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1.  Tuberculous Aneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta: Endovascular Repair Using Stent Grafts in Two Cases 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2000;1(4):215-218.
Tuberculous aneurysm of the aorta is exceedingly rare. To date, the standard therapy for mycotic aneurysm of the abdominal aorta has been surgery involving in-situ graft placement or extra-anatomic bypass surgery followed by effective anti-tuberculous medication. Only recently has the use of a stent graft in the treatment of tuberculous aortic aneurysm been described in the literature. We report two cases in which a tuberculous aneurysm of the abdominal aorta was successfully repaired using endovascular stent grafts. One case involved is a 42-year-old woman with a large suprarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm and a right psoas abscess, and the other, a 41-year-old man in whom an abdominal aortic aneurysm ruptured during surgical drainage of a psoas abscess.
PMCID: PMC2718204  PMID: 11752958
Aorta, disease; Aorta, aneurysm; Aorta, grafts and prostheses
2.  Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm after Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair 
In treating uncomplicated abdominal aortic aenurysm, endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) has been employed as a good alternative to open repair with low perioperative morbidity and mortality. However, the aneurysm can enlarge or rupture even after EVAR as a result of device failure, endoleak, or graft migration. We experienced two cases of aneurismal rupture after EVAR, which were successfully treated by surgical extra-anatomic bypass.
PMCID: PMC3249277  PMID: 22263128
Aneurysm; Aorta, abdominal; Rupture; Endovascular surgery
3.  Emergent Repair of a Complex Dissecting Aneurysm in the Thoracic Aorta 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  2012;39(5):687-691.
Endovascular treatment of complex thoracic pathologic conditions involving the aortic arch can often be appropriate and safe; however, minimally invasive procedures are not always feasible, especially in emergent cases. We report the case of a 78-year-old woman who emergently presented in hemorrhagic shock with a ruptured chronic dissecting aneurysm that involved the aortic arch. Eight years earlier, she had undergone aortic valve replacement and plication of the ascending aorta, which was complicated a day later by Stanford type B dissection, malperfusion, and ischemia that required an axillobifemoral bypass. At the current admission, we successfully treated her surgically through a left thoracotomy, using moderate hypothermic extracorporeal circulation and advanced organ-protection methods. We discuss the surgical indications and our operative strategy in relation to open surgical repair versus endovascular treatment in patients with complex conditions.
PMCID: PMC3461696  PMID: 23109769
Aneurysm, dissecting/radiography/surgery; aortic aneurysm, thoracic/radiography/surgery; aortic diseases/surgery; aortic rupture/surgery; treatment outcome; vascular surgical procedures
4.  An infected enlarging abdominal aortic aneurysm after acute cholecystitis☆ 
An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) infection is rare and can be difficult to manage, with high morbidity and mortality. We present a patient who suffered an infected AAA after undergoing a laparoscopic cholecystectomy and discuss the surgical management options.
A 69-year-old male presents with a rapidly enlarging AAA 4 weeks following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He was managed with open debridement, washout and repair of the aneurysm, but suffered ongoing sequelae of Escherichia coli sepsis.
The options for surgical management of infected AAA include open, endovascular and combined approaches. Recent papers report successful use of endovascular repair of infected AAAs but this is an ongoing area of research.
Infection of an AAA is associated with high mortality and long-term morbidity and requires optimal treatment. Surgical options include open debridement and repair, endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) or a combined approach.
PMCID: PMC4008856  PMID: 24705192
Abdominal aortic aneurysm; Infection; Cholecystitis
5.  Endovascular Exclusion of a Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm after Retrograde Visceral Artery Revascularization 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  2005;32(3):416-420.
Historically, open surgical repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms has been associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Furthermore, endovascular exclusion alone can restrict blood flow to visceral arteries. We report a case of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm that was repaired using a hybrid approach: surgery followed by an endovascular procedure. A 53-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for endovascular exclusion of a thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm that included the superior mesenteric artery and the celiac artery. Aorto–mesenteric and aorto–celiac artery bypass grafting was performed to create a landing zone for subsequent endovascular exclusion of the aneurysm, which was completed successfully 6 weeks after the bypass procedure.
For thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms that extend beyond the superior mesenteric artery and the celiac or renal arteries, a hybrid approach, consisting of limited surgical treatment followed by endovascular exclusion of the aneurysm, may yield optimal results in selected patients with serious preoperative comorbidities.
PMCID: PMC1336723  PMID: 16392233
Aortic aneurysm, abdominal; aortic aneurysm, thoracic; blood vessel prosthesis implantation; stents
6.  Two-stage Surgery for Double Infected Aneurysms in the Infrarenal Abdominal and Descending Thoracic Aorta 
Annals of Vascular Diseases  2011;4(3):248-251.
A 61-year-old man complaining of lumbago and high-grade fever was admitted to our institution. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a saccular aneurysm in the infrarenal abdominal aorta and blood culture results were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. He was diagnosed with infected abdominal aortic aneurysm, and antibiotic therapy was initiated. Follow-up CT demonstrated a rapidly-enlarging abdominal aortic aneurysm and a newly-developed descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. For this case, two-stage surgery consisting of extra-anatomical bypass and in-situ reconstruction using rifampicin-soaked Dacron graft was performed after an interval of 37 days. The patient was discharged 14 days after the second surgery without any complications.
PMCID: PMC3595797  PMID: 23555462
infected aortic aneurysm; multiple aneurysms; rifampicin-soaked graft
7.  Awake, Percutaneous Repair of a Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm 
The Ochsner Journal  2013;13(2):248-251.
The rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm is a highly lethal event, claiming approximately 15,000 lives each year. Traditionally, open surgical repair has been the mainstay for treatment. However, this surgery is associated with almost a 50% perioperative mortality rate. Minimally invasive endovascular stent grafts have been used with great success in the elective repair of aortic aneurysms. This technology has subsequently been applied to the repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms with a substantial reduction in the periprocedural death rate and associated complications.
Case Report
We report a case of a patient with a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm and an acute ST elevation myocardial infarction who was treated with an endovascular stent graft in a totally percutaneous fashion using only conscious sedation and local anesthesia.
Although the risk of mortality and complications remains high, endovascular repair of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm offers the patient the best chance of survival.
PMCID: PMC3684334  PMID: 23789011
Aortic aneurysm–abdominal; endovascular procedures
8.  Hybrid Endovascular Repair of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm in a Patient with Behçet's Disease Following Right to Left Carotid-carotid Bypass Grafting 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2011;26(3):444-446.
Endovascular repair of inflammatory aortic aneurysms has been reported as an alternative to open surgical treatment. In selective cases, adjunctive bypass surgery may be required to provide an adequate landing zone. We report a case of endovascular repair of an inflammatory aortic aneurysm in a patient with Behçet's disease using a carotid-carotid bypass graft to provide an adequate landing zone. A 45-yr-old man with a voice change was referred to our hospital with the diagnosis of saccular aneurysm of the distal aortic arch resulting from vasculitis. Computed tomography showed a thoracic aortic aneurysm with thrombosis. Right to left carotid-carotid bypass grafting was performed. After 8 days, the patient underwent an endovascular stent graft placement distal to the origin of the innominate artery. The patient was discharged with medication and without postoperative complications after 5 days. Hybrid endovascular treatment may be suitable a complementary modality for repairing inflammatory aortic aneurysms.
PMCID: PMC3051095  PMID: 21394316
Endovascular Repair; Aortic Aneurysm; Inflammatory; Carotid-Carotid Bypass; Behçet Syndrome
9.  Extra-anatomic Bypass Grafting after Endovascular Embolization for the Treatment of Mycotic Aneurysm - 2 case reports - 
Mycotic aneurysm is a disease requiring immediate treatment because of the high risk of rupture. A difficult surgical approach, especially in the case of occurrence on the iliac artery, involving endovascular embolization and extra-anatomic bypass grafting, is known to be a suitable treatment. We performed extra-anatomic bypass grafting after endovascular embolization successfully in two patients. The postoperative computed tomography of both patients showed complete exclusion of the mycotic aneurysm.
PMCID: PMC3249299  PMID: 22263150
Mycotic aneurysm; Endovascular stent; Extra-anatomic bypass
10.  Successful Treatment of a Ruptured Aortic Arch Aneurysm Using a Hybrid Procedure 
Korean Circulation Journal  2011;41(8):469-473.
