a safe and straightforward alternative to major surgery and can be a life-saving procedure.
Case presentation
In the first case, an anesthetist attempted ultrasound-guided access to the right internal jugular vein during the preoperative preparation of a 66-year-old Caucasian man. A 7-French (Fr) triple-lumen catheter was inadvertently placed into his arterial system. In the second case, an emergency physician inadvertently placed a 7-Fr catheter into the subclavian artery of a 77-year-old Caucasian woman whilst attempting access to her right internal jugular vein. Both arterial punctures were successfully closed by means of a percutaneous closure device (Angio-Seal). No complications were observed.
Conclusions
Inadvertent subclavian arterial puncture can be successfully managed with no adverse clinical sequelae by using a percutaneous vascular closure device. This minimally invasive technique may be an option for patients with non-compressible arterial punctures. This report demonstrates two practical points that may help clinicians in decision-making during daily practice. First, it provides a practical solution to a well-known vascular complication. Second, it emphasizes a role for proper vascular ultrasound training for the non-radiologist.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-6-82
PMCID: PMC3310745  PMID: 22405215
5.  Hemodialysis catheter implantation in the axillary vein by ultrasound guidance versus palpation or anatomical reference 
Background
We compared the results of four different methods of hemodialysis catheter insertion in the medial segment of the axillary vein: ultrasound guidance, palpation, anatomical reference, and prior transient catheter.
Methods
All patients that required acute or chronic hemodialysis and for whom it was determined impossible or not recommended either to place a catheter in the internal jugular vein (for instance, those patients with a tracheostomy), or to practice arteriovenous fistula or graft; it was then essential to obtain an alternative vascular access. When the procedure of axillary vein catheter insertion was performed in the Renal Care Facility (RCF), ultrasound guidance was used, but in the intensive care unit (ICU), this resource was unavailable, so the palpation or anatomical reference technique was used.
Results
Two nephrologists with experience in the technique performed 83 procedures during a period lasting 15 years and 8 months (from January 1997–August 2012): 41 by ultrasound guidance; 19 by anatomical references; 15 by palpation of the contiguous axillary artery; and 8 through a temporary axillary catheter previously placed. The ultrasound-guided patients had fewer punctures than other groups, but the value was not statistically significant. Arterial punctures were infrequent in all techniques. Analyzing all the procedure-related complications, such as hematoma, pneumothorax, brachial-plexus injury, as well as the reasons for catheter removal, no differences were observed among the groups. The functioning time was longer in the ultrasound-guided and previous catheter groups. In 15 years and 8 months of surveillance, no clinical or image evidence for axillary vein stenosis was found.
Conclusion
The ultrasound guide makes the procedure of inserting catheters in the axillary veins easier, but knowledge of the anatomy of the midaxillary region and the ability to feel the axillary artery pulse (for the palpation method) also allow relatively easy successful implant of catheters in the axillary veins.
doi:10.2147/IJNRD.S46788
PMCID: PMC3798232  PMID: 24143120
hemodialysis; catheter; axillary venous; ultrasound guidance
6.  Percutaneous subclavian artery stent-graft placement following failed ultrasound guided subclavian venous access 
Background
Ultrasound guidance for central and peripheral venous access has been proven to improve success rates and reduce complications of venous cannulation. Appropriately trained and experienced operators add significantly to diminished patient morbidity related to venous access procedures. We discuss a patient who required an arterial stent-graft to prevent arterial hemorrhage following inadvertent cannulation of the proximal, ventral, right subclavian artery related to unsuccessful ultrasound guided access of the subclavian vein.
Case presentation
During pre-operative preparation for aortic valve replacement and aorto-coronary bypass surgery an anesthetist attempted ultrasound guided venous access. The ultrasound guided attempt to access the right jugular vein failed and the ultrasound guided attempt at accessing the subclavian vein resulted in inappropriate placement of an 8.5 F sheath in the arterial system. Following angiographic imaging and specialist consultations, an arterial stent-graft was deployed in the right subclavian artery rather than perform an extensive anterior chest wall resection and dissection to extract the arterial sheath. The patient tolerated the procedure, without complication, despite occlusion of the right internal mammary artery and the right vertebral artery. There were no neurologic sequelae. There was no evidence of hemorrhage after subclavian artery sheath extraction and stent-graft implantation.
Conclusion
The attempted ultrasound guided puncture of the subclavian vein resulted in placement of an 8.5 F subclavian artery catheter. Entry of the catheter into the proximal subclavian artery beneath the medial clavicle, the medial first rib and the manubrium suggests that the operator, most likely, did not directly visualize the puncture needle enter the vessel with the ultrasound. The bones of the anterior chest impede the ultrasound beam and the vessels in this area would not be visible to ultrasound imaging. Appropriate training and supervised experience in ultrasound guided venous access coupled with quality ultrasound equipment would most likely have significantly diminished the likelihood of this complication. The potential for significant patient morbidity, and possible mortality, was prevented by implantation of an arterial stent-graft.
doi:10.1186/1471-2342-6-3
PMCID: PMC1526717  PMID: 16674829
7.  A retrospective clinical audit of 696 central venous catheterizations at a tertiary care teaching hospital in India 
Background:
Malpositions after central venous cannulation are frequently encountered and may need a change in catheter. The incidence of malpositions are varied according to various studies and depend on the experience of the operator performing the cannulation.
