Massive haemobilia carries a mortality of 25% in most reports. Although previously it was mainly due to road accidents or homicidal attempts it is now more often due to iatrogenic trauma like percutaneous liver biopsy and biliary drainage. However the management protocol is not established and there have been few reports of this serious condition from India.
To review the causes of massive haemobilia and outline its management in an Indian hospital.
Patients and methods
We retrospectively analysed the records of 20 consecutive patients with massive haemobilia (blood requirement more than 1400 ml/day) admitted to our department over six years from a prospectively maintained database. There were 10 males and 10 females who had a mean age of 43 (range 15–65) years.
Haemobilia accounted for 9 percent of patients admitted with upper gastrointestinal bleeding who were seen over this period. The commonest cause was iatrogenic (11) including laparoscopic cholecystectomy (6), Whipple’s operation, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC), percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), hepatic stone extraction and removal of biliary stent (1 each). The others had accidental trauma (4), visceral aneurysms (2), biliary stones (2) and chronic pancreatitis (1). The commonest clinical presentation was massive gastrointestinal bleeding. The dual phase computed tomography (CT) scan correctly identified the site of bleeding and other associated conditions in all the 11 patients in whom it was done. Conventional angiography was done in 8 patients with transarterial embolisation (TAE) being attempted in 6 and successful in 2 patients. Operations were performed in 18 patients for the following indications — failure of angiographic embolisation (6), failure of endoscopic sclerotherapy (EST) (1), duodenal erosion (2), portal biliopathy (1), haemoperitoneum (1), bile leak (1), pseudocyst (1), liver necrosis (1) and other hepatobiliary conditions (4). The surgical procedures to control bleeding were ligation of aneurysms (8), repair of the hepatic artery (4), right hepatectomy (3), lienorenal shunt, cholecystectomy and under-running of the duodenal papilla (1 each). The overall mortality was 4 patients (20 percent). There was no mortality in patients with bleeding aneurysms; the mortality being significantly higher in patients with non-aneurysmal bleeding (p=0.0049: Fishers’ exact test).
In our experience haemobilia was usually due to an iatrogenic cause with a pseudoaneurysm following a diagnostic or therapeutic intervention(most often laparoscopic cholecystectomy) being the commonest aetiology. A dual phase CT scan accurately identified the site of bleeding. Angiographic embolisation often failed to stop bleeding and mortality was significantly higher in patients with non-aneurysmal bleeding. We should perhaps consider early surgery for haemobilia once the bleeding site has been localised by CT scan.
Haemibilia; GI bleed; Liver trauma; Visceral aneurysm
Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for acute biliary inflammation/infection (acute cholangitis and acute cholecystitis), according to severity grade, have not yet been established in the world. Therefore we formulated flowcharts for the management of acute biliary inflammation/infection in accordance with severity grade. For mild (grade I) acute cholangitis, medical treatment may be sufficient/appropriate. For moderate (grade II) acute cholangitis, early biliary drainage should be performed. For severe (grade III) acute cholangitis, appropriate organ support such as ventilatory/circulatory management is required. After hemodynamic stabilization is achieved, urgent endoscopic or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage should be performed. For patients with acute cholangitis of any grade of severity, treatment for the underlying etiology, including endoscopic, percutaneous, or surgical treatment should be performed after the patient’s general condition has improved. For patients with mild (grade I) cholecystitis, early laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the preferred treatment. For patients with moderate (grade II) acute cholecystitis, early laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy is preferred. In patients with extensive local inflammation, elective cholecystectomy is recommended after initial management with percutaneous gallbladder drainage and/or cholecystostomy. For the patient with severe (grade III) acute cholecystitis, multiorgan support is a critical part of management. Biliary peritonitis due to perforation of the gallbladder is an indication for urgent cholecystectomy and/or drainage. Delayed elective cholecystectomy may be performed after initial treatment with gallbladder drainage and improvement of the patient’s general medical condition.
Cholangitis; Acute cholecystitis; Cholecystec-tomy; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Biliary; Drainage; Guidelines
Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is a rare variant of cholecystitis and reported incidence of XGC varies from different geographic region from 0.7% -9%. Most of the clinicians are not aware of the pathology and less evidence is available regarding the optimal treatment of this less common form of cholecystitis in the present era of laparoscopic surgery.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary care university hospital from 1989 to 2009. Histopathologically confirmed XGC study patients (N=27) were compared with non-Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (NXGC) control group (N=27). The outcomes variables were operative time, complication rate and laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy conversion rate. The study group (XGC) was further divided in to three sub groups; group I open cholecystectomy (OC), laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and laparoscopic converted to open cholecystectomy (LCO) for comparative analysis to identify the significant variables.
