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1.  Hepatic flow optimization in full right split liver transplantation 
Split liver transplantation for two adults offers a valuable opportunity to expand the donor pool for adult recipients. However, its application is mainly hampered by the physiological limits of these partial grafts. Small for size syndrome is a major concern during transplantation with partial graft and different techniques have been developed in living donor liver transplantation to prevent the graft dysfunction. Herein, we report the first application of synergic approaches to optimise the hepatic hemodynamic in a split liver graft for two adults. A Caucasian woman underwent liver transplantation for alcoholic cirrhosis (MELD 21) with a full right liver graft (S5-S8) without middle hepatic vein. Minor and accessory inferior hepatic veins were preserved by splitting the vena cava; V5 and V8 were anastomosed with a donor venous iliac patch. After implantation, a 16G catheter was advanced in the main portal trunk. Inflow modulation was achieved by splenic artery ligation. Intraportal infusion of PGE1 was started intraoperatively and discontinued after 5 d. Graft function was immediate with normalization of liver test after 7 d. Nineteen months after transplantation, liver function is normal and graft volume is 110% of the recipient standard liver volume. Optimisation of the venous outflow, inflow modulation and intraportal infusion of PGE1 may represent a valuable synergic strategy to prevent the graft dysfunction and it may increase the safety of split liver graft for two adults.
doi:10.4240/wjgs.v3.i7.110
PMCID: PMC3158887  PMID: 21860700
Transplantation; Split liver; Portal flow; Ultrasound; Prostaglandin
2.  Segmental Liver Transplantation From Living Donors Report of the Technique and Preliminary Results in Dogs  
HPB Surgery  1990;2(3):189-204.
A technique of orthotopic liver transplantation using a segmental graft from living donors was developed in the dog. Male mongrel dogs weighing 25–30 kg were used as donors and 10–15 kg as recipients. The donor operation consists of harvesting the left lobe of the liver (left medial and left lateral segments) with the left branches of the portal vein, hepatic artery and bile duct, and the left hepatic vein. The grafts are perfused in situ through the left portal branch to prevent warm ischemia. The recipient operation consists of two phases: 1total hepatectomy with preservation of the inferior vena cava using total vascular exclusion of the liver and veno-venous bypass, 2implantation of the graft in the orthotopic position with anastomosis of the left hepatic vein to the inferior vena cava and portal, arterial and biliary reconstruction. Preliminary experiments consisted of four autologous left lobe transplants and nine non survival allogenic left lobe transplants. Ten survival experiments were conducted. There were no intraoperative deaths in the donors and none required transfusions. One donor died of sepsis, but all the other donor dogs survived without complication. Among the 10 grafts harvested, one was not used because of insufficient bile duct and artery. Two recipients died intraoperatively of air embolus and cardiac arrest at the time of reperfusion. Three dogs survived, two for 24 hours and one for 48 hours. They were awake and alert a few hours after surgery, but eventually died of pulmonary edema in 2 cases and of an unknown reason in the other. Four dogs died 2–12 hours postoperatively as a result of hemorrhage for the graft's transected surface. An outflow block after reperfusion was deemed to be the cause of hemorrhage in these cases. On histologic examination of the grafts, there were no signs of ischemic necrosis or preservation damage.
This study demonstrates the technical feasibility of living hepatic allograft donation. It shows that it is possible, in the dog, to safely harvest non ischemic segmental grafts with adequate pedicles without altering the vascularization and the biliary drainage of the remaining liver. We propose that this technique is applicable to human anatomy.
doi:10.1155/1990/74721
PMCID: PMC2423581  PMID: 2278916
3.  URGENT REVASCULARIZATION OF LIVER ALLOGRAFTS AFTER EARLY HEPATIC ARTERY THROMBOSIS1 
Transplantation  1996;62(11):1584-1587.
Between April 1993 and May 1995, 17 adult orthotopic liver transplant recipients were found to have early hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) after a median of 7 postoperative days (mean, 11). The HAT was diagnosed in all cases by duplex ultrasound. Thrombectomy was performed with urgent revascularization (UR), using an interposition arterial graft procured from the cadaveric liver donor, and arterial patency was verified with intraoperative angiography. In seven cases, intra-arterial urokinase was administered after the thrombectomy. Fifteen (88%) of the livers remained arterialized throughout the follow-up period (median, 15 months); the remaining two patients developed recurrent HAT after 6 and 8 months. Although there was a high rate of subsequent complications, 11 (65%) of the patients are alive without retransplantation, with a mean follow-up of 17 months. Despite having a patent hepatic artery, the remaining six patients (35%) died from infectious complications that usually were present before the UR. Thus, UR effectively restored arterial inflow in 88% of the patients with early HAT. The ultimate outcome was determined mainly by the presence of intra-abdominal complications at the time of UR. In conclusion, UR, rather than retransplantation, should be considered the prime treatment option for patients who develop early posttransplant HAT.
PMCID: PMC3018871  PMID: 8970612
4.  Ultrasound of living donor liver transplantation 
Liver transplantation is the most effective treatment for various end-stage liver diseases. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) was first developed in Asia due to the severe lack of cadaveric graft in this region. The Liver Transplant Service at Queen Mary Hospital (QMH), Hong Kong, has pioneered the application of LDLT to patients using both left lobe and right lobe grafts. The QMH liver transplant programme is the largest of its kind in China and Southeast Asia.
Ultrasound (US) is often employed in the initial work-up of potential donor and recipient of LDLT. It is the imaging technique of choice to assess the early and late complications of LDLT, with colour Doppler ultrasound being the most useful in the evaluation of post-LDLT vascular complications. The use of ultrasound contrast agents improves the visualisation of the hepatic vasculature, possibly delaying or removing the need for more invasive investigations. Intra-operative ultrasound facilitates the determination of the resection plane during donor hepactectomy.
Computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used as the single imaging modality in the evaluation of LDLT candidates.
Ultrasound is most useful as the initial screening test in detecting hepatic parenchymal abnormalities, while CT or MRI is the modality of choice in the demonstration of vascular and biliary anatomy of the potential liver donor.
Biliary complications are more common in LDLT than in cadaveric liver transplantation. The ductal dilatation, resulting from biliary stricture, is clearly demonstrated by ultrasound. Bilomas can be aspirated under ultrasound guidance to confirm the diagnosis and to promote healing. Perihepatic fluid collections and abscesses are also common after LDLT. Intra-hepatic collections may represent seromas, haematomas or infarction. Ultrasound is a sensitive means of detecting these collections and can be employed to guide drainage in suitable patients.