Aortic rupture has a high mortality rate and can be considered a medical emergency. The standard treatment for aortic rupture is surgical repair. An aortic stent graft for a ruptured descending aorta is considered an effective alternative treatment. However, an aortic stent graft is difficult when the aortic aneurysm is in the aortic arch due to supra-aortic vessels. We report on a patient with a ruptured aortic arch aneurysm treated with a hybrid procedure, which involved a carotid to carotid bypass operation and an aortic stent graft. A 71-year-old male patient visited our cardiovascular center suffering from hemoptysis. The chest CT and aortography showed a 9 cm sized aortic arch aneurysm 0.5 cm distal to the left subclavian artery and a hemothorax in the left lung. The patient refused to undergo a full open operation. We performed a carotid to carotid bypass in advance, and two pieces of aortic stent grafts were placed across the left carotid artery and left subclavian artery. The follow up CT showed the aortic stent grafts, no endoleaks and no thrombus in the aortic arch aneurysm. The patient was discharged from the hospital without complication.
PMCID: PMC3173668  PMID: 21949532
Aorta, thoracic; Aortic rupture; Stents
11.  Embolization of an Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery Aneurysm with Amplatzer Vascular Plug without Bypass 
Aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) aneurysms are rare, but the risk of rupture and thromboembolism is high, with a postrupture mortality rate of 50%. Open surgical repair of ARSA aneurysms usually requires thoracotomy and aortic grafting, which can be contraindicated in high-risk patients with multiple comorbidities. Endovascular repair of ARSA aneurysms has been reported, with or without adjunctive surgical bypass. We report a case of an 80-year-old woman resenting with an asymptomatic 4 cm ARSA aneurysm who underwent a completely endovascular treatment of the aneurysm using an Amplatzer vascular plug II (St. Jude Medical Inc., St. Paul, MN).
PMCID: PMC3578609  PMID: 24293984
endovascular procedure; endovascular repair; aneurysm; artery; percutaneous; subclavian; vessel repair
12.  Hybrid procedure to treat aortic arch aneurysm combined with aortic arch coarctation and left internal carotid artery aneurysm (Case Report) 
Aortic arch aneurysm is a rare condition but carries a high risk of rupture. We report one case of aortic arch aneurysm combined with aortic arch coarctation and left internal carotid artery aneurysm, which is extremely rare. Left internal carotid artery aneurysm resection and revascularization, carotid and carotid graft bypass combined with endovascular stent graft and embolization with coils were successfully performed. There were no any complaints and complications at 8 months follow-up. The follow-up CTA demonstrated thrombus formation in the aneurysm lumen, no endoleak and the aortic arch and bypass graft were all patent. We feel that hybrid procedure may be a valuable therapeutic alternative when treating this type of lesion. However, long-term clinical efficacy and safety have yet to be confirmed.
PMCID: PMC3898389  PMID: 24387673
Aneurysm; Aortic arch; Stent graft; Hybrid procedure
13.  Endovascular Repair of a Ruptured Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  2006;33(2):241-245.
Endovascular aneurysm repair has considerable potential advantages over the surgical approach as a treatment for thoracic aortic rupture, in part because open surgical repair of ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysms is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. We describe the successful endovascular deployment of stent-grafts to repair a contained rupture of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm in an 86-year-old man whose comorbidities prohibited surgery. Two months after the procedure, magnetic resonance angiography showed a patent stent-graft, a patent left subclavian artery, and complete exclusion of the aneurysm.
PMCID: PMC1524690  PMID: 16878637
Aged, 80 and over; aneurysm, ruptured; aortic aneurysm, thoracic; aortic rupture; blood vessel prosthesis; stents
14.  Stent-Assisted Coil Trapping in a Manual Internal Carotid Artery Compression Test for the Treatment of a Fusiform Dissecting Aneurysm 
Internal carotid artery (ICA) trapping can be used for the treatment of giant intracranial aneurysms, blood blister-like aneurysms, and fusiform dissecting aneurysms. Fusiform dissecting aneurysms are challenging to treat surgically and endovascularly because of no definite neck and critical perforators. Surgical or endovascular trapping of the ICA with or without an extracranial-intracranial bypass has commonly been used as an effective method to treat these lesions, but balloon test occlusion (BTO) must be performed. Here, we report a case of a ruptured fusiform dissecting aneurysm of the distal ICA, which was successfully treated using an endovascular ICA trapping with a manual ICA compression test instead of BTO.
