Acute appendicitis (AA) is a common surgical problem that is associated with an acute-phase reaction. Previous studies have shown that cytokines and acute-phase proteins are activated and may serve as indicators for the severity of appendicitis. The aim of this study was to compare diagnostic value of different serum inflammatory markers in detection of phlegmonous or perforated appendicitis in children.
Data were collected prospectively on 211 consecutive children. Laparotomy was performed for suspected AA for 189 patients. Patients were subdivided into groups: nonsurgical abdominal pain, early appendicitis, phlegmonous or gangrenous appendicitis, perforated appendicitis.
White blood cell count (WBC), serum C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), acid α1-glycoprotein (α1GP), endotoxin, and erythrocyte sedimentation reaction (ESR) were estimated ad the time of admission. The diagnostic performance was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.
WBC count, CRP and IL-6 correlated significantly with the severity of appendiceal inflammation. Identification of children with severe appendicitis was supported by IL-6 or CRP but not WBC. Between IL-6 and CRP, there were no significant differences in diagnostic use.
Laboratory results should be considered to be integrated within the clinical assessment. If used critically, CRP and IL-6 equally provide surgeons with complementary information in discerning the necessity for urgent operation.
Procalcitonin (PCT) is an established laboratory marker for disease severity in patients with infection and sepsis. In addition, PCT has been shown to be an effective marker for a limited number of localized infections. However, whether or not PCT has any diagnostic value for acute appendicitis, still remains unclear. The purpose of this prospective bicenter study was, therefore, to determine whether or not the PCT levels in the serum of patients with acute appendicitis have any diagnostic value.
This prospective study included 103 patients who received an appendectomy, based on the clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis, in a surgical department of an academic teaching hospital in Germany or in a county hospital in Spain. White blood cell count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) values were determined preoperatively. All appendectomy specimens were sent for routine histopathological evaluation. Based on this information, the patients were assigned to 1 of 5 groups that reflected the severity of the appendicitis.
Of the 103 patients who were included in the study, 98 had appendicitis. Fourteen (14.3%) showed an increase in PCT values. Of those 14, 4 had a serum PCT >0.5 ng/ml, 9 had a PCT value >2–10 ng/ml and 1 had a PCT value >10 ng/ml. The sensitivity of PCT was calculated to be 0.14. The mean WBC value was 13.0/nl (± 5.2, 3.4–31), and for CRP it was 8.8 mg/dl (± 13, 0–60.2). The values of CRP, WBC and PCT increased with the severity of the appendicitis.
PCT is potentially increased in rare cases of severe inflammation and, in particular, after appendiceal perforation or gangrenous appendicitis. However, its remarkably low sensitivity prohibits its routine use for the diagnosis of appendicitis.
Procalcitonin; Appendicitis; Diagnostic
Acute appendicitis is one of the most common surgical emergencies. Accurate diagnosis of acute appendicitis is based on careful history, physical examination, laboratory and imaging investigation. The aim of the study is to analyze the role of C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood count (WBC) and Neutrophil percentage (NP) in improving the accuracy of diagnosis of acute appendicitis and to compare it with the intraoperative assessment and histopathology findings.
Materials and methods
This investigation was a prospective double blinded clinical study. The study was done on 173 patients surgically treated for acute appendicitis. The WBC, NP, and measurement of CRP were randomly collected pre-operatively from all involved patients. Macroscopic assessment was made from the operation. Appendectomy and a histopathology examination were performed on all patients. Gross description was compared with histopathology results and then correlated with CRP, WBC, and NP.
The observational accuracy was 87,3%, as compared to histopathological accuracy which was 85.5% with a total of 173 patients that were operated on. The histopathology showed 25 (14.5%) patients had normal appendices, and 148 (85.5%) patients had acutely inflamed, gangrenous, or perforated appendicitis. 52% were male and 48% were female, with the age ranging from 5 to 59 with a median of 19.7. The gangrenous type was the most frequent (52.6%). The WBC was altered in 77.5% of the cases, NP in 72.3%, and C-reactive protein in 76.9% cases. In those with positive appendicitis, the CRP and WBC values were elevated in 126 patients (72.8%), whereas NP was higher than 75% in 117 patients (67.6%). Out of 106 patients with triple positive tests, 101 (95.2%) had appendicitis. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values of the 3 tests in combination were 95.3%, 72.2%, and 95.3%, respectively.