Transplant-related malignancies include recurrent neoplasia and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). Ultrasound can be used to screen for recurrent disease and to detect PTLD in the transplanted liver.
doi:10.2349/biij.2.2.e17
PMCID: PMC3097613  PMID: 21614227
Ultrasound; living donor; liver; transplantation
5.  Hepatic artery reconstruction with gonodal vein interposition: First case in patients receiving liver from the living donor 
Summary
Background:
Technical problems such as graft and vascular size are more common in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) than in deceased donor liver transplantation. It is usually possible to get enough length of vessels on the graft, but the opposite situation is devastating. Finding the suitable vessel graft is life-saving in those situations. In this paper we present a case of gonodal vein interpositioning for hepatic artery reconstruction in an LDLT recipient. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case to be reported in the literature.
Case Report:
A 36-year-old man with cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis B underwent LDLT. Within minutes after completing the anastomosis, the artery was thrombosed. Disrupting the anastomosis showed subintimal dissection of the recipient right hepatic artery extending to the gastro-duodenal junction. A 4 cm segment of gonodal vein, which matched the diameter of the recipient hepatic artery, was used as a bridge. The patient’s postoperative recovery was excellent and Doppler ultrasonography demonstrated sufficient hepatic arterial blood flow. At long-term follow-up (18th months), the patient’s graft is still functioning.
Conclusions:
Gonodal vein interposition for hepatic artery reconstruction in living donor liver transplantation has not been previously reported. In light of the urgency of this situation, we believe it can be a life-saving reconstruction.
doi:10.12659/AJCR.883331
PMCID: PMC3616174  PMID: 23569527
liver transplantation; hepatic artery; gonodal vein
6.  Fenestrated Endovascular Grafts for the Repair of Juxtarenal Aortic Aneurysms 
Executive Summary
Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) allows the exclusion of the dilated aneurismal segment of the aorta from the systematic circulation. The procedure requires, however, that the endograft extends to the healthy parts of the aorta above and below the aneurysm, yet the neck of a juxtarenal aortic aneurysm (JRA) is too short for a standard endovascular repair. Fenestrated endovascular aortic repair (f—EVAR) provides a solution to overcome this problem by enabling the continuation of blood flow to the renal and visceral arteries through holes or ‘fenestrations’ in the graft. These fenestrations are designed to match the ostial diameter of the renal and visceral arteries.
There are three varieties fenestration, small, large, and scallop, and their location needs to be customized to fit the anatomy of the patient. If the device is not properly designed, if the alignment is inaccurate, or if the catheterization of the visceral arteries is not possible, the procedure may fail. In such cases, conversion to open surgery may become the only option as fenestrated endografts are not retrievable.
It is recommended that a stent be placed within each small fenestration to the target artery to prevent shuttering of the artery or occlusion. Many authors have noted an increased risk of vessel occlusion in unstented fenestrations and scallops.
Once placed in a patient, life-long follow-up at regular intervals is necessary to ensure the graft remains in its intended location, and that the components have adequate overlap. Should the need arise, routine follow-up allows the performance of timely and appropriate intervention through detection of events that could impact the long-term outcomes.
Alternative Technology
The technique of fenestrated endovascular grafting is still in evolution and few studies have been with published mid-term outcome data. As the technique become more common in vascular surgery practices, it will be important to determine if it can provide better outcomes than open surgical repair (OSR).
In an OSR approach, aortic clamping above one or both renal arteries, or above the visceral arteries, is required. The higher the level of aortic clamping, the greater the risk of cardiac stress and renal or visceral ischemia. During suprarenal or supraceliac aortic clamping, strain-induced myocardial ischemia may also occur due to concomitant rise in cardiac afterload and a decrease in cardiac output. Reports indicate that 6% of patients undergoing surgical repair develop myocardial infarction. The ideal level of clamp location remains controversial with conflicting views having been reported.
Method
A search of electronic databases (OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment [INAHTA] database was undertaken to identify evidence published from January 1, 2004 to December 19, 2008. The search was limited to English-language articles and human studies. The automatic search alerts were received and reviewed up to March 23, 2009.
The literature search and automatic search update identified 320 citations, of which 13 met inclusion/exclusion criteria. One comparative study presented at an international seminar, five single-arm studies on f—EVAR, and 7 studies on OSR (one prospective and six retrospective) were considered for this analysis.
To grade the strength of the body of evidence, the grading system formulated by the GRADE working group and adopted by MAS, was applied. The GRADE system classifies evidence quality as high (Grade A), moderate (Grade B), or low (Grade C) according to four key elements: study design, study quality, consistency across studies, and directness.
A summary of the characteristics of the f—EVAR and OSR studies found through the literature search is shown in Table ES-1.
Patient Characteristics: f–EVAR Studies versus OSR Studies
JRA, Juxtarenal aortic aneurysm; SRA, Suprarenal aortic aneurysm; TAA, Thoracic aortic aneurysm
Mortality Outcomes
The pooled estimate for 30-day mortality was 1.8% among the f—EVAR studies and 3.1% among the OSR studies that reported data for the repair of JRA separately. The pooled estimate for late mortality was 12.8% among the f—EVAR studies and 23.7% among the OSR studies that reported data for JRA separately.
Visceral Artery Events Reported in f—EVAR Studies
Renal Events during f-EVAR
A total of three main renal arteries and two accessory renal arteries became occluded during the procedure. These were all due to technical issues, except one accessory renal artery in which the artery was intentionally covered. One patient required open surgery following the procedure.
Renal Events During the follow-up
A total of 12 renal arteries (12 patients) were found to be occluded during follow-up. In two patients, the same side accessory renal artery was also occluded. Four (1.5%) patients lost one kidney and five (2.3%) patients underwent dialysis, three (1.4%) of which became permanent.
A total of 16 cases of renal artery stenosis (16 patients) occurred during follow-up. Eight of these were treated and eight were observed. Segmental renal infarcts were found in six patients but renal function was not impaired.
Mesenteric Events during f-EVAR
Three mesenteric events occurred during the f—EVAR procedures resulting in two deaths. One patient developed bowel ischemia due to embolization of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA); this patient died 13 days after the procedure from multiorgan failure. One patient died eights days after the procedure from mesenteric ischemia and bowel perforation. The third SMA event occurred during surgery with subsequent occlusion in early follow-up.
Mesenteric Events during Follow-up
During follow-up, five (1.8%) SMA occlusions/partial occlusions and one SMA stenosis were noted. Three of the five patients with SMA occlusion/partial occlusion remained asymptomatic and no further intervention was necessary. One patient underwent SMA bypass surgery and in two patients, the problem solved by SMA stenting. A summary of the outcomes reported in the f—EVAR and OSR studies is shown in Table ES-2.
Summary of Outcomes: Fenestrated Endovascular Graft Versus Open Surgical Repair for Treatment of Juxtarenal Aortic Aneurysm
Summary
Short- and medium-term results (up to 2 years) of f—EVAR for the repair of JRA showed that outcomes in f—EVAR series compare favourably with the figures for the OSR series; however, uncertainty remains regarding the long-term results. The following observations are based on low quality evidence.
F—EVAR has lower 30-day mortality than OSR (1.8% vs. 3.1%) and a lower late-mortality over the period of time that patients have been followed (12.8% vs. 23.7%).
