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1.  Gallbladder carcinoma: Prognostic factors and therapeutic options 
World Journal of Gastroenterology  2015;21(43):12211-12217.
The outcome of gallbladder carcinoma is poor, and the overall 5-year survival rate is less than 5%. In early-stage disease, a 5-year survival rate up to 75% can be achieved if stage-adjusted therapy is performed. There is wide geographic variability in the frequency of gallbladder carcinoma, which can only be explained by an interaction between genetic factors and their alteration. Gallstones and chronic cholecystitis are important risk factors in the formation of gallbladder malignancies. Factors such as chronic bacterial infection, primary sclerosing cholangitis, an anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct, and several types of gallbladder polyps are associated with a higher risk of gallbladder cancer. There is also an interesting correlation between risk factors and the histological type of cancer. However, despite theoretical risk factors, only a third of gallbladder carcinomas are recognized preoperatively. In most patients, the tumor is diagnosed by the pathologist after a routine cholecystectomy for a benign disease and is termed ‘‘incidental or occult gallbladder carcinoma’’ (IGBC). A cholecystectomy is performed frequently due to the minimal invasiveness of the laparoscopic technique. Therefore, the postoperative diagnosis of potentially curable early-stage disease is more frequent. A second radical re-resection to complete a radical cholecystectomy is required for several IGBCs. However, the literature and guidelines used in different countries differ regarding the radicality or T-stage criteria for performing a radical cholecystectomy. The NCCN guidelines and data from the German registry (GR), which records the largest number of incidental gallbladder carcinomas in Europe, indicate that carcinomas infiltrating the muscularis propria or beyond require radical surgery. According to GR data and current literature, a wedge resection with a combined dissection of the lymph nodes of the hepatoduodenal ligament is adequate for T1b and T2 carcinomas. The reason for a radical cholecystectomy after simple CE in a formally R0 situation is either occult invasion or hepatic spread with unknown lymphogenic dissemination. Unfortunately, there are diverse interpretations and practices regarding stage-adjusted therapy for gallbladder carcinoma. The current data suggest that more radical therapy is warranted.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v21.i43.12211
PMCID: PMC4649107  PMID: 26604631
Gallbladder carcinoma; Stage-adjusted therapy; Radical cholecystectomy; Gallbladder polyps; Cholecystitis; Gallstones; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy
2.  Surgery for recurrent biliary carcinoma: results for 27 recurrent cases 
Background
Various chemotherapies have been used as best practice to treat recurrent biliary malignancies. Conversely, relatively few surgeries have been described for recurrent extrahepatic biliary carcinoma (RExBC), so whether surgery for RExBC is feasible has remained unclear. This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of surgery for RExBC.
Methods
From February 2000 to January 2014, a total of 27 patients, comprising 18 patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and 9 patients with gallbladder carcinoma, met our criteria for radical resection of RExBC (resection group). Sites of recurrence consisted of liver metastases (ten patients), local/percutaneous transhepatic cholangio drainage (PTCD) fistula recurrence (eight patients), bile duct recurrence (six patients), and lymph node recurrence (one patient). To evaluate the survival impact of resection, we compared 123 RExBC patients (resection group) with patients who received palliative care (palliative group).
Results
Morbidity and mortality rates in the resection group were 6.6% and 0%, respectively. Overall cumulative 5-year survival rates were 23.5% in the resection group and 0% in the palliative group. Median survival time was 21.6 months in the resection group and 9.5 months in the palliative group, showing a significant difference (p < 0.01). No significant differences in cumulative survival were seen between extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder carcinoma in the resection group. In addition, no significant differences were seen between liver metastases, bile duct recurrence, and local/percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) fistula recurrence in the resection group.
Conclusions
Surgery appears feasible for RExBC and offers longer survival for selected patients.
doi:10.1186/s12957-015-0507-8
PMCID: PMC4350290  PMID: 25884694
Recurrent biliary malignancy; Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma; Gallbladder carcinoma; Surgery; Chemotherapy; Survival
3.  Outcomes of Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis in laparoscopic era: A retrospective Cohort study 
INTRODUCTION:
Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is a rare variant of cholecystitis and reported incidence of XGC varies from different geographic region from 0.7% -9%. Most of the clinicians are not aware of the pathology and less evidence is available regarding the optimal treatment of this less common form of cholecystitis in the present era of laparoscopic surgery.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary care university hospital from 1989 to 2009. Histopathologically confirmed XGC study patients (N=27) were compared with non-Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (NXGC) control group (N=27). The outcomes variables were operative time, complication rate and laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy conversion rate. The study group (XGC) was further divided in to three sub groups; group I open cholecystectomy (OC), laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and laparoscopic converted to open cholecystectomy (LCO) for comparative analysis to identify the significant variables.
RESULTS:
During the study period 6878 underwent cholecystectomy including open cholecystectomy in 2309 and laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 4569 patients. Histopathology confirmed xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis in 30 patients (0.43% of all cholecystectomies) and 27 patients qualified for the inclusion criterion. Gallbladder carcinoma was reported in 100 patients (1.45%) during the study period and no association was found with XGC. The mean age of patients with XGC was 49.8 year (range: 29-79), with male to female ratio of 1:3. The most common clinical features were abdominal pain and tenderness in right hypochondrium. Biliary colic and acute cholecystitis were the most common preoperative diagnosis. Ultrasonogram was performed in all patients and CT scan abdomen in 5 patients. In study population (XGC), 10 were patients in group I, 8 in group II and 9 in group III. Conversion rate from laparoscopy to open was 53 % (n=9), surgical site infection rate of 14.8% (n=4) and common bile duct injury occurred one patient in open cholecystectomy group (3.7%). Statistically significant differences between group I and group II were raised total leukocyte count: 10.6±3.05 vs. 7.05±1.8 (P-Value 0.02) and duration of surgery in minutes: 248.75±165 vs. 109±39.7 (P-Value 0.04). The differences between group III and group II were duration of surgery in minutes: 208.75±58 vs. 109±39.7 (P-Value 0.03) and duration of symptoms in days: 3±1.8 vs. 9.8±8.8 (P-Value 0.04). The mean hospital stay in group I was 9.7 days, group II 5.6 days and in group III 10.5 days. Two patients underwent extended cholecystectomy based on clinical suspicion of carcinoma. No mortality was observed in this study population. Duration of surgery was higher in XGC group as compared to controls (NXGC) (203±129 vs.128±4, p-value=0.008) and no statistically significant difference in incidence proportion of operative complication rate were observed among the group (25.9% vs. 14.8%, p-value=0.25. Laparoscopic surgery was introduced in 1994 and 17 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and higher conversion rate from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy was observed in 17 study group (XGC) as compared to 27 Control group (NXGC) 53%vs.3.3% with P-value of < 0.023.
