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1.  Hepatic flow optimization in full right split liver transplantation 
Split liver transplantation for two adults offers a valuable opportunity to expand the donor pool for adult recipients. However, its application is mainly hampered by the physiological limits of these partial grafts. Small for size syndrome is a major concern during transplantation with partial graft and different techniques have been developed in living donor liver transplantation to prevent the graft dysfunction. Herein, we report the first application of synergic approaches to optimise the hepatic hemodynamic in a split liver graft for two adults. A Caucasian woman underwent liver transplantation for alcoholic cirrhosis (MELD 21) with a full right liver graft (S5-S8) without middle hepatic vein. Minor and accessory inferior hepatic veins were preserved by splitting the vena cava; V5 and V8 were anastomosed with a donor venous iliac patch. After implantation, a 16G catheter was advanced in the main portal trunk. Inflow modulation was achieved by splenic artery ligation. Intraportal infusion of PGE1 was started intraoperatively and discontinued after 5 d. Graft function was immediate with normalization of liver test after 7 d. Nineteen months after transplantation, liver function is normal and graft volume is 110% of the recipient standard liver volume. Optimisation of the venous outflow, inflow modulation and intraportal infusion of PGE1 may represent a valuable synergic strategy to prevent the graft dysfunction and it may increase the safety of split liver graft for two adults.
doi:10.4240/wjgs.v3.i7.110
PMCID: PMC3158887  PMID: 21860700
Transplantation; Split liver; Portal flow; Ultrasound; Prostaglandin
2.  Variations in the origin of middle hepatic artery: a cadaveric study and implications for living donor liver transplantation 
Anatomy & Cell Biology  2014;47(3):188-195.
Living donor liver transplantation has been associated with severe vascular complications like hepatic artery thrombosis, which commonly involves the hepatic segment 4. Most authors have defined the artery to this segment as the middle hepatic artery. The present study was undertaken to characterize the origin of middle hepatic artery and classify the variations observed in cadaveric livers, and also to analyze the significance (if any) of the findings in relation to living donor liver transplantation. The study was conducted on 125 adult livers, without macroscopic abnormalities, retrieved from human cadavers (age, 55-78 years; male, 77; female, 48) obtained from clinical wards. The hepatic arterial system was exposed, the origin of the middle hepatic artery was identified in each liver specimen and the variations observed in its origin were noted across all the specimen. Six types of hepatic arterial configurations were observed based on variations in the origin of middle hepatic artery, taking into consideration the presence of accessory hepatic arteries. It was noted in 19 (15.2%) livers that in the presence of an accessory left hepatic artery, the middle hepatic artery arose as a sub-branch of the right hepatic artery. Presence of the above hepatic arterial configuration in the donor could possibly be associated with an increased risk of intra-operative injury to the middle hepatic artery during right/left lobe living donor liver transplantation and this may subsequently lead to serious post-operative vascular complications like hepatic artery thrombosis.
doi:10.5115/acb.2014.47.3.188
PMCID: PMC4178194  PMID: 25276478
Quadrate lobe; Middle hepatic artery; Embryological origin; Living donor liver transplantation; Hepatic artery thrombosis
3.  Segmental Liver Transplantation From Living Donors Report of the Technique and Preliminary Results in Dogs  
HPB Surgery  1990;2(3):189-204.
A technique of orthotopic liver transplantation using a segmental graft from living donors was developed in the dog. Male mongrel dogs weighing 25–30 kg were used as donors and 10–15 kg as recipients. The donor operation consists of harvesting the left lobe of the liver (left medial and left lateral segments) with the left branches of the portal vein, hepatic artery and bile duct, and the left hepatic vein. The grafts are perfused in situ through the left portal branch to prevent warm ischemia. The recipient operation consists of two phases: 1total hepatectomy with preservation of the inferior vena cava using total vascular exclusion of the liver and veno-venous bypass, 2implantation of the graft in the orthotopic position with anastomosis of the left hepatic vein to the inferior vena cava and portal, arterial and biliary reconstruction. Preliminary experiments consisted of four autologous left lobe transplants and nine non survival allogenic left lobe transplants. Ten survival experiments were conducted. There were no intraoperative deaths in the donors and none required transfusions. One donor died of sepsis, but all the other donor dogs survived without complication. Among the 10 grafts harvested, one was not used because of insufficient bile duct and artery. Two recipients died intraoperatively of air embolus and cardiac arrest at the time of reperfusion. Three dogs survived, two for 24 hours and one for 48 hours. They were awake and alert a few hours after surgery, but eventually died of pulmonary edema in 2 cases and of an unknown reason in the other. Four dogs died 2–12 hours postoperatively as a result of hemorrhage for the graft's transected surface. An outflow block after reperfusion was deemed to be the cause of hemorrhage in these cases. On histologic examination of the grafts, there were no signs of ischemic necrosis or preservation damage.
This study demonstrates the technical feasibility of living hepatic allograft donation. It shows that it is possible, in the dog, to safely harvest non ischemic segmental grafts with adequate pedicles without altering the vascularization and the biliary drainage of the remaining liver. We propose that this technique is applicable to human anatomy.
doi:10.1155/1990/74721
PMCID: PMC2423581  PMID: 2278916
4.  Right Gastroepiploic Artery as an Alternative for Arterial Reconstruction in Living Donor Liver Transplantation 
Case Reports in Hepatology  2014;2014:616251.
Background. An adequate blood flow is directly related to graft survival in living donor liver transplantation. However, in some cases, unfavorable conditions prevent the use of the hepatic artery for arterial reconstruction. Herein, we report a case in which the recipient right gastroepiploic artery was used as an option for arterial reconstruction in adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation. Case Report. A 62-year-old woman, with cirrhosis due to hepatitis B associated with hepatocellular carcinoma, was submitted to living donor liver transplantation. During surgery, thrombosis of the hepatic artery with intimal dissection until the celiac trunk was observed, which precluded its use in arterial reconstruction. We decided to use the right gastroepiploic artery for arterial revascularization of the liver graft. Despite the discrepancy in size between donor hepatic artery and recipient right gastroepiploic artery, anastomosis was performed successfully. Conclusions. The use of the right gastroepiploic artery as an alternative for arterial revascularization of the liver graft in living donor liver transplantation should always be considered when the hepatic artery of the recipient cannot be used. For performing this type of procedure, familiarity with microsurgical techniques by the surgical team is necessary.
doi:10.1155/2014/616251
PMCID: PMC4247938  PMID: 25478255
5.  URGENT REVASCULARIZATION OF LIVER ALLOGRAFTS AFTER EARLY HEPATIC ARTERY THROMBOSIS1 
Transplantation  1996;62(11):1584-1587.