There is a potential for the loss of target vessels during or after f—EVAR procedures. Loss of a target vessel may lead to loss of its respective end organ. The risk associated with this technique is mainly due to branch vessel ischemia or occlusion (primarily among the renal arteries and SMA). Ischemia or occlusion of these arteries can occur during surgery due to technical failure and/or embolization or it may occur during follow-up due to graft complications such as graft migration, component separation, or arterial thrombosis. The risk of kidney loss in this series of f—EVAR studies was 1.5% and the risk of mesenteric ischemia was 3.3%. In the OSR studies, the risk of developing renal insufficiency was 14.4% and the risk of mesenteric ischemia was 2.9%.
F—EVAR has a lower rate of postoperative cardiac and pulmonary complications.
Endoleak occurs in 22.5% of patients undergoing f—EVAR (all types) and about 8% of these require treatment. Most of the interventions performed to treat such endoleaks conducted using a minimally invasive approach.
Due to the complexity of the technique, patients must be appropriately selected for f—EVAR, the procedure performed by highly experienced operators, and in centers with advanced, high-resolution imaging systems to minimize the risk of complications.
Graft fenestrations have to be custom designed for each patient to fit and match the anatomy of their visceral arteries. Planning and sizing thus requires scrutiny of the target vessels with a high degree precision. This is important not only to prevent end organ ischemia and infarction, but to avoid prolonging procedures and subsequent adverse outcomes.
Assuming the average cost range of FEVAR procedure is $24,395-$30,070 as per hospital data and assuming the maximum number of annual cases in Ontario is 116, the average estimated cost impact range to the province for FEVAR procedures is $2.83M-$3.49M annually.
PMCID: PMC3377528  PMID: 23074534
7.  EXPERIENCE WITH LIVER AND KIDNEY ALLOGRAFTS FROM NON-HEART-BEATING DONORS1 
Transplantation  1995;59(2):197-203.
Given the shortage of cadaveric organs, we began a study utilizing NHBD for OLTx and KTx. There were 24 NHBD between January 1989 and September 1993. These donors were divided into 2 groups: uncontrolled NHBD (G1) (n=14) were patients whose organs were recovered following a period of CPR; and controlled NHBD (G2) (n=10) were patients whose organs were procured after sustaining cardiopulmonary arrest (CA) following extubation in an operating room setting. Eight kidneys and 5 livers were discarded because of macroscopic or biopsy findings. In G1, 22/27 (81.5%) kidneys were transplanted; 14/22 (64%) developed ATN; 20/22 (95%) recipients were off dialysis at the time of discharge. With a mean follow-up of 32.7± 21.1 months, sixteen (73%) kidneys are still functioning, with a mean serum creatinine of 1.7±0.6 mg/dl. The one-year actuarial patient and graft survivals are 95% and 86%. In G2, 17/20 (85%) kidneys were transplanted; 13/17 (76%) kidneys experienced ATN. All patients were off dialysis by the time of discharge. With a mean follow-up of 17.6±15.4 months, twelve (70%) kidneys are still functioning, with a mean serum creatinine of 2.5±2.1 mg/dl. The one-year actuarial patient and graft survivals are 94% and 82%, respectively. In G1, 6/10 (60%) livers were transplanted; 3/6 (50%) livers functioned, the other 3 patients required ReOLTx in the first week postoperatively because of PNF(n=2) and inadequate portal flow (n=1). Two functioning livers were lost due to HAT (n=1) and CMV hepatitis (n=1). In G2, 6/7 (85.7%) livers were transplanted. All the livers (100%) functioned. 2 patients required ReOLTx for HAT at 0.9 and 1.0 months. Both patients eventually died. One patient with a functioning liver died 2 months post OLTx. The remaining 3 patients are alive and well at 27 months of follow-up. This study shows that the procurement of kidneys from both uncontrolled and controlled NHBD leads to acceptable graft function despite a high incidence of ATN. The function of liver allografts is adequate in the controlled NHBD but suboptimal in the uncontrolled NHBD, with a high rate of PNF.
PMCID: PMC3035834  PMID: 7839441
8.  Ultrasound examination of the liver: Variations in the vascular anatomy 
Journal of Ultrasound  2010;13(2):49-56.
The hepatic vasculature is highly complex. The hepatic artery (a branch of the celiac tripod) and the portal vein (formed by the confluence of the splenic and superior mesenteric veins) provide a dual blood supply while venous drainage is guaranteed by the hepatic veins. There are also numerous anatomic variants that can involve one or more of the system’s three components.
Hepatic artery variants are the least common. Ten types have been identified, including several that are fairly frequent and others that are quite rare, and the variation generally involves the extrahepatic portion of the vessel. Portal vein variants are found in around 20% of the population. They can involve the main portal trunk or segmental branches. Variants of the hepatic veins are the most common. They involve the number and course (supernumerary veins) or the number, course, and openings (accessory veins).
Knowledge of portal vein and hepatic vein variants, which are extremely common, is of prime importance for precise localization of lesions. Hepatic artery variants are equally important for surgical treatment of hepatic disease, especially liver transplantation, where it is essential for preoperative workup and postoperative follow-up of the recipient as well as for assessment of potential donors.
doi:10.1016/j.jus.2010.07.003
PMCID: PMC3553337  PMID: 23396863
Sonography; Liver; Sonography – liver; Hepatic artery; Portal vein; Hepatic veins
9.  Acute liver failure due to concomitant arterial, portal and biliary injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: is transplantation a valid life-saving strategy? A case report 
Background
Combined iatrogenic vascular and biliary injury during cholecystectomy resulting in ischemic hepatic necrosis is a very rare cause of acute liver failure. We describe a patient who developed fulminant liver failure as a result of severe cholestasis and liver gangrene secondary to iatrogenic combine injury or the hepatic pedicle (i.e. hepatic artery, portal vein and bile duct) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Case presentation
A 40-years-old woman underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. During laparoscopy, a severe bleeding at the liver hilum motivated the conversion to open surgery. Many sutures were placed across the parenchyma for bleeding control. After 48 hours, she rapidly deteriorated with encephalopathy, coagulopathy, persistent hypotension and progressive organ dysfunction including acute renal failure requiring hemodialysis and mechanical ventilation. An angiography documented an occlusion of right hepatic artery and right portal vein. In the clinical of acute liver failure secondary to liver gangrene, severe coagulopathy and progressive secondary multi-organ failure, the patient was included in the waiting list for liver transplantation. Two days later, the patient was successfully transplanted with initial adequate liver graft function. However, she developed bilateral pneumonia and severe gastrointestinal bleeding and finally died 24 days after transplantation due to bilateral necrotizing pneumonia.