CONCLUSION:
XGC is a rare entity of cholecystitis and preoperative diagnosis is a challenging task. Difficult dissection was encountered in open as well in laparoscopic cholecystectomy with increased operation time. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was carried out with high conversion rate to improve the safety of procedure. Per operative clinical suspicion of malignancy was high but no association of XGC was found with gallbladder carcinoma, therefore frozen section is recommended before embarking on radical surgery.
doi:10.4103/0972-9941.115368
PMCID: PMC3764653  PMID: 24019688
Bile duct injury; laparoscopic cholecystectomy; xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis
4.  Incidental gallbladder cancer during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Managing an unexpected finding 
AIM: To evaluate the impact of incidental gallbladder cancer on surgical experience.
METHODS: Between 1998 and 2008 all cases of cholecystectomy at two divisions of general surgery, one university based and one at a public hospital, were retrospectively reviewed. Gallbladder pathology was diagnosed by history, physical examination, and laboratory and imaging studies [ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT)]. Patients with gallbladder cancer (GBC) were further analyzed for demographic data, and type of operation, surgical morbidity and mortality, histopathological classification, and survival. Incidental GBC was compared with suspected or preoperatively diagnosed GBC. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS). The secondary endpoint was the difference in DFS between patients previously treated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy and those who had oncological resection as first intervention.
RESULTS: Nineteen patients (11 women and eight men) were found to have GBC. The male to female ratio was 1:1.4 and the mean age was 68 years (range: 45-82 years). Preoperative diagnosis was made in 10 cases, and eight were diagnosed postoperatively. One was suspected intraoperatively and confirmed by frozen sections. The ratio between incidental and nonincidental cases was 9/19. The tumor node metastasis stage was: pTis (1), pT1a (2), pT1b (4), pT2 (6), pT3 (4), pT4 (2); five cases with stage Ia (T1 a-b); two with stage Ib (T2 N0); one with stage IIa (T3 N0); six with stage IIb (T1-T3 N1); two with stage III (T4 Nx Nx); and one with stage IV (Tx Nx Mx). Eighty-eight percent of the incidental cases were discovered at an early stage (≤ II). Preoperative diagnosis of the 19 patients with GBC was: GBC with liver invasion diagnosed by preoperative CT (nine cases), gallbladder abscess perforated into hepatic parenchyma and involving the transversal mesocolon and hepatic hilum (one case), porcelain gallbladder (one case), gallbladder adenoma (one case), and chronic cholelithiasis (eight cases). Every case, except one, with a T1b or more advanced invasion underwent IVb + V wedge liver resection and pericholedochic/hepatoduodenal lymphadenectomy. One patient with stage T1b GBC refused further surgery. Cases with Tis and T1a involvement were treated with cholecystectomy alone. One incidental case was diagnosed by intraoperative frozen section and treated with cholecystectomy alone. Six of the nine patients with incidental diagnosis reached 5-year DFS. One patient reached 38 mo survival despite a port-site recurrence 2 years after original surgery. Cases with non incidental diagnosis were more locally advanced and only two patients experienced 5-year DFS.
CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy does not affect survival if implemented properly. Reoperation should have two objectives: R0 resection and clearance of the lymph nodes.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i30.4019
PMCID: PMC3419999  PMID: 22912553
Incidental gallbladder cancer; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Lymph nodes; Hepatic resection; Management; Outcome
5.  Management of massive haemobilia in an Indian hospital 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2008;70(6):288-295.
Introduction
Massive haemobilia carries a mortality of 25% in most reports. Although previously it was mainly due to road accidents or homicidal attempts it is now more often due to iatrogenic trauma like percutaneous liver biopsy and biliary drainage. However the management protocol is not established and there have been few reports of this serious condition from India.
Aim
To review the causes of massive haemobilia and outline its management in an Indian hospital.
Patients and methods
We retrospectively analysed the records of 20 consecutive patients with massive haemobilia (blood requirement more than 1400 ml/day) admitted to our department over six years from a prospectively maintained database. There were 10 males and 10 females who had a mean age of 43 (range 15–65) years.
Results
Haemobilia accounted for 9 percent of patients admitted with upper gastrointestinal bleeding who were seen over this period. The commonest cause was iatrogenic (11) including laparoscopic cholecystectomy (6), Whipple’s operation, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC), percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), hepatic stone extraction and removal of biliary stent (1 each). The others had accidental trauma (4), visceral aneurysms (2), biliary stones (2) and chronic pancreatitis (1). The commonest clinical presentation was massive gastrointestinal bleeding. The dual phase computed tomography (CT) scan correctly identified the site of bleeding and other associated conditions in all the 11 patients in whom it was done. Conventional angiography was done in 8 patients with transarterial embolisation (TAE) being attempted in 6 and successful in 2 patients. Operations were performed in 18 patients for the following indications — failure of angiographic embolisation (6), failure of endoscopic sclerotherapy (EST) (1), duodenal erosion (2), portal biliopathy (1), haemoperitoneum (1), bile leak (1), pseudocyst (1), liver necrosis (1) and other hepatobiliary conditions (4). The surgical procedures to control bleeding were ligation of aneurysms (8), repair of the hepatic artery (4), right hepatectomy (3), lienorenal shunt, cholecystectomy and under-running of the duodenal papilla (1 each). The overall mortality was 4 patients (20 percent). There was no mortality in patients with bleeding aneurysms; the mortality being significantly higher in patients with non-aneurysmal bleeding (p=0.0049: Fishers’ exact test).
Conclusions
In our experience haemobilia was usually due to an iatrogenic cause with a pseudoaneurysm following a diagnostic or therapeutic intervention(most often laparoscopic cholecystectomy) being the commonest aetiology. A dual phase CT scan accurately identified the site of bleeding. Angiographic embolisation often failed to stop bleeding and mortality was significantly higher in patients with non-aneurysmal bleeding. We should perhaps consider early surgery for haemobilia once the bleeding site has been localised by CT scan.
doi:10.1007/s12262-008-0085-x
PMCID: PMC3452364  PMID: 23133086
Haemibilia; GI bleed; Liver trauma; Visceral aneurysm
6.  Surgical procedure determination based on tumor-node-metastasis staging of gallbladder cancer 
AIM: To investigate the impact of surgical procedures on prognosis of gallbladder cancer patients classified with the latest tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system.