The raised value of the CRP was directly related to the severity of inflammation (p-value <0.05). CRP monitoring enhances the diagnostic accuracy of acute appendicitis. The diagnostic accuracy of CRP is not significantly greater than WBC and NP. A combination of these three tests significantly increases the accuracy. We found that elevated serum CRP levels support the surgeon's clinical diagnosis.
Acute appendicitis; CRP correlation; White blood count; Neutrophil percentage; Histopathology findings
Acute appendicitis (AA) is common surgical problem associated with acute-phase reaction. Blood tests role in decision-making process is unclear. This retrospective study aimed to determine diagnostic value of preoperative evaluation of white blood cells (WBCs) and neutrophils and its value in predicting AA severity.
Medical records of 456 patients who underwent appendectomy during 4-years period were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were subdivided according to histological finding into: normal appendix (n = 29), uncomplicated inflamed appendix (n = 350), complicated appendicitis (n = 77). Diagnostic performances of WBCs and neutrophils were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.
WBCs and neutrophils counts were higher in patients with inflamed and complicated appendix than normal appendix and in complicated than inflamed appendix. In patients, WBCs count 9.400 × 103/mL had sensitivity of 76.81%, specificity of 65.52%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 97.0%, negative predictive value (NPV) of 16.1%, positive likelihood ratio [LR(+)] of 2.23, negative LR(−) of 0.35. Neutrophil count 7.540 × 103/mL had sensitivity of 70.96%, specificity of 65.52%, PPV of 96.8%, NPV of 13.3%, LR(+) of 2.06, LR(−) of 0.44. Areas under ROC curve were 0.701, 0.680 for elevated WBCs and neutrophils count.
Clinicians should not rely on either elevated WBCs or neutrophils count as appendicitis indicator as clinical data are superior in decision-making appendectomy.
Acute appendicitis; Diagnosis; White blood cells; Histological diagnosis; Neutrophil count; Receiver operating characteristic curves
Appendicitis is the most common cause of the acute abdomen and can affect all age groups. Most patients recover quickly but a minority can suffer postoperative complications. This case-note review was undertaken to assess the frequency of these complications.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Adult patients (> 16 years) undergoing an emergency appendicectomy at a University teaching hospital between February 2004 and January 2005 were identified from pathology records. Details of operative procedure, histology and postoperative complications were noted from the hospital case notes
A total of 199 patients with a median age of 31 years (range, 16–89 years) were identified. Of these, 58 (29%) patients experienced a postoperative complication. Eight (4%) patients were admitted to the surgical high dependency unit or intensive care unit postoperatively and there was one death (0.5%). Re-operation for a postoperative complication was required in 9 (4.5%) patients and there was a 13% re-admission rate (26 patients). Comparison between patients with histologically proven appendicitis (164 patients; 82%) and those patients having a negative appendicectomy (35 patients; 18%) showed no significant difference in the rate of complications as defined (43 of 164, 26% versus 15 of 35, 43%; P = 0.08). However, patients with positive histology were more likely to experience a septic complication (29 of 164, 18% versus 1 of 35, 3%; P = 0.028) and all re-operations came from this group. Despite this, patients with a negative appendicectomy were more likely to be re-admitted (12 of 35, 34% versus 14 of 164, 8.5%; P = 0.0002), predominantly with persistent abdominal pain.
Appendicectomy is associated with a significant morbidity. Patients with an inflamed appendix were more likely to experience a septic complication but re-admission was more common in patients with a histologically normal appendix because of unresolved abdominal pain.
Acute appendicitis; Appendicectomy; Complications; Outcome
Simple investigations like white cell count (WCC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) may help to improve the accuracy of diagnosis in paediatric appendicitis. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of WCC and CRP for the severity of acute appendicitis in children.
