Aims. Vascular access is of prime importance for hemodialysis patients. We aimed to study early complications of hemodialysis catheters placed in different central veins in patients with acute or chronic renal failure with or without ultrasound (US ) guidance. Material and Methods. Patients who were admitted to our unit between March 2008 and December 2010 with need for vascular access have been included. 908 patients were examined for their demographic parameters, primary renal disease, and indication for catheterization, type and location of the catheter, implantation technique, and acute complications. Results. The mean age of the patients was 60.6 ± 16.0 years. 643 (70.8 %) of the catheters were temporary while 265 (29.2%) were permanent. 684 catheters were inserted to internal jugular veins, 213 to femoral, and 11 to subclavian veins. Arterial puncture occurred in 88 (9.7%) among which 13 had resultant subcutaneous hematoma. No patient had lung trauma and there had been no need for removal of the catheter or a surgical intervention for complications. US guidance in jugular vein and experience of operator decreased arterial puncture rate. Conclusion. US-guided replacement of catheter to internal jugular vein would decrease complication rate. Referral to invasive nephrologists may decrease use of subclavian vein. Experience improves complication rates even under US guidance.
In the two cases described here, the subclavian artery was inadvertently cannulated during unsuccessful access to the internal jugular vein. The puncture was successfully closed using a closure device based on a collagen plug (Angio-Seal, St Jude Medical, St Paul, MN, USA). This technique is relatively simple and inexpensive. It can provide clinicians, such as intensive care physicians and anesthesiologists, with a safe and straightforward alternative to major surgery and can be a life-saving procedure.
In the first case, an anesthetist attempted ultrasound-guided access to the right internal jugular vein during the preoperative preparation of a 66-year-old Caucasian man. A 7-French (Fr) triple-lumen catheter was inadvertently placed into his arterial system. In the second case, an emergency physician inadvertently placed a 7-Fr catheter into the subclavian artery of a 77-year-old Caucasian woman whilst attempting access to her right internal jugular vein. Both arterial punctures were successfully closed by means of a percutaneous closure device (Angio-Seal). No complications were observed.
Inadvertent subclavian arterial puncture can be successfully managed with no adverse clinical sequelae by using a percutaneous vascular closure device. This minimally invasive technique may be an option for patients with non-compressible arterial punctures. This report demonstrates two practical points that may help clinicians in decision-making during daily practice. First, it provides a practical solution to a well-known vascular complication. Second, it emphasizes a role for proper vascular ultrasound training for the non-radiologist.
Central venous cannulation by the subclavian approach is a commonly performed procedure with an overall complication rate of up to 11%. In the English literature, however, there has been no previous documentation of pseudoaneurysm of the innominate artery as a complication of right subclavian vein catheterization. We report a case of a 55-year-old woman on chronic hemodialysis admitted to the hospital with pneumonia and sepsis who underwent multiple attempts at placement of a right subclavian vein catheter. These were unsuccessful and resulted in arterial puncture. The patient was discharged, but returned to the hospital 2 weeks later with shortness of breath and stridor. Evaluation revealed a pseudoaneurysm of the innominate artery with compression of the airway, which was successfully repaired. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1992;19:294-6)
Catheterization, central venous/complications; iatrogenic disease; subclavian vein
We reviewed retrospectively our experience with the transcutaneous placement of 77 double-lumen hemodialysis catheters in the jugular or subclavian veins in 65 patients. The catheters remained in place for an average of 20.7 days. Three unrelated deaths occurred within 30 days of insertion. Post-insertion chest roentgenograms were made on all patients. One pneumothorax and one misplacement into the carotid artery were noted. Five patients developed blood-culture-substantiated sepsis that required hospitalization. Deep-vein thrombosis occurred in one patient and subclavian-vein stenosis was found in two other patients. Various mechanical difficulties such as kinking, cracking, and thrombosis were encountered.
The use of this catheter provides immediate access for hemodialysis with a minimum of complications. However, its disadvantages include its length, tendency to kink, and the requirement for a separate venous cannula to be used with each hemodialysis. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1987; 14:307-311)
Hemodialysis; catheterization; venous catheterization; subclavian cannula, double-lumen
We report a case of end stage renal disease patient who displayed a persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) after placement of hemodialysis (HD) catheter through left internal jugular vein, as revealed by routine post-procedure X-ray chest. The diagnosis of PLSVC was confirmed by arterial blood gas, two-dimensional echocardiography, computed tomography thorax and angiographic examination. This anomaly is rather rare; few studies on safety of PLSVC for HD have been reported. The catheter was uneventfully used for HD for 2 months with careful continuous monitoring and removed after arteriovenous fistula was successfully cannulated. Physicians who place HD catheters in the left jugular/subclavian vein should be aware of the existence of PLSVC.