During the study period 6878 underwent cholecystectomy including open cholecystectomy in 2309 and laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 4569 patients. Histopathology confirmed xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis in 30 patients (0.43% of all cholecystectomies) and 27 patients qualified for the inclusion criterion. Gallbladder carcinoma was reported in 100 patients (1.45%) during the study period and no association was found with XGC. The mean age of patients with XGC was 49.8 year (range: 29-79), with male to female ratio of 1:3. The most common clinical features were abdominal pain and tenderness in right hypochondrium. Biliary colic and acute cholecystitis were the most common preoperative diagnosis. Ultrasonogram was performed in all patients and CT scan abdomen in 5 patients. In study population (XGC), 10 were patients in group I, 8 in group II and 9 in group III. Conversion rate from laparoscopy to open was 53 % (n=9), surgical site infection rate of 14.8% (n=4) and common bile duct injury occurred one patient in open cholecystectomy group (3.7%). Statistically significant differences between group I and group II were raised total leukocyte count: 10.6±3.05 vs. 7.05±1.8 (P-Value 0.02) and duration of surgery in minutes: 248.75±165 vs. 109±39.7 (P-Value 0.04). The differences between group III and group II were duration of surgery in minutes: 208.75±58 vs. 109±39.7 (P-Value 0.03) and duration of symptoms in days: 3±1.8 vs. 9.8±8.8 (P-Value 0.04). The mean hospital stay in group I was 9.7 days, group II 5.6 days and in group III 10.5 days. Two patients underwent extended cholecystectomy based on clinical suspicion of carcinoma. No mortality was observed in this study population. Duration of surgery was higher in XGC group as compared to controls (NXGC) (203±129 vs.128±4, p-value=0.008) and no statistically significant difference in incidence proportion of operative complication rate were observed among the group (25.9% vs. 14.8%, p-value=0.25. Laparoscopic surgery was introduced in 1994 and 17 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and higher conversion rate from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy was observed in 17 study group (XGC) as compared to 27 Control group (NXGC) 53%vs.3.3% with P-value of < 0.023.
XGC is a rare entity of cholecystitis and preoperative diagnosis is a challenging task. Difficult dissection was encountered in open as well in laparoscopic cholecystectomy with increased operation time. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was carried out with high conversion rate to improve the safety of procedure. Per operative clinical suspicion of malignancy was high but no association of XGC was found with gallbladder carcinoma, therefore frozen section is recommended before embarking on radical surgery.
Bile duct injury; laparoscopic cholecystectomy; xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis
AIM: To evaluate the impact of incidental gallbladder cancer on surgical experience.
METHODS: Between 1998 and 2008 all cases of cholecystectomy at two divisions of general surgery, one university based and one at a public hospital, were retrospectively reviewed. Gallbladder pathology was diagnosed by history, physical examination, and laboratory and imaging studies [ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT)]. Patients with gallbladder cancer (GBC) were further analyzed for demographic data, and type of operation, surgical morbidity and mortality, histopathological classification, and survival. Incidental GBC was compared with suspected or preoperatively diagnosed GBC. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS). The secondary endpoint was the difference in DFS between patients previously treated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy and those who had oncological resection as first intervention.
RESULTS: Nineteen patients (11 women and eight men) were found to have GBC. The male to female ratio was 1:1.4 and the mean age was 68 years (range: 45-82 years). Preoperative diagnosis was made in 10 cases, and eight were diagnosed postoperatively. One was suspected intraoperatively and confirmed by frozen sections. The ratio between incidental and nonincidental cases was 9/19. The tumor node metastasis stage was: pTis (1), pT1a (2), pT1b (4), pT2 (6), pT3 (4), pT4 (2); five cases with stage Ia (T1 a-b); two with stage Ib (T2 N0); one with stage IIa (T3 N0); six with stage IIb (T1-T3 N1); two with stage III (T4 Nx Nx); and one with stage IV (Tx Nx Mx). Eighty-eight percent of the incidental cases were discovered at an early stage (≤ II). Preoperative diagnosis of the 19 patients with GBC was: GBC with liver invasion diagnosed by preoperative CT (nine cases), gallbladder abscess perforated into hepatic parenchyma and involving the transversal mesocolon and hepatic hilum (one case), porcelain gallbladder (one case), gallbladder adenoma (one case), and chronic cholelithiasis (eight cases). Every case, except one, with a T1b or more advanced invasion underwent IVb + V wedge liver resection and pericholedochic/hepatoduodenal lymphadenectomy. One patient with stage T1b GBC refused further surgery. Cases with Tis and T1a involvement were treated with cholecystectomy alone. One incidental case was diagnosed by intraoperative frozen section and treated with cholecystectomy alone. Six of the nine patients with incidental diagnosis reached 5-year DFS. One patient reached 38 mo survival despite a port-site recurrence 2 years after original surgery. Cases with non incidental diagnosis were more locally advanced and only two patients experienced 5-year DFS.
CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy does not affect survival if implemented properly. Reoperation should have two objectives: R0 resection and clearance of the lymph nodes.
Incidental gallbladder cancer; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Lymph nodes; Hepatic resection; Management; Outcome
To investigate clinical features and outcomes in patients with acute cholecystitis with gall bladder perforation receiving open cholecystectomy or percutaneous transhepatic gall bladder drainage in the emergency department.
From 1996 through 2005, 33 patients with non‐traumatic gall bladder perforation, among 585 patients with acute cholecystitis, were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups: open cholecystectomy in 16 patients and percutaneous transhepatic gall bladder drainage in 17 patients. Medical records, including demographic data, past history of systemic diseases or gallbladder stones, initial clinical presentations, laboratory data, physical status, therapeutic interventions, and outcomes, were analysed.
Mean patient age was 72.6 years (range 54–92 years). 28 patients (84.8%) were male. Median time of symptom onset before emergency department diagnosis was 5 days (range 0.5–30 days). Estimated incidence of gall bladder perforation was 5.6% (33/585). 27 patients (81.8%) had gallstones operatively or in image studies. All patients had either right upper quadrant pain/tenderness or epigastric pain/tenderness. Only 9 (27.3%) patients had positive Murphy's sign. Six patients in the percutaneous transhepatic gall bladder drainage group received further open cholecystectomy. Overall mortality was 24.2% (8/33). The direct cause of death was disease related sepsis in all patients. Patients receiving percutaneous transhepatic gall bladder drainage had a higher survival rate than those receiving open cholecystectomy (100% vs 50%, p<0.001). No differences in complications and length of hospital stay of survivors were observed between groups.