PMCID: PMC3393866  PMID: 22792428
Endovascular treatment; Fusiform aneurysm; Internal carotid artery; Occlusion; Trapping
15.  Hybrid Endovascular and Off-Pump Open Surgical Treatment for Synchronous Aneurysms of the Aortic Arch, Brachiocephalic Trunk, and Abdominal Aorta 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  2004;31(3):283-287.
A 71-year-old patient was admitted for synchronous aneurysms of the aortic arch, brachiocephalic trunk, and juxtarenal abdominal aorta involving the iliac arteries. The patient first underwent open surgical repair of the juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm by means of aorto-bifemoral bypass. Three months later, he underwent off-pump surgical repair of the aneurysm of the brachiocephalic trunk and bypass grafting from the ascending aorta to the brachiocephalic trunk and the left common carotid artery, followed by successful exclusion of the aneurysm of the aortic arch by deployment of a Zenith TX1 custom-made endograft, inserted through a limb of the aorto-bifemoral graft.
Combined endovascular and open surgical treatment is an appealing new alternative to open surgical repair for complex aortic diseases. Debranching of the aortic arch enables endovascular grafting in this area, thereby avoiding cardiopulmonary bypass and circulatory arrest. Staged and simultaneous procedures should be considered for the treatment of complex aortic diseases even in poor-risk patients; however, due to the investigative characteristics of these procedures, patient selection and postoperative follow-up should be carried out with utmost attention.
PMCID: PMC521773  PMID: 15562851
Aortic aneurysm, abdominal/surgery; aortic aneurysm, thoracic/surgery; aortic diseases/therapy; blood vessel prosthesis implantation/methods; brachiocephalic trunk; carotid arteries; stents; vascular surgical procedures/methods
16.  Endovascular aneurysm repair in emergent ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm with a ‘real’ hostile neck and severely tortuous iliac artery of an elderly patient 
BMC Surgery  2014;14:11.
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has been a revolutionary development in the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Meanwhile, unfavorable anatomy of the aneurysm has always been a challenge to vascular surgeons, and the application of EVAR in emergent and elderly patients are still in dispute.
Case presentation
A 79-year-old woman presented as an emergency of abdominal pain with acute hypotension, heart rate elevation and a rapid decrease of hemoglobin. Emergent computed tomographic angiography (CTA) showed a ruptured AAA (rAAA) extending from below the opening of bilateral renal arteries down to the celiac artery and elongated to both common iliac arteries. The hostile neck and severely tortuous iliac artery made the following procedure a great challenge. An emergent endovascular approach was performed in which an excluder aortic main body was deployed below the origin of the bilateral renal arteries covering the ruptured aortic segment. Two iliac legs were placed superior to the opening of the right hypogastric respectively. In order to avoid the type Ib endoleak, we tried to deploy another cuff above the bifurcation of the iliac artery. However, the severely tortuous right iliac artery made this procedure extremely difficult, and a balloon-assisted technique was used in order to keep the stiff wire stable. Another iliac leg was placed above the bifurcation of the left iliac artery. The following angiography showed a severe Ia endoleak in the proximal neck and therefore, a cuff was deployed distal to opening of the left renal artery with off-the-shelf solution. The patient had an uneventful recovery with a resolution of the rAAA. She is well and symptom-free 6 months later.
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in emergent elderly rAAA with hostile neck and severe tortuous iliac artery is extremely challenging, and endovascular management with integrated technique is feasible and may achieve a satisfactory early result.