Hemodialysis; hemodialysis catheter; persistent left superior vena cava
The safest site for central venous cannulation (CVC) remains debated. Many emergency medicine physicians advocate the ultrasound guided internal jugular approach (USIJ) because of data supporting its efficiency. However, a number of physicians prefer, and are most comfortable with, the subclavian vein approach. The purpose of this study was to describe adverse event rates among operators using the USIJ approach and the landmark subclavian vein approach without ultrasound (SC).
This was a prospective observational trial of patients undergoing CVC of the subclavian or internal jugular veins in the Emergency Department (ED). Physicians performing the procedures did not undergo standardized training in either technique. The primary outcome was a composite of adverse events defined as hematoma, arterial cannulation, pneumothorax, and failure to cannulate. Physicians recorded the anatomical site of cannulation, ultrasound assistance, indications and acute complications. Variables of interest were collected from the pharmacy and ED record. Physician experience was based on a self-reported survey. We followed outcomes of central line insertion until device removal or patient discharge.
Physicians attempted 236 USIJ and 132 SC cannulations on 333 patients. The overall adverse event rate was 22% with failure to cannulate being the most common. Adverse events occurred in 19% of USIJ attempts compared to 29% of non-ultrasound guided subclavian attempts. Among highly experienced operators CVCs placed at the subclavian site resulted in more adverse events than those performed using USIJ (RR=1.89, 95%CI 1.05 to 3.39).
While limited by observational design, our results suggest that the USIJ technique may result in fewer adverse events compared to the landmark SC approach.
Catheterization; Central Venous; Ultrasonography; Interventional; Emergency Medicine
Ultrasound guidance for central and peripheral venous access has been proven to improve success rates and reduce complications of venous cannulation. Appropriately trained and experienced operators add significantly to diminished patient morbidity related to venous access procedures. We discuss a patient who required an arterial stent-graft to prevent arterial hemorrhage following inadvertent cannulation of the proximal, ventral, right subclavian artery related to unsuccessful ultrasound guided access of the subclavian vein.
During pre-operative preparation for aortic valve replacement and aorto-coronary bypass surgery an anesthetist attempted ultrasound guided venous access. The ultrasound guided attempt to access the right jugular vein failed and the ultrasound guided attempt at accessing the subclavian vein resulted in inappropriate placement of an 8.5 F sheath in the arterial system. Following angiographic imaging and specialist consultations, an arterial stent-graft was deployed in the right subclavian artery rather than perform an extensive anterior chest wall resection and dissection to extract the arterial sheath. The patient tolerated the procedure, without complication, despite occlusion of the right internal mammary artery and the right vertebral artery. There were no neurologic sequelae. There was no evidence of hemorrhage after subclavian artery sheath extraction and stent-graft implantation.
The attempted ultrasound guided puncture of the subclavian vein resulted in placement of an 8.5 F subclavian artery catheter. Entry of the catheter into the proximal subclavian artery beneath the medial clavicle, the medial first rib and the manubrium suggests that the operator, most likely, did not directly visualize the puncture needle enter the vessel with the ultrasound. The bones of the anterior chest impede the ultrasound beam and the vessels in this area would not be visible to ultrasound imaging. Appropriate training and supervised experience in ultrasound guided venous access coupled with quality ultrasound equipment would most likely have significantly diminished the likelihood of this complication. The potential for significant patient morbidity, and possible mortality, was prevented by implantation of an arterial stent-graft.
We compared the results of four different methods of hemodialysis catheter insertion in the medial segment of the axillary vein: ultrasound guidance, palpation, anatomical reference, and prior transient catheter.
All patients that required acute or chronic hemodialysis and for whom it was determined impossible or not recommended either to place a catheter in the internal jugular vein (for instance, those patients with a tracheostomy), or to practice arteriovenous fistula or graft; it was then essential to obtain an alternative vascular access. When the procedure of axillary vein catheter insertion was performed in the Renal Care Facility (RCF), ultrasound guidance was used, but in the intensive care unit (ICU), this resource was unavailable, so the palpation or anatomical reference technique was used.