In this study, we delineated clinical features of patients with gall bladder perforation. Better clinical outcome is observed for percutaneous transhepatic gall bladder drainage, and this is suggested as an initial therapeutic choice, especially in high risk patients who are likely to need surgery.
Gallbladder cancer, though generally considered rare, is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract, accounting for 80%–95% of biliary tract cancers. An early diagnosis is essential as this malignancy progresses silently with a late diagnosis, often proving fatal. Its carcinogenesis follows a progression through a metaplasia–dysplasia–carcinoma sequence. This comprehensive review focuses on and explores the risks, management, and outcomes for primary gallbladder carcinoma. Epidemiological studies have identified striking geographic and ethnic disparities – inordinately high occurrence in American Indians, elevated in Southeast Asia, yet quite low elsewhere in the Americas and the world. Age, female sex, congenital biliary tract anomalies, and a genetic predisposition represent important risk factors that are immutable. Environmental triggers play a critical role in eliciting cancer developing in the gallbladder, best exemplified by cholelithiasis and chronic inflammation from biliary tract and parasitic infections. Mortality rates closely follow incidence; those countries with the highest prevalence of gallstones experience the greatest mortality from gallbladder cancer. Vague symptoms often delay the diagnosis of gallbladder cancer, contributing to its overall progression and poor outcome. Surgery represents the only potential for cure. Some individuals are fortunate to be incidentally found to have gallbladder cancer at the time of cholecystectomy being performed for cholelithiasis. Such an early diagnosis is imperative as a late presentation connotes advanced staging, nodal involvement, and possible recurrence following attempted resection. Overall mean survival is a mere 6 months, while 5-year survival rate is only 5%. The dismal prognosis, in part, relates to the gallbladder lacking a serosal layer adjacent to the liver, enabling hepatic invasion and metastatic progression. Improved imaging modalities are helping to diagnose patients at an earlier stage. The last decade has witnessed improved outcomes as aggressive surgical management and preoperative adjuvant therapy has helped prolong survival in patients with gallbladder cancer. In the future, the development of potential diagnostic markers for disease will yield screening opportunities for those at risk either with ethnic susceptibility or known anatomic anomalies of the biliary tract. Meanwhile, clarification of the value of prophylactic cholecystectomy should provide an opportunity for secondary prevention. Primary prevention will arrive once the predictive biomarkers and environmental risk factors are more clearly identified.
gallstones; cholelithiasis; incidence; cholecystectomy; gallbladder polyp; anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct; primary sclerosing cholangitis
Gallbladder carcinoma is an uncommon cancer with a poor prognosis. In the era of laparoscopic cholecistectomy for treatment of benign diseases incidental gallbladder carcinoma has dramatically increased and now constitutes the major way patients present with gallbladder cancer and allows to detect cancer at early stages with a better prognosis. In this single-center study we report our experience with gallbladder carcinoma incidentally diagnosed during or after laparoscopic colecistectomy performed for cholelithiasis.
From January 2003 to December 2011 a total of 1193 patients underwent cholecistectomy at General Surgical Unit III of University of Bari. The patients were 458 males and 735 females, mean age was 52 years (range 19–91). In 6 of 1188 patients adenocarcinoma was present in the pathologic specimens (0,5%).
Of 1188 patients in whom laparoscopic cholecistectomy was attempted adenocarcinoma was diagnosed histopathologically in 6 cases (0,5%). There was no suspicion of malignancy to any of them. Intraoperatively, gallbladder wall appeared abnormal in one patients and frozen section analysis revealed adenocarcinoma. In the remaining 5 cases routine histopathological studies revealed the diagnosis of gallbladder carcinoma. One patient had T1 tumor, two had T2 and three had T3 tumor.
In the present study the rate of incidental gallbladder carcinoma was 0,5%, according to the published English language literature. The risk factors widely related to the gallbladder cancer are advanced age and gallstones disease. The therapeutic approach to gallbladder cancer was applied according to the stage of tumor, but in our study this was possible only in two patients with T2 and T3 tumor since high risk and important comorbidities were the main causes for the refusal of 3 patient out of 5. Only the T1 patient underwent simple cholecystectomy. Similar to other reports in this single-center study the diagnosis of incidental gallbladder carcinoma was found to be of 0,5%, thus the diagnosis of gallbladder stones is an indication to the cholecystectomy.
Incidental; Gallbladder; Carcinoma; Laparoscopy
Biliary drainage is a radical method to relieve cholestasis, a cause of acute cholangitis, and takes a central part in the treatment of acute cholangitis. Emergent drainage is essential for severe cases, whereas patients with moderate and mild disease should also receive drainage as soon as possible if they do not respond to conservative treatment, and their condition has not improved. Biliary drainage can be achieved via three different routes/procedures: endoscopic, percutaneous transhepatic, and open methods. The clinical value of both endoscopic and percutaneous transhepatic drainage is well known. Endoscopic drainage is associated with a low morbidity rate and shorter duration of hospitalization; therefore, this approach is advocated whenever it is applicable. In endoscopic drainage, either endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) or tube stent placement can be used. There is no significant difference in the success rate, effectiveness, and morbidity between the two procedures. The decision to perform endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is made based on the patient’s condition and the number and diameter of common bile duct stones. Open drainage, on the other hand, should be applied only in patients for whom endoscopic or percutaneous transhepatic drainage is contraindicated or has not been successfully performed. Cholecystectomy is recommended in patients with gallbladder stones, following the resolution of acute cholangitis with medical treatment, unless the patient has poor operative risk factors or declines surgery.