PMCID: PMC4016293  PMID: 24597740
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR); Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA); Hostile anatomy; Elderly patient
17.  Endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm 
A thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is a potentially life-threatening condition with structural weakness of the aortic wall, which can progress to arterial dilatation and rupture. Today, both an increasing awareness of vascular disease and the access to tomographic imaging facilitate the diagnosis of TAA even in an asymptomatic stage. The risk of rupture for untreated aneurysms beyond a diameter of 5.6 cm ranges from 46% to 74% and the two-year mortality rate is greater than 70%, with most deaths resulting from rupture. Treatment options include surgical and non-surgical repair to prevent aneurysm enlargement and rupture. While most cases of ascending aortic involvement are subject to surgical repair (partially with valve-preserving techniques), aneurysm of the distal arch and descending thoracic aorta are amenable to emerging endovascular techniques as an alternative to classic open repair or to a hybrid approach (combining debranching surgery with stent grafting) in an attempt to improve outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3298329  PMID: 22419919
stent graft; thoracic aortic aneurysm; thoracic aortic dissection; Crawford
18.  Emergent Aortic Endovascular Stent Grafts for Ruptured Aortoiliac Aneurysms 
A ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is an emergency anywhere in the world. Physician expertise and clinical status of the patient drive the treatment modalities in the majority of cases. Independent of treatment choice, the goal of therapy is to stabilize the patient as quickly as possible in a manner that establishes maximum survival and minimum morbidity and provides a long-lasting, durable result. Endovascular aortic repair has become an acceptable alternative to open surgical repair in a subset of patients presenting with ruptured aortoiliac aneurysms. Patient selection, physician preference, institutional experience, and availability of appropriate equipment make up a majority of factors influencing treatment choices. Once the decision has been made to treat the patient via endovascular techniques, then experience, planning, and the ability to improvise solutions “on the fly” become vital components to the success of the procedure. Two separate cases, requiring intraprocedural improvisation, are presented followed by a review of the literature.
PMCID: PMC3036451  PMID: 21326528
Ruptured aneurysm; emergent stent graft; EVAR
19.  Aortoesophageal Fistula after Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair of a Mycotic Thoracic Aneurysm 
Mycotic aneurysms constitute a small proportion of aortic aneurysms. Endovascular repair of mycotic aneurysms has been applied with good short-term and midterm results. However, the uncommon aortoenteric fistula formation remains a potentially fatal complication when repairing such infective aneurysms. We present the case of an 80-year-old woman with thoracic and abdominal aortic mycotic aneurysms, which were successfully treated with endografting. However, the patient presented 3 months later with upper gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to erosion of the thoracic graft into the oesophagus. The patient was treated conservatively due to the high risk of surgical repair. There is currently little exposure to the management of mycotic aortic aneurysms. If suspected, imaging of the entire vasculature will aid initial diagnosis and highlight the extent of the disease process, allowing for efficient management. Aortic endografting for mycotic thoracic aneurysms is a high-risk procedure yet is still an appropriate intervention. Aortoenteric fistulae pose a rare but severe complication of aortic endografting in this setting.
PMCID: PMC3167181  PMID: 21904681
20.  Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm: hybrid repair outcomes 
Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery  2012;1(3):311-319.
Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAA) remain amongst the most formidable of surgical challenges, particularly degenerative aneurysms in the elderly population with concomitant pulmonary disease. This report presents an update of our robust single-institution experience with “hybrid” TAAA repair including complete visceral debranching and endovascular aneurysm exclusion in high-risk patients.
Between March 2005 and June 2012, 58 patients underwent extra-anatomic debranching of all visceral vessels followed by aneurysm exclusion via endovascular means at a single institution. The median number of visceral vessels bypassed was 4. The debranching and endovascular portions of the procedure were performed as a single stage in the initial 33 patients and as a staged approach in the most recent n=25 cases.
Median patient age was 69.0 years; 50% were female. All had significant co-morbidity and were considered suboptimal candidates for conventional open surgical repair. Mean aortic diameter was 6.7¡À1.2 cm. Thirty-day/in-hospital rates of death, stroke, and permanent paraparesis/paraplegia were 9%, 0%, and 4%, respectively; in the most recent 25 patients undergoing staged repair these rates were 4%, 0%, and 0%. Over a mean follow-up of 26¡À21 months, visceral graft patency is 95.3%; all occluded limbs were to renal vessels and none resulted in permanent dialysis. Two patients (3%) have required re-intervention, one for type Ib and one for type III endoleak. Five-year freedom from re-intervention was 94%. Kaplan-Meier overall survival was 78% at 1 year and 62% at 5 years, with a 5-year aorta-specific survival of 87%.
These updated results continue to support hybrid TAAA repair via complete visceral debranching and endovascular aneurysm exclusion as a good option for elderly high-risk patients less suited to conventional open repair. A staged approach to debranching and endovascular aneurysm exclusion appears to yield optimal results.