This study was conducted on all children who underwent open appendectomy from January 2007 to December 2008 at a District General Hospital. Data regarding demographics, WCC, CRP, histology and postoperative complications were analysed.
All children who underwent open appendectomy during the study period.
Main outcome measures
Diagnostic accuracy of WCC and CRP for simple acute appendicitis and a perforated appendix.
Out of 204 patients, 112 (54.9%) were girls. At surgery, appendix was grossly inflamed in 175 of which 32 had perforation. Histology revealed simple acute appendicitis in 135 (66.2%) and gangrenous appendicitis in 32 (15.7%). The rest were normal. The duration of symptoms, temperature, length of stay, WCC and CRP were significantly worse in the perforated group (P value <0.05). Postoperative complications included wound infection (n = 18), pelvic collection (n = 5) and intestinal obstruction (n = 6); and were more common among patients with a perforated appendix (P value <0.05). WCC had a higher diagnostic accuracy and higher sensitivity than CRP in diagnosing simple acute appendicitis. The combined sensitivity of WCC and CRP increased to 95% and 100% for the diagnosis of simple acute appendicitis and a perforated appendix, respectively.
Accuracy of WCC is higher than CRP for diagnosing simple acute appendicitis. The combined sensitivity of WCC and CRP increases for simple acute appendicitis as well as a perforated appendix.
No reliably specific marker for acute appendicitis has been identified. Although recent studies have shown hyperbilirubinaemia to be a useful predictor of appendiceal perforation, they did not focus on the value of bilirubin as a marker for acute appendicitis. The aim of this study was to determine the value of hyperbilirubinaemia as a marker for acute appendicitis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A retrospective analysis of appendicectomies performed in two hospitals (n=472). Data collected included laboratory and histological results. Patients were grouped according to histology findings and comparisons were made between the groups.
The mean bilirubin levels were higher for patients with simple appendicitis compared to those with a non-inflamed appendix (p<0.001). More patients with simple appendicitis had hyperbilirubinaemia on admission (30% vs 12%) and the odds of these patients having appendicitis were over three times higher (odds ratio: 3.25, p<0.001). Hyperbilirubinaemia had a specificity of 88% and a positive predictive value of 91% for acute appendicitis. Patients with appendicitis who had a perforated or gangrenous appendix had higher mean bilirubin levels (p=0.01) and were more likely to have hyperbilirubinaemia (p<0.001). The specificity of hyperbilirubinaemia for perforation or gangrene was 70%. The specificities of white cell count and C-reactive protein were less than hyperbilirubinaemia for simple appendicitis (60% and 72%) and perforated or gangrenous appendicitis (19% and 36%).
Hyperbilirubinaemia is a valuable marker for acute appendicitis. Patients with hyperbilirubinaemia are also more likely to have appendiceal perforation or gangrene. Bilirubin should be included in the assessment of patients with suspected appendicitis.
Appendicitis; Diagnosis; Bilirubin
This study is an attempt to clarify the role of C-reactive protein (CRP) as a surgical indication marker for appendicitis.
One hundred and fifty patients who underwent appendectomies and had pathologically confirmed appendicitis were reviewed between May 1, 1999 and September 31, 2007. The correlation between preoperative clinical factors and the actual histological severity, and identify surgical indication markers were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses.
Univariate analysis showed that only the CRP level significantly differ between the surgical treatment necessary group (gangrenous appendicitis) and the possible non-surgical treatment group (catarrhalis and phlegmonous appendicitis). Multivariate analysis indicated only the CRP level to be a surgical indication marker for acute appendicitis. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve indicated that the cutoff value of CRP for surgical indication of appendicitis is 4.95 mg/dl.
Only the CRP level is consistent with the severity of appendicitis, and considered to be a surgical indication marker for acute appendicitis.
The aim of this prospective study was therefore to evaluate the diagnostic value of preoperative serum High Mobility Group Box Protein-1 (HMGB-1) levels in patients with Acute Appendicitis (AA) who show normal white blood cell count (WBC) counts.
