Management of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)–associated duodenal perforation remains controversial. Some recommend surgery, while others recommend conservative treatment.
A retrospective chart review was conducted to identify patients treated at our institution for ERCP-related duodenal perforations. Study variables included indication for ERCP, clinical presentation, diagnostic procedures, time to diagnosis and treatment, location of injury, management, length of stay in hospital and survival.
Between January 2000 and October 2009, 12 232 ERCP procedures were performed at our centre, and perforation occured in 11 patients (0.08%; 5 men, 6 women, mean age 71 yr). Six of the perforations were discovered during ERCP; 5 required radiologic imaging for diagnosis. Three perforations were diagnosed incidentally by follow-up ERCP. In 1 patient, perforation occurred 3 years after the procedure owing to a dislocated stent. Four of 11 perforations were stent-related; in 2 patients ERCP was performed in a nonanatomic situation (Billroth II gastroenterostomy). Free peritoneal perforation occurred in 4 patients; 1 was successfully managed conservatively. Four patients (36%) were treated surgically and none died. Five patients were managed conservatively with a successful outcome, and 2 patients died after conservative treatment (18%). Operative treatment included hepaticojejunostomy and duodenostomy (1 patient), suture of the perforation with T-drain (1 patient) and suture only (2 patients). The mean length of stay in hospital for all patients was 20 days.
Post-ERCP duodenal perforations are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Immediate surgical evaluation and close monitoring is needed. Management should be individually tailored based on clinical findings only.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the treatment strategies of patients with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)-related perforations. This is a retrospective study.
We experienced 13 perforations associated with ERCP. We reviewed the medical recordsand classified ERCP-related perforations according to mechanism of injury in terms of perforating device. Injury by endoscopic tip or insertion tube was classified as type I, injury by cannulation catheter or sphincterotomy knife as type II, and injury by guidewire as type III.
Of four type I injuries, one case was managed by conservative management after primary closure with a hemoclip during ERCP. The other three patients underwent surgical treatments such as primary closure orpancreatico-duodenectomy. Of five type II injuries, two patients underwent conservative management and the other three cases were managed by surgical treatment such as duodenojejunostomy, duodenal diverticulization and pancreatico-duodenectomy. Of four type III injuries, three patients were managed conservatively and the remaining patient was managed by T-tube choledochostomy.
Type I injuries require immediate surgical management after EPCP or immediate endoscopic closure during ERCP whenever possible. Type II injuries require surgical or conservative treatment according to intra- and retro-peritoneal dirty fluid collection findings following radiologic evaluation. Type III injuries almost always improve after conservative treatment with endoscopic nasobilliary drainage.
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Perforation; Surgery
Background and Aim. Perforation after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a rare complication, but it is associated with significant mortality. This study evaluated the early management experience of these perforations. Patients and Methods. Between November 2003 and December 2011, a total of 8504 ERCPs were performed at our regional endoscopy center. Sixteen perforations (0.45%) were identified and retrospectively reviewed. Results. Nine of these 16 patients with perforations were periampullary, 3 duodenal, 1 gastric fundus, and 3 patients had a perforation of an afferent limb of a Billroth II anastomosis. All patients with perforations were recognized during ERCP by X-ray and managed immediately. One patient with duodenal perforation and three patients with afferent limb perforation received surgery, others received medical conservative treatment which included suturing lesion, endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD), endoscopic retrograde pancreatic duct drainage (ERPD), gastrointestinal decompression, fasting, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and so on. All patients with perforation recovered successfully. Conclusions. We found that: (1) the diagnosis of perforation during ERCP may be easy, but you must pay attention to it. (2) Most retroperitoneal perforations can recover with only medical conservative treatment in early phase. (3) Most peritoneal perforations need surgery unless you can close the lesion up under endoscopy in early phase.
Duodenal perforation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a rare complication, but it has a relatively high mortality risk. Early diagnosis and prompt management are key factors for the successful treatment of ERCP-related perforation. The management of perforation can initially be conservative in cases resulting from sphincterotomy or guide wire trauma. However, the current standard treatment for duodenal free wall perforation is surgical repair. Recently, several case reports of endoscopic closure techniques using endoclips, endoloops, or fully covered metal stents have been described. We describe four cases of iatrogenic duodenal bulb or lateral wall perforation caused by the scope tip that occurred during ERCP in tertiary referral centers. All the cases were simply managed by endoclips under transparent cap-assisted endoscopy. Based on the available evidence and our experience, endoscopic closure was a safe and feasible method even for duodenoscope-induced perforations. Our results suggest that endoscopists may be more willing to use this treatment.