Aim:
To access the incidence of malpositions and related complications associated with landmark-guided central venous cannulation in a 15-bedded medical surgical ICU over a period of three years.
Settings and Design:
Retrospective analysis of records of all the central venous cannulation done in a 15- bedded medical- surgical ICU over the period of three years (April 2008 to June 2011) were evaluated for the site and side of insertion, number of attempts of puncture, arterial puncture as well as the malpositions on post procedural chest X-ray. The records were also evaluated for the experience of the operator performing cannulation and relationship between experience of operator to malpositions of catheter.
Statistical Analysis:
Analysis was done using SPSS v 17.0 for Windows. Chi-square test was applied to evaluate the statistical significance. P > 0.05 was significant.
Results:
Records of 696 cannulations were evaluated. Malpositions occurred in 40 patients. Subclavian vein cannulation resulted in increased malpositions in relation to internal jugular vein cannulation. More common with left sided cannulation. Experience of operator had positive correlation with malpositions and arterial puncture. Arterial puncture was common in 6%, while more than one attempt for cannulation was taken in 100 patients.
Conclusion:
Incidence of malpositions was low. We conclude that experience of operator improves successful catheterization with lesser number of complications.
doi:10.4103/0974-2700.102369
PMCID: PMC3519042  PMID: 23248498
Arterial puncture; central venous access; central venous catheter; complications-malpositions
8.  Thyrocervical artery - jugular fistula following internal jugular venous catheterization 
Indian Journal of Nephrology  2014;24(3):178-180.
Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is an anomalous communication between an artery and a vein, caused by an iatrogenic or traumatic etiology. Surgically created upper limb AVF remains the preferred vascular access for patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Nonetheless central vein cannulation for hemodialysis is a common procedure done in patients who need hemodialysis. We incidentally detected a thyrocervical artery - jugular fistula in a patient on maintenance hemodialysis. He underwent a successful intra arterial coil embolization of the feeding vessel. Review of literature has shown that, a thyrocervical artery - internal jugular vein arteriovenous fistula following a central venous catheterization has not been reported so far.
doi:10.4103/0971-4065.132019
PMCID: PMC4127839  PMID: 25120297
Arteriovenous fistula; arteriovenous fistula embolization; complications of catheterization; hemodialysis catheterization
9.  Evaluation of ultrasound for central venous access in ICU by an in experienced trainee 
Background and Aims:
Central venous catheter placement is an important procedure for ICU (Intensive Care Unit) patients. We studied the usefulness of ultrasonography for placement of central venous catheter by in-experienced anesthetists.
Materials and Methods:
A prospective observational study of 32 patients requiring central venous access (CVA) in surgical ICU (SICU). Data collected were patient's demographics, indication, type of catheter, success rate, attempts, complication rate and access time were recorded and compared with other studies.
Result:
The overall success rate was 89.5% in the IJV (Internal Jugular Vein) and 92.3% for SCV (Subclavian Vein) group. The success rates for insertion at first, second, and third attempt were 52.6%, 31.6%, and 5.2% for IJV and 46.2% and 53.8% for SCV. Average number of attempts made for IJV cannulation was 1.74 +/- 1.04 and 1.54 +/- 0.51 for SCV. The total time taken for IJV access was 858.78 +/- 381.9 sec, whereas in the SCV group, it was 984 +/- 328.98 seconds. In our study, overall rate of complication was 21.05% (4/19 patients) for IJV and 23.07% (3/13 patients) for SCV insertion. Incidence of various complications like arterial puncture, misplacement of CVC, hematoma, pneumothorax, and hemothorax were also noted.
Conclusion:
This study concludes that real time ultrasound guidance during IJV and SCV cannulation can achieve higher success rate, fewer complications, number of attempts, and failure rate among inexperienced anesthetists.
doi:10.4103/0972-5229.125433
PMCID: PMC3912664  PMID: 24550610
Central venous catheter; inexperienced; intensive care unit; ultrasonography
10.  Real-time ultrasound-guided catheterisation of the internal jugular vein: a prospective comparison with the landmark technique in critical care patients 
Critical Care  2006;10(6):R162.
Introduction
Central venous cannulation is crucial in the management of the critical care patient. This study was designed to evaluate whether real-time ultrasound-guided cannulation of the internal jugular vein is superior to the standard landmark method.
Methods
In this randomised study, 450 critical care patients who underwent real-time ultrasound-guided cannulation of the internal jugular vein were prospectively compared with 450 critical care patients in whom the landmark technique was used. Randomisation was performed by means of a computer-generated random-numbers table, and patients were stratified with regard to age, gender, and body mass index.
Results
There were no significant differences in gender, age, body mass index, or side of cannulation (left or right) or in the presence of risk factors for difficult venous cannulation such as prior catheterisation, limited sites for access attempts, previous difficulties during catheterisation, previous mechanical complication, known vascular abnormality, untreated coagulopathy, skeletal deformity, and cannulation during cardiac arrest between the two groups of patients. Furthermore, the physicians who performed the procedures had comparable experience in the placement of central venous catheters (p = non-significant). Cannulation of the internal jugular vein was achieved in all patients by using ultrasound and in 425 of the patients (94.4%) by using the landmark technique (p < 0.001). Average access time (skin to vein) and number of attempts were significantly reduced in the ultrasound group of patients compared with the landmark group (p < 0.001). In the landmark group, puncture of the carotid artery occurred in 10.6% of patients, haematoma in 8.4%, haemothorax in 1.7%, pneumothorax in 2.4%, and central venous catheter-associated blood stream infection in 16%, which were all significantly increased compared with the ultrasound group (p < 0.001).