Conclusion
The occurrence of acute liver failure due to portal triad injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a catastrophic complication. Probably, the indication of liver transplantation as a life-saving strategy in patients with late diagnosis, acute liver failure, severe coagulopathy and progressive secondary multi-organ failure could be considered but only minimizing immunosuppressive regimen to avoid postoperative infections.
doi:10.1186/1754-9493-3-22
PMCID: PMC2751741  PMID: 19754971
10.  Adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation for acute liver failure in China 
AIM: To investigate the long-term outcome of recipients and donors of adult-to-adult living-donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) for acute liver failure (ALF).
METHODS: Between January 2005 and March 2010, 170 living donor liver transplantations were performed at West China Hospital of Sichuan University. All living liver donor was voluntary and provided informed consent. Twenty ALF patients underwent AALDLT for rapid deterioration of liver function. ALF was defined based on the criteria of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, including evidence of coagulation abnormality [international normalized ratio (INR) ≥ 1.5] and degree of mental alteration without pre-existing cirrhosis and with an illness of < 26 wk duration. We reviewed the clinical indications, operative procedure and prognosis of AALDTL performed on patients with ALF and corresponding living donors. The potential factors of recipient with ALF and corresponding donor outcome were respectively investigated using multivariate analysis. Survival rates after operation were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was undertaken to identify the threshold of potential risk factors.
RESULTS: The causes of ALF were hepatitis B (n = 18), drug-induced (n = 1) and indeterminate (n = 1). The score of the model for end-stage liver disease was 37.1 ± 8.6, and the waiting duration of recipients was 5 ± 4 d. The graft types included right lobe (n = 17) and dual graft (n = 3). The mean graft weight was 623.3 ± 111.3 g, which corresponded to graft-to-recipient weight ratio of 0.95% ± 0.14%. The segment Vor VIII hepatic vein was reconstructed in 11 right-lobe grafts. The 1-year and 3-year recipient’s survival and graft survival rates were 65% (13 of 20). Postoperative results of total bilirubin, INR and creatinine showed obvious improvements in the survived patients. However, the creatinine level of the deaths was increased postoperatively and became more aggravated compared with the level of the survived recipients. Multivariate analysis showed that waiting duration was independently correlated with increased mortality (P = 0.014). Furthermore, ROC curve revealed the cut-off value of waiting time was 5 d (P = 0.011, area under the curve = 0.791) for determining the mortality. The short-term creatinine level with different recipient’s waiting duration was described. The recipients with waiting duration ≥ 5 d showed the worse renal function and higher mortality than those with waiting duration < 5 d (66.7% vs 9.1%, P = 0.017). In addition, all donors had no residual morbidity. Furthermore, univariate analysis did not show that short assessment time induced the high morbidity (P = 0.573).
CONCLUSION: Timely AALDLT for patients with ALF greatly improves the recipient survival. However, further systemic review is needed to investigate the optimal treatment strategy for ALF.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i48.7234
PMCID: PMC3544025  PMID: 23326128
Acute liver failure; Adult-to-adult liver donor liver transplantation; Recipient; Donor; Risk factors
11.  Microsurgical reconstruction of hepatic artery in A-A LDLT: 124 consecutive cases without HAT 
AIM: To retrospectively investigate microsurgical hepatic artery (HA) reconstruction and management of hepatic thrombosis in adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (A-A LDLT).
METHODS: From January 2001 to September 2009, 182 recipients with end-stage liver disease underwent A-A LDLT. Ten of these patients received dual grafts. The 157 men and 25 women had an age range of 18 to 68 years (mean age, 42 years). Microsurgical techniques and running sutures with back-wall first techniques were performed in all arterial reconstructions under surgical loupes (3.5 ×) by a group of vascular surgeons. Intimal dissections were resolved by interposition of the great saphenous vein (GSV) between the donor right hepatic artery (RHA) and recipient common HA (3 cases) or abdominal aorta (AA) (2 cases), by interposition of cryopreserved iliac vessels between the donor RHA and recipient AA (2 cases).
RESULTS: In the 58 incipient patients in this series, hepatic arterial thrombosis (HAT) was encountered in 4 patients, and was not observed in 124 consecutive cases (total 192 grafts, major incidence, 2.08%). All cases of HAT were suspected by routine color Doppler ultrasonographic examination and confirmed by contrast-enhanced ultrasound and hepatic angiography. Of these cases of HAT, two occurred on the 1st and 7th d, respectively, following A-A LDLT, and were immediately revascularized with GSV between the graft and recipient AA. HAT in one patient occurred on the 46th postoperative day with no symptoms, and the remaining case of HAT occurred on the 3rd d following A-A LDLT, and was cured by thrombolytic therapy combined with an anticoagulant but died of multiorgan failure on the 36th d after A-A LDLT. No deaths were related to HAT.
CONCLUSION: Applying microsurgical techniques and selecting an appropriate anastomotic artery for HA reconstruction are crucial in reducing the high risk of HAT during A-A LDLT.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i21.2682
PMCID: PMC2880783  PMID: 20518092
Adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation; Hepatic arterial thrombosis; Microsurgical reconstruction
12.  The Results of Vascular and Biliary Variations in Turks Liver Donors: Comparison with Others 
ISRN Surgery  2011;2011:367083.
Objective. To evaluate liver anatomy with a view to access unerring surgery in liver donors. Summary Background Data. Liver transplantation, the unique curative treatment option for end-stage hepatic failure, has become routinely practicable, which was inconceivable in the past. But, the vascular and biliary anatomy of the liver has not been completely disclosed yet. Methods. From 1994 to 2009, we have done a research on 496 liver donors. The data were accumulated and categorized according to the most widely used classification systems. Results. Of 496 liver donors, 393 (79.1%) underwent the right donor hepatectomy, 98 (19.9%) were performed the left lateral segmentectomy, and 5 donors (1%) underwent the left donor hepatectomy surgery. Given the data regarding to 398 liver donors undergone right and left donor hepatectomy, arteries, bile ducts, and portal vein showed classical anatomy in 107 (21.6%) donors. Variations in all three systems were found in 16 donors (3.2%). In the remaining 275 donors (75.2%), anatomical variations were found at either of arterial, biliary, or portal system. Conclusions. Our study could come up to actual estimate in liver anatomy as any of donors have not been removed in our institute due to high hilar dissection technique.
doi:10.5402/2011/367083
PMCID: PMC3197254  PMID: 22084754
13.  Kidney and liver organ transplantation in persons with human immunodeficiency virus 
Executive Summary
Objective
The objective of this analysis is to determine the effectiveness of solid organ transplantation in persons with end stage organ failure (ESOF) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV+)
Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population
Patients with end stage organ failure who have been unresponsive to other forms of treatment eventually require solid organ transplantation. Similar to persons who are HIV negative (HIV−), persons living with HIV infection (HIV+) are at risk for ESOF from viral (e.g. hepatitis B and C) and non-viral aetiologies (e.g. coronary artery disease, diabetes, hepatocellular carcinoma). Additionally, HIV+ persons also incur risks of ESOF from HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), accelerated liver damage from hepatitis C virus (HCV+), with which an estimated 30% of HIV positive (HIV+) persons are co-infected, and coronary artery disease secondary to antiretroviral therapy. Concerns that the need for post transplant immunosuppression and/or the interaction of immunosuppressive drugs with antiretroviral agents may accelerate the progression of HIV disease, as well as the risk of opportunistic infections post transplantation, have led to uncertainty regarding the overall benefit of transplantation among HIV+ patients. Moreover, the scarcity of donor organs and their use in a population where the clinical benefit of transplantation is uncertain has limited the availability of organ transplantation to persons living with ESOF and HIV.