Between April 1993 and May 1995, 17 adult orthotopic liver transplant recipients were found to have early hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) after a median of 7 postoperative days (mean, 11). The HAT was diagnosed in all cases by duplex ultrasound. Thrombectomy was performed with urgent revascularization (UR), using an interposition arterial graft procured from the cadaveric liver donor, and arterial patency was verified with intraoperative angiography. In seven cases, intra-arterial urokinase was administered after the thrombectomy. Fifteen (88%) of the livers remained arterialized throughout the follow-up period (median, 15 months); the remaining two patients developed recurrent HAT after 6 and 8 months. Although there was a high rate of subsequent complications, 11 (65%) of the patients are alive without retransplantation, with a mean follow-up of 17 months. Despite having a patent hepatic artery, the remaining six patients (35%) died from infectious complications that usually were present before the UR. Thus, UR effectively restored arterial inflow in 88% of the patients with early HAT. The ultimate outcome was determined mainly by the presence of intra-abdominal complications at the time of UR. In conclusion, UR, rather than retransplantation, should be considered the prime treatment option for patients who develop early posttransplant HAT.
PMCID: PMC3018871  PMID: 8970612
6.  Ultrasound of living donor liver transplantation 
Liver transplantation is the most effective treatment for various end-stage liver diseases. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) was first developed in Asia due to the severe lack of cadaveric graft in this region. The Liver Transplant Service at Queen Mary Hospital (QMH), Hong Kong, has pioneered the application of LDLT to patients using both left lobe and right lobe grafts. The QMH liver transplant programme is the largest of its kind in China and Southeast Asia.
Ultrasound (US) is often employed in the initial work-up of potential donor and recipient of LDLT. It is the imaging technique of choice to assess the early and late complications of LDLT, with colour Doppler ultrasound being the most useful in the evaluation of post-LDLT vascular complications. The use of ultrasound contrast agents improves the visualisation of the hepatic vasculature, possibly delaying or removing the need for more invasive investigations. Intra-operative ultrasound facilitates the determination of the resection plane during donor hepactectomy.
Computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used as the single imaging modality in the evaluation of LDLT candidates.
Ultrasound is most useful as the initial screening test in detecting hepatic parenchymal abnormalities, while CT or MRI is the modality of choice in the demonstration of vascular and biliary anatomy of the potential liver donor.
Biliary complications are more common in LDLT than in cadaveric liver transplantation. The ductal dilatation, resulting from biliary stricture, is clearly demonstrated by ultrasound. Bilomas can be aspirated under ultrasound guidance to confirm the diagnosis and to promote healing. Perihepatic fluid collections and abscesses are also common after LDLT. Intra-hepatic collections may represent seromas, haematomas or infarction. Ultrasound is a sensitive means of detecting these collections and can be employed to guide drainage in suitable patients.
Transplant-related malignancies include recurrent neoplasia and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). Ultrasound can be used to screen for recurrent disease and to detect PTLD in the transplanted liver.
doi:10.2349/biij.2.2.e17
PMCID: PMC3097613  PMID: 21614227
Ultrasound; living donor; liver; transplantation
7.  Hepatic artery reconstruction with gonodal vein interposition: First case in patients receiving liver from the living donor 
Summary
Background:
Technical problems such as graft and vascular size are more common in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) than in deceased donor liver transplantation. It is usually possible to get enough length of vessels on the graft, but the opposite situation is devastating. Finding the suitable vessel graft is life-saving in those situations. In this paper we present a case of gonodal vein interpositioning for hepatic artery reconstruction in an LDLT recipient. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case to be reported in the literature.
Case Report:
A 36-year-old man with cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis B underwent LDLT. Within minutes after completing the anastomosis, the artery was thrombosed. Disrupting the anastomosis showed subintimal dissection of the recipient right hepatic artery extending to the gastro-duodenal junction. A 4 cm segment of gonodal vein, which matched the diameter of the recipient hepatic artery, was used as a bridge. The patient’s postoperative recovery was excellent and Doppler ultrasonography demonstrated sufficient hepatic arterial blood flow. At long-term follow-up (18th months), the patient’s graft is still functioning.
Conclusions:
Gonodal vein interposition for hepatic artery reconstruction in living donor liver transplantation has not been previously reported. In light of the urgency of this situation, we believe it can be a life-saving reconstruction.
doi:10.12659/AJCR.883331
PMCID: PMC3616174  PMID: 23569527
liver transplantation; hepatic artery; gonodal vein
8.  Salvage dual graft living donor liver transplantation after major hepatectomy 
Salvage living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) after major hepatectomy has been considered a challenging procedure due to operative complexity. We report a successful case of salvage dual graft LDLT after right hepatectomy. A 48-year-old male was transferred to Daegu Catholic University Medical Center because of duodenal variceal bleeding. He underwent right hepatectomy due to hepatocellular carcinoma four years prior. We performed LDLT with dual graft from his wife and sister. During operation, portal vein anastomosis of the right lobe graft was performed using an interposing cadaveric iliac vein graft and the right gastroepiploic artery was anastomosed to the hepatic artery of the left lobe graft. Adequate graft inflow was demonstrated by postoperative imaging studies. He has been doing well with normal graft function for 31 months. Salvage dual graft LDLT could be undertaken successfully in patients with prior major hepatectomy under accurate preoperative planning and proper surgical techniques.
doi:10.4174/astr.2014.87.2.108
PMCID: PMC4127898  PMID: 25114892
Salvage therapy; Liver transplantation; Living donors; Dual; Hepatectomy
9.  Fenestrated Endovascular Grafts for the Repair of Juxtarenal Aortic Aneurysms 
Executive Summary
Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) allows the exclusion of the dilated aneurismal segment of the aorta from the systematic circulation. The procedure requires, however, that the endograft extends to the healthy parts of the aorta above and below the aneurysm, yet the neck of a juxtarenal aortic aneurysm (JRA) is too short for a standard endovascular repair. Fenestrated endovascular aortic repair (f—EVAR) provides a solution to overcome this problem by enabling the continuation of blood flow to the renal and visceral arteries through holes or ‘fenestrations’ in the graft. These fenestrations are designed to match the ostial diameter of the renal and visceral arteries.
There are three varieties fenestration, small, large, and scallop, and their location needs to be customized to fit the anatomy of the patient. If the device is not properly designed, if the alignment is inaccurate, or if the catheterization of the visceral arteries is not possible, the procedure may fail. In such cases, conversion to open surgery may become the only option as fenestrated endografts are not retrievable.
It is recommended that a stent be placed within each small fenestration to the target artery to prevent shuttering of the artery or occlusion. Many authors have noted an increased risk of vessel occlusion in unstented fenestrations and scallops.
Once placed in a patient, life-long follow-up at regular intervals is necessary to ensure the graft remains in its intended location, and that the components have adequate overlap. Should the need arise, routine follow-up allows the performance of timely and appropriate intervention through detection of events that could impact the long-term outcomes.
Alternative Technology
The technique of fenestrated endovascular grafting is still in evolution and few studies have been with published mid-term outcome data. As the technique become more common in vascular surgery practices, it will be important to determine if it can provide better outcomes than open surgical repair (OSR).
In an OSR approach, aortic clamping above one or both renal arteries, or above the visceral arteries, is required. The higher the level of aortic clamping, the greater the risk of cardiac stress and renal or visceral ischemia. During suprarenal or supraceliac aortic clamping, strain-induced myocardial ischemia may also occur due to concomitant rise in cardiac afterload and a decrease in cardiac output. Reports indicate that 6% of patients undergoing surgical repair develop myocardial infarction. The ideal level of clamp location remains controversial with conflicting views having been reported.