METHODS: A retrospective study was performed by reviewing 152 patients with primary gallbladder carcinoma treated at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2003 to June 2013. Postsurgical follow-up was performed by telephone and outpatient visits. Clinical records were reviewed and patients were grouped based on the new edition of TNM staging system (AJCC, seventh edition, 2010). Prognoses were analyzed and compared based on surgical operations including simple cholecystectomy, radical cholecystectomy (or extended radical cholecystectomy), and palliative surgery. Simple cholecystectomy is, by definition, resection of the gallbladder fossa. Radical cholecystectomy involves a wedge resection of the gallbladder fossa with 2 cm non-neoplastic liver tissue; resection of a suprapancreatic segment of the extrahepatic bile duct and extended portal lymph node dissection may also be considered based on the patient’s circumstance. Palliative surgery refers to cholecystectomy with biliary drainage. Data analysis was performed with SPSS 19.0 software. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Logrank test were used for survival rate comparison. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: Patients were grouped based on the new 7th edition of TNM staging system, including 8 cases of stage 0, 10 cases of stage I, 25 cases of stage II, 21 cases of stage IIIA, 21 cases of stage IIIB, 24 cases of stage IVA, 43 cases of stage IVB. Simple cholecystectomy was performed on 28 cases, radical cholecystectomy or expanded gallbladder radical resection on 57 cases, and palliative resection on 28 cases. Thirty-nine cases were not operated. Patients with stages 0 and I disease demonstrated no statistical significant difference in survival time between those receiving radical cholecystectomy and simple cholecystectomy (P = 0.826). The prognosis of stage II patients with radical cholecystectomy was better than that of simple cholecystectomy. For stage III patients, radical cholecystectomy was significantly superior to other surgical options (P < 0.05). For stage IVA patients, radical cholecystectomy was not better than palliative resection and non-surgical treatment. For stage IVB, patients who underwent palliative resection significantly outlived those with non-surgical treatment (P < 0.01)
CONCLUSION: For stages 0 and I patients, simple cholecystectomy is the optimal surgical procedure, while radical cholecystectomy should be actively operated for stages II and III patients.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v21.i15.4620
PMCID: PMC4402309  PMID: 25914471
Gallbladder cancer; Simple cholecystectomy; Tumor-node-metastasis staging; Radical cholecystectomy; Prognosis
7.  Percutaneous transhepatic gall bladder drainage: a better initial therapeutic choice for patients with gall bladder perforation in the emergency department 
Emergency Medicine Journal : EMJ  2007;24(12):836-840.
Objectives
To investigate clinical features and outcomes in patients with acute cholecystitis with gall bladder perforation receiving open cholecystectomy or percutaneous transhepatic gall bladder drainage in the emergency department.
Methods
From 1996 through 2005, 33 patients with non‐traumatic gall bladder perforation, among 585 patients with acute cholecystitis, were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups: open cholecystectomy in 16 patients and percutaneous transhepatic gall bladder drainage in 17 patients. Medical records, including demographic data, past history of systemic diseases or gallbladder stones, initial clinical presentations, laboratory data, physical status, therapeutic interventions, and outcomes, were analysed.
Results
Mean patient age was 72.6 years (range 54–92 years). 28 patients (84.8%) were male. Median time of symptom onset before emergency department diagnosis was 5 days (range 0.5–30 days). Estimated incidence of gall bladder perforation was 5.6% (33/585). 27 patients (81.8%) had gallstones operatively or in image studies. All patients had either right upper quadrant pain/tenderness or epigastric pain/tenderness. Only 9 (27.3%) patients had positive Murphy's sign. Six patients in the percutaneous transhepatic gall bladder drainage group received further open cholecystectomy. Overall mortality was 24.2% (8/33). The direct cause of death was disease related sepsis in all patients. Patients receiving percutaneous transhepatic gall bladder drainage had a higher survival rate than those receiving open cholecystectomy (100% vs 50%, p<0.001). No differences in complications and length of hospital stay of survivors were observed between groups.
Conclusions
In this study, we delineated clinical features of patients with gall bladder perforation. Better clinical outcome is observed for percutaneous transhepatic gall bladder drainage, and this is suggested as an initial therapeutic choice, especially in high risk patients who are likely to need surgery.
doi:10.1136/emj.2007.052175
PMCID: PMC2658354  PMID: 18029515
8.  Residual gallbladder stones after cholecystectomy: A literature review 
Journal of Minimal Access Surgery  2015;11(4):223-230.
BACKGROUND:
Incomplete gallbladder removal following open and laparoscopic techniques leads to residual gallbladder stones. The commonest presentation is abdominal pain, dyspepsia and jaundice. We reviewed the literature to report diagnostic modalities, management options and outcomes in patients with residual gallbladder stones after cholecystectomy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Medline, Google and Cochrane library between 1993 and 2013 were reviewed using search terms residual gallstones, post-cholecystectomy syndrome, retained gallbladder stones, gallbladder remnant, cystic duct remnant and subtotal cholecystectomy. Bibliographical references from selected articles were also analyzed. The parameters that were assessed include demographics, time of detection, clinical presentation, mode of diagnosis, nature of intervention, site of stone, surgical findings, procedure performed, complete stone clearance, sequelae and follow-up.
RESULTS:
Out of 83 articles that were retrieved between 1993 and 2013, 22 met the inclusion criteria. In most series, primary diagnosis was established by ultrasound/computed tomography scan. Localization of calculi and delineation of biliary tract was performed using magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. In few series, diagnosis was established by endoscopic ultrasound, intraoperative cholangiogram and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. Laparoscopic surgery, endoscopic techniques and open surgery were the most common treatment modalities. The most common sites of residual gallstones were gallbladder remnant, cystic duct remnant and common bile duct.
CONCLUSION:
Residual gallbladder stones following incomplete gallbladder removal is an important sequelae after cholecystectomy. Completion cholecystectomy (open or laparoscopic) is the most common treatment modality reported in the literature for the management of residual gallbladder stones.
doi:10.4103/0972-9941.158156
PMCID: PMC4640007  PMID: 26622110
Cystic duct remnant; gallbladder remnant; post-cholecystectomy syndrome; residual gallstones; retained gallbladder stones; subtotal cholecystectomy
9.  Gallbladder cancer: epidemiology and outcome 
Clinical Epidemiology  2014;6:99-109.