Two nephrologists with experience in the technique performed 83 procedures during a period lasting 15 years and 8 months (from January 1997–August 2012): 41 by ultrasound guidance; 19 by anatomical references; 15 by palpation of the contiguous axillary artery; and 8 through a temporary axillary catheter previously placed. The ultrasound-guided patients had fewer punctures than other groups, but the value was not statistically significant. Arterial punctures were infrequent in all techniques. Analyzing all the procedure-related complications, such as hematoma, pneumothorax, brachial-plexus injury, as well as the reasons for catheter removal, no differences were observed among the groups. The functioning time was longer in the ultrasound-guided and previous catheter groups. In 15 years and 8 months of surveillance, no clinical or image evidence for axillary vein stenosis was found.
The ultrasound guide makes the procedure of inserting catheters in the axillary veins easier, but knowledge of the anatomy of the midaxillary region and the ability to feel the axillary artery pulse (for the palpation method) also allow relatively easy successful implant of catheters in the axillary veins.
hemodialysis; catheter; axillary venous; ultrasound guidance
To compare the landmark-guided technique versus the ultrasound-guided technique for internal jugular vein cannulation in spontaneously breathing patients.
A total of 380 patients who required internal jugular vein cannulation were randomly assigned to receive internal jugular vein cannulation using either the landmark- or ultrasound-guided technique in Bursa, Uludag University Faculty of Medicine, between April and November, 2008. Failed catheter placement, risk of complications from placement, risk of failure on first attempt at placement, number of attempts until successful catheterization, time to successful catheterization and the demographics of each patient were recorded.
The overall complication rate was higher in the landmark group than in the ultrasound-guided group (p < 0.01). Carotid puncture rate and hematoma were more frequent in the landmark group than in the ultrasound-guided group (p < 0.05). The number of attempts for successful placement was significantly higher in the landmark group than in the ultrasound-guided group, which was accompanied by a significantly increased access time observed in the landmark group (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Although there were a higher number of attempts, longer access time, and a more frequent complication rate in the landmark group, the success rate was found to be comparable between the two groups.
The findings of this study indicate that internal jugular vein catheterization guided by real-time ultrasound results in a lower access time and a lower rate of immediate complications.
Central venous cannulation; Jugular vein; Ultrasonography; Landmark; Complication
Central venous catheterization is typically used for the anesthetic management of patients undergoing a major surgery or care of patients in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The occurrence of complications associated with central venous catheterization such as pneumothorax or vascular injury have decreased, while delayed complications such as hydrothorax, hydromediastinum, or cardiac tamponade have risen recently. We report a case of complications of bilateral hydrothorax with cardiac tamponade by superior vena cava perforation due to continuous mechanical force of the looped central venous catheter tip against SVC wall after subclavian vein cannulation.
Cardiac tamponade; Central venous catheterization; Hydromediastinum; Hydrothorax
Central venous cannulation is a commonly performed procedure which facilitates resuscitation, nutritional support, and long-term vascular access. Mechanical complications most often occur during insertion and are intimately related to the anatomic relationship of the central veins. Working knowledge of surface and deep anatomy minimizes complications. Use of surface anatomic landmarks to orient the deep course of cannulating needle tracts appropriately comprises the crux of complication avoidance. The authors describe use of surface landmarks to facilitate safe placement of internal jugular, subclavian, and femoral venous catheters. The role of real-time sonography as a safety-enhancing adjunct is reviewed.
Internal jugular vein; cannulation; ultrasound; venipuncture
Obtaining or maintaining vascular access for continuous hemofiltration can sometimes be problematic, especially in the child or adult in multiple organ failure with edema and/or coagulopathy. Problems commonly encountered include obstruction of the femoral vein by the catheter, insertion difficulties, safety concerns when cannulating the subclavian vein in coagulopathy, and catheter and circuit occlusion due to disseminated intravascular coagulation. For access in infants we describe a technique utilizing two single-lumen thin-walled vascular sheaths. For infants and small children initial access to the vein may be difficult due to edema or poor perfusion. For this situation we describe the 'mini-introducer' technique of securing the vein and facilitating subsequent insertion of a relatively large guide wire. At any age an alternative route to the subclavian vein, from above the clavicle, is potentially 'compressible' in the event of hemorrhage during the procedure. We remind the reader of the utility of ultrasound guidance for cannulation of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. And lastly we review the options for venous return via the umbilical vein in infants, and via the antecubital vein in larger children and adults.