Conclusion
The present data suggest that ultrasound-guided catheterisation of the internal jugular vein in critical care patients is superior to the landmark technique and therefore should be the method of choice in these patients.
doi:10.1186/cc5101
PMCID: PMC1794469  PMID: 17112371
11.  Ultrasonic locating devices for central venous cannulation: meta-analysis 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2003;327(7411):361.
Objectives To assess the evidence for the clinical effectiveness of ultrasound guided central venous cannulation.
Data sources 15 electronic bibliographic databases, covering biomedical, science, social science, health economics, and grey literature.
Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.
Populations Patients scheduled for central venous access.
Intervention reviewed Guidance using real time two dimensional ultrasonography or Doppler needles and probes compared with the anatomical landmark method of cannulation.
Data extraction Risk of failed catheter placement (primary outcome), risk of complications from placement, risk of failure on first attempt at placement, number of attempts to successful catheterisation, and time (seconds) to successful catheterisation.
Data synthesis 18 trials (1646 participants) were identified. Compared with the landmark method, real time two dimensional ultrasound guidance for cannulating the internal jugular vein in adults was associated with a significantly lower failure rate both overall (relative risk 0.14, 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.33) and on the first attempt (0.59, 0.39 to 0.88). Limited evidence favoured two dimensional ultrasound guidance for subclavian vein and femoral vein procedures in adults (0.14, 0.04 to 0.57 and 0.29, 0.07 to 1.21, respectively). Three studies in infants confirmed a higher success rate with two dimensional ultrasonography for internal jugular procedures (0.15, 0.03 to 0.64). Doppler guided cannulation of the internal jugular vein in adults was more successful than the landmark method (0.39, 0.17 to 0.92), but the landmark method was more successful for subclavian vein procedures (1.48, 1.03 to 2.14). No significant difference was found between these techniques for cannulation of the internal jugular vein in infants. An indirect comparison of relative risks suggested that two dimensional ultrasonography would be more successful than Doppler guidance for subclavian vein procedures in adults (0.09, 0.02 to 0.38).
Conclusions Evidence supports the use of two dimensional ultrasonography for central venous cannulation.
PMCID: PMC175809  PMID: 12919984
12.  Comparison of the Complications between Left Side and Right Side Subclavian Vein Catheter Placement in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery 
Introduction: Percutaneous subclavian vein catheterization is one of the most common invasive procedures performed in cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to compare left and right subclavian vein catheter placement via the infraclavicular approach in patients who undergo coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.
Methods: This prospective, randomized clinical trial was performed in193 patients. The technique applied for cannulation was infraclavicular approach for both the right and the left sides. Subclavian vein of other side was attempted only when catheterization at initial side was unsuccessful at two attempts. The success and complication rates were compared for the two sides.
Results: On193 patients, catheterization attempts were performed. Overall 177 catheterizations (91.7%) were successful during the first attempt, 105 (92.1%) on the right side and 72 (91.1%) on the left side. There was no significant difference between success rate and side of catheterization. Malposition of the catheter tip on the right side (9.6%) was significantly more than the left side (0%) (P= 0.003). The differences in other complications on two sides were statistically insignificant.
Conclusion: Compared with the right side, insertion of the cannula on the left side resulted in fewer catheter tip misplacements. Incidence of cannulation failure and other complications were similar on both sides.
doi:10.15171/jcvtr.2014.003
PMCID: PMC4195964  PMID: 25320661
CABG; Subclavian Vein Catheter; Infraclavicular Approach
13.  Sex-Specific Differences in Hemodialysis Prevalence and Practices and the Male-to-Female Mortality Rate: The Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) 
PLoS Medicine  2014;11(10):e1001750.
In this study, Port and colleagues describe hemodialysis prevalence and patient characteristics by sex, compare men-to-women mortality rate with data from the general population, and evaluate sex interactions with mortality. The results show that women's survival advantage was markedly diminished in hemodialysis patients.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Background
A comprehensive analysis of sex-specific differences in the characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of individuals with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis might reveal treatment inequalities and targets to improve sex-specific patient care. Here we describe hemodialysis prevalence and patient characteristics by sex, compare the adult male-to-female mortality rate with data from the general population, and evaluate sex interactions with mortality.