Gallbladder cancer, though generally considered rare, is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract, accounting for 80%–95% of biliary tract cancers. An early diagnosis is essential as this malignancy progresses silently with a late diagnosis, often proving fatal. Its carcinogenesis follows a progression through a metaplasia–dysplasia–carcinoma sequence. This comprehensive review focuses on and explores the risks, management, and outcomes for primary gallbladder carcinoma. Epidemiological studies have identified striking geographic and ethnic disparities – inordinately high occurrence in American Indians, elevated in Southeast Asia, yet quite low elsewhere in the Americas and the world. Age, female sex, congenital biliary tract anomalies, and a genetic predisposition represent important risk factors that are immutable. Environmental triggers play a critical role in eliciting cancer developing in the gallbladder, best exemplified by cholelithiasis and chronic inflammation from biliary tract and parasitic infections. Mortality rates closely follow incidence; those countries with the highest prevalence of gallstones experience the greatest mortality from gallbladder cancer. Vague symptoms often delay the diagnosis of gallbladder cancer, contributing to its overall progression and poor outcome. Surgery represents the only potential for cure. Some individuals are fortunate to be incidentally found to have gallbladder cancer at the time of cholecystectomy being performed for cholelithiasis. Such an early diagnosis is imperative as a late presentation connotes advanced staging, nodal involvement, and possible recurrence following attempted resection. Overall mean survival is a mere 6 months, while 5-year survival rate is only 5%. The dismal prognosis, in part, relates to the gallbladder lacking a serosal layer adjacent to the liver, enabling hepatic invasion and metastatic progression. Improved imaging modalities are helping to diagnose patients at an earlier stage. The last decade has witnessed improved outcomes as aggressive surgical management and preoperative adjuvant therapy has helped prolong survival in patients with gallbladder cancer. In the future, the development of potential diagnostic markers for disease will yield screening opportunities for those at risk either with ethnic susceptibility or known anatomic anomalies of the biliary tract. Meanwhile, clarification of the value of prophylactic cholecystectomy should provide an opportunity for secondary prevention. Primary prevention will arrive once the predictive biomarkers and environmental risk factors are more clearly identified.
doi:10.2147/CLEP.S37357
PMCID: PMC3952897  PMID: 24634588
gallstones; cholelithiasis; incidence; cholecystectomy; gallbladder polyp; anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct; primary sclerosing cholangitis
10.  A ten-year study on non-surgical treatment of postoperative bile leakage 
AIM: To summarize systematically our ten-year experience in non-surgical treatment of postoperative bile leakage, and explore its methods and indications.
METHODS: The clinical data of 57 patients with postoperative bile leakage treated non-surgically from January 1991 to December 2000 were reviewed retrospectively.
RESULTS: The site of the leakage was mainly the disrupted or damaged fistulous tracts of T tube in 25 patients (43.9%), the fossae of gallbladder in 14 cases (24.6%), the cut surface of liver in 7 cases (12.3%), and it was undetectable in the other 2 cases. Besides bile leakage, the wrong ligation of bile ducts was found in 3 patients, residual stones of the distal bile duct in 5 patients, benign papillary strictures in 3, and biloma resulting from bile collections in 2. The diagnoses were made according to the history of surgery, clinical situation, abdominal paracentesis, ultrasonography, ERCP, PTC, MRI/MRCP, gastroscopy and percutaneous fistulography. All 57 patients were treated non-surgically at the beginning of bile leakage. The non-surgical methods included keeping original drainage unobstructed, percutaneous abdominal paracentesis or drainage, percutaneous transhepatic cholangial/biliary drainage (PTCD/PTBD), endoscopic management, traditional Chinese medicine and so on. Of the 57 patients, 2 patients died, 5 were converted to reoperation later, the other 50 were directly cured by non-surgical methods without any complication. The cure rate of the non-surgery was 82.5% (50/57).
CONCLUSION: Many nonoperative methods are available to treat postoperative bile leakage. Non-surgical treatment may serve as the first choice for the treatment of bile leakage for its advantages in higher cure rate, convenience and safety in practice. It is important to choose the specific non-surgical method according to the volume, site of bile leakage and patient's condition.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v8.i5.937
PMCID: PMC4656591  PMID: 12378646
11.  Stepwise approach to curative surgery using percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage and portal vein embolization for severe bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a case report 
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has been recently adapted to acute cholecystitis. Major bile duct injury during LC, especially Strasberg-Bismuth classification type E, can be a critical problem sometimes requiring hepatectomy. Safety and definitive treatment without further morbidities, such as posthepatectomy liver failure, is required. Here, we report a case of severe bile duct injury treated with a stepwise approach using 99mTc-galactosyl human serum albumin (99mTc-GSA) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT fusion imaging to accurately estimate liver function.
A 52-year-old woman diagnosed with acute cholecystitis underwent LC at another hospital and was transferred to our university hospital for persistent bile leakage on postoperative day 20. She had no jaundice or infection, although an intraperitoneal drainage tube discharged approximately 500 ml of bile per day. Recorded operation procedure showed removal of the gallbladder with a part of the common bile duct due to its misidentification, and each of the hepatic ducts and right hepatic artery was injured. Abdominal enhanced CT revealed obstructive jaundice of the left liver and arterial shunt through the hilar plate to the right liver. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed type E4 or more advanced bile duct injury according to the Bismuth-Strasberg classification. We planned a stepwise approach using percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage (PTCD) and portal vein embolization (PVE) for secure right hemihepatectomy and biliary-jejunum reconstruction and employed 99mTc-GSA SPECT/CT fusion imaging to estimate future remnant liver function. The left liver function rate had changed from 26.2 % on admission to 26.3 % after PTCD and 54.5 % after PVE, while the left liver volume rate was 33.8, 33.3, and 49.6 %, respectively. The increase of liver function was higher than that of volume (28.3 vs. 15.8 %). On postoperative day 63, the curative operation, right hemihepatectomy and biliary-jejunum reconstruction, was performed, and posthepatectomy liver failure could be avoided.
Careful consideration of treatment strategy for each case is necessary for severe bile duct injury with arterial injury requiring hepatectomy. The stepwise approach using PTCD and PVE could enable hemihepatectomy, and 99mTc-GSA SPECT/CT fusion imaging was useful to estimate heterogeneous liver function.
doi:10.1186/s40792-016-0154-5
PMCID: PMC4798688  PMID: 26989053
Acute cholecystitis; Bile duct injury; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Portal vein embolization; Posthepatectomy liver failure; 99mTc-galactosyl human serum albumin single-photon emission CT/CT fusion imaging
12.  Methods and timing of biliary drainage for acute cholangitis: Tokyo Guidelines 
Biliary drainage is a radical method to relieve cholestasis, a cause of acute cholangitis, and takes a central part in the treatment of acute cholangitis. Emergent drainage is essential for severe cases, whereas patients with moderate and mild disease should also receive drainage as soon as possible if they do not respond to conservative treatment, and their condition has not improved. Biliary drainage can be achieved via three different routes/procedures: endoscopic, percutaneous transhepatic, and open methods. The clinical value of both endoscopic and percutaneous transhepatic drainage is well known. Endoscopic drainage is associated with a low morbidity rate and shorter duration of hospitalization; therefore, this approach is advocated whenever it is applicable. In endoscopic drainage, either endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) or tube stent placement can be used. There is no significant difference in the success rate, effectiveness, and morbidity between the two procedures. The decision to perform endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is made based on the patient’s condition and the number and diameter of common bile duct stones. Open drainage, on the other hand, should be applied only in patients for whom endoscopic or percutaneous transhepatic drainage is contraindicated or has not been successfully performed. Cholecystectomy is recommended in patients with gallbladder stones, following the resolution of acute cholangitis with medical treatment, unless the patient has poor operative risk factors or declines surgery.