With the development of highly active anti retroviral therapy (HAART), which has been available in Canada since 1997, there has been improved survival and health-related quality of life for persons living with HIV. HAART can suppress HIV replication, enhance immune function, and slow disease progression. HAART managed persons can now be expected to live longer than those in the pre-HAART era and as a result many will now experience ESOF well before they experience life-threatening conditions related to HIV infection. Given their improved prognosis and the burden of illness they may experience from ESOF, the benefit of solid organ transplantation for HIV+ patients needs to be reassessed.
Evidence-Based Analysis Methods
Research Questions
What are the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of solid organ transplantation in HIV+ persons with ESOF?
Literature Search
A literature search was performed on September 22, 2009 using OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) for studies published from January 1, 1996 to September 22, 2009.
Inclusion Criteria
Systematic review with or without a Meta analysis, RCT, Non-RCT with controls
HIV+ population undergoing solid organ transplantation
HIV+ population managed with HAART therapy
Controls include persons undergoing solid organ transplantation who are i) HIV− ii) HCV+ mono-infected, and iii) HIV+ persons with ESOF not transplanted.
Studies that completed and reported results of a Kaplan-Meier Survival Curve analysis.
Studies with a minimum (mean or medium) follow up of 1-year.
English language citations
Exclusion Criteria
Case reports and case series were excluded form this review.
Outcomes of Interest
i) Risk of Death after transplantation
ii) Death censored graft survival (DCGS)
iii) HIV disease progression defined as the post transplant incidence of:
- opportunistic infections or neoplasms,
- CD4+ T-cell count < 200mm3, and
- any detectable level of plasma HIV viral load.
iv) Acute graft rejection,
v) Return to dialysis,
vi) Recurrence of HCV infection
Summary of Findings
No direct evidence comparing an HIV+ cohort undergoing transplantation with the same not undergoing transplantation (wait list) was found in the literature search.
The results of this review are reported for the following comparison cohorts undergoing transplantation:
i) Kidney Transplantation: HIV+ cohort compared with HIV− cohort
ii) Liver Transplantation: HIV+ cohort compared with HIV− negative cohort
iii) Liver Transplantation: HIV+ HCV+ (co-infected) cohort compared with HCV+ (mono-infected) cohort
Kidney Transplantation: HIV+ vs. HIV−
Based on a pooled HIV+ cohort sample size of 285 patients across four studies, the risk of death after kidney transplantation in an HIV+ cohort does not differ to that of an HIV− cohort [hazard ratio (HR): 0.90; 95% CI: 0.36, 2.23]. The quality of evidence supporting this outcome is very low.
Death censored graft survival was reported in one study with an HIV+ cohort sample size of 100, and was statistically significantly different (p=.03) to that in the HIV− cohort (n=36,492). However, the quality of evidence supporting this outcome was determined to be very low. There was also uncertainty in the rate of return to dialysis after kidney transplantation in both the HIV+ and HIV− groups and the effect, if any, this may have on patient survival. Because of the very low quality evidence rating, the effect of kidney transplantation on HIV-disease progression is uncertain.
The rate of acute graft rejection was determined using the data from one study. There was a nonsignificant difference between the HIV+ and HIV− cohorts (OR 0.13; 95% CI: 0.01, 2.64), although again, because of very low quality evidence there is uncertainty in this estimate of effect.
Liver Transplantation: HIV+ vs. HIV−
Based on a combined HIV+ cohort sample size of 198 patient across five studies, the risk of death after liver transplantation in an HIV+ cohort (with at least 50% of the cohort co-infected with HCV+) is statistically significantly 64% greater compared with an HIV− cohort (HR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.32, 2.02). The quality of evidence supporting this outcome is very low.
Death censored graft survival was reported for an HIV+ cohort in one study (n=11) however the DCGS rate of the contemporaneous control HIV− cohort was not reported. Because of sparse data the quality of evidence supporting this outcome is very low indicating death censored graft survival is uncertain.
Both the CD4+ T-cell count and HIV viral load appear controlled post transplant with an incidence of opportunistic infection of 20.5%. However, the quality of this evidence for these outcomes is very low indicating uncertainty in these effects. Similarly, because of very low quality evidence there is uncertainty in the rate of acute graft rejection among both the HIV+ and HIV− groups
Liver Transplantation: HIV+/HCV+ vs. HCV+
Based on a combined HIV+/HCV+ cohort sample size of 156 from seven studies, the risk of death after liver transplantation is significantly greater (2.8 fold) in a co-infected cohort compared with an HCV+ mono-infected cohort (HR: 2.81; 95% CI: 1.47, 5.37). The quality of evidence supporting this outcome is very low. Death censored graft survival evidence was not available.
Regarding disease progression, based on a combined sample size of 71 persons in the co-infected cohort, the CD4+ T-cell count and HIV viral load appear controlled post transplant; however, again the quality of evidence supporting this outcome is very low. The rate of opportunistic infection in the co-infected cohort was 7.2%. The quality of evidence supporting this estimate is very low, indicating uncertainty in these estimates of effect.
Based on a combined HIV+/HCV+ cohort (n=57) the rate of acute graft rejection does not differ to that of an HCV+ mono-infected cohort (OR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.44, 1.76). Also based on a combined HIV+/HCV+ cohort (n=83), the rate of HCV+ recurrence does not differ to that of an HCV+ mono-infected cohort (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.27, 1.59). In both cases, the quality of the supporting evidence was very low.
Overall, because of very low quality evidence there is uncertainty in the effect of kidney or liver transplantation in HIV+ persons with end stage organ failure compared with those not infected with HIV. Examining the economics of this issue, the cost of kidney and liver transplants in an HIV+ patient population are, on average, 56K and 147K per case, based on both Canadian and American experiences.
PMCID: PMC3377507  PMID: 23074407
14.  Small Bowel Transplant 
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Objective
The Medical Advisory Secretariat undertook a review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of small bowel transplant in the treatment of intestinal failure.
Small Bowel Transplantation
Intestinal failure is the loss of absorptive capacity of the small intestine that results in an inability to meet the nutrient and fluid requirements of the body via the enteral route. Patients with intestinal failure usually receive nutrients intravenously, a procedure known as parenteral nutrition. However, long-term parenteral nutrition is associated with complications including liver failure and loss of venous access due to recurrent infections.