Cholangitis; Biliary; Drainage; Endoscopy; Percutaneous; Sphincterotomy; Guidelines
AIM: To delineate indications and limitations for "extended" radical cholecystectomy for gallbladder cancer: a procedure which was instituted in our department in 1982.
METHODS: Of 145 patients who underwent a radical resection for gallbladder cancer from 1982 through 2006, 52 (36%) had an extended radical cholecystectomy, which involved en bloc resection of the gallbladder, gallbladder fossa, extrahepatic bile duct, and the regional lymph nodes (first- and second-echelon node groups). A retrospective analysis of the 52 patients was conducted including at least 5 years of follow up. Residual tumor status was judged as no residual tumor (R0) or microscopic/macroscopic residual tumor (R1-2). Pathological findings were documented according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer Cancer Staging Manual (7th edition).
RESULTS: The primary tumor was classified as pathological T1 (pT1) in 3 patients, pT2 in 36, pT3 in 12, and pT4 in 1. Twenty-three patients had lymph node metastases; 11 had a single positive node, 4 had two positive nodes, and 8 had three or more positive nodes. None of the three patients with pT1 tumors had nodal disease, whereas 23 of 49 (47%) with pT2 or more advanced tumors had nodal disease. One patient died during the hospital stay for definitive resection, giving an in-hospital mortality rate of 2%. Overall survival (OS) after extended radical cholecystectomy was 65% at 5 years and 53% at 10 years in all 52 patients. OS differed according to the pT classification (P < 0.001) and the nodal status (P = 0.010). All of 3 patients with pT1 tumors and most (29 of 36) patients with pT2 tumors survived for more than 5 years. Of 12 patients with pT3 tumors, 8 who had an R1-2 resection, distant metastasis, or extensive extrahepatic organ involvement died soon after resection. Of the remaining four pT3 patients who had localized hepatic spread through the gallbladder fossa and underwent an R0 resection, 2 survived for more than 5 years and another survived for 4 years and 2 mo. The only patient with pT4 tumor died of disease soon after resection. Among 23 node-positive patients, 11 survived for more than 5 years, and of these, 10 had a modest degree of nodal disease (one or two positive nodes).
CONCLUSION: Extended radical cholecystectomy is indicated for pT2 tumors and some pT3 tumors with localized hepatic invasion, provided that the regional nodal disease is limited to a modest degree (up to two positive nodes). Extensive pT3 disease, pT4 disease, or marked nodal disease appears to be beyond the scope of this radical procedure.
Gallbladder neoplasms; Radical surgery; Hepatectomy; Bile duct resection; Lymph node excision; Prognosis
Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is an uncommon variant of chronic cholecystitis characterised by marked thickening of the gallbladder wall and dense local adhesions. Pre-operative and intra-operative diagnosis is difficult and it often mimics a gallbladder carcinoma (GBC). Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is frequently unsuccessful with a high conversion rate. A series of patients with this condition led us to review our experience with XGC and to try to develop a care pathway for its management.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
A retrospective review of the medical records of 1296 consecutive patients who had undergone cholecystectomy between January 2000 and April 2005 at our hospital was performed. Twenty-nine cases of XGC were identified among these cholecystectomies. The clinical, radiological and operative details of these patients have been analysed.
The incidence of XGC was 2.2% in our study. The mean age at presentation was 60.3 years with a female:male ratio of 1.4:1. Twenty-three patients (79%) required an emergency surgical admission at first presentation. In three patients, a GBC was suspected both radiologically and at operation (10.3%), but was later disproved on histology. Seventeen patients (59%) had obstructive jaundice at first presentation and required an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) before LC. Of these, five had common bile duct stones. Abdominal ultrasound scan showed marked thickening of the gallbladder wall in 16 cases (55%). LC was attempted in 24 patients, but required conversion to an open procedure in 11 patients (46% conversion rate). A total cholecystectomy was possible in 18 patients and a partial cholecystectomy was the choice in 11 (38%). The average operative time was 96 min. Three patients developed a postoperative bile leak, one of whom required ERCP and placement of a biliary stent. The average length of stay in the hospital was 6.3 days.
Severe xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis often mimics a gallbladder carcinoma. Currently, a correct pre-operative diagnosis is rarely made. With increased awareness and a high index of suspicion, radiological diagnosis is possible. Preoperative counselling of these patients should include possible intra-operative difficulties and the differential diagnosis of gallbladder cancer. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is frequently unsuccessful and a partial cholecystectomy is often the procedure of choice.
Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis; Gallbladder carcinoma; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy
AIM: To clarify the strategy for early diagnosis of pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) without biliary dilatation and to pathologically examine gallbladder before cancer develops.
METHODS: The anatomy of the union of the pancreatic and bile ducts was assessed by using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Patients with a long common channel in which communication between the pancreatic and bile ducts was maintained even during sphincter contraction were diagnosed as having PBM. Of these, patients in which the maximal diameter of the bile duct was less than 10 mm were diagnosed with PBM without biliary dilatation. The process of diagnosing 54 patients with PBM without biliary dilatation was retrospectively investigated. Histopathological analysis of resected gallbladder specimens from 8 patients with PBM without biliary dilatation or cancer was conducted.