doi:10.1007/s00534-006-1158-5
PMCID: PMC2799047  PMID: 17252299
Cholangitis; Biliary; Drainage; Endoscopy; Percutaneous; Sphincterotomy; Guidelines
13.  Flowcharts for the diagnosis and treatment of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis: Tokyo Guidelines 
Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for acute biliary inflammation/infection (acute cholangitis and acute cholecystitis), according to severity grade, have not yet been established in the world. Therefore we formulated flowcharts for the management of acute biliary inflammation/infection in accordance with severity grade. For mild (grade I) acute cholangitis, medical treatment may be sufficient/appropriate. For moderate (grade II) acute cholangitis, early biliary drainage should be performed. For severe (grade III) acute cholangitis, appropriate organ support such as ventilatory/circulatory management is required. After hemodynamic stabilization is achieved, urgent endoscopic or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage should be performed. For patients with acute cholangitis of any grade of severity, treatment for the underlying etiology, including endoscopic, percutaneous, or surgical treatment should be performed after the patient’s general condition has improved. For patients with mild (grade I) cholecystitis, early laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the preferred treatment. For patients with moderate (grade II) acute cholecystitis, early laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy is preferred. In patients with extensive local inflammation, elective cholecystectomy is recommended after initial management with percutaneous gallbladder drainage and/or cholecystostomy. For the patient with severe (grade III) acute cholecystitis, multiorgan support is a critical part of management. Biliary peritonitis due to perforation of the gallbladder is an indication for urgent cholecystectomy and/or drainage. Delayed elective cholecystectomy may be performed after initial treatment with gallbladder drainage and improvement of the patient’s general medical condition.
doi:10.1007/s00534-006-1153-x
PMCID: PMC2784508  PMID: 17252294
Cholangitis; Acute cholecystitis; Cholecystec-tomy; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Biliary; Drainage; Guidelines
14.  Prognosis of patients with pT1b/T2 gallbladder carcinoma who have undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy as an initial operation 
Backgrounds/Aims
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has become a standard procedure for treatment of benign gallbladder diseases. There has been a small proportion of gallbladder cancer (GBC) which was incidentally found in the gallbladder specimen, and LC has been tried in some patients with faintly suspected GBC. This study intended to analyze the prognosis of patients with pT1b/T2 GBC who have undergone LC and the outcome of extended re-operation.
Methods
After analyzing the institutional profiles of 500 GBC patients who have undergone surgical resection, we selected 64 patients who underwent LC initially from January 1996 to December 2008 and whose gallbladder pathology was confined to pT1b or pT2 lesions. Of them, 34 patients (53.1%) underwent extended reoperation. Their medical records were reviewed retrospectively.
Results
In the LC only group (n=30), mean age of the 16 pT1 patients was 65.7±12.5 years and mean age of the 14 pT2 patients was 66.7±10.1 years. In the reoperation group (n=34), mean age of the 8 pT1b patients was 52.6±9.9 years and in 26 pT2 patients, mean age was 59.2±7.9 years. The reoperation group showed a younger patient age pattern than the LC only group (p=0.001). The types of reoperation were liver resection with lymph node (LN) dissection in 17, bile duct resection with LN dissection in 2, and hepatectomy and bile duct resection with LN dissection in 15. In the LC only group, the 5-year survival rate (5-YSR) was 70.3% in pT1b and 43.2% in pT2. In the reoperation group, 5-YSR was 62.5% in pT1b (n=8) and 59.5% in pT2 (n=26). A survival comparison between the two groups showed no significant survival gain in pT1 patients (p=0.69) and in pT2 patients (p=0.14). In our whole database analysis, 5-YSR of pT1bNx lesions was 70% after cholecystectomy and 78% after extended cholecystectomy. Lymph node metastasis was identified in 11% of pT1b lesions. For pT2N0 lesions, overall 5-YSR was 62% after R0 resection, showing no survival difference between primary extended surgery and LC-redo operation (p=0.45).
Conclusions
The survival gain of reoperation was not evident in pT1b lesions. In contrast, some noticeable but not statistically significant survival difference was observed in pT2 lesions. Thus, reoperation for pT1b/T2 GBC following LC is indicated for individualized reasons, especially in patients with pT1b lesions. Old age was one of the important factors in deciding not to reoperate.
doi:10.14701/kjhbps.2013.17.3.113
PMCID: PMC4304525  PMID: 26155224
Gallbladder carcinoma; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Extended cholecystectomy; Recurrence; Reoperation
15.  Clinical outcome for laparoscopic cholecystectomy in extremely elderly patients 
Purpose
Extremely elderly patients who present with complicated gallstone disease are less likely to undergo definitive treatment. The use of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in older patients is complicated by comorbid conditions that are concomitant with advanced age and may increase postoperative complications and the frequency of conversion to open surgery. We aimed to evaluate the results of LC in patients (older than 80 years).
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed 302 patients who underwent LC for acute cholecystitis between January 2011 and December 2013. Total patients were divided into three groups: group 1 patients were younger than 65 years, group 2 patients were between 65 and 79 years, and group 3 patients were older than 80 years. Patient characteristics were compared between the different groups.
Results
The conversion rate was significantly higher in group 3 compared to that in the other groups. Hematoma in gallbladder fossa and intraoperative bleeding were higher in group 3, the difference was not significant. Wound infection was not different between the three groups. Operating time and postoperative hospital stay were significantly higher in group 3 compared to those in the other groups. There was no reported bile leakage and operative mortality. Preoperative percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography were performed more frequently in group 3 than in the other groups.
Conclusion
LC is safe and feasible. It should be the gold-standard approach for extremely elderly patients with acute cholecystitis.
doi:10.4174/astr.2015.88.3.145
PMCID: PMC4347039  PMID: 25741494
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; 80 and over aged; Treatment outcome
16.  Importance of early diagnosis of pancreaticobiliary maljunction without biliary dilatation 
AIM: To clarify the strategy for early diagnosis of pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) without biliary dilatation and to pathologically examine gallbladder before cancer develops.
METHODS: The anatomy of the union of the pancreatic and bile ducts was assessed by using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Patients with a long common channel in which communication between the pancreatic and bile ducts was maintained even during sphincter contraction were diagnosed as having PBM. Of these, patients in which the maximal diameter of the bile duct was less than 10 mm were diagnosed with PBM without biliary dilatation. The process of diagnosing 54 patients with PBM without biliary dilatation was retrospectively investigated. Histopathological analysis of resected gallbladder specimens from 8 patients with PBM without biliary dilatation or cancer was conducted.