Small bowel transplant is the transplantation of a cadaveric intestinal allograft for the purpose of restoring intestinal function in patients with irreversible intestinal failure. The transplant may involve the small intestine alone (isolated small bowel ISB), the small intestine and the liver (SB-L) when there is irreversible liver failure, or multiple organs including the small bowel (multivisceral MV or cluster). Although living related donor transplant is being investigated at a limited number of centres, cadaveric donors have been used in most small bowel transplants.
The actual transplant procedure takes approximately 12-18 hours. After intestinal transplant, the patient is generally placed on prophylactic antibiotic medication and immunosuppressive regimen that, in the majority of cases, would include tacrolimus, corticosteroids and an induction agent. Close monitoring for infection and rejection are essential for early treatment.
Medical Advisory Secretariat Review
The Medical Advisory Secretariat undertook a review of 35 reports from 9 case series and 1 international registry. Sample size of the individual studies ranged from 9 to 155.
As of May 2001, 651 patients had received small bowel transplant procedures worldwide. According to information from the Canadian Organ Replacement Register, a total of 27 small bowel transplants were performed in Canada from 1988 to 2002.
Patient Outcomes
The experience in small bowel transplant is still limited. International data showed that during the last decade, patient survival and graft survival rates from SBT have improved, mainly because of improved immunosuppression therapy and earlier detection and treatment of infection and rejection. The Intestinal Transplant Registry reported 1-year actuarial patient survival rates of 69% for isolated small bowel transplant, 66% for small bowel-liver transplant, and 63% for multivisceral transplant, and a graft survival rate of 55% for ISB and 63% for SB-L and MV. The range of 1-year patient survival rates reported ranged from 33%-87%. Reported 1-year graft survival rates ranged from 46-71%.
Regression analysis performed by the International Transplant Registry in 1997 indicated that centres that have performed at least 10 small bowel transplants had better patient and graft survival rates than centres that performed less than 10 transplants. However, analysis of the data up to May 2001 suggests that the critical mass of 10 transplants no longer holds true for transplants after 1995, and that good results can be achieved at any multiorgan transplant program with moderate patient volumes.
The largest Centre reported an overall 1-year patient and graft survival rate of 72% and 64% respectively, and 5-year patient and graft survival of 48% and 40% respectively. The overall 1-year patient survival rate reported for Ontario pediatric small bowel transplants was 61% with the highest survival rate of 83% for ISB.
The majority (70% or higher) of surviving small bowel transplant recipients was able to wean from parenteral nutrition and meet all caloric needs enterally. Some may need enteral or parenteral supplementation during periods of illness. Growth and weight gain in children after ISB were reported by two studies while two other studies reported a decrease in growth velocity with no catch-up growth.
The quality of life after SBT was reported to be comparable to that of patients on home enteral nutrition. A study found that while the parents of pediatric SBT recipients reported significant limitations in the physical and psychological well being of the children compared with normal school children, the pediatric SBT recipients themselves reported a quality of life similar to other school children.
Survival was found to be better in transplants performed since 1991. Patient survival was associated with the type of organ transplanted with better survival in isolated small bowel recipients.
Adverse Events
Despite improvement in patient and graft survival rates, small bowel transplant is still associated with significant mortality and morbidity.
Infection with subsequent sepsis is the leading cause of death (51.3%). Bacterial, fungal and viral infections have all been reported. The most common viral infections are cytomegalorvirus (18-40%) and Epstein-Barr virus. The latter often led to ß-cell post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease.
Graft rejection is the second leading cause of death after SBT (10.4%) and is responsible for 57% of graft removal. Acute rejection rates ranged from 51% to 83% in the major programs. Most of the acute rejection episodes were mild and responded to steroids and OKT3. Antilymphocyte therapy was needed in up to 27% of patients. Isolated small bowel allograft and positive lymphocytotoxic cross-match were found to be risk factors for acute rejection.
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease occurred in 21% of SBT recipients and accounted for 7% of post-transplant mortality. The frequency was higher in pediatric recipients (31%) and in adults receiving composite visceral allografts (25%). The allograft itself is often involved in post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. The reported incidence of host versus graft disease varied widely among centers (0% - 14%).
Surgical complications were reported to occur in 85% of SB-L transplants and 25% of ISB transplants. Reoperations were required in 45% - 66% of patients in a large series and the most common reason for reoperation was intra-abdominal abscess.
The median cost of intestinal transplant in the US was reported to be approximately $275,000US (approximately CDN$429,000) per case. A US study concluded that based on the US cost of home parenteral nutrition, small bowel transplant could be cost-effective by the second year after the transplant.
Conclusion
There is evidence that small bowel transplant can prolong the life of some patients with irreversible intestinal failure who can no longer continue to be managed by parenteral nutrition therapy. Both patient survival and graft survival rates have improved with time. However, small bowel transplant is still associated with significant mortality and morbidity. The outcomes are inferior to those of total parenteral nutrition. Evidence suggests that this procedure should only be used when total parenteral nutrition is no longer feasible.
PMCID: PMC3387750  PMID: 23074441
15.  Living donor liver transplantation with replacement of vena cava for Echinococcus alveolaris: A case report☆ 
INTRODUCTION
There is no medical treatment for alveolar echinococceal disease (AED) of liver till now. Curative surgical resection is optimal treatment but in most advanced cases curative resection can’t be done. Liver transplantation is accepted treatment option for advanced AED. AED in some case invade surrounding tissue especially inferior vena cava (IVC). Advanced AED with invasion to IVC can be treated with deceased liver transplantation. Although living donor liver transplantation is very difficult to perform in patients with advanced AED with resected IVC, it come into consideration, since there is very few cadaveric liver.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
Here we present a case with advanced stage of AED of liver which cause portal hypertension and cholestasis. AED invaded surrounding tissue, right diaphragm, both lobes of liver and retrohepatic part of IVC. Invasion of IVC forced us to make resection of IVC and reconstruction with cryopreserved venous graft to reestablish blood flow. After that a living donor liver transplantation was done.
DISCUSSION
Curative surgery is the first-choice option in all operable patients with AED of liver. Advanced stage of AED like chronic jaundice, liver abscess, sepsis, repeated attacks of cholangitis, portal hypertension, and Budd-Chiari syndrome may be an indication for liver transplantation. In some advanced stage AED during transplantation replacement of retrohepatic part of IVC could be done with artificial vascular graft, cadaveric aortic and caval vein graft.