Portable ultrasound machines are highly valuable in ICUs, where a patient's condition might not permit shifting the patient to the USG department for imaging. Traditionally central lines are put blindly using anatomical landmarks, which often result in complications such as difficulty in access, misplaced lines, pneumothorax, bleeding from inadvertent arterial punctures, etc. Ultrasonography provides “real time” imaging, i.e., the needle can be visualized entering the vein.
We performed a study to compare USG guided central venous cannulation (CVC) and conventional anatomical landmark approach to CVC, in terms of ease of cannulation, time consumed, and associated complications.
Settings and Design:
The study was performed in a 16-bed open ICU. Eighty patients were randomly divided in two groups.
Materials and Methods:
The right internal jugular vein (IJV) was cannulated in all. In Group I, a portable ultrasound machine was used during cannulation. The vessels were visualized in the transverse section with the internal carotid artery (ICA) identified as a circular pulsatile structure, while the IJV as a lateral, oval nonpulsatile structure). The needle was inserted perpendicular to the skin under visualization on the US screen. Central venous line was then inserted by the Seldinger technique. In Group II, CVC was performed by the conventional landmark approach. The parameters studied included time for insertion, attempts required, and complications encountered.
The database of all parameters was analyzed using SPSS software version 10.5.
The mean time to successful insertion was 145 and 176.4 sec in groups I and II, respectively (p = 0.00). An average of 1.2 attempts per cannulation was required for group I, while 1.53 for group II (p = 0.03): 10% witnessed arterial puncture and 2.5% pneumothorax in group I and none in group II.
USG-guided CVC is thus easier, quicker, and safer than landmark approach.
central venous cannulation; intensive care unit; ultrasound
A 56-year-old female, recently (3 months) diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD), on maintenance dialysis through jugular hemodialysis lines with a preexisting nonfunctional mature AV fistula made at diagnosis of CKD, presented to the hospital for a peritoneal dialysis line. The recently inserted indwelling dialysis catheter in left internal jugular vein had no flow on hemodialysis as was the right-sided catheter which was removed a day before insertion of the left-sided line. The left-sided line was removed and a femoral hemodialysis line was cannulated for maintenance hemodialysis, and the next day, a peritoneal catheter was inserted in the operation theater. However, 3 days later, there was progressive painful swelling of the left hand and redness with minimal numbness. The radial artery pulsations were felt. There was also massive edema of forearm, arm and shoulder region on the left side. Doppler indicated a steal phenomena due to a hyperfunctioning AV fistula for which a fistula closure was done. Absence of relief of edema prompted a further computed tomography (CT) angiogram (since it was not possible to evaluate the more proximal venous segments due to edema and presence of clavicle). Ct angiogram revealed central vein thrombosis for which catheter-directed thrombolysis and venoplasty was done resulting in complete resolution of signs and symptoms. Upper extremity DVT (UEDVT) is a very less studied topic as compared to lower extremity DVT and the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities still have substantial areas that need to be studied. We present a review of the present literature including incidences, diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for this entity. Data Sources: MEDLINE, MICROMEDEX, The Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews from 1950 through March 2011.
AV fistula; catheter thrombolysis; unilateral upper limb edema; upper extremity deep vein thrombosis
In the past vascular surgeons were called in to place tunneled central venous catheter (TVC) for hemodialysis patients. Advent of percutaneous technique has resulted in an increasing number of interventional nephrologists inserting it. A single centre three year audit of 100 TVCs with a cumulative follow up of 492 patient months is presented here. From 2007 to 2010, 100 TVCs were placed by nephrologists in a percutaneous fashion in the operative room or the interventional nephrology suite. Those who completed minimum of three months on the catheter were included in analysis. There were 69 males and 31 females with a mean age of 52.3±13.6 years.(range: 25-76). Chronic glomerulonephritis was the commonest cause of CKD (45%) followed by diabetes (39%).Right internal jugular vein was the preferred site (94%). TVC was utilized as the primary access to initiate dialysis in 25% of patients in whom a live donor was available for renal transplant. The blood flow was 250-270 ml/min. The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that 3 months and 6 months catheter survival rates were 80% and 55%, respectively. The main complications were exit site blood ooze, catheter block and kink. Catheter related bacteremia rate was low at 0.4/1000 patient days. Primary cause of drop out was patient death unrelated to the TVCs. Those under the age of 40 years showed better survival, but there was no bearing of gender, catheter site, and etiology of CKD on survival. Tunneled central venous catheters could find a niche as the primary access of choice for pretransplant live donor renal transplants in view of its immediate usage, high blood flows, low infection rates and adequate patency rates for 3-6 months.