Our study was carried out from October 2010 through November 2010 and included 20 healthy control group participants and 60 patients who presented at the emergency department of Erzurum Training and Research Hospital in Turkey with acute abdominal pain complaints, who were pathologically diagnosed with AA after laparotomy, and who agreed to participate in the study.
Of the 60 patients who underwent appendectomies, 36 were male and 24 were female, and of the healthy group, 12 were male and 8 female. The age averages of the patients in Groups 1, 2 and 3 were, respectively, 31.3+15.4, 34.0+16.3 and 31.0+13.1 years. The WBC averages of Groups 1, 2 and 3 were, respectively, 7.41+2.02 (x109/L), 15.71+2.85 (x109/L) and 8.51+1.84 (x109/L). The HMGB-1 levels for Groups 1 (healthy persons), 2 (AA patients with high WBC counts ) and 3 (AA patients with normal WBC counts) were, respectively, 21.71 ± 11.36, 37.28+13.37 and 36.5 ± 17.73 ng/ml. The average HMGB-1 level of the patients with AA was 36.92 ± 15.43 ng/ml while the average HMGB-1 value of the healthy group was 21.71 ± 11.36 ng/ml.
The significantly higher levels of HMGB-1 in AA patients compared to healthy persons infer that HMGB-1 might be useful in the diagnosis of AA. Use of HMGB-1, especially in patients with normal WBC counts, will reduce the number of unnecessary explorations.
Acute appendicitis is a common surgical condition which can lead to severe complications. Recent work suggested that patients experiencing right lower abdominal pain, with normal white cell count (WCC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are unlikely to have acute appendicitis and can be discharged. We present two independent data-sets that suggest that this strategy may not be risk-free.
Retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients from two district general hospitals. Sensitivity and specificity of CRP, WCC and neutrophil count (NC) in predicting appendicitis were calculated. Markers were analysed using Fisher's exact test and Kruskul-Wallace test.
Two district general hospitals in the UK.
Patients undergoing appendicectomy for suspected appendicitis.
Main outcome measures
Inflammatory markers and appendix histology.
A total of 297 patients were included. Appendicitis occurred in four patients with normal CRP, WCC and NC in centre A and 13 patients in centre B. The sensitivity of all three markers combined was 94% (centre A) and 92% (centre B). The specificity was 60% (centre A) and 64% (centre B). No single marker could differentiate uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis, but a raised NC or a CRP >35.5 mg/l predicted complicated appendicitis. CRP, WCC and NC combined differentiated between patients with a normal appendix, uncomplicated appendicitis and complicated appendicitis.
Appendicitis in the presence of normal inflammatory markers is not uncommon. We disagree with the view of Sengupta et al. who suggest that patients with normal WCC and CRP are unlikely to have appendicitis, and recommend that clinicians be wary of normal inflammatory markers in patients with a high clinical suspicion of appendicitis.
BACKGROUND: The early diagnosis of acute abdomen is of great importance. To date, several inflammatory markers have been used for the diagnosis of acute abdominal conditions, including acute appendicitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of D-dimer, Procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) measurements in the acute appendicitis.
METHODS: This prospective study was conducted between March 1st, 2010 and July 1st, 2011. In this period, seventy-eight patients were operated with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis, and D-dimer, PCT and CRP levels of the patients were measured. The patients were grouped as phlegmonous appendicitis (Group 1), gangrenous appendicitis (Group 2), perforated appendicitis (Group 3) and negative appendectomy (Group 4) according to the surgical findings and histopathological results.
RESULTS: Of 78 patients, 54 (69.2 %) were male and 24 (30.8 %) were female, and the mean age was 25.4 ± 11.1 years (range, 18 to 69 years). 66 (84.6 %) patients had increased leukocyte count (white blood cell count). The PCT values were higher than the upper normal limit in 20 (25.6%) patients, followed by D-dimer in 22 (28.2 %) patients and CRP in 54 (69.2 %) patients. The diagnostic value of leukocyte count and CRP in acute appendicitis was higher than that of the other markers, whereas leukocyte count showed very low specificity. CRP values were higher in perforated appendicitis when compared with the phlegmonous appendicitis (p<0.05). However, PCT and D-dimer showed lower diagnostic values (26% and 31%, respectively).