Methods and Findings
We assessed the Human Mortality Database and 206,374 patients receiving hemodialysis from 12 countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Spain, Sweden, the UK, and the US) participating in the international, prospective Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) between June 1996 and March 2012. Among 35,964 sampled DOPPS patients with full data collection, we studied patient characteristics (descriptively) and mortality (via Cox regression) by sex. In all age groups, more men than women were on hemodialysis (59% versus 41% overall), with large differences observed between countries. The average estimated glomerular filtration rate at hemodialysis initiation was higher in men than women. The male-to-female mortality rate ratio in the general population varied from 1.5 to 2.6 for age groups <75 y, but in hemodialysis patients was close to one. Compared to women, men were younger (mean = 61.9±standard deviation 14.6 versus 63.1±14.5 y), were less frequently obese, were more frequently married and recipients of a kidney transplant, more frequently had coronary artery disease, and were less frequently depressed. Interaction analyses showed that the mortality risk associated with several comorbidities and hemodialysis catheter use was lower for men (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.11) than women (HR = 1.33, interaction p<0.001). This study is limited by its inability to establish causality for the observed sex-specific differences and does not provide information about patients not treated with dialysis or dying prior to a planned start of dialysis.
Conclusions
Women's survival advantage was markedly diminished in hemodialysis patients. The finding that fewer women than men were being treated with dialysis for end-stage renal disease merits detailed further study, as the large discrepancies in sex-specific hemodialysis prevalence by country and age group are likely explained by factors beyond biology. Modifiable variables, such as catheter use, showing significant sex interactions suggest interventional targeting.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Throughout life, the kidneys filter waste products (from the normal breakdown of tissues and from food) and excess water from the blood to make urine. Chronic kidney disease—an increasingly common condition globally—gradually destroys the kidney's filtration units (the nephrons). As the nephrons stop working, the rate at which the blood is filtered (the glomerular filtration rate) decreases, and waste products build up in the blood, eventually leading to life-threatening end-stage kidney (renal) disease. Symptoms of chronic kidney disease, which rarely occur until the disease is advanced, include tiredness, swollen feet and ankles, and frequent urination, particularly at night. Chronic kidney disease cannot be cured, but its progression can be slowed by controlling diabetes and other conditions that contribute to its development. End-stage kidney disease is treated by regular hemodialysis (a process in which blood is cleaned by passing it through a filtration machine) or by kidney transplantation.
Why Was This Study Done?
Like many other long-term conditions, the prevalence (the proportion of the population that has a specific disease) of chronic kidney disease and of end-stage renal disease, and treatment outcomes for these conditions, may differ between men and women. Some of these sex-specific differences may arise because of sex-specific differences in normal biological functions. Other sex-specific differences may be related to sex-specific differences in patient care or in patient awareness of chronic kidney disease. A comprehensive analysis of sex-specific differences among individuals with end-stage renal disease might identify both treatment inequalities and ways to improve sex-specific care. Here, in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS), the researchers investigate sex-specific differences in the prevalence and practices of hemodialysis and in the characteristics of patients undergoing hemodialysis, and investigate the adult male-to-female mortality (death) rate among patients undergoing hemodialysis. The DOPPS is a prospective cohort study that is investigating the characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of adult patients undergoing hemodialysis in representative facilities in 19 countries (12 countries were available for analysis at the time of the current study).
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
To investigate sex-specific differences in hemodialysis prevalence, the researchers compared data from the Human Mortality Database, which provides detailed population and mortality data for 37 countries, with data collected by the DOPPS. Forty-one percent of DOPPS patients were women, compared to 52% of the general population in 12 of the DOPPS countries. Next, the researchers used data collected from a randomly selected subgroup of patients to examine sex-specific differences in patient characteristics and mortality. The average estimated glomerular filtration rate at hemodialysis initiation was higher in men than women. Moreover, men were more frequently recipients of a kidney transplant than women. Notably, although in the general population in a given age group women were less likely to die than men, among hemodialysis patients, women were as likely to die as men. Finally, the researchers investigated which patient characteristics were associated with the largest sex-specific differences in mortality risk. The use of a hemodialysis catheter (a tube that is inserted into a patient's vein to transfer their blood into the hemodialysis machine) was associated with a lower mortality risk in men than in women.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings show that, among patients treated with hemodialysis for end-stage renal disease, women differ from men in many ways. Although some of these sex-specific differences may be related to biology, others may be related to patient care and to patient awareness of chronic kidney disease. Because this is an observational study, these findings cannot prove that the reported differences in hemodialysis prevalence, treatment, and mortality are actually caused by being a man or a woman. Importantly, however, these findings suggest that hemodialysis may abolish the survival advantage that women have over men in the general population and that fewer women than men are being treated for end-stage-renal disease, even though chronic kidney disease is more common in women than in men. Finally, the finding that the use of hemodialysis catheters for access to veins is associated with a higher mortality risk among women than among men suggests that, where possible, women should be offered a surgical process called arteriovenous fistula placement, which is recommended for access to veins during long-term hemodialysis but which may, in the past, have been underused in women.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001750.
More information about the DOPPS program is available
The US National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse provides information about all aspects of kidney disease; the US National Kidney Disease Education Program provides resources to help improve the understanding, detection, and management of kidney disease (in English and Spanish)
The UK National Health Service Choices website provides information for patients on chronic kidney disease and about hemodialysis, including some personal stories
The US National Kidney Foundation, a not-for-profit organization, provides information about chronic kidney disease and about hemodialysis (in English and Spanish)
The not-for-profit UK National Kidney Federation provides support and information for patients with kidney disease and for their carers, including information and personal stories about hemodialysis
World Kidney Day, a joint initiative between the International Society of Nephrology and the International Federation of Kidney Foundations, aims to raise awareness about kidneys and kidney disease
MedlinePlus has pages about chronic kidney disease and about hemodialysis
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001750
PMCID: PMC4211675  PMID: 25350533
14.  The influence of the direction of J-tip on the placement of a subclavian catheter: real time ultrasound-guided cannulation versus landmark method, a randomized controlled trial 
BMC Anesthesiology  2014;14:11.