RESULTS: Thirty-six PBM patients without biliary dilatation were diagnosed with gallbladder cancer after showing clinical symptoms such as abdominal or back pain (n = 16) or jaundice (n = 12). Radical surgery for gallbladder cancer was only possible in 11 patients (31%) and only 4 patients (11%) survived for 5 years. Eight patients were suspected as having PBM without biliary dilatation from the finding of gallbladder wall thickening on ultrasound and the diagnosis was confirmed by ERCP and/or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). The median age of these 8 patients was younger by a decade than PBM patients with gallbladder cancer. All 8 patients underwent prophylactic cholecystectomy and bile duct cancer has not occurred. Wall thickness and mucosal height of the 8 resected gallbladders were significantly greater than controls, and hyperplastic changes, hypertrophic muscular layer, subserosal fibrosis, and adenomyomatosis were detected in 7 (88%), 5 (63%), 7 (88%) and 5 (63%) patients, respectively. Ki-67 labeling index was high and K-ras mutation was detected in 3 of 6 patients.
CONCLUSION: To detect PBM without biliary dilatation before onset of gallbladder cancer, we should perform MRCP for individuals showing increased gallbladder wall thickness on ultrasound.
Pancreaticobiliary maljunction; Pancreatobiliary reflux; Ultrasound; Gallbladder cancer; Endoscopic ultrasonography
Cholecystectomy has been the treatment of choice for symptomatic gallstones, but remains the greatest source of post-operative biliary injuries. Laparoscopic approach has been recently preferred because of short hospitalisation and low morbidity but has an higher incidence of biliary leakages and bile duct injuries than open one due to a technical error or misinterpretation of the anatomy. Even open cholecystectomy presents a small number of complications especially if it was performed in urgency. Hemobilia is one of the most common cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding from the biliary ducts into the gastrointestinal tract due to trauma, advent of invasive procedures such as percutaneous liver biopsy, transhepatic cholangiography, and biliary drainage.
We report here a case of massive hemobilia in a 60-year-old man who underwent an urgent open cholecystectomy and a subsequent placement of a transhepatic biliary drainage.
The management of these complications enclose endoscopic, percutaneous and surgical therapies. After a diagnosis of biliary fistula, it's most important to assess the adequacy of bile drainage to determine a controlled fistula and to avoid bile collection and peritonitis. Transarterial embolization is the first line of intervention to stop hemobilia while surgical intervention should be considered if embolization fails or is contraindicated.
We posed six clinical questions (CQ) on preoperative biliary drainage and organized all pertinent evidence regarding these questions. CQ 1. Is preoperative biliary drainage necessary for patients with jaundice? The indications for preoperative drainage for jaundiced patients are changing greatly. Many reports state that, excluding conditions such as cholangitis and liver dysfunction, biliary drainage is not necessary before pancreatoduodenectomy or less invasive surgery. However, the morbidity and mortality of extended hepatectomy for biliary cancer is still high, and the most common cause of death is hepatic failure; therefore, preoperative biliary drainage is desirable in patients who are to undergo extended hepatectomy. CQ 2. What procedures are appropriate for preoperative biliary drainage? There are three methods of biliary drainage: percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD), endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) or endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (ERBD), and surgical drainage. ERBD is an internal drainage method, and PTBD and ENBD are external methods. However, there are no reports of comparisons of preoperative biliary drainage methods using randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Thus, at this point, a method should be used that can be safely performed with the equipment and techniques available at each facility. CQ 3. Which is better, unilateral or bilateral biliary drainage, in malignant hilar obstruction? Unilateral biliary drainage of the future remnant hepatic lobe is usually enough even when intrahepatic bile ducts are separated into multiple units due to hilar malignancy. Bilateral biliary drainage should be considered in the following cases: those in which the operative procedure is difficult to determine before biliary drainage; those in which cholangitis has developed after unilateral drainage; and those in which the decrease in serum bilirubin after unilateral drainage is very slow. CQ 4. What is the best treatment for postdrainage fever? The most likely cause of high fever in patients with biliary drainage is cholangitis due to problems with the existing drainage catheter or segmental cholangitis if an undrained segment is left. In the latter case, urgent drainage is required. CQ 5. Is bile culture necessary in patients with biliary drainage who are to undergo surgery? Monitoring of bile cultures is necessary for patients with biliary drainage to determine the appropriate use of antibiotics during the perioperative period. CQ 6. Is bile replacement useful for patients with external biliary drainage? Maintenance of the enterohepatic bile circulation is vitally important. Thus, preoperative bile replacement in patients with external biliary drainage is very likely to be effective when highly invasive surgery (e.g., extended hepatectomy for hilar cholangiocarcinoma) is planned.
Biliary; Drainage; Endoscopy; Percutaneous; Bile replacement; Guidelines
Background and Objectives:
Gallbladder carcinoma is found in 0.2 % to 5% of patients undergoing cholecystectomy, and gallstones are found in 70% to 98% of patients with gallbladder carcinoma. Early diagnosis of carcinoma is difficult because of the absence of specific symptoms and the frequent association with chronic cholecystitis and gallstones. At present, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the gold standard for the surgical treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis and other benign gallbladder diseases. The aims of this study were to evaluate retrospectively the incidence of occasional and occult gallbladder carcinomas to ascertain the effect of laparoscopy on diagnosis and treatment of unexpected extrahepatic biliary tree carcinomas and to assess possible guidelines that can be taken into consideration when the problem is encountered.
Clinical records of 3900 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were reviewed. Patients with occasional (intraoperative = Group A) or occult (postoperative = Group B) diagnosis of gallbladder or common bile duct carcinoma entered the study group. Follow-up data were obtained in June 2000.
A total of 14 patients (0.35%), 3 men and 11 women, mean age 60.8 years (range 37 to 73) with extra-hepatic biliary tree carcinoma were found. Occasional carcinomas occurred in 8 patients, occult carcinomas in 6. No deaths occurred in either group. The overall survival at mean follow-up of 30.5 months is 50%. Five patients are disease free, and 2 are alive with evidence of recurrence.