CONCLUSION
Although living donor liver transplantation with replacement of IVC is a very difficult operation, it should be considered in the management of advanced AED of liver with IVC invasion because of the rarity of deceased liver.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2014.01.003
PMCID: PMC3955224  PMID: 24584043
Living donor liver transplantation; Echinococcus alveolaris; Inferior vena cava
16.  Hepatic Artery Reconstruction for Hepatic Artery Thrombosis After Orthotopic Liver Transplantation 
We evaluated the efficacy of reconstruction of the hepatic artery for intraoperative or postoperative thrombosis in orthotopic liver transplantation. Of 37 grafts with artery thrombosis, 13 (35.1%, 6 intraoperative and 7 postoperative) underwent reconstruction of the hepatic artery. The arterial flow was reestablished and maintained in 5 (38.5%) of the 13. Recurrent thrombosis in the other 8 grafts developed 2 to 24 days (mean, 13.8 days) after transplantation. Reconstruction was successful in 50% (4/8) of the adults, compared with only 20% (1/5) of the children. Satisfactory results were obtained when a definitive cause of thrombosis could be identified. We conclude that early recognition and correction of the cause of hepatic artery thrombosis during or after orthotopic liver transplantation, especially in adults, is often a graft-saving and lifesaving procedure worthy of consideration.
PMCID: PMC3016877  PMID: 2331222
17.  Transplantation for Primary Biliary Cirrhosis 
Gastroenterology  1988;94(5 Pt 1):1207-1216.
Primary biliary cirrhosis is a frequent indication for liver transplantation. The purpose of this report is to present our experience with liver transplantation for primary biliary cirrhosis. Attention is given to the causes of hepatic dysfunction seen in allografts. In addition, we review the postoperative problems encountered and the quality of life at time of last follow-up in patients with transplants for primary biliary cirrhosis. A total of 97 orthotopic liver transplant procedures were performed in 76 patients with advanced primary biliary cirrhosis at the University of Pittsburgh from March 1980 through September 1985. The transplant operation was relatively easy to perform. The most common technical complications experienced were fragmentation and intramural dissection of the recipient hepatic artery, which required an arterial graft in 20% of the cases. Most of the postoperative mortality occurred in the first 6 mo after transplantation, with an essentially flat actuarial life survival curve from that time point to a projected 5-yr survival of 66%. Common causes of death included rejection and primary graft nonfunction. Thirteen of the 76 patients had some hepatic dysfunction at the time of the last follow-up, although none were jaundiced. Recurrence of primary biliary cirrhosis could not be demonstrated in any of the patients. Antimitochondrial antibody was detected in the serum of almost all of the patients studied postoperatively for it. Most important, almost all of the 52 surviving patients have been rehabilitated socially and vocationally.
PMCID: PMC3095835  PMID: 3280389
18.  Donor Safety in Live-Related Liver Transplantation 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2011;74(1):118-126.
Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), since its advent in late 1980’s and early 1990’s, has rapidly increased especially in countries like Japan, Korea and India where cadaveric programmes are not as well established as in the western world. The main advantage of LDLT is the availability of an organ in the elective setting in the course of a progressive liver disease. This is most applicable in patients with Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular carcinoma. LDLT, from the donor’s perspective does carry a risk of not only morbidity but mortality. To date the surgical mortality risk is estimated at 0.1% for left lateral donation and 0.5% for right liver donation. Donor mortality has been reported from various centres in India. There are reports of complications like Hepatic artery thrombosis, portal vein thrombosis and especially biliary leaks and strictures occurring at a significantly increased frequency after living as compared to deceased donor liver transplantation. The key to reduce donor morbidity and mortality is meticulous donor selection and thorough donor work up. In the present study we will analyse the factors that contributed to donor mortality and morbidity and prepare a detailed work up plan, intraoperative and post-operative strategy to reduce donor morbidity and mortality.
doi:10.1007/s12262-011-0385-4
PMCID: PMC3259172  PMID: 23372315
Live-related liver transplant; Donor safety; Donor mortality; Donor morbidity
19.  Management of bleeding from pseudoaneurysms following pancreaticoduodenectomy 
AIM: To review the clinical course and the management of pseudoaneurysms post-pancreaticoduodenectomy.
METHODS: Medical records of 907 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomies from January 1995 to May 2007 were evaluated retrospectively. The clinical course, management strategy, and outcome of ruptured pseudoaneurysms cases were analyzed.
RESULTS: Twenty-seven (3.0%) of 907 cases had post-operative hemorrhage from ruptured pseudoaneurysms. Pancreatic fistula was evident in 12 (44%) cases. Sentinel bleeding appeared in 21 (77.8%) cases. Of the 27 cases, 11 (41%) cases demonstrated bleeding pseudoaneurysm of the ligated gastroduodenal artery, 8 (30%) of the right, proper, common hepatic artery, 2 (7%) of the right gastric artery, and 4 (15%) of the peripancreatic arteries. The remaining two patients died due to sudden-onset massive hemorrhage and pseudoaneurysm rupture was suspected. Emergent operation was performed on 2 cases directly without angiography. Angiography was attempted in 23 cases. Eighteen (78.2%) cases succeeded to hemostasis; the five failed cases were explored. After embolization of the hepatic artery, five cases developed liver abscesses or infarction and a single case of hepatic failure expired. Gastroduodenal artery embolization with common hepatic artery stent insertion was performed to enhance hepatic artery flow in a single case and was successfully controlled.
CONCLUSION: Bleeding pseudoaneurysms are among the most serious and fatal complications following pancreaticoduodenectomy. Diagnostic angiography has been preferred over endoscopy and is rapidly becoming the standard therapeutic treatment for bleeding pseudoaneurysms.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i10.1239
PMCID: PMC2839177  PMID: 20222168
Pseudoaneurysm; Pseudoaneurysm; Angiography; Embolization; Stent graft
20.  Laparoscopic-Assisted Recipient Nephrectomy and Recipient Kidney Procurement during Orthotopic Living-Related Kidney Transplantation 
Advanced atherosclerosis or thrombosis of iliac vessels can constitute an absolute contraindication for heterotopic kidney transplantation. We report the case of a 42-year-old women with end-stage renal disease due to lupus nephritis and a history of bilateral thrombosis of iliac arteries caused by antiphospholipid antibodies. Occlusion had been treated by the bilateral placement of wall stents which precluded vascular anastomosis. The patient was transplanted with a right kidney procured by laparoscopic nephrectomy from her HLA semi-identical sister. The recipient had left nephrectomy after laparoscopical transperitoneal dissection. The donor kidney was orthotopically transplanted with end-to-end anastomosis of graft vessels to native renal vessels and of the graft and native ureter. Although, the patient received full anticoagulation because of a cardiac valve and antiphospholipid antibodies, she had no postoperative complication in spite of a short period of delayed graft function. Serum creatinine levels three months after transplantation were at 1.0 mg/dl. Our case documents that orthotopical transplantation of laparoscopically procured living donor kidneys at the site of recipient nephrectomy is a feasible procedure in patients with surgical contraindication of standard heterotopic kidney transplantation.
doi:10.1155/2011/153493
PMCID: PMC3504289  PMID: 23213597
21.  Pancreatic complications following orthotopic liver transplantation 
Clinical transplantation  1992;6(2):126-130.