Duodenal perforation; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Endoscopic therapy; Endoclip
Retroperitoneal duodenal perforation as a result of endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy is a rare complication, but it is associated with a relatively high mortality risk, if left untreated. Recently, several endoscopic techniques have been described to close a variety of perforations. In this case report, we describe the closure of a persistent sphincterotomy-related duodenal perforation by using a covered self-expandable metallic biliary (CEMB) stent. A 61-year-old Greek woman underwent an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and sphincterotomy for suspected choledocholithiasis, and a retroperitoneal duodenal perforation (sphincterotomy-related) occurred. Despite initial conservative management, the patient underwent a laparotomy and drainage of the retroperitoneal space. After that, a high volume duodenal fistula developed. Six weeks after the initial ERCP, the patient underwent a repeat endoscopy and placement of a CEMB stent with an indwelling nasobiliary drain. The fistula healed completely and the stent was removed two weeks later. We suggest the transient use of CEMB stents for the closure of sphincterotomy-related duodenal perforations. They can be placed either during the initial ERCP or even later if there is radiographic or clinical evidence that the leakage persists.
Endoscopic sphincterotomy; Complications; Retroperitoneal perforation; Duodenal perforation; Metallic stent
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)-related perforation is classified into three or four types based on anatomical location and the mechanism of injury. Although ampullary injury, among them, may be managed nonsurgically, surgical management is required in cases of perforation with retroperitoneal fluid collection and severe condition. Here, a patient with ERCP-related severe ampullary perforation with retroperitoneal fluid collection that was treated nonsurgically with a covered stent is presented.
Perforation; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Stents
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a fairly common procedure being performed in several centers worldwide. Although it is proven to be efficient and relatively safe, complications do occur (1.8%). We present a patient with ERCP-induced retroperitoneal perforation of the duodenum treated laparoscopically at our institution.
The patient is a 60-year-old female who underwent ERCP for obstructive jaundice due to periampullary carcinoma, during which the perforation occurred. Laparoscopy was performed 5 hours later and the perforation sutured primarily.
The operating time was 125 minutes. On the fourth postoperative day, the patient developed a retroperitoneal collection, confirmed by computed tomographic scan. Re-look laparoscopy was performed and the fluid drained. She recovered completely and was discharged on the eighth postoperative day.
Duodenal perforation following ERCP is rare, with an incidence of 1.8%. Both surgical and non-surgical management have been reported, each with its specific indications. Our patient needed surgery, because the perforation was large and a retroperitoneal collection was present. Laparotomy is the preferred approach, though now laparoscopy is a viable and effective alternative, because it provides the benefits of minimal access, such as reduced pain and early ambulation.
ERCP; Retroperitoneal duodenal perforation; Laparoscopy
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a procedure widely used to diagnose and treat conditions of biliary or pancreatic ductal system. The post-ERCP severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) accompanied with duodenum perforation is rare but serious, remaining a challenge in clinic. In this study we report two such cases. Two Chinese women were treated for clinical suspicion of bile duct obstruction and underwent ERCP after admission. Both developed duodenum perforation and SAP after ERCP, and were managed in the intensive care unit (ICU) and required an organ-failure support. The surgical intervention of the peri-pancreatic debridement with lumber-abdominal compound incisions and postoperative washing and drainage was performed, and the two patients recovered well. The therapeutic effect of the peri-pancreatic debridement with lumber-abdominal compound incisions combined with postoperative washing and drainage in the patients of severe post-ERCP-pancreatitis (PEP) and duodenum perforation is satisfactory.
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP); Post-ERCP-pancreatitis (PEP); Duodenum perforation; Debridement; Drainage
Complications related to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) include pancreatitis, hemorrhage, cholangitis, and perforation. ERCP-related perforation is uncommon, but mortality rates are high. Diagnosis requires a high clinical suspicion for early detection to allow optimal management of the perforation and a better prognosis. Treatment depends on the location and mechanism and increasingly involves nonoperative management. We report a case of successful nonsurgical treatment of a patient with extensive air involving the peritoneum, retroperitoneum, thorax, mediastinum, and subcutaneous tissues following an ERCP perforation.