RESULTS: Thirty-six PBM patients without biliary dilatation were diagnosed with gallbladder cancer after showing clinical symptoms such as abdominal or back pain (n = 16) or jaundice (n = 12). Radical surgery for gallbladder cancer was only possible in 11 patients (31%) and only 4 patients (11%) survived for 5 years. Eight patients were suspected as having PBM without biliary dilatation from the finding of gallbladder wall thickening on ultrasound and the diagnosis was confirmed by ERCP and/or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). The median age of these 8 patients was younger by a decade than PBM patients with gallbladder cancer. All 8 patients underwent prophylactic cholecystectomy and bile duct cancer has not occurred. Wall thickness and mucosal height of the 8 resected gallbladders were significantly greater than controls, and hyperplastic changes, hypertrophic muscular layer, subserosal fibrosis, and adenomyomatosis were detected in 7 (88%), 5 (63%), 7 (88%) and 5 (63%) patients, respectively. Ki-67 labeling index was high and K-ras mutation was detected in 3 of 6 patients.
CONCLUSION: To detect PBM without biliary dilatation before onset of gallbladder cancer, we should perform MRCP for individuals showing increased gallbladder wall thickness on ultrasound.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i26.3409
PMCID: PMC3396193  PMID: 22807610
Pancreaticobiliary maljunction; Pancreatobiliary reflux; Ultrasound; Gallbladder cancer; Endoscopic ultrasonography
17.  Preoperative biliary drainage for biliary tract and ampullary carcinomas 
We posed six clinical questions (CQ) on preoperative biliary drainage and organized all pertinent evidence regarding these questions. CQ 1. Is preoperative biliary drainage necessary for patients with jaundice? The indications for preoperative drainage for jaundiced patients are changing greatly. Many reports state that, excluding conditions such as cholangitis and liver dysfunction, biliary drainage is not necessary before pancreatoduodenectomy or less invasive surgery. However, the morbidity and mortality of extended hepatectomy for biliary cancer is still high, and the most common cause of death is hepatic failure; therefore, preoperative biliary drainage is desirable in patients who are to undergo extended hepatectomy. CQ 2. What procedures are appropriate for preoperative biliary drainage? There are three methods of biliary drainage: percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD), endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) or endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (ERBD), and surgical drainage. ERBD is an internal drainage method, and PTBD and ENBD are external methods. However, there are no reports of comparisons of preoperative biliary drainage methods using randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Thus, at this point, a method should be used that can be safely performed with the equipment and techniques available at each facility. CQ 3. Which is better, unilateral or bilateral biliary drainage, in malignant hilar obstruction? Unilateral biliary drainage of the future remnant hepatic lobe is usually enough even when intrahepatic bile ducts are separated into multiple units due to hilar malignancy. Bilateral biliary drainage should be considered in the following cases: those in which the operative procedure is difficult to determine before biliary drainage; those in which cholangitis has developed after unilateral drainage; and those in which the decrease in serum bilirubin after unilateral drainage is very slow. CQ 4. What is the best treatment for postdrainage fever? The most likely cause of high fever in patients with biliary drainage is cholangitis due to problems with the existing drainage catheter or segmental cholangitis if an undrained segment is left. In the latter case, urgent drainage is required. CQ 5. Is bile culture necessary in patients with biliary drainage who are to undergo surgery? Monitoring of bile cultures is necessary for patients with biliary drainage to determine the appropriate use of antibiotics during the perioperative period. CQ 6. Is bile replacement useful for patients with external biliary drainage? Maintenance of the enterohepatic bile circulation is vitally important. Thus, preoperative bile replacement in patients with external biliary drainage is very likely to be effective when highly invasive surgery (e.g., extended hepatectomy for hilar cholangiocarcinoma) is planned.
doi:10.1007/s00534-007-1277-7
PMCID: PMC2794354  PMID: 18274841
Biliary; Drainage; Endoscopy; Percutaneous; Bile replacement; Guidelines
18.  Incidental gallbladder carcinoma: our experience 
Il Giornale di Chirurgia  2013;34(5-6):167-169.
Summary:
Aim.
Gallbladder carcinoma is an uncommon cancer with a poor prognosis. In the era of laparoscopic cholecistectomy for treatment of benign diseases incidental gallbladder carcinoma has dramatically increased and now constitutes the major way patients present with gallbladder cancer and allows to detect cancer at early stages with a better prognosis. In this single-center study we report our experience with gallbladder carcinoma incidentally diagnosed during or after laparoscopic colecistectomy performed for cholelithiasis.
Methods
From January 2003 to December 2011 a total of 1193 patients underwent cholecistectomy at General Surgical Unit III of University of Bari. The patients were 458 males and 735 females, mean age was 52 years (range 19–91). In 6 of 1188 patients adenocarcinoma was present in the pathologic specimens (0,5%).
Results
Of 1188 patients in whom laparoscopic cholecistectomy was attempted adenocarcinoma was diagnosed histopathologically in 6 cases (0,5%). There was no suspicion of malignancy to any of them. Intraoperatively, gallbladder wall appeared abnormal in one patients and frozen section analysis revealed adenocarcinoma. In the remaining 5 cases routine histopathological studies revealed the diagnosis of gallbladder carcinoma. One patient had T1 tumor, two had T2 and three had T3 tumor.
Conclusions
In the present study the rate of incidental gallbladder carcinoma was 0,5%, according to the published English language literature. The risk factors widely related to the gallbladder cancer are advanced age and gallstones disease. The therapeutic approach to gallbladder cancer was applied according to the stage of tumor, but in our study this was possible only in two patients with T2 and T3 tumor since high risk and important comorbidities were the main causes for the refusal of 3 patient out of 5. Only the T1 patient underwent simple cholecystectomy. Similar to other reports in this single-center study the diagnosis of incidental gallbladder carcinoma was found to be of 0,5%, thus the diagnosis of gallbladder stones is an indication to the cholecystectomy.
doi:10.11138/gchir/2013.34.5.167
PMCID: PMC3915589  PMID: 23837956
Incidental; Gallbladder; Carcinoma; Laparoscopy
19.  One-year experience with single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a single center: without the use of inverse triangulation 
Purpose
Single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) is generally performed with the use of inverse triangulation. In this study, we performed 3-channel or 4-channel SILC without the use of inverse triangulation. We evaluated the adequacy and feasibility of SILC using our surgical method.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed our series of 309 SILCs performed between March 2014 and February 2015.