CONCLUSION: An increase in CRP levels alone is not sufficient to make the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. However, CRP levels may differentiate between phlegmonous appendicitis and perforated appendicitis. Due to their low sensitivity and diagnostic value, PCT and D-dimer are not better markers than CRP for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.
Appendicitis; D-dimer; Procalcitonin; C-reactive protein.
A prospective study with long-term follow-up was undertaken of 248 patients (137 males, median age 18 years (range 6-81 years), undergoing emergency appendicectomy during a 12-month period. Acute inflammation was present in 182 patients (73.4%) (males 86.1%, females 57.8%; P < 0.001). Before surgery, the positive predictive value of diagnostic accuracy was 82.0% (males 91.2%, females 67.7%). Delaying surgery did not significantly increase the proportion of perforated appendices (22.0%), hospital stay, or frequency of postoperative complications (overall 49.6%). Hospital complications were significantly more common among patients with a perforated appendix. There was no significant difference in the complication rate between patients with or without appendicitis while in hospital, during the first 18 months after operation or 8 years after operation. At 18 months, 17 of 238 patients (7.1%) continued to experience their original pain. After 8 years the original pain was still present in 10 of 155 patients (6.5%). Continued pain was more likely in patients having undergone removal of a normal appendix (P < 0.001)
Appendicitis and incarcerated hernia are frequently encountered reasons of emergency surgery for acute abdomen. The treatment in early stages of each condition is generally simple, but when these conditions are combined, the symptoms become slightly complicated, obscuring specific symptoms. Especially the lack of symptoms for appendicitis leads to delayed diagnosis, resulting in high morbidity. Amyand hernia, which contains appendix in its inguinal hernia sac, is perhaps more familiar to the general surgeons than De Garengeot hernia, which is an incarcerated femoral hernia with an appendix in its sac. We report the case of a 90-year-old female with incarcerated femoral hernia who underwent emergency hernioplasty only to reveal an inflamed appendix in its sac. The patient underwent both appendectomy and hernia repair simultaneously with synthetic mesh and was discharged on postoperative day 7 without any complications. We will also discuss the physical and radiological findings of De Garengeot hernia.
Femoral hernia; Incarceration; Appendicitis; De Garengeot hernia
Acute appendicitis is one of the commonest diseases encountered in the field of emergency surgery. If untreated, it can rapidly develop severe complications such as perforation and peritonitis. Surgeons therefore often choose early surgical treatment also when the diagnosis is only probable, facing the risk of performing an elevated amount of unnecessary appendectomies. The aim of this study is to analyse our experience with integrated clinical-ultrasonographic diagnosis in acute appendicitis.
Material and methods
From January 1999 to December 2006, 1447 patients underwent clinical examination, leucocyte count, evaluation of C-reactive protein level, and abdominal ultrasonography using graded compression technique and a high frequency probe.
In 368 patients (25%) ultrasonographic diagnosis was acute appendicitis; 8 patients were operated on the basis of clinical evaluation only. Ultrasonography yielded false positive results in 7 cases. In 1079 patients (75%) diagnosis was negative for acute appendicitis; 173 of these patients (12%) received a different diagnosis. The remaining 906 patients underwent clinical follow-up until the symptoms disappeared; there were no complications. In our study, sensitivity of ultrasonography was 98%, specificity 99%, positive predictive value 98%, and negative predictive value 99%. Overall diagnostic accuracy was 99%.
Integrated diagnosis of acute appendicitis based on clinical evaluation, laboratory tests and ultrasonography is safe and saves resources by preventing unnecessary operations.
Ultrasonography; Acute appendicitis
Despite dedicated emergency theatre, emergency surgery can be often delayed due to competing urgencies, suggesting a need for innovative theatre time management.
To investigate if a change in the emergency theatre prioritisation affects outcomes for a common urgent operation such as appendicectomy.