Method
A search of electronic databases (OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment [INAHTA] database was undertaken to identify evidence published from January 1, 2004 to December 19, 2008. The search was limited to English-language articles and human studies. The automatic search alerts were received and reviewed up to March 23, 2009.
The literature search and automatic search update identified 320 citations, of which 13 met inclusion/exclusion criteria. One comparative study presented at an international seminar, five single-arm studies on f—EVAR, and 7 studies on OSR (one prospective and six retrospective) were considered for this analysis.
To grade the strength of the body of evidence, the grading system formulated by the GRADE working group and adopted by MAS, was applied. The GRADE system classifies evidence quality as high (Grade A), moderate (Grade B), or low (Grade C) according to four key elements: study design, study quality, consistency across studies, and directness.
A summary of the characteristics of the f—EVAR and OSR studies found through the literature search is shown in Table ES-1.
Patient Characteristics: f–EVAR Studies versus OSR Studies
JRA, Juxtarenal aortic aneurysm; SRA, Suprarenal aortic aneurysm; TAA, Thoracic aortic aneurysm
Mortality Outcomes
The pooled estimate for 30-day mortality was 1.8% among the f—EVAR studies and 3.1% among the OSR studies that reported data for the repair of JRA separately. The pooled estimate for late mortality was 12.8% among the f—EVAR studies and 23.7% among the OSR studies that reported data for JRA separately.
Visceral Artery Events Reported in f—EVAR Studies
Renal Events during f-EVAR
A total of three main renal arteries and two accessory renal arteries became occluded during the procedure. These were all due to technical issues, except one accessory renal artery in which the artery was intentionally covered. One patient required open surgery following the procedure.
Renal Events During the follow-up
A total of 12 renal arteries (12 patients) were found to be occluded during follow-up. In two patients, the same side accessory renal artery was also occluded. Four (1.5%) patients lost one kidney and five (2.3%) patients underwent dialysis, three (1.4%) of which became permanent.
A total of 16 cases of renal artery stenosis (16 patients) occurred during follow-up. Eight of these were treated and eight were observed. Segmental renal infarcts were found in six patients but renal function was not impaired.
Mesenteric Events during f-EVAR
Three mesenteric events occurred during the f—EVAR procedures resulting in two deaths. One patient developed bowel ischemia due to embolization of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA); this patient died 13 days after the procedure from multiorgan failure. One patient died eights days after the procedure from mesenteric ischemia and bowel perforation. The third SMA event occurred during surgery with subsequent occlusion in early follow-up.
Mesenteric Events during Follow-up
During follow-up, five (1.8%) SMA occlusions/partial occlusions and one SMA stenosis were noted. Three of the five patients with SMA occlusion/partial occlusion remained asymptomatic and no further intervention was necessary. One patient underwent SMA bypass surgery and in two patients, the problem solved by SMA stenting. A summary of the outcomes reported in the f—EVAR and OSR studies is shown in Table ES-2.
Summary of Outcomes: Fenestrated Endovascular Graft Versus Open Surgical Repair for Treatment of Juxtarenal Aortic Aneurysm
Summary
Short- and medium-term results (up to 2 years) of f—EVAR for the repair of JRA showed that outcomes in f—EVAR series compare favourably with the figures for the OSR series; however, uncertainty remains regarding the long-term results. The following observations are based on low quality evidence.
F—EVAR has lower 30-day mortality than OSR (1.8% vs. 3.1%) and a lower late-mortality over the period of time that patients have been followed (12.8% vs. 23.7%).
There is a potential for the loss of target vessels during or after f—EVAR procedures. Loss of a target vessel may lead to loss of its respective end organ. The risk associated with this technique is mainly due to branch vessel ischemia or occlusion (primarily among the renal arteries and SMA). Ischemia or occlusion of these arteries can occur during surgery due to technical failure and/or embolization or it may occur during follow-up due to graft complications such as graft migration, component separation, or arterial thrombosis. The risk of kidney loss in this series of f—EVAR studies was 1.5% and the risk of mesenteric ischemia was 3.3%. In the OSR studies, the risk of developing renal insufficiency was 14.4% and the risk of mesenteric ischemia was 2.9%.
F—EVAR has a lower rate of postoperative cardiac and pulmonary complications.
Endoleak occurs in 22.5% of patients undergoing f—EVAR (all types) and about 8% of these require treatment. Most of the interventions performed to treat such endoleaks conducted using a minimally invasive approach.
Due to the complexity of the technique, patients must be appropriately selected for f—EVAR, the procedure performed by highly experienced operators, and in centers with advanced, high-resolution imaging systems to minimize the risk of complications.
Graft fenestrations have to be custom designed for each patient to fit and match the anatomy of their visceral arteries. Planning and sizing thus requires scrutiny of the target vessels with a high degree precision. This is important not only to prevent end organ ischemia and infarction, but to avoid prolonging procedures and subsequent adverse outcomes.
Assuming the average cost range of FEVAR procedure is $24,395-$30,070 as per hospital data and assuming the maximum number of annual cases in Ontario is 116, the average estimated cost impact range to the province for FEVAR procedures is $2.83M-$3.49M annually.
PMCID: PMC3377528  PMID: 23074534
10.  Extrahepatic collaterals and liver damage in embolotherapy for ruptured hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm following hepatobiliary pancreatic surgery 
AIM: To evaluate the effects of extrahepatic collaterals to the liver on liver damage and patient outcome after embolotherapy for the ruptured hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm following hepatobiliary pancreatic surgery.
METHODS: We reviewed 9 patients who underwent transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for the ruptured hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm following major hepatobiliary pancreatic surgery between June 1992 and April 2006. We paid special attention to the extrahepatic arterial collaterals to the liver which may affect post-TAE liver damage and patient outcome.
RESULTS: The underlying diseases were all malignancies, and the surgical procedures included hepatopancreatoduodenectomy in 2 patients, hepatic resection with removal of the bile duct in 5, and pancreaticoduodenectomy in 2. A total of 11 pseudoaneurysm developed: 4 in the common hepatic artery, 4 in the proper hepatic artery, and 3 in the right hepatic artery. Successful hemostasis was accomplished with the initial TAE in all patients, except for 1. Extrahepatic arterial pathways to the liver, including the right inferior phrenic artery, the jejunal branches, and the aberrant left hepatic artery, were identified in 8 of the 9 patients after the completion of TAE. The development of collaterals depended on the extent of liver mobilization during the hepatic resection, the postoperative period, the presence or absence of an aberrant left hepatic artery, and the concomitant arterial stenosis adjacent to the pseudoaneurysm. The liver tolerated TAE without significant consequences when at least one of the collaterals from the inferior phrenic artery or the aberrant left hepatic artery was present. One patient, however, with no extrahepatic collaterals died of liver failure due to total liver necrosis 9 d after TAE.