Results
Among 309 SILCs, male were 148 and female were 161 patients, mean age was 48.7 ± 15.3 years old and mean body mass index was 24.8 ± 3.8 kg/m2. Forty patients had previously undergone abdominal surgery including 6 cases of upper abdominal surgery. SILC after percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder (GB) drainage was completed in 8.7% of cases. There were 10 cases of emergency SILC. SILC was performed for noncomplicated GB including symptomatic GB stone and polyp in 66.7% of cases, acute cholecystitis in 33.3%. Overall, 96.8% of procedures were successfully completed without additional port. The reason for addition of an extra port or open conversion included technical difficulties due to severe adhesion and bleeding. The mean operating time was 60.7 ± 22.3 minutes. The overall complication rate was 4.8%: 9 patients of wound seroma, 1 case of bile leakage from GB bed, 4 cases of intra-abdominal abscess or fluid collection, and 1 case of incisional hernia were developed. There was no case of common bile duct injury.
Conclusion
Our surgical method of SILC without the use of inverse triangulation is safe, feasible and effective technique.
doi:10.4174/astr.2016.90.2.72
PMCID: PMC4751148  PMID: 26878014
Single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Laparoscopy; Single-port; Inverse triangulation
20.  Tube Cholecystostomy Before Cholecystectomy for the Treatment of Acute Cholecystitis 
Background and Objectives:
Percutaneous cholecystostomy is currently indicated for patients with cholecystitis who might be poor candidates for operative cholecystectomy. We performed a study to evaluate the long-term outcome of patients undergoing emergent tube cholecystostomy.
Methods:
This study was a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent tube cholecystostomy from July 1, 2005, to July 1, 2012.
Results:
During the study period, 82 patients underwent 125 cholecystostomy tube placements. Four patients (5%) died during the year after tube placement. The mean hospital length of stay for survivors was 8.8 days (range, 1–59 days). Twenty-eight patients (34%) required at least 1 additional percutaneous procedure (range, 1–6) for gallbladder drainage. Twenty-nine patients (34%) ultimately underwent cholecystectomy. Surgery was performed a mean of 7 weeks after cholecystostomy tube placement. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was attempted in 25 operative patients but required conversion to an open approach in 8 cases (32%). In another 4 cases, planned open cholecystectomy was performed. Major postoperative complications were limited to 2 patients with postoperative common bile duct obstruction requiring endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, 1 patient requiring a return to the operating room for hemoperitoneum, and 2 patients with bile leak from the cystic duct stump.
Conclusions:
In high-risk patients receiving cholecystostomy tubes for acute cholecystitis, only about one third will undergo surgical cholecystectomy. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed in this circumstance has a higher rate of conversion to open surgery and higher hepatobiliary morbidity rate.
doi:10.4293/JSLS.2014.00200
PMCID: PMC4376213  PMID: 25848180
Acute cholecystitis; Percutaneous cholecystostomy; Cholecystectomy
21.  "Extended" radical cholecystectomy for gallbladder cancer: Long-term outcomes, indications and limitations 
AIM: To delineate indications and limitations for "extended" radical cholecystectomy for gallbladder cancer: a procedure which was instituted in our department in 1982.
METHODS: Of 145 patients who underwent a radical resection for gallbladder cancer from 1982 through 2006, 52 (36%) had an extended radical cholecystectomy, which involved en bloc resection of the gallbladder, gallbladder fossa, extrahepatic bile duct, and the regional lymph nodes (first- and second-echelon node groups). A retrospective analysis of the 52 patients was conducted including at least 5 years of follow up. Residual tumor status was judged as no residual tumor (R0) or microscopic/macroscopic residual tumor (R1-2). Pathological findings were documented according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer Cancer Staging Manual (7th edition).
RESULTS: The primary tumor was classified as pathological T1 (pT1) in 3 patients, pT2 in 36, pT3 in 12, and pT4 in 1. Twenty-three patients had lymph node metastases; 11 had a single positive node, 4 had two positive nodes, and 8 had three or more positive nodes. None of the three patients with pT1 tumors had nodal disease, whereas 23 of 49 (47%) with pT2 or more advanced tumors had nodal disease. One patient died during the hospital stay for definitive resection, giving an in-hospital mortality rate of 2%. Overall survival (OS) after extended radical cholecystectomy was 65% at 5 years and 53% at 10 years in all 52 patients. OS differed according to the pT classification (P < 0.001) and the nodal status (P = 0.010). All of 3 patients with pT1 tumors and most (29 of 36) patients with pT2 tumors survived for more than 5 years. Of 12 patients with pT3 tumors, 8 who had an R1-2 resection, distant metastasis, or extensive extrahepatic organ involvement died soon after resection. Of the remaining four pT3 patients who had localized hepatic spread through the gallbladder fossa and underwent an R0 resection, 2 survived for more than 5 years and another survived for 4 years and 2 mo. The only patient with pT4 tumor died of disease soon after resection. Among 23 node-positive patients, 11 survived for more than 5 years, and of these, 10 had a modest degree of nodal disease (one or two positive nodes).
CONCLUSION: Extended radical cholecystectomy is indicated for pT2 tumors and some pT3 tumors with localized hepatic invasion, provided that the regional nodal disease is limited to a modest degree (up to two positive nodes). Extensive pT3 disease, pT4 disease, or marked nodal disease appears to be beyond the scope of this radical procedure.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i34.4736
PMCID: PMC3442212  PMID: 23002343
Gallbladder neoplasms; Radical surgery; Hepatectomy; Bile duct resection; Lymph node excision; Prognosis
22.  Comparison of thymidine phosphorylase expression and prognostic factors in gallbladder and bile duct cancer 
BMC Cancer  2010;10:564.
Background
Biliary tract cancers have limitations in information about different location-related pathogenesis and clinico-pathological characteristics. The goal of this study was to investigate anatomical site-related similarities and differences in biliary tract cancers and to assess the expression and clinical significance of functional proteins such as p53, cyclin D1, survivin, thymidine phosphorylase, and ERCC1.
Methods
One hundred and sixty-one patients with biliary tract adenocarcinomas, who underwent curative or palliative surgery in a single institution between October 1994 and December 2003 were evaluated, retrospectively. The level of protein expression of p53, cyclin D1, survivin, thymidine phosphorylase, and ERCC1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry.
Results
With respect to clinico-pathological characteristics, gallbladder cancer was more frequent in women, and bile duct cancer was more common in men. Perineural invasion was more common in bile duct cancer. Recurrence as a distant metastasis was more common in gallbladder cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that thymidine phosphorylase expression was significantly higher in gallbladder cancer than in bile duct cancer. Positive thymidine phosphorylase and p53 staining were associated with an advanced stage. Differentiation, vascular invasion, perineural invasion, lymphatic invasion, lymph node metastasis, and TNM stage independently predicted poor prognosis in biliary tract cancer. These correlations were seen more clearly in gallbladder cancer. The immunohistochemical staining patterns of p53, cyclin D1, survivin, thymidine phosphorylase, and ERCC1 showed no prognostic significance in biliary tract cancers.