During fiscal year 1986, 40 out of 196 patients (21%) developed hyperamylasemia following orthotopic liver transplantation. The placement of a retropancreatic aortohepatic arterial interposition graft was associated with hyperamylasemia (p < 0.025). Eight patients (20%) developed clinically significant acute pancreatitis and its sequelae; abscesses and pseudocysts each in 2. Pancreatitis was attributable to the retropancreatic arterial graft in 4, viral infection in 2 and obstruction of the pancreatic duct in 1 patient. All 4 patients with arterial graft-related pancreatitis exhibited poor graft function immediately postoperatively, of whom 2 required retransplantation – both of which failed to function. Five patients died (63%); 2 from primary graft non-function, 2 due to sepsis and 1 from systemic cytomegalovirus infection. We conclude that acute pancreatitis after liver transplantation is a life-threatening complication which is often associated with graft non-function.
PMCID: PMC3002138  PMID: 21170279
liver transplantation; pancreatitis; pseudocyst; abscess
22.  Glucose Metabolism during Liver Transplantation in Dogs 
Anesthesia and analgesia  1987;66(1):76-80.
Arterial and hepatic venous blood levels of glucose were studied in 12 dogs during orthotopic liver transplantation performed under ketamine anesthesia without exogenous glucose administration. During the early part of surgery, arterial blood glucose levels were stable: 161 ± 12 mg/dl (mean ± SEM) after laparotomy and 183 ± 16 Mg/dl 5 min before the anhepatic stage. During the anhepatic stage, arterial blood glucose levels decreased progressively to 135 ± 9 and 88 ± 8 mg/dl, 5 min in the anhepatic stage and 5 min before reperfusion of the graft liver, respectively (P < 0.05). Reperfusion of the graft liver resulted in an increase in arterial glucose levels to 206 ± 17 and 240 ± 24 Mg/dl, 5 and 30 min after reperfusion, respectively (P < 0.05). Hepatic venous blood glucose level increased after reperfusion (405 ± 37 and 346 ± 41 mg/dl, 5 and 30 min after reperfusion, respectively) and Were significantly higher than in arterial blood (P < 0.05). Arterial plasma insulin, measured in five animals, did not change significantly during the procedure, whereas plasma glucagon levels, stable during the preanhepatic and anhepatic stages, increased steadily after reperfusion of the graft liver, from 66.1 ± 14.2 to 108.4 ± 38.1 pg/ml (P < 0.05). This study shows that in dogs with ketamine anesthesia mild hypoglycemia occurs during the anhepatic stage of liver transplantation without exogenous glucose administration followed by hyperglycemia on reperfusion of the graft liver, possibly secondary to the release of glucose from the donor liver.
PMCID: PMC2955426  PMID: 3099601
ANESTHESIA—liver transplantation; LIVER—transplantation; METABOLISM—glucose
23.  Long-term outcomes of liver transplant patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection and end-stage-liver-disease: single center experience 
Objective
Orthotopic-liver-transplantation (OLT) in patients with Human-Immunodeficiency-Virus infection (HIV) and end-stage-liver-disease (ESDL) is rarely reported. The purpose of this study is to describe our institutional experience on OLT for HIV positive patients.
Material and methods
This is a retrospective study of all HIV-infected patients who underwent OLT at the University Hospital of Essen, from January 1996 to December 2009. Age, sex, HIV transmission-way, CDC-stage, etiology of ESDL, concomitant liver disease, last CD4cell count and HIV-viral load prior to OLT were collected and analysed. Standard calcineurin-inhibitors-based immunosuppression was applied. All patients received anti-fungal and anti-pneumocystis carinii pneumonia prophylaxis post-OLT.
Results
Eight transplanted HIV-infected patients with a median age of 46 years (range 35-61 years) were included. OLT indications were HCV (n = 5), HBV (n = 2), HCV/HBV/HDV-related cirrhosis (n = 1) and acute liver-failure (n = 1). At OLT, CD4 cell-counts ranged from 113-621 cells/μl, and HIV viral-loads from < 50-175,000 copies/ml. Seven of eight patients were exposed to HAART before OLT. Patients were followed-up between 1-145 months. Five died 1, 3, 10, 31 and 34 months after OLT due to sepsis and graftfailure respectively. Graft-failure causes were recurrent hepatic-artery thrombosis, HCV-associated hepatitis, and chemotherapy-induced liver damage due to Hodgkin-disease. One survivor is relisted for OLT due to recurrent chronic HCV-disease but non-progredient HIV-infection 145 months post-OLT. Two other survivors show stable liver function and non-progredient HIV-disease under HAART 21 and 58 months post-OLT.
Conclusions
OLT in HIV-infected patients and ESLD is an acceptable therapeutic option in selected patients. Long-term survival can be achieved without HIV disease-progression under antiretroviral therapy and management of the viral hepatitis co-infection.
doi:10.1186/2047-783X-16-8-342
PMCID: PMC3351986  PMID: 21813377
Human immunodeficiency virus; HIV infection; hepatocellular carcinoma; liver transplantation; liver cirrhosis; highly active antiretroviral therapy; HAART; hepatitis C; HCV infection
24.  The use of liver grafts infested with Clonorchis sinensis for orthotopic liver transplantation. 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1996;72(849):427-428.
In the Orient, millions are known to have Clonorchis sinensis (biliary trematodiasis) infestation. When these infested livers become available as donor organs, there are potentially serious implications that the transplant team would need to consider. We report the use of two such infested livers, one from a cadaveric donor and the other from a live related donor, for orthotopic liver transplantation. The parasite was encountered not only during organ procurement, but also caused early postoperative blockage of the hepatico-jejunostomy splintage tube and cessation of bile flow in the second recipient. Upon follow-up for four and two years, respectively, no other ill effect has been observed in either patient. Repeated examination of stool for ova of C sinensis in both patients during follow-up visits had been negative, indicating that all the parasites probably had been killed by the cold perfusion. In view of the severe shortage of liver grafts and the lack of serious morbidity associated with the use of these infested livers, we have adopted the policy to include these livers for future transplantation. Special considerations and precautions are, however, required during the perioperative period and on long-term follow-up.
PMCID: PMC2398526  PMID: 8935604
25.  Reuse of a Pediatric Liver Graft: A Case Report 
We report the reuse of a liver graft after brain death of the first recipient. The liver donor was an 8-year-old male who died as a result of head injury. The graft was implanted first to a 4-year-old girl for fulminant hepatic failure. Unfortunately she developed progressive coma and brain death on fifth day of transplantation. The graft functions were normal, and reuse of the liver graft was planned. After informed consent, the graft was transplanted to a 31-year-old female recipient who has hepatocellular carcinoma with an underlying cryptogenic liver cirrhosis. The patient was discharged to home on 9th day after an uneventful postoperative period. However, she was readmitted to hospital with an acute abdominal pain 30 days after the operation. Hepatic artery thrombosis was diagnosed, and the attempt to open the artery by interventional radiology was unsuccessful. She died of sepsis and multiorgan failure on 37th posttransplant day.
doi:10.1155/2012/350817
PMCID: PMC3513722  PMID: 23227415

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