Background
It has been reported that the direction of the guidewire J-tip is associated with misplacement of a central venous catheter. We hypothesized that real-time ultrasound-guided infraclavicular subclavian venous cannulation would be less influenced by the direction of guidewire J-tip compared to landmark method.
Methods
Sixty adult patients who required subclavian venous catheterization for neurosurgery were enrolled in this prospective randomized controlled study. Patients were randomly divided into a landmark group (n = 30) or an ultrasound group (n = 30). After the subclavian vein was punctured, the guidewire was advanced with the guidewire J-tip directed cephalad. Misplacement or advancement failure of the guidewire was regarded as an unsuccessful placement. Postoperative chest radiography was performed to confirm pneumothorax and the location of the catheter tip.
Results
The two groups were comparable with respect to age, gender, height, and weight distribution. The incidence of unsuccessful guidewire placement was lower in the ultrasound group than in the landmark group (13% vs. 47%, P = 0.01). Among the unsuccessful guidewire placements, the incidence of misplacement were comparable between the groups and were all located in the ipsilateral internal jugular vein (7% vs. 7%). However, the incidence of advancement failure was significantly higher in landmark group (40% vs. 7%, P = 0.005). There were no complications such as pneumothorax or hemothorax.
Conclusions
The proper placement of guidewire was less influenced by the direction of the guidewire J-tip with ultrasound-guided subclavian venous cannulation than with the landmark approach.
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-14-11
PMCID: PMC3975933  PMID: 24581318
Central venous catheterization; Subclavian vein; Ultrasound
15.  latrogenic Pseudoaneurysm of the Innominate Artery 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  1992;19(4):294-296.
Central venous cannulation by the subclavian approach is a commonly performed procedure with an overall complication rate of up to 11%. In the English literature, however, there has been no previous documentation of pseudoaneurysm of the innominate artery as a complication of right subclavian vein catheterization. We report a case of a 55-year-old woman on chronic hemodialysis admitted to the hospital with pneumonia and sepsis who underwent multiple attempts at placement of a right subclavian vein catheter. These were unsuccessful and resulted in arterial puncture. The patient was discharged, but returned to the hospital 2 weeks later with shortness of breath and stridor. Evaluation revealed a pseudoaneurysm of the innominate artery with compression of the airway, which was successfully repaired. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1992;19:294-6)
Images
PMCID: PMC325036  PMID: 15227458
Catheterization, central venous/complications; iatrogenic disease; subclavian vein
16.  Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis 
A 56-year-old female, recently (3 months) diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD), on maintenance dialysis through jugular hemodialysis lines with a preexisting nonfunctional mature AV fistula made at diagnosis of CKD, presented to the hospital for a peritoneal dialysis line. The recently inserted indwelling dialysis catheter in left internal jugular vein had no flow on hemodialysis as was the right-sided catheter which was removed a day before insertion of the left-sided line. The left-sided line was removed and a femoral hemodialysis line was cannulated for maintenance hemodialysis, and the next day, a peritoneal catheter was inserted in the operation theater. However, 3 days later, there was progressive painful swelling of the left hand and redness with minimal numbness. The radial artery pulsations were felt. There was also massive edema of forearm, arm and shoulder region on the left side. Doppler indicated a steal phenomena due to a hyperfunctioning AV fistula for which a fistula closure was done. Absence of relief of edema prompted a further computed tomography (CT) angiogram (since it was not possible to evaluate the more proximal venous segments due to edema and presence of clavicle). Ct angiogram revealed central vein thrombosis for which catheter-directed thrombolysis and venoplasty was done resulting in complete resolution of signs and symptoms. Upper extremity DVT (UEDVT) is a very less studied topic as compared to lower extremity DVT and the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities still have substantial areas that need to be studied. We present a review of the present literature including incidences, diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for this entity. Data Sources: MEDLINE, MICROMEDEX, The Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews from 1950 through March 2011.
doi:10.4103/2229-5151.94891
PMCID: PMC3354372  PMID: 22624098
AV fistula; catheter thrombolysis; unilateral upper limb edema; upper extremity deep vein thrombosis
17.  A Modified Approach to Supraclavicular Subclavian Vein Catheter Placement: The Pocket Approach 
BACKGROUND
Central venous access is often necessary for the administration of fluids, blood products, and medications. Several approaches to supraclavicular subclavian venous access have been described. This study examines the effectiveness of central venous catheter placement utilizing an alternative set of anatomic landmarks for supraclavicular subclavian vein access.
METHODS
This was a two phase study. The first portion involved subclavian vein cannulation using a supraclavicular approach in 28 cadavers. The specific set of anatomic landmarks for the supraclavicular approach, termed the “pocket approach,” is described. Cadavers were subsequently dissected to verify appropriate line placement. The second portion was a chart review of Emergency Department (ED) patients who underwent attempted subclavian vein catheter placement utilizing the pocket approach. Charts were extracted following education of the ED faculty and resident staff to determine: 1) Success of subclavian line placement, 2) The incidence of pneumothorax, and 3) The use of supraclavicular subclavian access in the trauma setting, during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and in patients who had cervical collars.