PMCID: PMC3741781  PMID: 23977513
Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAA); pulmonary disease; endovascular aneurysm
21.  Treatment of a rapidly expanding thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm after endovascular repair of descending thoracic aortic aneurysm in an old patient 
BMC Surgery  2012;12(Suppl 1):S26.
Aortic pathology progression and/or procedure related complications following endovascular repair should always be considered mostly in older patients. We herein describe a hybrid procedure for treatment of rapidly expanding thoracoabdominal aneurysm following endovascular treatment of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm in an older patient.
Case presentation
A 82-year-old man at 18 months after endovascular surgery for a contained rupture of descending thoracic aortic aneurysm revealed a type IV thoracoabdominal aneurysm with significant increase of the aortic diameters at superior mesenteric and renal artery levels. A hybrid approach consisting of preventive visceral vessel revascularization and endovascular repair of entire abdominal aorta was performed. Under general anaesthesia and by xyphopubic laparotomy, the infrarenal aneurysmatic aorta and common iliac arteries were replaced by a bifurcated woven prosthetic graf. From each of the prosthetic branches two reverse 14x7 mm bifurcated PTFE prosthetic grafts were anastomized to both renal arteries and to the celiac axis and superior mesenteric artery, respectively. Vessel ischemia was restricted to the time required for anastomosis. Three 10 cm Gore endovascular stent-grafts for a total length of 15 cm, were used. The overlapping of the stent-grafts was carried out from the bottom upwards, starting from the aorto-iliac prosthetic body up to the healthy segment of thoracic aorta, 40 mm from the previous stent-grafts.
The patient was discharged on the 9th postoperative day.
This technique offers the advantage of a less invasive treatment, reducing the risk of paraplegia, visceral ischaemia and pulmonary complications, mostly in older patients.
PMCID: PMC3499194  PMID: 23173764
22.  Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm 
The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a systematic review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm in comparison to open surgical repair. An abdominal aortic aneurysm [AAA] is the enlargement and weakening of the aorta (major blood artery) that may rupture and result in stroke and death. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair [EVAR] is a procedure for repairing abdominal aortic aneurysms from within the blood vessel without open surgery. In this procedure, an aneurysm is excluded from blood circulation by an endograft (a device) delivered to the site of the aneurysm via a catheter inserted into an artery in the groin. The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this technology. The review included 44 eligible articles out of 489 citations identified through a systematic literature search. Most of the research evidence is based on non-randomized comparative studies and case series. In the short-term, EVAR appears to be safe and comparable to open surgical repair in terms of survival. It is associated with less severe hemodynamic changes, less blood transfusion and shorter stay in the intensive care and hospital. However, there is concern about a high incidence of endoleak, requiring secondary interventions, and in some cases, conversion to open surgical repair. Current evidence does not support the use of EVAR in all patients. EVAR might benefit individuals who are not fit for surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm and whose risk of rupture of the aneurysm outweighs the risk of death from EVAR. The long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of EVAR cannot be determined at this time. Further evaluation of this technology is required.
The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR) in comparison to open surgical repair (OSR).
Clinical Need
An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a localized, abnormal dilatation of the aorta greater than 3 cm or 50% of the aortic diameter at the diaphragm. (1) A true AAA involves all 3 layers of the vessel wall. If left untreated, the continuing extension and thinning of the vessel wall may eventually result in rupture of the AAA. The risk of death from ruptured AAA is 80% to 90%. (61) Heller et al. (44) analyzed information from a national hospital database in the United States. They found no significant change in the incidence rate of elective AAA repair or ruptured AAA presented to the nation’s hospitals. The investigators concluded that technologic and treatment advances over the past 19 years have not affected the outcomes of patients with AAAs, and the ability to identify and to treat patients with AAAs has not improved.
Classification of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
At least 90% of the AAAs are affected by atherosclerosis, and most of these aneurysms are below the level of the renal arteries.(1)
An abdominal aortic aneurysm may be symptomatic or asymptomatic. An AAA may be classified according to their sizes:(7)
Small aneurysms: less than 5 cm in diameter.
Medium aneurysms: 5-7cm.
Large aneurysms: more than 7 cm in diameter.