We prospectively recorded data from 67 patients undergoing appendicectomy, for two cohorts of patients: before and after change in theatre prioritisation: Group 1 (Jan-Mar) and 2 (Aug-Oct) respectively. Demographic and peri-operative data, time from admission to surgery, postoperative length of stay and total length of stay and complications were compared.
The two groups were comparable with regards to gender, age, time of admission and histological confirmation of appendicitis. No differences between the two groups were found regarding time from admission to surgery (24.4 (95% CI 11.2;27.6) hours versus 16.1 (95% CI 10.4;21.7) hours, Mann-Whitney U test, p = 0.35), postoperative length of stay (90.8 (95% CI 61.4;120.1) hours versus 70 (95% CI 48.3;91.6) hours, Mann-Whitney U test, p = 0.25) and total length of stay (115.2 (95% CI 84.6;145.7) hours versus 86 (95% CI 61.6;110.4) hours, Mann-Whitney U test, p = 0.07) as well as complication or re-admission rates.
A change in the emergency theatre prioritisation does not affect outcome for appendicectomy. Provision of a second emergency theatre could be a solution to reduce the delays in acute surgical operations.
Introduction. Acute appendicitis is the leading cause of abdominal pain in children requiring emergency surgical intervention. The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic value of MPV in early diagnosis of acute appendicitis cases in pediatric age group. Methods. This study was performed retrospectively. Three hundred five patients operated on with the diagnosis of appendicitis and pathologically found to be acute appendicitis were classified as Group 1 and 305 healthy children were classified as control Group 2. Results. One hundred ninety-seven of 305 cases in Group 1 are males (64.6%), in Group 2, 151 of 305 cases are males (49.5%). The mean MPV in Group 1 was 7.9 ± 0.9
(fL), and whereas in Group 2 was 7.7 ± 0.8
(fL). There was no statistically significant difference regarding MPV values (P > 0.05). Conclusion. In our study we detected that mean platelet volume has no diagnostic value in pediatric acute appendicitis cases.
The appendectomy is the most common emergent surgical procedure in elderly patients. The increasing number of elderly persons has been accompanied by an increase in the number of cases of acute appendicitis in the elderly. In order to understand the clinical significance of a laparoscopic appendectomy for elderly patients with appendicitis, we investigated the results of a laparoscopic appendectomy for treating patients over 60 years of age with appendicitis and compared them with the results for an open technique.
We studied retrospectively patients over 60 years of age who underwent an appendectomy with either a laparoscopic (LA) or open (OA) technique for appendicitis between July 2007 and December 2009. There were 30 patients in the LA group and 47 patients in the OA group. The demographic data, operative time, length of the hospital stay, bowel movement, pain control, cost, complications and pre-existing disease were assessed.
There were no significant differences between the LA and the OA groups with respect to pre-existing diseases, gender, age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score and the number of cases of complicated appendicitis, operative time, length of hospital stay, and times of analgesics use. However, the proportion of early gas out (within POD #2) was significantly greater in the LA group (80% vs. 57%, P < 0.05), and postoperative complications were significantly lower in the LA group (7% vs. 32%, P < 0.01). The costs for the two groups were not significantly different.
A laparoscopic appendectomy is a safe and effective procedure in elderly patients and is not associated with any increase in morbidity. It can be recommended for routine use in treating elderly patients with appendicitis.
Laparoscopy appendectomy; Appendicitis; Aged
Acute appendicitis (AA) is a common condition which warrants emergency surgery. Detailed history, physical exam, and laboratory findings are often nonspecific in suspected patients. There is substantial evidence to indicate that plasma levels of D-lactate were useful to establish a diagnosis of AA in the medical literature. It has been suggested that it is useful for patients with abdominal pain, especially patients with perforated AA. This paper is designed to highlight the value of D-lactate biomarker in establishing a diagnosis of AA. Based on the literature, it is not helpful for a decision of operation in patients with AA. According to the results of the studies, laboratory involvement was observed between plasma D-lactate level and the final diagnosis of AA, particularly in perforated appendices. It can be considered for routine use in patients with undifferentiated abdominal pain in the emergency department setting.