Although endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is an effective procedure for the diagnosis and treatment of the pancreatic and extrahepatic biliary tract diseases, it is still related with several complications. A female patient who underwent an ERCP with sphincterotomy developed massive subcutaneous emphysema along with pneumomediastinum and pneumoperitoneum. Although mild respiratory distress occurred, based on the absence of intaabdominal leakage of gastrografin, the patient was managed conservatively. In conclusion, the retroperitoneal air collection related to ERCP is well recognized even in the absence of obvious perforation and may spread to adjacent areas, causing serious complications.
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Pneumomediastinum; Pneumoperitoneum; Subcutaneous emphysema
Although endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is an effective modality for the diagnosis and treatment of biliary and pancreatic diseases, it is still related with several severe complications. We report on the case of a female patient who developed liver parenchyma perforation following ERCP. She underwent ERCP with sphincterotomy and extraction of a common bile duct stone. Shortly after ERCP, abdominal distension was identified. Abdominal computed tomography revealed intraabdominal air leakage and leakage of contrast dye penetrating the liver parenchyma into the space around the spleen. Since periampullary perforation related to sphincterotomy could not be denied, she was referred for immediate surgery. Obvious perforation could not be found at surgery. Cholecystectomy, insertion of a T tube into the common bile duct, placement of a duodenostomy tube and drainage of the retroperitoneum were performed. She did well postoperatively and was discharged home on postoperative day 28. In conclusion, as it is well recognized that perforation is one of the most serious complication related to ERCP, liver parenchyma perforation should be suspected as a cause.
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Sphincterotomy; Complication; Guide wire; Liver injury
In the treatment of patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis (CBDS) detected during intraoperative cholangiography (IOC), or when the preoperative study of a patient at intermediate risk for CBDS cannot be completed due to the lack of imaging techniques required for confirmation, or if they are available and yield contradictory radiological and clinical results, patients can be treated using intraoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) during the laparoscopic treatment or postoperative ERCP if the IOC finds CBDS. The choice of treatment depends on the level of experience and availability of each option at each hospital. Intraoperative ERCP has the advantage of being a single-stage treatment and has a significant success rate, an easy learning curve, low morbidity involving a shorter hospital stay and lower costs than the two-stage treatments (postoperative and preoperative ERCP). Intraoperative ERCP is also a good salvage treatment when preoperative ERCP fails or when total laparoscopic management also fails.
Intraoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Laparoendoscopic treatment; Postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Rendezvous technique
Perforation is one of the major complications encountered during endoscopic procedures. The standard of care for these complications is either surgical intervention or nonoperative medical approach with antibiotics and bowel rest with or without parenteral alimentation. Metallic clips, initially developed to secure hemostasis in bleeding, have been successfully used to close perforations in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) including the duodenum. This avoids perioperative morbidities associated with surgical intervention while limiting the leakage of intestinal contents and peritoneal contamination that is possible with medical management. We present a case of a patient with a lateral duodenal perforation during an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) which was successfully treated with immediate placement of metallic endoclips.
Therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was initially utilized at Binh Dan Hospital, Viet Nam, in August 1993. From August 1993 through March 1997, 318 ERCP procedures were performed on 271 patients. It was not possible to obtain cholangiography in 32 cases of the 318 procedures of ERCP, for a success rate of diagnostic ERCP approaching 89%.
Materials and Methods:
Cases treated by ERCP included: 14 cases of Ascaris lumbricoides in the common bile duct (CBD).
69 cases of bile duct stones.
12 cases managed by nasobiliary catheter drainage.
3 cases treated by bile duct stent.
Sphincterotomy was attempted on 108 cases.
5 cases of acute pancreatitis.7 cases of purulent cholangitis, which resulted in 1 death.2 cases of retroperitoneal duodenal perforation.9 cases of postsphincterotomy bleeding.
We conclude that ERCP is a useful therapeutic modality for bile duct stones and parasitic worms in the bile ducts.
ERCP; Retained bile duct stone; Bile duct Ascaris
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is associated with a spectrum of complications such as pancreatitis, hemorrhage, perforation, and cardiopulmonary events. These complications can range from mild to severe resulting in extended hospitalization, requiring surgical intervention, and leading to permanent disability or even death. Complications of ERCP have been better understood in the past decade, with adoption of standardized consensus-based definitions of complications and introduction of new recommendations to minimize risks of ERCP. Adequate selection of patients undergoing ERCP, skilled operators using novel techniques and prompt identification and treatment are key to successful prevention and management.