CONCLUSION: When TAE is performed on ruptured hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm, reduced collateral pathways to the liver created by the primary surgical procedure and a short postoperative interval may lead to an unfavorable outcome.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v13.i3.408
PMCID: PMC4065896  PMID: 17230610
Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm; Transcatheter arterial embolization; Extrahepatic collateral pathways; Liver damage; Hepatobiliary pancreatic surgery
11.  A new rat model of auxiliary partial heterotopic liver transplantation with liver dual arterial blood supply 
Auxiliary partial heterotopic liver transplantation (APHLT) with portal vein arterialization is a valuable procedure to be considered in the treatment of patients with acute liver failure and metabolic liver diseases. The aim of this study was to develop a new rat model of APHLT with liver dual arterial blood supply (LDABS). A total of 20 rats were used. The donor liver was resected, and the celiac trunk was reserved. Left and medial hepatic lobes accounting for 70% of the liver mass were removed en bloc and the suprahepatic caval vein was ligated simultaneously. Thus, 30% of the donor liver was obtained as the graft. Sleeve anastomosis of the graft portal vein and splenic artery were performed after narrowing the portal vein lumen through suturing. The right kidney of the recipient was removed, and sleeve anastomosis was performed between the celiac trunk of the graft and the right renal artery of the recipient. In addition, end-to-end anastomosis was performed between the infrahepatic caval vein of the graft and the right renal vein of the recipient. Following the reperfusion of the graft, the blood flow of the arterialized portal vein was controlled within the physiological range through suturing and narrowing under monitoring with an ultrasonic flowmeter. The bile duct of the graft was implanted into the duodenum of the recipient through an internal stent catheter. A 70% section of the native liver (left and medial hepatic lobes) was resected using bloodless hepatectomy. The mean operative duration was 154.5±16.4 min, and the warm and cold ischemia times of the graft were 8.1±1.1 min and 64.5±6.6 min, respectively. The blood flow of the arterialized portal vein to the graft was 1.8±0.3 ml/min/g liver weight. The success rate of model establishment (waking with post-surgical survival of >24 h) was 70% (7/10). Following successful model establishment, all rats survived 7 days post-surgery (100%; 7/7). The graft was found to be soft in texture and bright red in color following exploratory laparotomy. In conclusion, a new rat model of APHLT with LDABS without stent for vascular reconstruction was developed. This is a feasible and reliable rat model for liver transplantation study.
doi:10.3892/etm.2014.2110
PMCID: PMC4280989  PMID: 25574199
auxiliary partial heterotopic liver transplantation; portal vein arterialization; liver dual arterial blood supply; rat
12.  Establishment of a new pig model for auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation 
AIM: To establish a new pig model for auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation (APOLT).
METHODS: The liver of the donor was removed from its body. The left lobe of the liver was resected in vivo and the right lobe was used as a graft. After the left lateral lobe of the recipient was resected, end-to-side anastomoses of suprahepatic inferior vena cava and portal vein were performed between the donor and recipient livers, respectively. End-to-end anastomoses were made between hepatic artery of graft and splenic artery of the host. Outside drainage was placed in donor common bile duct.
RESULTS: Models of APOLT were established in 5 pigs with a success rate of 80%. Color ultrasound examination showed an increase of blood flow of graft on 5th d compared to the first day after operation. When animals were killed on the 5th d after operation, thrombosis of hepatic vein (HV) and portal vein (PV) were not found. Histopathological examination of liver samples revealed evidence of damage with mild steatosis and sporadic necrotic hepatocytes and focal hepatic lobules structure disorganized in graft. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was mild in portal or central vein area. Hematologic laboratory values and blood chemical findings revealed that compared with group A (before transplantation), mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), buffer base (BB), standard bicarbonate (SB) and K+ in group B (after portal vein was clamped) decreased (P<0.01). After reperfusion of the graft, MAP, CVP and K+ restored gradually.
CONCLUSION: Significant decrease of congestion in portal vein and shortened blocking time were obtained because of the application of in vitro veno-venous bypass during complete vascular clamping. This new procedure, with such advantages as simple vessel processing, quality anastomosis, less postoperative hemorrhage and higher success rate, effectively prevents ischemia reperfusion injury of the host liver and deserves to be spread.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v11.i6.917
PMCID: PMC4250610  PMID: 15682494
Auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation; Model pig
13.  EXPERIENCE WITH LIVER AND KIDNEY ALLOGRAFTS FROM NON-HEART-BEATING DONORS1 
Transplantation  1995;59(2):197-203.
Given the shortage of cadaveric organs, we began a study utilizing NHBD for OLTx and KTx. There were 24 NHBD between January 1989 and September 1993. These donors were divided into 2 groups: uncontrolled NHBD (G1) (n=14) were patients whose organs were recovered following a period of CPR; and controlled NHBD (G2) (n=10) were patients whose organs were procured after sustaining cardiopulmonary arrest (CA) following extubation in an operating room setting. Eight kidneys and 5 livers were discarded because of macroscopic or biopsy findings. In G1, 22/27 (81.5%) kidneys were transplanted; 14/22 (64%) developed ATN; 20/22 (95%) recipients were off dialysis at the time of discharge. With a mean follow-up of 32.7± 21.1 months, sixteen (73%) kidneys are still functioning, with a mean serum creatinine of 1.7±0.6 mg/dl. The one-year actuarial patient and graft survivals are 95% and 86%. In G2, 17/20 (85%) kidneys were transplanted; 13/17 (76%) kidneys experienced ATN. All patients were off dialysis by the time of discharge. With a mean follow-up of 17.6±15.4 months, twelve (70%) kidneys are still functioning, with a mean serum creatinine of 2.5±2.1 mg/dl. The one-year actuarial patient and graft survivals are 94% and 82%, respectively. In G1, 6/10 (60%) livers were transplanted; 3/6 (50%) livers functioned, the other 3 patients required ReOLTx in the first week postoperatively because of PNF(n=2) and inadequate portal flow (n=1). Two functioning livers were lost due to HAT (n=1) and CMV hepatitis (n=1). In G2, 6/7 (85.7%) livers were transplanted. All the livers (100%) functioned. 2 patients required ReOLTx for HAT at 0.9 and 1.0 months. Both patients eventually died. One patient with a functioning liver died 2 months post OLTx. The remaining 3 patients are alive and well at 27 months of follow-up. This study shows that the procurement of kidneys from both uncontrolled and controlled NHBD leads to acceptable graft function despite a high incidence of ATN. The function of liver allografts is adequate in the controlled NHBD but suboptimal in the uncontrolled NHBD, with a high rate of PNF.
PMCID: PMC3035834  PMID: 7839441
14.  Ultrasound examination of the liver: Variations in the vascular anatomy 
Journal of Ultrasound  2010;13(2):49-56.
The hepatic vasculature is highly complex. The hepatic artery (a branch of the celiac tripod) and the portal vein (formed by the confluence of the splenic and superior mesenteric veins) provide a dual blood supply while venous drainage is guaranteed by the hepatic veins. There are also numerous anatomic variants that can involve one or more of the system’s three components.
Hepatic artery variants are the least common. Ten types have been identified, including several that are fairly frequent and others that are quite rare, and the variation generally involves the extrahepatic portion of the vessel. Portal vein variants are found in around 20% of the population. They can involve the main portal trunk or segmental branches. Variants of the hepatic veins are the most common. They involve the number and course (supernumerary veins) or the number, course, and openings (accessory veins).