RESULTS
In 28 cadavers, the success rate of the pocket approach was 100% (34/34; 95% CI 90% to 100%). Chart review of the 68 patients revealed a success rate of 90% (61/68; CI 80% to 96%). No pneumothoraces were recorded (0/68; CI 0% to 5%). The pocket approach was used successfully in 11 patients with cervical collars, (100%, CI 72% to 100%) and in 15 of 16 patients undergoing CPR (94%, CI 70% to 100%). In four fresh cadavers, the average distance from the posterior subclavian vein to the subclavian artery was 0.40cm, and the dome of the pleura was 1.75cm posterior to the vein.
CONCLUSION
Our data suggest that the supraclavicular pocket approach to subclavian vein cannulation is a useful and safe method of adult central venous catheterization, with complication and success rates comparable to more common approaches. The anatomic advantage of a great vein that is closer to the skin and farther from the pleural dome makes this an approach worthy of further investigation.
PMCID: PMC2906991  PMID: 20847865
18.  Association of Hemodialysis Central Venous Catheter Use With Ipsilateral Arteriovenous Vascular Access Survival 
Background
Central venous catheters are frequently used for hemodialysis vascular access while patients await placement and maturation of an arteriovenous (AV) fistula or graft. Catheters may cause central vein stenosis, which can adversely affect vascular access outcomes. We compared the vascular access outcomes in patients with a history of ipsilateral and contralateral dialysis catheters.
Study design
Retrospective analysis of a prospective computerized vascular access database.
Setting & Participants
Patients at a large medical center who initiated hemodialysis with a catheter and subsequently received a fistula (n=233) or graft (n=89).
Predictor
History of central venous catheter placement ipsilateral vs. contralateral to the AV fistula or graft.
Outcome & Measurements
Primary access failure (access never suitable for dialysis) and cumulative access survival (time from successful cannulation until permanent access failure).
Results
Among patients receiving a fistula, the primary failure rate was similar for those with ipsilateral and contralateral catheters (50 vs 53%; HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.71–1.26; p=0.7), and the time to fistula maturation was similar (101±41 vs 107±39 days, p=0.5). However, the cumulative fistula survival was inferior in patients with ipsilateral catheters (HR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.33–7.33; p=0.009). Among patients receiving a graft, the primary failure rate was similar for those with ipsilateral and contralateral catheter (35 vs 38%; HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.49–1.73; p=0.8), but the cumulative graft survival tended to be shorter with ipsilateral catheters (HR, 2.04; 95% CI, 0.92–5.38; p=0.07)
Limitations
Retrospective analysis, single medical center.
Conclusions
The primary failure rate of fistulas and grafts is not affected by the presence of an ipsilateral catheter. However, cumulative access survival is inferior in patients with prior ipsilateral catheters. Avoidance of ipsilateral catheters may improve long–term vascular access survival.
doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2012.06.014
PMCID: PMC4017344  PMID: 22824354
19.  Clinical review: Alternative vascular access techniques for continuous hemofiltration 
Critical Care  2006;10(5):230.
Obtaining or maintaining vascular access for continuous hemofiltration can sometimes be problematic, especially in the child or adult in multiple organ failure with edema and/or coagulopathy. Problems commonly encountered include obstruction of the femoral vein by the catheter, insertion difficulties, safety concerns when cannulating the subclavian vein in coagulopathy, and catheter and circuit occlusion due to disseminated intravascular coagulation. For access in infants we describe a technique utilizing two single-lumen thin-walled vascular sheaths. For infants and small children initial access to the vein may be difficult due to edema or poor perfusion. For this situation we describe the 'mini-introducer' technique of securing the vein and facilitating subsequent insertion of a relatively large guide wire. At any age an alternative route to the subclavian vein, from above the clavicle, is potentially 'compressible' in the event of hemorrhage during the procedure. We remind the reader of the utility of ultrasound guidance for cannulation of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. And lastly we review the options for venous return via the umbilical vein in infants, and via the antecubital vein in larger children and adults.
doi:10.1186/cc5035
PMCID: PMC1751070  PMID: 16989669
20.  Fatal pulmonary embolism after hemodialysis vascular access declotting 
Patient: Male, 59
Final Diagnosis: Pulmonary embolism
Symptoms: Cardiac arrest • chest pain • dyspnea
Medication: —
Clinical Procedure: Angioplasty
Specialty: Nephrology
Objective:
Rare disease
Background:
Vascular access is the lifeline of hemodialysis patients and access problems are a major source of morbidity and mortality for these patients. Access stenosis and thrombosis are common problems in dialysis patients and require prompt intervention. Every year thousands of these procedures are performed in the United States by radiologists, surgeons, and interventional nephrologists.
Case Report:
A 59-year-old man on chronic hemodialysis with multiple medical problems, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic obstructive lung disease, hepatitis C infection, and end-stage renal disease, who had clotted his access several times before ,presented with another episode of access clotting. He underwent declotting successfully but upon angioplasty of the access feeding artery, he developed massive pulmonary embolism and died. Postmortem examination showed multiple pulmonary emboli, including cholesterol crystals in his lungs.