In 2 large series of unselected consecutive laparoscopic cholecystectomy, only 14 unsuspected malignant tumors of the extrahepatic biliary tree were found (0.35%). The limits of the preoperative workup and the difficult diagnosis of biliary tract carcinoma during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, has led to the present retrospective study and several significant recommendations.
Gallbladder carcinoma; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy
Percutaneous transhepatic cholecystic drainage (PTCCD) with percutaneous transhepatic cholecystoscopic lithotomy (PTCCSL) were performed in 53 patients with acute cholecystitis caused by gallbladder stones and studied stone removal rates, complications, endoscopic findings, and stone recurrence. The stones were successfully removed in 96% of the patients, and there were no serious complications. The coexistence of cancer was confirmed in three patients, and all cases were accurately diagnosed on the basis of uitrasonographic, endoscopic, and biopsy findings. The mean duration of follow-up after stone removal was 42 months, and the stone recurrence rate was 2.5%. Among the 39 patients followed up for at least 1 year, the gallbladder could be preserved with no evidence of sludge in patients in whom drainage was performed early after the onset of symptoms, those with a normal gallbladder after PTCCSL, and those with normal gallbladder contractility after PTCCSL. Sludge was present in patients with evidence of extensive areas of yellowish white fibers on percutaneous transhepatic cholecystoscopy. If instituted early after the onset of symptoms, PTCCD combined with PTCCSL was considered useful in the treatment of patients with acute cholecystitis associated with gallbladder stones.
Background: Gall bladder carcinoma accounts for 98% of all the gall bladder malignancies and it is the sixth most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract worldwide. The incidence of incidental gall bladder carcinoma which is diagnosed during or after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy is reported to be around 0.19-3.3% in the literature.
Aim: This study was aimed at detecting the incidence of gall bladder carcinomas which were diagnosed incidentally during or after laparoscopic cholecystectomies which were done for gall stone disease and cholecystitis.
Materials and Methods: We analyzed the medical records of patients with symptomatic gallstone disease and acute or chronic cholecystitis, who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomies at the Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital during the period from January 2007 to June 2012.
Results: A total of 622 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed at our institute during the study period of five and a half years. In 6 (0.96%) cases, incidental carcinomas of the gallbladder were discovered.
Conclusion: A laparoscopic cholecystectomy which is performed for benign gall bladder disease rarely results in a diagnosis of unexpected gallbladder cancer. The microscopic examination of the specimens, with special attention to the depth of invasion, range of the mucosal spread and the lymphovascular involvement, is critical in diagnosing the incidental malignancies as well as for the subsequent management of the cases.
Incidental; Gall bladder; Carcinoma
Biliary tract cancers have limitations in information about different location-related pathogenesis and clinico-pathological characteristics. The goal of this study was to investigate anatomical site-related similarities and differences in biliary tract cancers and to assess the expression and clinical significance of functional proteins such as p53, cyclin D1, survivin, thymidine phosphorylase, and ERCC1.
One hundred and sixty-one patients with biliary tract adenocarcinomas, who underwent curative or palliative surgery in a single institution between October 1994 and December 2003 were evaluated, retrospectively. The level of protein expression of p53, cyclin D1, survivin, thymidine phosphorylase, and ERCC1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry.
With respect to clinico-pathological characteristics, gallbladder cancer was more frequent in women, and bile duct cancer was more common in men. Perineural invasion was more common in bile duct cancer. Recurrence as a distant metastasis was more common in gallbladder cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that thymidine phosphorylase expression was significantly higher in gallbladder cancer than in bile duct cancer. Positive thymidine phosphorylase and p53 staining were associated with an advanced stage. Differentiation, vascular invasion, perineural invasion, lymphatic invasion, lymph node metastasis, and TNM stage independently predicted poor prognosis in biliary tract cancer. These correlations were seen more clearly in gallbladder cancer. The immunohistochemical staining patterns of p53, cyclin D1, survivin, thymidine phosphorylase, and ERCC1 showed no prognostic significance in biliary tract cancers.
We concluded that gallbladder and bile duct cancers are considered to be separate diseases with different clinico-pathological characteristics and prognostic factors. In addition, we hypothesize that high expression of thymidine phosphorylase by gallbladder cancer results in a higher response rate to capecitabine by gallbladder cancer than bile duct cancer.
Endoscopic self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placement has become a standard palliative therapy for patients with malignant biliary obstruction. Acute cholecystitis after SEMS placement is a serious complication. We report a patient with an acute cholecystitis after covered SEMS placement, who was managed successfully with endoscopic transpapillary gallbladder drainage (ETGBD) and replacement of the covered SEMS. An 85-year-old man with pancreatic cancer suffered from acute cholecystitis after covered SEMS placement. It was impossible to perform percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage. After removal of the covered SEMS with a snare, a 7Fr double pigtail stent was placed between the gallbladder and duodenum, subsequently followed by another covered SEMS insertion into the common bile duct beside the gallbladder stent. The cholecystitis improved immediately after ETGBD. ETGBD with replacement of the covered SEMS thus proved to be effective for treatment of patients with acute cholecystitis after covered SEMS placement.