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Pancreatitis; Prevention
Clinicians must choose a treatment strategy for patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis without knowing whether common bile duct (CBD) stones are present. The purpose of this study was to determine the most cost-effective treatment strategy for patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis and possible CBD stones.
Our decision model included five treatment strategies: (1) laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) alone followed by expectant management, (2) preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) followed by LC, (3) LC with intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) ± common bile duct exploration (CBDE), (4) LC followed by postoperative ERCP, and (5) LC with IOC ± postoperative ERCP. The rates of successful completion of diagnostic testing and therapeutic intervention, test characteristics (sensitivity and specificity), morbidity, and mortality for all procedures are from current literature. Hospitalization costs and lengths of stay are from the 2006 National CMS data. The probability of CBD stones was varied from 0% to 100% and the most cost-effective strategy was determined at each probability.
Across the CBD stone probability range of 4% to 100%, LC with IOC ± ERCP was the most cost-effective. If the probability was 0%, LC alone was the most cost-effective. Our model was sensitive to one health input: specificity of IOC, and three costs: cost of hospitalization for LC with CBDE, cost of hospitalization for LC without CBDE, and cost of LC with IOC.
The most cost-effective treatment strategy for the majority of patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis is LC with routine IOC. If stones are detected, CBDE should be forgone and the patient referred for ERCP.
Major complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) include pancreatitis, hemorrhage, cholangitis, and duodenal perforation. The occurrence of free air in the peritoneal cavity post-ERCP is a rare event (< 1%), which is usually the result of duodenal or ductal perforation related to therapeutic ERCP with sphincterotomy. We describe for the first time a different aetiology of pneumoperitoneum, in an 84-year-old woman with pancreatic cancer and a large hepatic metastasis, after ERCP with common bile duct stent deployment. Our patient developed, pneumoperitoneum due to air leakage from rupture of intrahepatic bile ducts and Glisson’s capsule in the area of a peripheral large hepatic metastasis. The potential mechanism underlying this complication might be post-ERCP pneumobilia and increased pressure of intrahepatic bile ducts leading to rupture of intrahepatic bile ducts in the liver metastatic mass owing to neoplastic tissue friability. This case indicates the need for close clinical and radiological observation of patients with hepatic masses (primary or metastatic) subjected to ERCP. In such patients, avoidance of excessive air insufflation during ERCP and/or placement of a nasogastric tube for bowel decompression immediately after ERCP might be a reasonable strategy to prevent such unusual complications.
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Pneumoperitoneum; Complications; Pneumobilia; Hepatic metastases
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a safe alternative to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for diagnostic biliary imaging in choledocholithiasis. Evidence linking a decline in diagnostic ERCP with the introduction of EUS in clinical practice is limited.
To assess the clinical impact and cost implications of a new EUS program on diagnostic ERCP at a tertiary referral centre.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
A retrospective review was performed of data collected during the first year of EUS at the University of Alberta Hospital (Edmonton, Alberta). Patients were referred for ERCP because of suspicion of choledocholithiasis based on clinical, biochemical and/or radiological parameters. If they were assessed to have an intermediate probability of choledocholithiasis, EUS was performed first. ERCP was performed if EUS suggested choledocholithiasis, whereas patients were clinically followed for six months if their EUS was normal. Cost data were assessed from a third-party payer perspective, and cost savings were expressed in terms of ERCP procedures avoided.
Over 12 months, 90 patients (63 female, mean age 58 years) underwent EUS for suspected biliary tract abnormalities. EUS suggested choledocholithiasis in 20 patients (22%), and this was confirmed by ERCP in 17 of the 20 patients. EUS was normal in 69 patients, and none underwent a subsequent ERCP during a six-month follow-up period. One patient had pancreatic cancer and did not undergo ERCP. The sensitivity and specificity of EUS for choledocholithiasis were 100% and 96%, respectively. A total of 440 ERCP procedures were performed over the same 12-month period, suggesting that EUS resulted in a 14% reduction in ERCP procedures (70 of 510). There were no complications of EUS. The cost of 90 EUS procedures was $42,840, compared with $108,854 for 70 ERCP procedures. The cost savings for the first year were $66,014.