Small aneurysms account for approximately 50% of all clinically recognized aneurysms.(7)
Aortic aneurysms may be classified according to their gross appearance as follows (1):
Fusiform aneurysms affect the entire circumference of a vessel, resulting in a diffusely dilated lesion
Saccular aneurysms involve only a portion of the circumference, resulting in an outpouching (protrusion) in the vessel wall.
Prevalence of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
In community surveys, the prevalence of AAA is reported to be between 1% and 5.4%. (61) The prevalence is related to age and vascular risk factors. It is more common in men and in those with a positive family history.
In Canada, Abdominal aortic aneurysms are the 10th leading cause of death in men 65 years of age or older. (60) Naylor (60) reported that the rate of AAA repair in Ontario has increased from 38 per 100,000 population in 1981/1982 to 54 per 100,000 population in 1991/1992. For the period of 1989/90 to 1991/92, the rate of AAA repair in Ontarians age 45 years and over was 53 per 100,000. (60) In the United States, about 200,000 new cases are diagnosed each year, and 50,000 to 60,000 surgical AAA repairs are performed. (2) Ruptured AAAs are responsible for about 15,000 deaths in the United States annually. One in 10 men older than 80 years has some aneurysmal change in his aorta. (2)
Symptoms of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
AAAs usually do not produce symptoms. However, as they expand, they may become painful. Compression or erosion of adjacent tissue by aneurysms also may cause symptoms. The formation of mural thrombi, a type of blood clots, within the aneurysm may predispose people to peripheral embolization, where blood vessels become blocked. Occasionally, an aneurysm may leak into the vessel wall and the periadventitial area, causing pain and local tenderness. More often, acute rupture occurs without any prior warning, causing acute pain and hypotension. This complication is always life-threatening and requires an emergency operation.
Diagnosis of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
An AAA is usually detected on routine examination as a palpable, pulsatile, and non-tender mass. (1)
Abdominal radiography may show the calcified outline of the aneurysms; however, about 25% of aneurysms are not calcified and cannot be visualized by plain x-ray. (1) An abdominal ultrasound provides more accurate detection, can delineate the traverse and longitudinal dimensions of the aneurysm, and is useful for serial documentation of aneurysm size. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance have also been used for follow-up of aortic aneurysms. These technologies, particularly contrast-enhanced computer tomography, provide higher resolution than ultrasound.
Abdominal aortography remains the gold standard to evaluate patients with aneurysms for surgery. This technique helps document the extent of the aneurysms, especially their upper and lower limits. It also helps show the extent of associated athereosclerotic vascular disease. However, the procedure carries a small risk of complications, such as bleeding, allergic reactions, and atheroembolism. (1)
Prognosis of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
The risk of rupture of an untreated AAA is a continuous function of aneurysm size as represented by the maximal diameter of the AAA. The annual rupture rate is near zero for aneurysms less than 4 cm in diameter. The risk is about 1% per year for aneurysms 4 to 4.9 cm, 11% per year for aneurysms 5 to 5.9 cm, and 25% per year or more for aneurysms greater than 6 cm. (7)
The 1-year mortality rate of patients with AAAs who do not undergo surgical treatment is about 25% if the aneurysms are 4 to 6 cm in diameter. This increases to 50% for aneurysms exceeding 6 cm. Other major causes of mortality for people with AAAs include coronary heart disease and stroke.
Treatment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
Treatment of an aneurysm is indicated under any one of the following conditions:
The AAA is greater than 6 cm in diameter.
The patient is symptomatic.
The AAA is rapidly expanding irrespective of the absolute diameter.
Open surgical repair of AAA is still the gold standard. It is a major operation involving the excision of dilated area and placement of a sutured woven graft. The surgery may be performed under emergent situation following the rupture of an AAA, or it may be performed electively.
Elective OSR is generally considered appropriate for healthy patients with aneurysms 5 to 6 cm in diameter. (7) Coronary artery disease is the major underlying illness contributing to morbidity and mortality in OSR. Other medical comorbidities, such as chronic renal failure, chronic lung disease, and liver cirrhosis with portal hypertension, may double or triple the usual risk of OSR.
Serial noninvasive follow-up of small aneurysms (less than 5 cm) is an alternative to immediate surgery.
Endovascular repair of AAA is the third treatment option and is the topic of this review.