Self-expandable metal stent; Cholecystitis; Endoscopic transpapillary gallbladder drainage
The only curative treatment in biliary tract cancer is surgical treatment. Therefore, the suitability of curative resection should be investigated in the first place. In the presence of metastasis to the liver, lung, peritoneum, or distant lymph nodes, curative resection is not suitable. No definite consensus has been reached on local extension factors and curability. Measures of hepatic functional reserve in the jaundiced liver include future liver remnant volume and the indocyanine green (ICG) clearance test. Preoperative portal vein embolization may be considered in patients in whom right hepatectomy or more, or hepatectomy with a resection rate exceeding 50%–60% is planned. Postoperative complications and surgery-related mortality may be reduced with the use of portal vein embolization. Although hepatectomy and/or pancreaticoduodenectomy are preferable for the curative resection of bile duct cancer, extrahepatic bile duct resection alone is also considered in patients for whom it is judged that curative resection would be achieved after a strict diagnosis of its local extension. Also, combined caudate lobe resection is recommended for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Because the prognosis of patients treated with combined portal vein resection is significantly better than that of unresected patients, combined portal vein resection may be carried out. Prognostic factors after resection for bile duct cancer include positive surgical margins, especially in the ductal stump; lymph node metastasis; perineural invasion; and combined vascular resection due to portal vein and/or hepatic artery invasion. For patients with suspected gallbladder cancer, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not recommended, and open cholecystectomy should be performed as a rule. When gallbladder cancer invading the subserosal layer or deeper has been detected after simple cholecystectomy, additional resection should be considered. Prognostic factors after resection for gallbladder cancer include the depth of mural invasion; lymph node metastasis; extramural extension, especially into the hepatoduodenal ligament; perineural invasion; and the degree of curability. Pancreaticoduodenectomy is indicated for ampullary carcinoma, and limited operation is also indicated for carcinoma in adenoma. The prognostic factors after resection for ampullary carcinoma include lymph node metastasis, pancreatic invasion, and perineural invasion.
Biliary tract neoplasms; Bile duct neoplasms; Gallbladder neoplasms; Ampulla of Vater; Surgery; Guidelines
Endoscopic transpapillary pernasal gallbladder drainage and endoscopic
gallbladder stenting (EGS) have recently been reported to be useful in
patients with acute cholecystitis for whom a percutaneous approach is
contraindicated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of
permanent EGS for management of acute cholecystitis in elderly patients who
were poor surgical candidates.
We retrospectively studied 46 elderly patients aged 65 years or older with
acute cholecystitis who were treated at Japan Labour Health and Welfare
Organization Niigata Rosai Hospital. In 40 patients, acute cholecystitis was
diagnosed by transabdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography, while 6
patients were transferred from other hospitals after primary management of
acute cholecystitis. All patients underwent EGS, with a 7Fr double pig-tail
stent being inserted into the gallbladder. If EGS failed, percutaneous
transhepatic gallbladder drainage or percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder
aspiration was subsequently performed. The main outcome measure of this
study was the efficacy of EGS.
Permanent EGS was successful in 31 patients (77.5%) with acute cholecystitis,
without any immediate postprocedural complications such as pancreatitis,
bleeding, perforation, or cholangitis. The most common comorbidities of
these patients were cerebral infarction (n=14) and dementia (n=13). In 30 of
these 31 patients (96.7%), there was no recurrence of cholecystitis and 29
patients (93.5%) remained asymptomatic until death or the end of the study
period (after 1 month to 5 years).
EGS can be effective for elderly patients with acute cholecystitis who are
poor surgical candidates and can provide a solution for several years.
Endoscopic gallbladder stenting; Cholecystitis; Percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage; percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder aspiration; Endoscopic transpapillary naso-gallbladder drainage; Elderly patients
Selective approach for sending cholecystectomy specimens for histopathology results in missing discrete pathologies such as premalignant benign lesions such as porcelain gallbladder, carcinoma-in-situ, and early carcinomas. To avoid such blunders therefore, every cholecystectomy specimen should be routinely examined histologically. Unfortunately, the practice of discarding gallbladder specimen is standard in most tertiary care hospitals of Pakistan including the primary investigators’ own institution. This study was conducted to assess the feasibility or otherwise of performing histopathology in every specimen of gallbladder.
This cohort study included 220 patients with gallstones for cholecystectomy. All cases with known secondaries from gallbladder, local invasion from other viscera, traumatic rupture of gallbladder, gross malignancy of gallbladder found during surgery was excluded from the study. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed in majority of cases except in those cases where anatomical distortion and dense adhesions prevented laparoscopy. All gallbladder specimens were sent for histopathology, irrespective of their gross appearance.
Over a period of two years, 220 patients with symptomatic gallstones were admitted for cholecystectomy. Most of the patients were females (88%). Ninety two per cent patients presented with upper abdominal pain of varying duration. All specimens were sent for histopathology. Two hundred and three of the specimens showed evidence chronic cholecystitis, 7 acute cholecystitis with mucocele, 3 acute cholecystitis with empyema and one chronic cholecystitis associated with poly. Six gallbladders (2.8%) showed adenocarcinoma of varying differentiation along with cholelithiasis.
The histopathological spectrum of gallbladder is extremely variable. Incidental diagnosis of carcinoma gall bladder is not rare; if the protocol of routine histopathology of all gallbladder specimens is not followed, subclinical malignancies would fail to be identified with disastrous results. We strongly recommend routine histopathology of all cholecystectomy specimens.