Bacteremia; catheter survival; hemodialysis; tunneled central venous catheters
Central venous access is often necessary for the administration of fluids, blood products, and medications. Several approaches to supraclavicular subclavian venous access have been described. This study examines the effectiveness of central venous catheter placement utilizing an alternative set of anatomic landmarks for supraclavicular subclavian vein access.
This was a two phase study. The first portion involved subclavian vein cannulation using a supraclavicular approach in 28 cadavers. The specific set of anatomic landmarks for the supraclavicular approach, termed the “pocket approach,” is described. Cadavers were subsequently dissected to verify appropriate line placement. The second portion was a chart review of Emergency Department (ED) patients who underwent attempted subclavian vein catheter placement utilizing the pocket approach. Charts were extracted following education of the ED faculty and resident staff to determine: 1) Success of subclavian line placement, 2) The incidence of pneumothorax, and 3) The use of supraclavicular subclavian access in the trauma setting, during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and in patients who had cervical collars.
In 28 cadavers, the success rate of the pocket approach was 100% (34/34; 95% CI 90% to 100%). Chart review of the 68 patients revealed a success rate of 90% (61/68; CI 80% to 96%). No pneumothoraces were recorded (0/68; CI 0% to 5%). The pocket approach was used successfully in 11 patients with cervical collars, (100%, CI 72% to 100%) and in 15 of 16 patients undergoing CPR (94%, CI 70% to 100%). In four fresh cadavers, the average distance from the posterior subclavian vein to the subclavian artery was 0.40cm, and the dome of the pleura was 1.75cm posterior to the vein.
Our data suggest that the supraclavicular pocket approach to subclavian vein cannulation is a useful and safe method of adult central venous catheterization, with complication and success rates comparable to more common approaches. The anatomic advantage of a great vein that is closer to the skin and farther from the pleural dome makes this an approach worthy of further investigation.
INTRODUCTION: Central venous cannulation is an integral part of venous access port (portacath) placement for intravenous chemotherapy. NICE guidelines have suggested that CVC should be performed under ultrasound guidance. The technique of ultrasound-guided subclavian cannulation is reviewed and our experience presented.PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data on patients undergoing ultrasound-guided portacath placement for the failure rate and the incidence of complications.RESULTS: We were successful in cannulating the subclavian vein in 44 of 55 patients. There was one arterial puncture and no haemothorax or pneumothorax with the technique (complication rate 1.8%).CONCLUSION: An ultrasound-guided approach should be the standard technique for central venous cannulation in portacath placement.
Ultrasound (US) greatly facilitates cannulation of the internal jugular vein. Despite the ability to visualize the needle and anatomy, adverse events still occur. We hypothesized that the technique has limitations among certain patients and clinical scenarios. Objective: The purpose of our study was to identify characteristics of adverse events surrounding US-guided central venous cannulation (CVC). Methods: We assembled a prospective observational cohort of emergency department (ED) patients undergoing consecutive CVC under US. The primary outcome of interest was a composite of acute mechanical adverse events including hematoma, arterial cannulation, pneumothorax, and unsuccessful placement. Physicians performing the CVC recorded anatomical site, reason for insertion, and acute complications. We followed the catheters until they were removed based on radiographic evidence hospital nursing records. ED charts and pharmacy records contributed variables of interest. A self reported online survey provided physician experience information. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of an adverse outcome. Results: Physicians attempted 289 CVC on 282 patients. An adverse outcome occurred in 57 attempts (19.7%, 95%CI 15.5–24.7) the most common being 31 unsuccessful placements (11%, 95% CI 7.7–14.8). Patients with a history of end stage renal disease (OR 3.54, 95%CI 1.59–7.89) and central lines placed by operators with intermediate experience (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.19–4.32) were most likely to encounter adverse events. Previously cited predictors such as BMI, coagulopathy, and pulmonary hyperinflation were not significant in our final model. Conclusions: Acute adverse events occurred in approximately 20% of US guided central line attempts. We identified both patient (history of end stage renal disease) and physician (intermediate experience level) factors that are associated with acute adverse events.