EUS appears to be accurate, safe and cost effective in diagnostic biliary imaging for suspected choledocholithiasis. The impact of EUS is the avoidance of ERCP in selected cases, thereby preventing the risk of complications. Diagnostic ERCP should not be performed in centres and regions with physicians trained in EUS.
Cost analysis; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Endosonography
Failed ERCP appears to decrease the success rate of a laparoscopic approach for common bile duct exploration.
To compare the effectiveness of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration in patients with failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).
This is a descriptive, comparative study. Patients with an indication of common bile duct exploration between February 2005 and October 2008 were included. We studied 2 groups: Group A: patients with failed ERCP who underwent LCBDE plus LC. Group B: patients with common bile duct stones managed with the 1-step approach (LCBDE + LC) with no prior ERCP.
Twenty-five patients were included. Group A: 9 patients, group B: 16 patients. Success rate, operative time, and hospital stay were as follows: group A 66% vs group B 87.5%; group A 187 minutes vs 106 minutes; group A 4.5 days vs 2.3 days; respectively.
Patients with failed ERCP should be considered as high-complex cases in which the laparoscopic procedure success rate decreases, and the conversion rate increases considerably.
Choledocholithiasis; Laparoscopy; Endoscopic retrograde; Cholangiopancreatography
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) combined with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has been widely used in the management of the acute biliopancreatic pathology. Nevertheless, controversy remains about the appropriate timing for retrograde cholangiopancreatography.
A retrospective study was undertaken on a consecutive series of 117 patients with acute biliary-pancreatic pathology, who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy between April 1995 and April 1999. Criteria for preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography were defined, and the patients were divided into 3 groups based on the presence or absence of a preoperative retrograde cholangiopancreatography indication: (1) ERCP+LC group: patients with retrograde cholangiopancreatography indicated and performed (n = 30); (2) LC group: patients without retrograde cholangiopancreatography criteria treated only by LC (n = 47); (3) LC-ERCP group: patients with retrograde cholangiopancreatography criteria but not performed (n = 40).
The groups were similar in age, sex, ASA, and clinical diagnosis. No statistical differences occurred in operative times (73.8 min, 68 min, 67 min), major complications (3.3%, 4.25%, 12.5%), and mean postoperative stay (3.7 ± 4; 4.7 ± 2; 5.7 ± 2). Postoperative retrograde cholangiopancreatography had to be used, respectively, in 0%, 10.6%, and 7.5%. The best predictive criteria for common bile duct pathology were choledocholithiasis on an ultrasound scan and the presence of cholangitis. The other criteria tested had a low predictive value.
Preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography followed by early laparoscopic chole-cystectomy can be performed safely in acute biliary-pancreatic pathology, avoiding 2-stage treatment of these patients and minimizing hospital stay and inconvenience to the patients. Nevertheless, this therapeutic/diagnostic tool must be used selectively.
Acute cholecystectomy; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Cholecystitis; Choledocholithiasis; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the treatment of choice for the management of cholecystolithiasis. For the management of choledocholithiasis, a number of options exist. The effectiveness of washing out common bile duct stones with laparoscopic transcystic papillary balloon dilatation (LTPBD) in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) as a one-stage procedure was evaluated.
Retrospectively, the files of 63 patients treated with LTPBD in a one-stage procedure undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy between December 1996 and December 2006 were studied.
Fifty-three patients were treated successfully in a one-stage procedure, seven patients were treated in two steps with an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) postoperatively, and in three cases a conversion to open surgery was required. The median operation time was 128 min, and the median hospital stay was 4 days. No patients developed postoperative pancreatitis. In one case contrast leakage from the common bile duct was detected. It was the only complication directly related to the LTPBD. There were no postoperative deaths.
We consider the wash out of common bile duct stones after LTPBD in a one-stage procedure to be an easy to do and safe operation with great results. Cooperation with an intervention radiologist and application of an angioplastic dilatation dotter balloon catheter are the keys to success in this procedure. In our hospital, it is the treatment of choice for choledocholithiasis associated with cholelithiasis.
Common bile duct stones; One-stage procedure; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Choledocholithiasis; Cholelithiasis; Papillary balloon dilatation
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a widely used diagnostic and therapeutic modality in the management of biliary and pancreatic disease. Some of the complications of the procedure, although rare, may carry significant morbidity and mortality risks. We describe the case of a 68-year-old female who underwent elective ERCP for ductal stone clearance. Immediately postprocedure, the patient developed subcutaneous emphysema and bilateral pneumothoraces. Further imaging revealed the presence of free intra-abdominal air. The patient made a very quick recovery after bilateral chest drain insertion and no further intervention was required.