Gallbladder malignancy; Cholelithiasis; Cholecystectomy
The etiology of biliary tract cancer is obscure, but there are evidences that bile acid plays a role in carcinogenesis. To find the association between biliary tract cancer and bile acid, this study compared the bile acid concentration and composition among patients with biliary cancer, biliary tract stones, and no biliary disease. Bile was compared among patients with biliary tract cancer (n = 26), biliary tract stones (n = 29), and disease free controls (n = 9). Samples were obtained by percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, endoscopic nasobiliary drainage, or gallbladder puncture, and analyzed for cholic, deoxycholic, chenodeoxycholic, lithocholic, and ursodeoxycholic acid composition. Total bile acid concentration was lower in the cancer group than the biliary stone and control groups; the proportions of deoxycholic (2.2% vs. 10.2% and 23.6%, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively) and lithocholic acid (0.3% vs. 0.6% and 1.0%, p = 0.065 and p < 0.001, respectively) were also lower. This result was similar when disease site was limited to bile duct or gallbladder. Analysis of cases with bilirubin ≤ 2.0 mg/dL also showed lower total bile acid concentration and deoxycholic acid composition in the cancer group compared to controls (5.7% vs. 23.6%, p = 0.003). Although the presence of bile duct obstruction explains some of the difference in total concentration and composition of bile acid, there are other contributing mechanisms. We suspect the alteration of bile acid transport might decrease bile acid excretion and cause the accumulation of carcinogenic bile acid in bile duct epithelium.
Bile; bile acid; biliary tract cancer
The registry of digestive tract tumours established for the department of Cote-d'Or (France) was used to study the epidemiological characteristics and the natural history of biliary tract cancers. Age standardised incidence rates for gallbladder cancers were 2.7/100,000 for women and 0.9/100,000 for men. The corresponding rates for extrahepatic bile duct cancers were 0.5/100,000 and 1.7/100,000, and for ampulla of Vater cancer 0.3/100,000 and 0.3/100,000. The three cancers differ in their descriptive epidemiology and should be considered separately in epidemiological analytical investigations. The incidence of each of the three diseases increased with age, and cancers of known histological type were mainly adenocarcinomas. Some gallbladder cancers were undifferentiated or squamous cell carcinomas. There was no significant variation in incidence for gallbladder cancer and extrahepatic bile duct cancer over the eight years of the study. The association with gallstones was frequent in gallbladder cancer: 70.5% compared to 13.0% in other biliary tract cancers (less than 0.001). Although the association of gallbladder cancer with gallstones is frequent, few patients with cholelithiasis experience development of a gallbladder cancer. It is necessary to identify among patients with gallstones a subgroup at high risk of gallbladder cancer in whom prophylactic surgery might be justified. Biliary tract cancers are seldom diagnosed early: lymph nodes or visceral metastases were present in 77% of gallbladder cancers, in 83% of extrahepatic bile duct cancers, and in 55% of ampulla of Vater cancers at the time of diagnosis. The corresponding resectability rates were 46.1%, 11.9%, and 38.9%. The five-year overall survival rates were 2.9% for gallbladder cancer, 0% for extrahepatic bile duct cancer, and 18.3% for ampulla of Vater cancer. The corresponding five-year survival rates after surgery for cure were 10.3%, 0%, and 35.7%. Biliary tract cancer still represent a great therapeutic challenge.
AIM: To identify factors that were related to the short term effectiveness of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in cholangiocarcinoma patients and to evaluate the impact of palliative drainage on their survival.
METHODS: Seventy-four patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma who underwent percutaneous biliary drainage were enrolled in the study. The demographic and laboratory data as well as the imaging characteristics were retrospectively analyzed to correlate with the bile output and reduction rate of serum bilirubin 1 wk after drainage.
RESULTS: Patients with more bile duct visualized on percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography or absence of multiple liver metastases on imaging studies had more bile output after biliary drainage [odds ratio (OR): 8.471, P = 0.010 and OR: 1.959, P = 0.022, respectively]. Patients with prolonged prothrombin time had a slow decrease in serum bilirubin (OR: 0.437, P = 0.005). The median survival time was not significantly different in patients with low or high bile output (75 d vs 125 d, P = 0.573) or in patients with slow or rapid reduction of serum bilirubin (88 d vs 94 d, P = 0.576).
CONCLUSION: The short term effectiveness of percutaneous biliary drainage was related to patient’s prothrombin time or the extent of tumor involvement. It, however, had no impact on survival.
Cholangiocarcinoma; Percutaneous biliary drainage; Treatment effectiveness
Gallbladder cancer is a very common malignancy in the northern part of India. Surgery is the only potentially curative modality of treatment for this disease. Radical cholecystectomy is the optimal surgical standard for resectable gallbladder cancer. This includes cholecystectomy, liver resection (wedge, segments 4b and 5, or extended right hepatectomy), and regional lymphadenectomy along the hepatoduodenal ligament, behind the duodenum and pancreatic head, common hepatic artery and celiac axis. Controversies regarding extent of liver resection, lymphadenectomy and role of multiorgan resection have been discussed. Incidental gallbladder cancer is often detected on histopathologic examination of the simple cholecystectomy specimen removed for a presumed gallstone disease. Revision surgery should be performed for incidental cancers that invade muscularis propria or beyond (T1b or more). Advanced gallbladder cancer should be treated non-operatively with a palliative intent. Obstructive jaundice in the setting of an advanced gallbladder cancer can be palliated with biliary stenting by endoscopic or transhepatic means. Occasionally, a surgical biliary bypass may be indicated to relieve intractable pruritus in a jaundiced patient with gallbladder cancer. There is no role of a planned R2 resection of advanced gallbladder cancer for the purpose of cytoreduction. Further improvement in the management of gallbladder cancer will need integration of systemic chemotherapy with radical surgery.
Gallbladder cancer; Radical cholecystectomy; Revision surgery; Segment 3 bypass