Acute appendicitis (AA) is the most common life-threatening surgical emergency in pediatrics. To characterize the nature of the inflammatory response in AA, gene expression profiles were generated. We found remarkable uniformity in the genes that were differentially expressed between patients with appendicitis and control groups. Sixty-four probe sets were differentially expressed in samples from patients with both severe and mild appendicitis compared to control samples, and within this group we were able to identify four dominant clusters. Interestingly, expression levels of interleukin (IL)-8 significantly correlated with histologic score, and expression of IL-8 protein was observed within both neutrophils and mononuclear cells by immunohistochemistry, suggesting a possible role in the etiology of appendicitis. Although there was some overlap between genes reported to be differentially expressed in Crohn's disease (CD) and those observed in AA, differential expression of genes involved in interferon responses that characterize CD was not observed.
Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute intraabdominal affections seen in surgical departments, which can be treated easily if an accurate diagnosis is made in time. Otherwise, delay in diagnosis and treatment can lead to diffuse peritonitis.
Materials and Methods:
A study was conducted on 110 patients who were operated for acute appendicitis to determine the role and predictive value of the total leucocyte count (TLC), C-reactive protein (CRP) and percentage of neutrophil count in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Preoperative TLC, CRP and percentage of neutrophil count were determined and were compared with the results of the histopathology of the removed appendix.
Of all the patients studied, 92 had histopathologically positive appendicitis. The TLC was found to be significantly high in 90 patients who proved to have acute appendicitis, whereas CRP was high in only 88 patients and neutrophil percentage was raised in 91; four had a normal CRP level. Thus, TLC had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 97.82%, 55.55% and 91.8%, respectively. CRP had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 95.6%, 77.77% and 95.6% respectively. Percentage of neutrophil count had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 98.9%, 38.88% and 89.21%, respectively. When used in combination, there was a marked improvement in the specificity and the positive predictive value to 88.04% and 98.7%, respectively.
The inflammatory markers, i.e., TLC, CRP and neutrophil count can be helpful in the diagnosis when measured together as this increases their specificity and positive predictive value.
Acute appendicitis; C-reactive protein; neutrophil count; TLC
Laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) for acute appendicitis has several advantages over open appendectomy (OA). In cases of complicated appendicitis, LA is converted to OA at a constant rate, though converting appendectomy (CA) has several disadvantages. We retrospectively determined preoperative risk factors for failure of LA and subsequent conversion to OA.
Consecutive cases of preoperative computed tomography (CT) and attempted LA were retrieved from our hospital database and grouped by procedure (LA versus CA). Patients with negative appendectomies (n = 28), opened appendectomy (n = 210), delayed interval appendectomy (n = 3), or who were <14 years of age were excluded.
Average patient age, preoperative C-reactive protein (CRP) level, and diffuse peritonitis were significantly different between the groups. CT inflammation and occurrence of complicated appendicitis were significantly higher in CA than LA. Conversion to OA was mostly because of dense adhesions, diffuse peritonitis, and difficulties in excision of the appendix due to perforation or severe inflammation from surgical point of view. Postoperative complications were significantly lower in LA than CA, although the rate of intraoperative abscess was not different.
Most patients with acute appendicitis can be successfully treated with LA. We identified the following significant risk factors of CA: CT inflammation grade 4 or 5; complicated appendicitis; higher preoperative CRP level; and diffuse peritonitis.
laparotomy; laparoscopic appendectomy; acute appendicitis
Acute appendicitis is the most common acute surgical condition of the abdomen. Diagnosis is made based on full clinical history and examination as well as supported by a routine blood investigation and urine test. Prompt diagnosis and surgical referral may reduce the risk of perforation and prevent complications. The mortality rate of non-perforated appendicitis is less than 1 percent. Perforated appendicitis is associated with a higher mortality rate - as high as five percent and may be particularly more in extreme of age group attributed to delay in clinical presentation or diagnosis in the younger group and multiple co-morbidities in the elderly group. The aetiology is unknown. It may be linked with lack of fibre, familial tendency, or viral infection. It may be precipitated by faecaliths. The commonest site of the appendix is retrocaecal.