We propose that pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and subcutaneous emphysema during ERCP, in the absence of duodenal perforation may be explained by leakage of air from a site of low resistance such as the sphincterotomy site, or as a result of copious Valsalva manoeuvres performed by a patient tolerating the procedure poorly.
AIM: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of two-stage vs single-stage management for concomitant gallstones and common bile duct stones.
METHODS: Four databases, including PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Science Citation Index up to September 2011, were searched to identify all randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Data were extracted from the studies by two independent reviewers. The primary outcomes were stone clearance from the common bile duct, postoperative morbidity and mortality. The secondary outcomes were conversion to other procedures, number of procedures per patient, length of hospital stay, total operative time, hospitalization charges, patient acceptance and quality of life scores.
RESULTS: Seven eligible RCTs [five trials (n = 621) comparing preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)/endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) + laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) with LC + laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE); two trials (n = 166) comparing postoperative ERCP/EST + LC with LC + LCBDE], composed of 787 patients in total, were included in the final analysis. The meta-analysis detected no statistically significant difference between the two groups in stone clearance from the common bile duct [risk ratios (RR) = -0.10, 95% confidence intervals (CI): -0.24 to 0.04, P = 0.17], postoperative morbidity (RR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.58 to 1.10, P = 0.16), mortality (RR = 2.19, 95% CI: 0.33 to 14.67, P = 0.42), conversion to other procedures (RR = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.54 to 2.70, P = 0.39), length of hospital stay (MD = 0.99, 95% CI: -1.59 to 3.57, P = 0.45), total operative time (MD = 12.14, 95% CI: -1.83 to 26.10, P = 0.09). Two-stage (LC + ERCP/EST) management clearly required more procedures per patient than single-stage (LC + LCBDE) management.
CONCLUSION: Single-stage management is equivalent to two-stage management but requires fewer procedures. However, patient’s condition, operator’s expertise and local resources should be taken into account in making treatment decisions.
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Endoscopic sphincterotomy; Gallstones; Common bile duct stones; Meta-analysis
Classically, until now, the management of cholecystitis has consisted of immediate and judicious
clinical assessment of the affected patient, interpolating into the assessment of the physical findings
and results from appropriate laboratory, x-ray, and scanning techniques (sonography and scintigraphy)
to formulate a clinical impression. Usually, after the diagnosis has been established, the patient
is subjected to a cholecystectomy, although the timing of the surgery may vary depending on the
clinical condition of the patient. Alternatives to this management (cholecystectomy, medical management)
scheme have been suggested, but these are dependent upon the clinical condition ofthe patient
and considerations of risks. Percutaneous drainage of the gallbladder or cholecystostomy is
sufficient enough to provide drainage, relieve obstruction, and the consequences of infection, i.e.,
sepsis, and prevent perforation. A contributory role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
(ERCP) in this schema has not been a consideration. An ERCP is rarely employed for therapy
(or diagnosis) when cholecystitis is suspected but it might assume a more significant role if it is considered
an efficacious alternative in specific conditions. We have had the unusual experience of managing
11 patients with cholecystitis employing ERCP and its therapeutic modalities, i.e.,
sphincterotomy, selective cannulation of the cystic duct, and relieving obstruction of that structure
by catheter displacement of an obstructing stone. Endoscopic techniques providing decompression
of the gallbladder are described, and the feasibility of utilizing endoscopic procedures for treatment
of cholecystitis will be given consideration.
Endoscopic biliary stenting is a well-established treatment of choice for many obstructive biliary disorders. Commonly used plastic endoprostheses have a higher risk of clogging and dislocation. Distal stent migration is an infrequent complication. Duodenum is the most common site of a migrated biliary stent. Intestinal perforation can occur during the initial insertion or endoscopic or percutaneous manipulation, or as a late consequence of stent placement. A 52-year-old male who presented with obstructive jaundice underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with plastic stent placement. However, jaundice did not improve and he then underwent ERCP which revealed the plastic stent penetrating the ampullary tumor into the duodenal wall causing malfunction of the stent. A new plastic stent was inserted and the patient underwent Whipple’s operation. He is currently doing well after the operation.
Complication; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Penetration; Perforation