Catheterization; Central Venous; Ultrasonography; Interventional; Emergency Medicine
A new, long-term venous access catheter was evaluated in clinical practice and the insertion time, complication rate and prospective follow-up recorded. Fifty novel polyurethane catheters (Cuff-Cath) were inserted in 48 patients, for cytotoxic chemotherapy in 36, long-term total parenteral nutrition in five and miscellaneous indications in seven. All catheters were inserted by a percutaneous technique under local anaesthesia. The mean insertion time was 18 min. There were three insertion complications; failure to cannulate, pneumothorax and malposition. Seven catheters required removal (sepsis in five, subclavian vein thrombosis in two) and one catheter fell out. Total catheter days to date has been 6607 (mean 132, range 18-831 days). Eleven catheters are still in use a mean of 154 days (range 38-490 days) after insertion. Furthermore, a new technique has been described which prevents inadvertent displacement. This new catheter combines the mechanical advantages of polyurethane, together with those of a Dacron cuff. Early results suggest that this catheter may be a useful alternative to silicone catheters of the Hickman/Broviac type for long-term central venous access.
For patients dependent on permanent venous catheters for survival, the progressive loss of venous access sites should prompt a systematic approach to alternative sites and techniques to maximize patient survival and minimize complications. Interventional radiologists should be familiar with the appropriate use of both conventional and unconventional types of venous access and their associated risks. This article discusses the use of venous access sites available as alternatives to occluded internal jugular veins, including the subclavian veins, the femoral veins, the inferior vena cava, and the hepatic veins. In addition, unconventional techniques for venous access are reviewed, including recannulization of occluded neck and chest veins, catheterization of small thyrocervical veins, and sharp recannulization of occluded central veins.
Venous access; unconventional; translumbar; hemodialysis
Interventional Nephrology is a new and emerging subspecialty of Nephrology that mainly deals with ultrasonography of kidneys and ultrasound-guided renal biopsy, insertion of peritoneal dialysis catheters, tunneled dialysis catheters as a vascular access for patients undergoing hemodialysis as well as percutaneous endovascular procedures performed to manage dysfunction of arteriovenous fistulas or grafts in end stage renal disease patients.
Traditionally, these procedures have been delegated to a variety of specialists with resultant delays in diagnosis and initiation of therapy. To avoid the delays nephrologists have taken the initiative to perform these procedures themselves. Indeed, recent data have emphasized that nephrologists can safely and successfully perform these procedures with excellent results.
The success of nephrologist’s role in Interventional Nephrology insures the ideal management of renal patients with effectiveness, safety and lower cost for Public Health System. Certainly nephrologists must have adequate training and develop the necessary skills in the new fields as a prerequisite for the success of the concept.
interventional nephrology; end stage renal disease; hemodialysis; peritoneal dialysis
Clinicians use either direct or indirect (Seldinger) techniques for internal juguler or subclavian vein catheterization. This report aims to point out that the success rate of the direct technique where the catheter is inserted directly through the cannula may be higher particularly in catheterization of pediatric cases.
A 7.5-month-old female infant weighing 7200 gm was operated on for liver transplantation. The patient suffered jaundice at one month of age and was diagnosed with neonatal colestatic hepatitis. After routine monitoring, via indirect technique, central catheterization was attempted through internal jugular vein. However, the attempt failed. Therefore, again via indirect technique, catheterization was achieved through the right subclavian vein and fixed at 8 cm. After the operation started, fluid replacement and central venous pressure monitoring were performed with this catheter. Immediately after the operation, a control postero-anterior chest radiograph of the patient was obtained. This graph revealed that the tip of the catheter was fixed in the right internal jugular vein. Since the vital symptoms of the patient were not stable, the catheter was not removed and fluid replacement was performed via this technique. The catheter was removed on the postoperative 2nd day.