Knowledge of portal vein and hepatic vein variants, which are extremely common, is of prime importance for precise localization of lesions. Hepatic artery variants are equally important for surgical treatment of hepatic disease, especially liver transplantation, where it is essential for preoperative workup and postoperative follow-up of the recipient as well as for assessment of potential donors.
doi:10.1016/j.jus.2010.07.003
PMCID: PMC3553337  PMID: 23396863
Sonography; Liver; Sonography – liver; Hepatic artery; Portal vein; Hepatic veins
15.  Acute liver failure due to concomitant arterial, portal and biliary injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: is transplantation a valid life-saving strategy? A case report 
Background
Combined iatrogenic vascular and biliary injury during cholecystectomy resulting in ischemic hepatic necrosis is a very rare cause of acute liver failure. We describe a patient who developed fulminant liver failure as a result of severe cholestasis and liver gangrene secondary to iatrogenic combine injury or the hepatic pedicle (i.e. hepatic artery, portal vein and bile duct) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Case presentation
A 40-years-old woman underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. During laparoscopy, a severe bleeding at the liver hilum motivated the conversion to open surgery. Many sutures were placed across the parenchyma for bleeding control. After 48 hours, she rapidly deteriorated with encephalopathy, coagulopathy, persistent hypotension and progressive organ dysfunction including acute renal failure requiring hemodialysis and mechanical ventilation. An angiography documented an occlusion of right hepatic artery and right portal vein. In the clinical of acute liver failure secondary to liver gangrene, severe coagulopathy and progressive secondary multi-organ failure, the patient was included in the waiting list for liver transplantation. Two days later, the patient was successfully transplanted with initial adequate liver graft function. However, she developed bilateral pneumonia and severe gastrointestinal bleeding and finally died 24 days after transplantation due to bilateral necrotizing pneumonia.
Conclusion
The occurrence of acute liver failure due to portal triad injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a catastrophic complication. Probably, the indication of liver transplantation as a life-saving strategy in patients with late diagnosis, acute liver failure, severe coagulopathy and progressive secondary multi-organ failure could be considered but only minimizing immunosuppressive regimen to avoid postoperative infections.
doi:10.1186/1754-9493-3-22
PMCID: PMC2751741  PMID: 19754971
16.  Adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation for acute liver failure in China 
AIM: To investigate the long-term outcome of recipients and donors of adult-to-adult living-donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) for acute liver failure (ALF).
METHODS: Between January 2005 and March 2010, 170 living donor liver transplantations were performed at West China Hospital of Sichuan University. All living liver donor was voluntary and provided informed consent. Twenty ALF patients underwent AALDLT for rapid deterioration of liver function. ALF was defined based on the criteria of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, including evidence of coagulation abnormality [international normalized ratio (INR) ≥ 1.5] and degree of mental alteration without pre-existing cirrhosis and with an illness of < 26 wk duration. We reviewed the clinical indications, operative procedure and prognosis of AALDTL performed on patients with ALF and corresponding living donors. The potential factors of recipient with ALF and corresponding donor outcome were respectively investigated using multivariate analysis. Survival rates after operation were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was undertaken to identify the threshold of potential risk factors.
RESULTS: The causes of ALF were hepatitis B (n = 18), drug-induced (n = 1) and indeterminate (n = 1). The score of the model for end-stage liver disease was 37.1 ± 8.6, and the waiting duration of recipients was 5 ± 4 d. The graft types included right lobe (n = 17) and dual graft (n = 3). The mean graft weight was 623.3 ± 111.3 g, which corresponded to graft-to-recipient weight ratio of 0.95% ± 0.14%. The segment Vor VIII hepatic vein was reconstructed in 11 right-lobe grafts. The 1-year and 3-year recipient’s survival and graft survival rates were 65% (13 of 20). Postoperative results of total bilirubin, INR and creatinine showed obvious improvements in the survived patients. However, the creatinine level of the deaths was increased postoperatively and became more aggravated compared with the level of the survived recipients. Multivariate analysis showed that waiting duration was independently correlated with increased mortality (P = 0.014). Furthermore, ROC curve revealed the cut-off value of waiting time was 5 d (P = 0.011, area under the curve = 0.791) for determining the mortality. The short-term creatinine level with different recipient’s waiting duration was described. The recipients with waiting duration ≥ 5 d showed the worse renal function and higher mortality than those with waiting duration < 5 d (66.7% vs 9.1%, P = 0.017). In addition, all donors had no residual morbidity. Furthermore, univariate analysis did not show that short assessment time induced the high morbidity (P = 0.573).
CONCLUSION: Timely AALDLT for patients with ALF greatly improves the recipient survival. However, further systemic review is needed to investigate the optimal treatment strategy for ALF.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i48.7234
PMCID: PMC3544025  PMID: 23326128
Acute liver failure; Adult-to-adult liver donor liver transplantation; Recipient; Donor; Risk factors
17.  Microsurgical reconstruction of hepatic artery in A-A LDLT: 124 consecutive cases without HAT 
AIM: To retrospectively investigate microsurgical hepatic artery (HA) reconstruction and management of hepatic thrombosis in adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (A-A LDLT).
METHODS: From January 2001 to September 2009, 182 recipients with end-stage liver disease underwent A-A LDLT. Ten of these patients received dual grafts. The 157 men and 25 women had an age range of 18 to 68 years (mean age, 42 years). Microsurgical techniques and running sutures with back-wall first techniques were performed in all arterial reconstructions under surgical loupes (3.5 ×) by a group of vascular surgeons. Intimal dissections were resolved by interposition of the great saphenous vein (GSV) between the donor right hepatic artery (RHA) and recipient common HA (3 cases) or abdominal aorta (AA) (2 cases), by interposition of cryopreserved iliac vessels between the donor RHA and recipient AA (2 cases).
RESULTS: In the 58 incipient patients in this series, hepatic arterial thrombosis (HAT) was encountered in 4 patients, and was not observed in 124 consecutive cases (total 192 grafts, major incidence, 2.08%). All cases of HAT were suspected by routine color Doppler ultrasonographic examination and confirmed by contrast-enhanced ultrasound and hepatic angiography. Of these cases of HAT, two occurred on the 1st and 7th d, respectively, following A-A LDLT, and were immediately revascularized with GSV between the graft and recipient AA. HAT in one patient occurred on the 46th postoperative day with no symptoms, and the remaining case of HAT occurred on the 3rd d following A-A LDLT, and was cured by thrombolytic therapy combined with an anticoagulant but died of multiorgan failure on the 36th d after A-A LDLT. No deaths were related to HAT.
CONCLUSION: Applying microsurgical techniques and selecting an appropriate anastomotic artery for HA reconstruction are crucial in reducing the high risk of HAT during A-A LDLT.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i21.2682
PMCID: PMC2880783  PMID: 20518092
Adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation; Hepatic arterial thrombosis; Microsurgical reconstruction
18.  The Results of Vascular and Biliary Variations in Turks Liver Donors: Comparison with Others 
ISRN Surgery  2011;2011:367083.