We report a case of a 46 year old male who was admitted under the surgical service in Mid-Western Regional Hospital, Limerick with suspected appendicitis which turned out to be a perforated caecum, a rare complication of an acute appendicitis. We performed a literature review comparing two main approaches - right hemicolectomy and primary closure with omental patch - discuss and highlight their differences as well as a guide to its management.
There are limited studies to compare these two surgical options in the literature. A larger prospective study is needed to compare both approaches and long term outcome.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the severity of appendicitis as depicted on CT and blood inflammatory markers of serum white blood cell (WBC) count and C-reactive protein (CRP).
CT images in 128 patients (109 surgically proven and 19 with clinically excluded appendicitis) were retrospectively reviewed. Two radiologists by consensus evaluated and scored (using a 0, 1 or 2 point scale) severities based on CT-determined appendiceal diameters, appendiceal wall changes, caecal changes, periappendiceal inflammatory stranding and phlegmon or abscess formation. We investigated whether CT findings were significantly related to elevated WBC counts or CRP levels and performed the correlations of WBC counts and CRP levels with CT severity scores. Patients were also subjectively classified using four grades from normal (Grade I) to perforated appendicitis (Grade IV) on the basis of CT findings to evaluate differences in WBC counts and CRP levels between grades.
Only appendiceal wall changes and the phlegmon or abscess formation were related to elevated WBC counts and CRP levels, respectively (p<0.05). CT severity scores were found to be more strongly correlated with CRP levels (r = 0.669) than with WBC counts (r = 0.222). On the basis of CT grades, the WBC counts in Grade I were significantly lower than in other grades (p<0.001), whereas CRP levels in Grade IV were significantly higher than in other grades (p<0.001).
CRP levels were found to correlate with CT-determined acute appendicitis severity and could be a useful predictor for perforated appendicitis, whereas WBC counts might be useful to detect early acute appendicitis.
The role of free oxygen radicals in inflammatory conditions is well known. Free radicals cause lipid peroxidation of cellular membranes resulting in cell death. The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of total anti-oxidant status (TAS), as a marker of anti-oxidant defense system and malondialdehyde (MDA), as a marker of oxidative stress, in the plasma of patients with acute appendicitis.
Fifty-one adult patients with a median age of 31 years who underwent operations with a preoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis were included in this prospective study. Blood samples for C-reactive protein (CRP), MDA and TAS were collected preoperatively. Groups were compared by using the Mann-Whitney U test.
There were 27 patients with acute phlagmenous appendicitis and 19 patients with advanced appendicitis (10 gangrenous and 9 perforated appendicitis), while 5 negative explorations were documented. No significant differences in WBC counts and MDA levels between groups were encountered. Plasma CRP was significantly higher in patients with perforated appendicitis, but not in the other groups. In advanced appendicitis group, TAS level was significantly lower than the other groups. On the other hand, plasma TAS level in acute phlagmenous appendicitis group was significantly higher.
A decrease in plasma total anti-oxidant capacity might be a predictor of the progression of inflammation to the perforation in acute appendicitis.
Acute appendicitis is a common surgical emergency. The presence of an inflamed appendix in an incisional hernia is rare. Incisional hernias complicate both open and laparoscopic surgery.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We describe two unique cases of acute appendicitis within incisional hernias following an open cholecystectomy and a diagnostic laparoscopy. Acute appendicitis was diagnosed intraoperatively and a formal appendicectomy was performed with subsequent primary repair of the hernial defect in each case.
The method chosen for primary repair of an incisional hernia containing an acutely inflamed appendix depends on a number of factors including size of hernial defect and degree of contamination. Closure of 5 mm port sites is not routine in current surgical practice. Herniation of intra-abdominal contents through such defects can occur rarely. The repair of an incisional hernia using mesh in a contaminated surgical field is controversial. There may be advantages in the use of biological meshes.
Surgical awareness of potential complications relating to the management of incisional hernia appendicitis is of primary importance in determining intraoperative strategy.
Acute appendicitis; Incisional hernia; Port site hernia