Conclusions:
Hemodialysis access declotting and angioplasty are usually benign and do not cause a major problem. However, occasionally they become complicated. In difficult cases and in people with multiple comorbidities, it is preferable to forego the existing dialysis access and either plan for creation of a new vascular access or place a central vein catheter.
doi:10.12659/AJCR.890364
PMCID: PMC4004792  PMID: 24790686
Hypercholesterolemia; Blood Coagulation; Renal Dialysis; Pulmonary Embolism
21.  Vascular access use and outcomes: an international perspective from the dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study 
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation  2008;23(10):3219-3226.
Background. A well-functioning vascular access (VA) is essential to efficient dialysis therapy. Guidelines have been implemented improving care, yet access use varies widely across countries and VA complications remain a problem. This study took advantage of the unique opportunity to utilize data from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) to examine international trends in VA use and trends in patient characteristics and practices associated with VA use from 1996 to 2007. DOPPS is a prospective, observational study of haemodialysis (HD) practices and patient outcomes at >300 HD units from 12 countries and has collected data thus far from >35 000 randomly selected patients.
Methods. VA data were collected for each patient at study entry (1996–2007). Practice pattern data from the facility medical director, nurse manager and VA surgeon were also analysed.
Results. Since 2005, a native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) was used by 67–91% of prevalent patients in Japan, Italy, Germany, France, Spain, the UK, Australia and New Zealand, and 50–59% in Belgium, Sweden and Canada. From 1996 to 2007, AVF use rose from 24% to 47% in the USA but declined in Italy, Germany and Spain. Moreover, graft use fell by 50% in the USA from 58% use in 1996 to 28% by 2007. Across three phases of data collection, patients consistently were less likely to use an AVF versus other VA types if female, of older age, having greater body mass index, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease or recurrent cellulitis/gangrene. In addition, countries with a greater prevalence of diabetes in HD patients had a significantly lower percentage of patients using an AVF. Despite poorer outcomes for central vein catheters, catheter use rose 1.5- to 3-fold among prevalent patients in many countries from 1996 to 2007, even among non-diabetic patients 18–70 years old. Furthermore, 58–73% of patients new to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) used a catheter for the initiation of HD in five countries despite 60–79% of patients having been seen by a nephrologist >4 months prior to ESRD. Patients were significantly (P < 0.05) less likely to start dialysis with a permanent VA if treated in a faciity that (1) had a longer time from referral to access surgery evaluation or from evaluation to access creation and (2) had longer time from access creation until first AVF cannulation. The median time from referral until access creation varied from 5–6 days in Italy, Japan and Germany to 40–43 days in the UK and Canada. Compared to patients using an AVF, patients with a catheter displayed significantly lower mean Kt/V levels.
Conclusions. Most countries meet the contemporary National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative goal for AVF use; however, there is still a wide variation in VA preference. Delays between the creation and cannulation must be improved to enhance the chances of a future permanent VA. Native arteriovenous fistula is the VA of choice ensuring dialysis adequacy and better patient outcomes. Graft is, however, a better alternative than catheter for patients where the creation of an attempted AVF failed or could not be created for different reasons.
doi:10.1093/ndt/gfn261
PMCID: PMC2542410  PMID: 18511606
arteriovenous fistulae; catheter; DOPPS; haemodialysis; vascular access
22.  Is the intraosseous access route fast and efficacious compared to conventional central venous catheterization in adult patients under resuscitation in the emergency department? A prospective observational pilot study 
Background
For patients' safety reasons, current American Heart Association and European Resuscitation Council guidelines recommend intraosseous (IO) vascular access as an alternative in cases of emergency, if prompt venous catheterization is impossible. The purpose of this study was to compare the IO access as a bridging procedure versus central venous catheterization (CVC) for in-hospital adult emergency patients under resuscitation with impossible peripheral intravenous (IV) access. We hypothesised, that CVC is faster and more efficacious compared to IO access.
Methods
A prospective observational study comparing success rates and procedure times of IO access (EZ-IO, Vidacare Corporation) versus CVC in adult (≥18 years of age) patients under trauma and medical resuscitation admitted to our emergency department with impossible peripheral IV catheterization was conducted. Procedure time was defined from preparation and insertion of vascular access type until first drug or infusion solution administration. Success rate on first attempt and procedure time for each access route was evaluated and statistically tested.
Results
Ten consecutive adult patients under resuscitation, each receiving IO access and CVC, were analyzed. IO access was performed with 10 tibial or humeral insertions, CVC in 10 internal jugular or subclavian veins. The success rate on first attempt was 90% for IO insertion versus 60% for CVC. Mean procedure time was significantly lower for IO cannulation (2.3 min ± 0.8) compared to CVC (9.9 min ± 3.7) (p < 0.001). As for complications, failure of IO access was observed in one patient, while two or more attempts of CVC were necessary in four patients. No other relevant complications, like infection, bleeding or pneumothorax were observed.