Objective. To evaluate liver anatomy with a view to access unerring surgery in liver donors. Summary Background Data. Liver transplantation, the unique curative treatment option for end-stage hepatic failure, has become routinely practicable, which was inconceivable in the past. But, the vascular and biliary anatomy of the liver has not been completely disclosed yet. Methods. From 1994 to 2009, we have done a research on 496 liver donors. The data were accumulated and categorized according to the most widely used classification systems. Results. Of 496 liver donors, 393 (79.1%) underwent the right donor hepatectomy, 98 (19.9%) were performed the left lateral segmentectomy, and 5 donors (1%) underwent the left donor hepatectomy surgery. Given the data regarding to 398 liver donors undergone right and left donor hepatectomy, arteries, bile ducts, and portal vein showed classical anatomy in 107 (21.6%) donors. Variations in all three systems were found in 16 donors (3.2%). In the remaining 275 donors (75.2%), anatomical variations were found at either of arterial, biliary, or portal system. Conclusions. Our study could come up to actual estimate in liver anatomy as any of donors have not been removed in our institute due to high hilar dissection technique.
doi:10.5402/2011/367083
PMCID: PMC3197254  PMID: 22084754
19.  Small Bowel Transplant 
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Objective
The Medical Advisory Secretariat undertook a review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of small bowel transplant in the treatment of intestinal failure.
Small Bowel Transplantation
Intestinal failure is the loss of absorptive capacity of the small intestine that results in an inability to meet the nutrient and fluid requirements of the body via the enteral route. Patients with intestinal failure usually receive nutrients intravenously, a procedure known as parenteral nutrition. However, long-term parenteral nutrition is associated with complications including liver failure and loss of venous access due to recurrent infections.
Small bowel transplant is the transplantation of a cadaveric intestinal allograft for the purpose of restoring intestinal function in patients with irreversible intestinal failure. The transplant may involve the small intestine alone (isolated small bowel ISB), the small intestine and the liver (SB-L) when there is irreversible liver failure, or multiple organs including the small bowel (multivisceral MV or cluster). Although living related donor transplant is being investigated at a limited number of centres, cadaveric donors have been used in most small bowel transplants.
The actual transplant procedure takes approximately 12-18 hours. After intestinal transplant, the patient is generally placed on prophylactic antibiotic medication and immunosuppressive regimen that, in the majority of cases, would include tacrolimus, corticosteroids and an induction agent. Close monitoring for infection and rejection are essential for early treatment.
Medical Advisory Secretariat Review
The Medical Advisory Secretariat undertook a review of 35 reports from 9 case series and 1 international registry. Sample size of the individual studies ranged from 9 to 155.
As of May 2001, 651 patients had received small bowel transplant procedures worldwide. According to information from the Canadian Organ Replacement Register, a total of 27 small bowel transplants were performed in Canada from 1988 to 2002.
Patient Outcomes
The experience in small bowel transplant is still limited. International data showed that during the last decade, patient survival and graft survival rates from SBT have improved, mainly because of improved immunosuppression therapy and earlier detection and treatment of infection and rejection. The Intestinal Transplant Registry reported 1-year actuarial patient survival rates of 69% for isolated small bowel transplant, 66% for small bowel-liver transplant, and 63% for multivisceral transplant, and a graft survival rate of 55% for ISB and 63% for SB-L and MV. The range of 1-year patient survival rates reported ranged from 33%-87%. Reported 1-year graft survival rates ranged from 46-71%.
Regression analysis performed by the International Transplant Registry in 1997 indicated that centres that have performed at least 10 small bowel transplants had better patient and graft survival rates than centres that performed less than 10 transplants. However, analysis of the data up to May 2001 suggests that the critical mass of 10 transplants no longer holds true for transplants after 1995, and that good results can be achieved at any multiorgan transplant program with moderate patient volumes.
The largest Centre reported an overall 1-year patient and graft survival rate of 72% and 64% respectively, and 5-year patient and graft survival of 48% and 40% respectively. The overall 1-year patient survival rate reported for Ontario pediatric small bowel transplants was 61% with the highest survival rate of 83% for ISB.
The majority (70% or higher) of surviving small bowel transplant recipients was able to wean from parenteral nutrition and meet all caloric needs enterally. Some may need enteral or parenteral supplementation during periods of illness. Growth and weight gain in children after ISB were reported by two studies while two other studies reported a decrease in growth velocity with no catch-up growth.
The quality of life after SBT was reported to be comparable to that of patients on home enteral nutrition. A study found that while the parents of pediatric SBT recipients reported significant limitations in the physical and psychological well being of the children compared with normal school children, the pediatric SBT recipients themselves reported a quality of life similar to other school children.
Survival was found to be better in transplants performed since 1991. Patient survival was associated with the type of organ transplanted with better survival in isolated small bowel recipients.
Adverse Events
Despite improvement in patient and graft survival rates, small bowel transplant is still associated with significant mortality and morbidity.
Infection with subsequent sepsis is the leading cause of death (51.3%). Bacterial, fungal and viral infections have all been reported. The most common viral infections are cytomegalorvirus (18-40%) and Epstein-Barr virus. The latter often led to ß-cell post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease.
Graft rejection is the second leading cause of death after SBT (10.4%) and is responsible for 57% of graft removal. Acute rejection rates ranged from 51% to 83% in the major programs. Most of the acute rejection episodes were mild and responded to steroids and OKT3. Antilymphocyte therapy was needed in up to 27% of patients. Isolated small bowel allograft and positive lymphocytotoxic cross-match were found to be risk factors for acute rejection.
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease occurred in 21% of SBT recipients and accounted for 7% of post-transplant mortality. The frequency was higher in pediatric recipients (31%) and in adults receiving composite visceral allografts (25%). The allograft itself is often involved in post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. The reported incidence of host versus graft disease varied widely among centers (0% - 14%).
Surgical complications were reported to occur in 85% of SB-L transplants and 25% of ISB transplants. Reoperations were required in 45% - 66% of patients in a large series and the most common reason for reoperation was intra-abdominal abscess.
The median cost of intestinal transplant in the US was reported to be approximately $275,000US (approximately CDN$429,000) per case. A US study concluded that based on the US cost of home parenteral nutrition, small bowel transplant could be cost-effective by the second year after the transplant.
Conclusion
There is evidence that small bowel transplant can prolong the life of some patients with irreversible intestinal failure who can no longer continue to be managed by parenteral nutrition therapy. Both patient survival and graft survival rates have improved with time. However, small bowel transplant is still associated with significant mortality and morbidity. The outcomes are inferior to those of total parenteral nutrition. Evidence suggests that this procedure should only be used when total parenteral nutrition is no longer feasible.
PMCID: PMC3387750  PMID: 23074441
20.  Kidney and liver organ transplantation in persons with human immunodeficiency virus 
Executive Summary
Objective
The objective of this analysis is to determine the effectiveness of solid organ transplantation in persons with end stage organ failure (ESOF) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV+)
Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population
Patients with end stage organ failure who have been unresponsive to other forms of treatment eventually require solid organ transplantation. Similar to persons who are HIV negative (HIV−), persons living with HIV infection (HIV+) are at risk for ESOF from viral (e.g. hepatitis B and C) and non-viral aetiologies (e.g. coronary artery disease, diabetes, hepatocellular carcinoma). Additionally, HIV+ persons also incur risks of ESOF from HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), accelerated liver damage from hepatitis C virus (HCV+), with which an estimated 30% of HIV positive (HIV+) persons are co-infected, and coronary artery disease secondary to antiretroviral therapy. Concerns that the need for post transplant immunosuppression and/or the interaction of immunosuppressive drugs with antiretroviral agents may accelerate the progression of HIV disease, as well as the risk of opportunistic infections post transplantation, have led to uncertainty regarding the overall benefit of transplantation among HIV+ patients. Moreover, the scarcity of donor organs and their use in a population where the clinical benefit of transplantation is uncertain has limited the availability of organ transplantation to persons living with ESOF and HIV.