The J wire advanced via the indirect technique advances anatomically following the upper wall of subclavian vein. Because of the smaller vessel dimensions and sharper, more angulated routes the subclavian and internal jugular veins make in infants, the rigid J wire may advance in the cephalic direction. However, in the technique where the catheter (Cavafix ® catheter) is inserted directly through the cannula, this probability is less since J wire is not used and the catheter employed is flexible. We concluded that especially in pediatric cases, employment of the technique where the catheter is inserted directly through the cannula would be more convenient in order to decrease the catheter malpositioning probability.
Central venous lines have become an integral part of patient care, but they are not without complications. Vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm formation is one of the rarer complications of central line placement. Presented is a rare case of two pseudoaneurysms of the vertebral and subclavian artery after an attempted internal jugular vein catheterization. These were successfully treated with open surgical repair and bypass. Open surgical repair remains the gold standard of treatment. Endovascular repair of vertebral artery pseudoaneurysms has been described with promising outcomes, but long-term results are lacking. Ultimately, the best treatment of these iatrogenic injuries should start with prevention. Well-documented techniques to minimize mechanical complications, including inadvertent arterial puncture, should be practiced and taught in training programs to avoid the potentially devastating consequences.
For chronic hemodialysis, the ideal permanent vascular access is the arteriovenous fistula (AVF). Temporary catheters should be reserved for acute dialysis needs. The AVF is associated with lower infection rates, better clinical results, and a higher quality of life and survival when compared to temporary catheters. In Brazil, the proportion of patients with temporary catheters for more than 3 months from the beginning of therapy is used as an evaluation of the quality of renal units. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors associated with the time between the beginning of hemodialysis with temporary catheters and the placement of the first arteriovenous fistula in Brazil.
This is an observational, prospective non-concurrent study using national administrative registries of all patients financed by the public health system who began renal replacement therapy (RRT) between 2000 and 2004 in Brazil. Incident patients were eligible who had hemodialysis for the first time. Patients were excluded who: had hemodialysis reportedly started after the date of death (inconsistent database); were younger than 18 years old; had HIV; had no record of the first dialysis unit; and were dialyzed in units with less than twenty patients. To evaluate individual and renal unit factors associated with the event of interest, the frailty model was used (N = 55,589).
Among the 23,824 patients (42.9%) who underwent fistula placement in the period of the study, 18.2% maintained the temporary catheter for more than three months until the fistula creation. The analysis identified five statistically significant factors associated with longer time until first fistula: higher age (Hazard-risk - HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.99-1.00); having hypertension and cardiovascular diseases (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.9-0.98) as the cause of chronic renal disease; residing in capitals cities (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.9-0.95) and certain regions in Brazil - South (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.8-0.87), Midwest (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.83-0.94), Northeast (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.88-0.94), or North (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.83-0.94) and the type of renal unit (public or private).
Monitoring the provision of arteriovenous fistulas in renal units could improve the care given to patients with end stage renal disease.
Background and Aim:
Central venous catheters (CVC) are important in the management of critically ill patients. Incorrect positioning may lead to many serious complications. Chest radiograph is a convenient means of determining the correct position of the catheter tip. The present study was designed to evaluate the depth of CVC placed through the right and left internal jugular vein (IJV) in order to achieve optimum placement of the catheter tip.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 107 patients in whom CVCs were put through either the right or left IJV through a central approach were included in this prospective study. Catheter tip position was observed in the post procedure chest radiograph. It was considered correct if the tip was just below the carina in the left-sided catheters and just above carina in the right-sided catheters. The catheters were repositioned based on the chest radiographs. The catheter depth leading to optimum tip placement was noted.
In males, catheter repositioning was required in 13 of 58 patients (22.41%) in the right IJV catheters, whereas in 2 of 13 patients (15.38%) in the left IJV catheters. In females, repositioning was required in 12 of 25 patients (48%) in the right IJV catheters and 2 of 11 patients (18.18%) in the left IJV catheters. Repositioning rate was higher in females (14/36) compared with males (15/71), which was statistically significant (P = 0.05, 95% CI). Repositioning rates were significantly higher in females (12/25) as compared with males (13/58) in the right IJV catheters (P = 0.019, 95% CI).
By cannulating the IJV through a central approach, the catheters can be fixed at a length of 12-13 cm in males and 11-12 cm in females in the right IJV and at a length of 13-14 cm in males and 12-13 cm in females in the left IJV in order to achieve correct positioning.
Carina; central venous catheters; right and left internal jugular vein