Conclusions
We concluded that gallbladder and bile duct cancers are considered to be separate diseases with different clinico-pathological characteristics and prognostic factors. In addition, we hypothesize that high expression of thymidine phosphorylase by gallbladder cancer results in a higher response rate to capecitabine by gallbladder cancer than bile duct cancer.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-564
PMCID: PMC2974735  PMID: 20955617
23.  Perfidious Gallbladders – A Diagnostic Dilemma with Xanthogranulomatous Cholecystitis 
INTRODUCTION
Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is an uncommon variant of chronic cholecystitis characterised by marked thickening of the gallbladder wall and dense local adhesions. Pre-operative and intra-operative diagnosis is difficult and it often mimics a gallbladder carcinoma (GBC). Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is frequently unsuccessful with a high conversion rate. A series of patients with this condition led us to review our experience with XGC and to try to develop a care pathway for its management.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
A retrospective review of the medical records of 1296 consecutive patients who had undergone cholecystectomy between January 2000 and April 2005 at our hospital was performed. Twenty-nine cases of XGC were identified among these cholecystectomies. The clinical, radiological and operative details of these patients have been analysed.
RESULTS
The incidence of XGC was 2.2% in our study. The mean age at presentation was 60.3 years with a female:male ratio of 1.4:1. Twenty-three patients (79%) required an emergency surgical admission at first presentation. In three patients, a GBC was suspected both radiologically and at operation (10.3%), but was later disproved on histology. Seventeen patients (59%) had obstructive jaundice at first presentation and required an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) before LC. Of these, five had common bile duct stones. Abdominal ultrasound scan showed marked thickening of the gallbladder wall in 16 cases (55%). LC was attempted in 24 patients, but required conversion to an open procedure in 11 patients (46% conversion rate). A total cholecystectomy was possible in 18 patients and a partial cholecystectomy was the choice in 11 (38%). The average operative time was 96 min. Three patients developed a postoperative bile leak, one of whom required ERCP and placement of a biliary stent. The average length of stay in the hospital was 6.3 days.
CONCLUSIONS
Severe xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis often mimics a gallbladder carcinoma. Currently, a correct pre-operative diagnosis is rarely made. With increased awareness and a high index of suspicion, radiological diagnosis is possible. Preoperative counselling of these patients should include possible intra-operative difficulties and the differential diagnosis of gallbladder cancer. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is frequently unsuccessful and a partial cholecystectomy is often the procedure of choice.
doi:10.1308/003588407X155833
PMCID: PMC1964568  PMID: 17346415
Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis; Gallbladder carcinoma; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy
24.  Guidelines for the management of biliary tract and ampullary carcinomas: surgical treatment 
The only curative treatment in biliary tract cancer is surgical treatment. Therefore, the suitability of curative resection should be investigated in the first place. In the presence of metastasis to the liver, lung, peritoneum, or distant lymph nodes, curative resection is not suitable. No definite consensus has been reached on local extension factors and curability. Measures of hepatic functional reserve in the jaundiced liver include future liver remnant volume and the indocyanine green (ICG) clearance test. Preoperative portal vein embolization may be considered in patients in whom right hepatectomy or more, or hepatectomy with a resection rate exceeding 50%–60% is planned. Postoperative complications and surgery-related mortality may be reduced with the use of portal vein embolization. Although hepatectomy and/or pancreaticoduodenectomy are preferable for the curative resection of bile duct cancer, extrahepatic bile duct resection alone is also considered in patients for whom it is judged that curative resection would be achieved after a strict diagnosis of its local extension. Also, combined caudate lobe resection is recommended for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Because the prognosis of patients treated with combined portal vein resection is significantly better than that of unresected patients, combined portal vein resection may be carried out. Prognostic factors after resection for bile duct cancer include positive surgical margins, especially in the ductal stump; lymph node metastasis; perineural invasion; and combined vascular resection due to portal vein and/or hepatic artery invasion. For patients with suspected gallbladder cancer, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not recommended, and open cholecystectomy should be performed as a rule. When gallbladder cancer invading the subserosal layer or deeper has been detected after simple cholecystectomy, additional resection should be considered. Prognostic factors after resection for gallbladder cancer include the depth of mural invasion; lymph node metastasis; extramural extension, especially into the hepatoduodenal ligament; perineural invasion; and the degree of curability. Pancreaticoduodenectomy is indicated for ampullary carcinoma, and limited operation is also indicated for carcinoma in adenoma. The prognostic factors after resection for ampullary carcinoma include lymph node metastasis, pancreatic invasion, and perineural invasion.
doi:10.1007/s00534-007-1279-5
PMCID: PMC2794356  PMID: 18274843
Biliary tract neoplasms; Bile duct neoplasms; Gallbladder neoplasms; Ampulla of Vater; Surgery; Guidelines
25.  Routine histopathology of gallbladder after elective cholecystectomy for gallstones: waste of resources or a justified act? 
BMC Surgery  2013;13:26.
Background
Selective approach for sending cholecystectomy specimens for histopathology results in missing discrete pathologies such as premalignant benign lesions such as porcelain gallbladder, carcinoma-in-situ, and early carcinomas. To avoid such blunders therefore, every cholecystectomy specimen should be routinely examined histologically. Unfortunately, the practice of discarding gallbladder specimen is standard in most tertiary care hospitals of Pakistan including the primary investigators’ own institution. This study was conducted to assess the feasibility or otherwise of performing histopathology in every specimen of gallbladder.
Methods
This cohort study included 220 patients with gallstones for cholecystectomy. All cases with known secondaries from gallbladder, local invasion from other viscera, traumatic rupture of gallbladder, gross malignancy of gallbladder found during surgery was excluded from the study. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed in majority of cases except in those cases where anatomical distortion and dense adhesions prevented laparoscopy. All gallbladder specimens were sent for histopathology, irrespective of their gross appearance.
Results
Over a period of two years, 220 patients with symptomatic gallstones were admitted for cholecystectomy. Most of the patients were females (88%). Ninety two per cent patients presented with upper abdominal pain of varying duration. All specimens were sent for histopathology. Two hundred and three of the specimens showed evidence chronic cholecystitis, 7 acute cholecystitis with mucocele, 3 acute cholecystitis with empyema and one chronic cholecystitis associated with poly. Six gallbladders (2.8%) showed adenocarcinoma of varying differentiation along with cholelithiasis.
Conclusion
The histopathological spectrum of gallbladder is extremely variable. Incidental diagnosis of carcinoma gall bladder is not rare; if the protocol of routine histopathology of all gallbladder specimens is not followed, subclinical malignancies would fail to be identified with disastrous results. We strongly recommend routine histopathology of all cholecystectomy specimens.
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-13-26
PMCID: PMC3710513  PMID: 23834815
Gallbladder malignancy; Cholelithiasis; Cholecystectomy

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