With the development of highly active anti retroviral therapy (HAART), which has been available in Canada since 1997, there has been improved survival and health-related quality of life for persons living with HIV. HAART can suppress HIV replication, enhance immune function, and slow disease progression. HAART managed persons can now be expected to live longer than those in the pre-HAART era and as a result many will now experience ESOF well before they experience life-threatening conditions related to HIV infection. Given their improved prognosis and the burden of illness they may experience from ESOF, the benefit of solid organ transplantation for HIV+ patients needs to be reassessed.
Evidence-Based Analysis Methods
Research Questions
What are the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of solid organ transplantation in HIV+ persons with ESOF?
Literature Search
A literature search was performed on September 22, 2009 using OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) for studies published from January 1, 1996 to September 22, 2009.
Inclusion Criteria
Systematic review with or without a Meta analysis, RCT, Non-RCT with controls
HIV+ population undergoing solid organ transplantation
HIV+ population managed with HAART therapy
Controls include persons undergoing solid organ transplantation who are i) HIV− ii) HCV+ mono-infected, and iii) HIV+ persons with ESOF not transplanted.
Studies that completed and reported results of a Kaplan-Meier Survival Curve analysis.
Studies with a minimum (mean or medium) follow up of 1-year.
English language citations
Exclusion Criteria
Case reports and case series were excluded form this review.
Outcomes of Interest
i) Risk of Death after transplantation
ii) Death censored graft survival (DCGS)
iii) HIV disease progression defined as the post transplant incidence of:
- opportunistic infections or neoplasms,
- CD4+ T-cell count < 200mm3, and
- any detectable level of plasma HIV viral load.
iv) Acute graft rejection,
v) Return to dialysis,
vi) Recurrence of HCV infection
Summary of Findings
No direct evidence comparing an HIV+ cohort undergoing transplantation with the same not undergoing transplantation (wait list) was found in the literature search.
The results of this review are reported for the following comparison cohorts undergoing transplantation:
i) Kidney Transplantation: HIV+ cohort compared with HIV− cohort
ii) Liver Transplantation: HIV+ cohort compared with HIV− negative cohort
iii) Liver Transplantation: HIV+ HCV+ (co-infected) cohort compared with HCV+ (mono-infected) cohort
Kidney Transplantation: HIV+ vs. HIV−
Based on a pooled HIV+ cohort sample size of 285 patients across four studies, the risk of death after kidney transplantation in an HIV+ cohort does not differ to that of an HIV− cohort [hazard ratio (HR): 0.90; 95% CI: 0.36, 2.23]. The quality of evidence supporting this outcome is very low.
Death censored graft survival was reported in one study with an HIV+ cohort sample size of 100, and was statistically significantly different (p=.03) to that in the HIV− cohort (n=36,492). However, the quality of evidence supporting this outcome was determined to be very low. There was also uncertainty in the rate of return to dialysis after kidney transplantation in both the HIV+ and HIV− groups and the effect, if any, this may have on patient survival. Because of the very low quality evidence rating, the effect of kidney transplantation on HIV-disease progression is uncertain.
The rate of acute graft rejection was determined using the data from one study. There was a nonsignificant difference between the HIV+ and HIV− cohorts (OR 0.13; 95% CI: 0.01, 2.64), although again, because of very low quality evidence there is uncertainty in this estimate of effect.
Liver Transplantation: HIV+ vs. HIV−
Based on a combined HIV+ cohort sample size of 198 patient across five studies, the risk of death after liver transplantation in an HIV+ cohort (with at least 50% of the cohort co-infected with HCV+) is statistically significantly 64% greater compared with an HIV− cohort (HR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.32, 2.02). The quality of evidence supporting this outcome is very low.
Death censored graft survival was reported for an HIV+ cohort in one study (n=11) however the DCGS rate of the contemporaneous control HIV− cohort was not reported. Because of sparse data the quality of evidence supporting this outcome is very low indicating death censored graft survival is uncertain.
Both the CD4+ T-cell count and HIV viral load appear controlled post transplant with an incidence of opportunistic infection of 20.5%. However, the quality of this evidence for these outcomes is very low indicating uncertainty in these effects. Similarly, because of very low quality evidence there is uncertainty in the rate of acute graft rejection among both the HIV+ and HIV− groups
Liver Transplantation: HIV+/HCV+ vs. HCV+
Based on a combined HIV+/HCV+ cohort sample size of 156 from seven studies, the risk of death after liver transplantation is significantly greater (2.8 fold) in a co-infected cohort compared with an HCV+ mono-infected cohort (HR: 2.81; 95% CI: 1.47, 5.37). The quality of evidence supporting this outcome is very low. Death censored graft survival evidence was not available.
Regarding disease progression, based on a combined sample size of 71 persons in the co-infected cohort, the CD4+ T-cell count and HIV viral load appear controlled post transplant; however, again the quality of evidence supporting this outcome is very low. The rate of opportunistic infection in the co-infected cohort was 7.2%. The quality of evidence supporting this estimate is very low, indicating uncertainty in these estimates of effect.
Based on a combined HIV+/HCV+ cohort (n=57) the rate of acute graft rejection does not differ to that of an HCV+ mono-infected cohort (OR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.44, 1.76). Also based on a combined HIV+/HCV+ cohort (n=83), the rate of HCV+ recurrence does not differ to that of an HCV+ mono-infected cohort (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.27, 1.59). In both cases, the quality of the supporting evidence was very low.
Overall, because of very low quality evidence there is uncertainty in the effect of kidney or liver transplantation in HIV+ persons with end stage organ failure compared with those not infected with HIV. Examining the economics of this issue, the cost of kidney and liver transplants in an HIV+ patient population are, on average, 56K and 147K per case, based on both Canadian and American experiences.
PMCID: PMC3377507  PMID: 23074407
21.  Clinical study on safety of adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation in both donors and recipients 
AIM: To investigate the safety of adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (A-A LDLT) in both donors and recipients.
METHODS: From January 2002 to July 2006, 50 cases of A-A LDLT were performed at West China Hospital, Sichuan University, consisting of 47 cases using right lobe graft without middle hepatic vein (MHV), and 3 cases using dual grafts (one case using two left lobe, 2 using one right lobe and one left lobe). The most common diagnoses were hepatitis B liver cirrosis, 30 (60%) cases; and hepatocellular carcinoma, 15 (30%) cases in adult recipients. Among them, 10 cases had the model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) with a score of more than 25. Donor screening consisted of reconstruction of the hepatic blood vessels and biliary system with 3-dimension computed tomography and volumetry of whole liver and right liver volume. Various improved surgical techniques were adopted in the procedures for both donors and recipients.