Conclusion
Preliminary data demonstrate that IO access is a reliable bridging method to gain vascular access for in-hospital adult emergency patients under trauma or medical resuscitation with impossible peripheral IV access. Furthermore, IO cannulation requires significantly less time to enable administration of drugs or infusion solutions compared to CVC. Because CVC was slower and less efficacious, IO access may improve the safety of adult patients under resuscitation in the emergency department.
doi:10.1186/1754-9493-3-24
PMCID: PMC2764565  PMID: 19814822
23.  Vascular access for hemodialysis: current perspectives 
A well-functioning vascular access (VA) is a mainstay to perform an efficient hemodialysis (HD) procedure. There are three main types of access: native arteriovenous fistula (AVF), arteriovenous graft, and central venous catheter (CVC). AVF, described by Brescia and Cimino, remains the first choice for chronic HD. It is the best access for longevity and has the lowest association with morbidity and mortality, and for this reason AVF use is strongly recommended by guidelines from different countries. Once autogenous options have been exhausted, prosthetic fistulae become the second option of maintenance HD access alternatives. CVCs have become an important adjunct in maintaining patients on HD. The preferable locations for insertion are the internal jugular and femoral veins. The subclavian vein is considered the third choice because of the high risk of thrombosis. Complications associated with CVC insertion range from 5% to 19%. Since an increasing number of patients have implanted pacemakers and defibrillators, usually inserted via the subclavian vein and superior vena cava into the right heart, a careful assessment of risk and benefits should be taken. Infection is responsible for the removal of about 30%–60% of HD CVCs, and hospitalization rates are higher among patients with CVCs than among AVF ones. Proper VA maintenance requires integration of different professionals to create a VA team. This team should include a nephrologist, radiologist, vascular surgeon, infectious disease consultant, and members of the dialysis staff. They should provide their experience in order to give the best options to uremic patients and the best care for their VA.
doi:10.2147/IJNRD.S46643
PMCID: PMC4099194  PMID: 25045278
arteriovenous fistula; prosthetic grafts; central venous catheter; infection
24.  How to deal with dialysis catheters in the ICU setting 
Acute kidney insufficiency (AKI) occurs frequently in intensive care units (ICU). In the management of vascular access for renal replacement therapy (RRT), several factors need to be taken into consideration to achieve an optimal RRT dose and to limit complications. In the medium and long term, some individuals may become chronic dialysis patients and so preserving the vascular network is of major importance. Few studies have focused on the use of dialysis catheters (DC) in ICUs, and clinical practice is driven by the knowledge and management of long-term dialysis catheter in chronic dialysis patients and of central venous catheter in ICU patients. This review describes the appropriate use and management of DCs required to obtain an accurate RRT dose and to reduce mechanical and infectious complications in the ICU setting. To deliver the best RRT dose, the length and diameter of the catheter need to be sufficient. In patients on intermittent hemodialysis, the right internal jugular insertion is associated with a higher delivered dialysis dose if the prescribed extracorporeal blood flow is higher than 200 ml/min. To prevent DC colonization, the physician has to be vigilant for the jugular position when BMI < 24 and the femoral position when BMI > 28. Subclavian sites should be excluded. Ultrasound guidance should be used especially in jugular sites. Antibiotic-impregnated dialysis catheters and antibiotic locks are not recommended in routine practice. The efficacy of ethanol and citrate locks has yet to be demonstrated. Hygiene procedures must be respected during DC insertion and manipulation.
doi:10.1186/2110-5820-2-48
PMCID: PMC3526537  PMID: 23174157
Dialysis catheter; Intensive care unit; Catheter dysfunction; Catheter infection
25.  Vein diameter after intraoperative dilatation with vessel probes as a predictor of success of hemodialysis arteriovenous fistulas 
Background
Vascular access is “the life line” for patients on chronic hemodialysis. The autogenous arteriovenous fistula provides the best access to the circulation because of low complication rate, long-term use, and lower cost, compared to arteriovenous graft and central venous catheter. The primary objective of this prospective study was to investigate the predictive value of vein diameter after intraoperative dilatation with vessel probes on hemodialysis fistula maturation.
Material/Methods
Ninety-three fistulas were performed by a single surgeon from February 1, 2006 to January 31, 2009. Intraoperative vein dilatation with vessel probes was attempted in all fistulas. Measurements of the feeding artery diameter, vein diameter and the increased vein diameter after intraoperative dilatation were performed and immediate failure, early patency, early failure, primary patency, and fistula survival outcomes were recorded during 48-month follow-up.
Results
Early failure occurred in 20% of fistulas and 70% matured sufficiently for cannulation. Variables with significant impact on the failure to mature by univariate analysis were: body-mass index (P=0.041), artery diameter (P<0.001), vein diameter (P=0.004), and vein diameter after dilatation (P=0.002). However, multivariate analysis showed that only body-mass index (P=0.038), artery diameter (P=0.001), and the diameter of the vein after dilatation (P=0.018) significantly affected maturation. In a group of 56 (60%) patients with vein diameter before dilatation ≤2 mm, among vessel characteristics found by multivariate analysis, only vein diameter after dilatation (P=0.004) significantly affected function.
Conclusions
Artery diameter and vein diameter after intraoperative dilatation with vessel probes were the main predictors of fistula function.
doi:10.12659/MSM.890155
PMCID: PMC3930663  PMID: 24496387
Vascular Probe; Intraoperative Vein Dilatation; Arteriovenous Fistula

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