PMCID: PMC3387737  PMID: 23074438
23.  Comparison of risk-scoring systems in predicting hospital mortality after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair 
To compare the Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and Morbidity, Portsmouth adjustment (P-POSSUM), the Hardman index and the Glasgow aneurysm score (GAS) in the prediction of hospital mortality after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair.
Medical charts of 146 AAA patients treated between January 1996 and January 2007 were reviewed. The P-POSSUM, Hardman index and GAS were calculated for each patient. The scores were tested and compared for their discriminatory ability to predict hospital death.
Of the 146 patients with ruptured and unruptured AAAs (133 underwent open repair, five underwent extra-anatomical bypass and eight underwent endovascular aneurysm repair), 18 died (12%) after AAA repair. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for the GAS, Hardman index and P-POSSUM for predicting hospital mortality were 0.740, 0.730 and 0.886, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the P-POSSUM was significantly higher than those of other scores.
In the present study, the P-POSSUM was the best predictor of hospital mortality for patients undergoing AAA repair.
PMCID: PMC2728917  PMID: 22477446
EVAR; Glasgow aneurysm score; Hardman index; Operating characteristic curve; P-POSSUM score
24.  Repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms with bifurcated endografts: a single-center study 
Clinics  2014;69(6):420-425.
The aim of this study was to describe our early experience in the treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms with bifurcated endografts. We report on our initial twelve-month experience using this approach.
Clinical data on patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms treated at a single tertiary center in Brazil were prospectively recorded. The eligibility for endovascular treatment was evaluated by computed tomography scanning and anatomical features were determined based on the method of treatment.
From February 2012 to January 2013 (12 months), 28 consecutive patients (mean age 67.2 years, range 45-85 years) underwent treatment for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms at our hospital. Eighteen patients (64.3%) were suitable for and underwent endovascular treatment with bifurcated endografts (16 patients) or aortouniiliac endografts (two patients). Ten patients who were considered unsuitable for endograft repair underwent open repair. Seven patients were classified as hemodynamically unstable (Endovascular, 5; Open, 2), and 21 were classified as stable (Endovascular, 13; Open, 8). The overall 30-day mortality rate associated with endovascular treatment was 27.8% (stable, 18.7%; unstable, 40%) and the rate associated with open repair was 50% (stable, 37.5%; unstable, 100%).
In this study, the suitability of patients for endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms was high and the overall results of endovascular treatment remain encouraging. Indeed, bifurcated endografts are a feasible option for treating anatomically eligible ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.
PMCID: PMC4050328  PMID: 24964307
Aortic Aneurysms; Aneurysm Rupture; Endovascular Repair
25.  Rupture signs on computed tomography, treatment, and outcome of abdominal aortic aneurysms 
Insights into Imaging  2014;5(3):281-293.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture has a high mortality rate. Although the diagnosis of a ruptured AAA is usually straightforward, detection of impending rupture signs can be more challenging. Early diagnosis of impending AAA rupture can be lifesaving. Furthermore, differentiating between impending and complete rupture has important repercussions on patient management and prognosis. The purpose of this article is to classify and illustrate the entire spectrum of AAA rupture signs and to review current treatment options for ruptured AAAs.
Using medical illustrations supplemented with computed tomography (CT), this essay showcases the various signs of impending rupture and ruptured AAAs. Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and open surgical repair are also discussed as treatment options for ruptured AAAs.
CT imaging findings of ruptured AAAs can be categorised according to location: intramural, luminal, and extraluminal. Intramural signs generally indicate impending AAA rupture, whereas luminal and extraluminal signs imply complete rupture. EVAR has emerged as an alternative and possibly less morbid method to treat ruptured AAAs.
AAA rupture occurs at the end of a continuum of growth and wall weakening. This review describes the CT imaging findings that may help identify impending rupture prior to complete rupture.
Teaching Points
• AAA rupture occurs at the end of a continuum of growth and wall weakening.
• Intramural imaging findings indicate impending AAA rupture.
• Luminal and extraluminal imaging findings imply complete AAA rupture.
• Some imaging findings are not specific to AAA ruptures and can be seen in other pathologies.
• EVAR has emerged as an alternative and possibly less morbid method of treating ruptured AAAs.
PMCID: PMC4035490  PMID: 24789068
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA); Ruptured aneurysm; Computed tomography; Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR); Vascular surgical procedures

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