RESULTS: Forty-nine right lobes and 3 left lobes (2 left lobe grafts for 1 recipient, 1 left lobe graft for 1 recipient who had received right lobe graft donated by relative living donor) were obtained from 52 living donors. The 49 right lobe grafts, without MHV, weighed 400 g-850 g (media 550 g), and the ratio of graft volume to recipient standard liver volume (GV/SLV) ranged from 31.74% to 71.68% (mean 45.35%). All donors’ remnant liver volume was over 35% of the whole liver volume. There was no donor mortality. With a follow-up of 2-52 mo (media 9 mo), among 50 adult recipients, complications occurred in 13 (26%) cases and 4 (8%) died postoperatively within 3 mo. Their 1-year actual survival rate was 92%.
CONCLUSION: When preoperative CT volumetry shows volume of remnant liver is more than 35%, the ratio of right lobe graft to recipients standard liver volume exceeding 40%, A-A LDLT using right lobe graft without MHV should be a very safe procedure for both donors and recipients, otherwise dual grafts liver transplantation should be considered.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v13.i6.955
PMCID: PMC4065937  PMID: 17352031
Adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation; Middle hepatic vein; Dual grafts; Right lobe graft; Standard liver volume; Grafts; Weight; Complication
22.  Living donor liver transplantation with replacement of vena cava for Echinococcus alveolaris: A case report☆ 
INTRODUCTION
There is no medical treatment for alveolar echinococceal disease (AED) of liver till now. Curative surgical resection is optimal treatment but in most advanced cases curative resection can’t be done. Liver transplantation is accepted treatment option for advanced AED. AED in some case invade surrounding tissue especially inferior vena cava (IVC). Advanced AED with invasion to IVC can be treated with deceased liver transplantation. Although living donor liver transplantation is very difficult to perform in patients with advanced AED with resected IVC, it come into consideration, since there is very few cadaveric liver.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
Here we present a case with advanced stage of AED of liver which cause portal hypertension and cholestasis. AED invaded surrounding tissue, right diaphragm, both lobes of liver and retrohepatic part of IVC. Invasion of IVC forced us to make resection of IVC and reconstruction with cryopreserved venous graft to reestablish blood flow. After that a living donor liver transplantation was done.
DISCUSSION
Curative surgery is the first-choice option in all operable patients with AED of liver. Advanced stage of AED like chronic jaundice, liver abscess, sepsis, repeated attacks of cholangitis, portal hypertension, and Budd-Chiari syndrome may be an indication for liver transplantation. In some advanced stage AED during transplantation replacement of retrohepatic part of IVC could be done with artificial vascular graft, cadaveric aortic and caval vein graft.
CONCLUSION
Although living donor liver transplantation with replacement of IVC is a very difficult operation, it should be considered in the management of advanced AED of liver with IVC invasion because of the rarity of deceased liver.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2014.01.003
PMCID: PMC3955224  PMID: 24584043
Living donor liver transplantation; Echinococcus alveolaris; Inferior vena cava
23.  Hepatic venous outflow obstruction after piggyback liver transplantation by an unusual mechanism: Report of a case 
Hepatic venous outflow obstruction after piggyback liver transplantation is a very rare complication. An unusual mechanism aggravating it is reported. A 33-year-old man with end-stage hepatitis B liver cirrhosis underwent a piggyback orthotopic liver transplantation using a full-size cadaveric graft. Two months after transplantation, he developed gross ascites refractory to maximal diuretic therapy. Doppler ultrasound showed patent portal and hepatic veins. Serial computed tomography scans revealed a hypoperfused right posterior segment of the liver which subsequently underwent atrophy. Hepatic venography demonstrated a high-grade stenosis with an element of torsion of venous drainage at the anastomosis. The stenosis was successfully treated with repeated percutaneous balloon angioplasty. The patient remained asymptomatic six months afterwards with complete resolution of ascites and peripheral edema. We postulate that liver allograft segmental hypoperfusion and atrophy may aggravate or result in a hepatic venous outflow problem by the mechanism of torsion effect. Percutaneous balloon angioplasty is a safe and effective treatment modality for anastomotic stenosis.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v12.i33.5416
PMCID: PMC4088219  PMID: 16981282
Hepatic venous outflow obstruction; Piggyback; Liver transplantation; Percutaneous balloon angioplasty
24.  Hepatic Artery Reconstruction for Hepatic Artery Thrombosis After Orthotopic Liver Transplantation 
We evaluated the efficacy of reconstruction of the hepatic artery for intraoperative or postoperative thrombosis in orthotopic liver transplantation. Of 37 grafts with artery thrombosis, 13 (35.1%, 6 intraoperative and 7 postoperative) underwent reconstruction of the hepatic artery. The arterial flow was reestablished and maintained in 5 (38.5%) of the 13. Recurrent thrombosis in the other 8 grafts developed 2 to 24 days (mean, 13.8 days) after transplantation. Reconstruction was successful in 50% (4/8) of the adults, compared with only 20% (1/5) of the children. Satisfactory results were obtained when a definitive cause of thrombosis could be identified. We conclude that early recognition and correction of the cause of hepatic artery thrombosis during or after orthotopic liver transplantation, especially in adults, is often a graft-saving and lifesaving procedure worthy of consideration.
PMCID: PMC3016877  PMID: 2331222
25.  Liver Transplantation in the Presence of Old Portal Vein Thrombosis 
Background: Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) has been mentioned as a potential obstacle to liver transplantation (LTx).
Objective: To review the impact of PVT on orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) outcome.
Method: Between January 2006 and April 2009, 440 OLT were performed in Shiraz Transplant Unit of whom, 35 (7.9%) cases had old PVT with recanalization. Data were retrospectively collected regarding the demographics, indication for OLT, Child-Turgot-Pugh classification, pre-transplant diagnosis of PVT, perioperative course and managements, relapse of PVT, early post-operative mortality and morbidity. All patients received liver from deceased donors, underwent thrombendvenectomy with end-to-end anastomosis without interposition graft and evaluated daily for 5 days and thereafter, biweekly by duplex sonography during the follow-up period for 2 months. They were treated by therapeutic doses of heparin followed by warfarin to maintain an INR of 2–2.5.
Results: The causes of end-stage liver disease were hepatitis B in 11, cryptogenic cirrhosis in 11, primary sclerosing cholangitis in 5 and other causes in 8 recipients. Extension of thrombosis was through confluence of superior mesenteric and splenic vein in 32 and to superior mesenteric vein in 3 patients. The mean±SD operation time was 7.2±1.5 hrs. The mean±SD transfusion requirement was 5.4±2.8 units of packed cells. The mean±SD duration of hospital stay in these patients was 17.7±10.9 days. Eight patients died; 1 developed early in-hospital PVT, 1 had hepatic vein thrombosis, and 1 died of in-hospital ischemic cerebrovascular accident, despite a full anticoagulant therapy. The mean±SD follow-up period for those 28 patients discharged from hospital was 16.6±7.9 months; none of them developed relapse of PVT. The overall mortality and morbidity was 28% and 32%, respectively. There was no relapse of PVT in the other patients.
Conclusion: The presence of PVT at the time of OLT is not a contraindication for the operation but those with PVT have a more difficult surgery, develop more postoperative complications, and experience a higher in-hospital mortality.
PMCID: PMC4089218  PMID: 25013563
Portal vein thrombosis; liver transplantationl; Iran

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