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1.  Pain after laparoscopic appendectomy: a comparison of transumbilical single-port and conventional laparoscopic surgery 
Conventional laparoscopic appendectomy is performed using three ports, and single-port appendectomy is an attractive alternative in order to improve cosmesis. The aim of this study was to compare pain after transumbilical single-port laparoscopic appendectomy (SA) with pain after conventional three-port laparoscopic appendectomy (TA).
From April to September 2011, 50 consecutive patients underwent laparoscopic appendectomy for simple appendicitis without gangrene or perforation. Patients who had undergone appendectomy with a drainage procedure were excluded. The type of surgery was chosen based on patient preference after written informed consent was obtained. The primary endpoint was postoperative pain evaluated by the visual analogue scale score and postoperative analgesic use. Operative time, recovery of bowel function, and length of hospital stay were secondary outcome measures.
SA using a SILS port (Covidien) was performed in 17 patients. The other 33 patients underwent TA. Pain scores in the 24 hours after surgery were higher in patients who underwent SA (P = 0.009). The change in postoperative pain score over time was significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.021). SA patients received more total doses of analgesics (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) in the 24 hours following surgery, but the difference was not statistically significant. The median operative time was longer for SA (P < 0.001).
Laparoscopic surgeons should be concerned about longer operation times and higher immediate postoperative pain scores in patients who undergo SA.
PMCID: PMC3294111  PMID: 22403751
Appendicitis; Laparoscopic appendectomy; Single incision; SILS port; Postoperative pain
2.  Outcomes of a Single-Port Laparoscopic Appendectomy Using a Glove Port With a Percutaneous Organ-Holding Device and Commercially-Available Multichannel Single-Port Device 
Annals of Coloproctology  2014;30(1):42-46.
A laparoscopic appendectomy is now commonly performed. The push in recent years toward reducing the number of ports required to perform this surgery has led to the development of a single-port laparoscopic appendectomy (SPA). We compared postoperative pain after an SPA using a glove port with a percutaneous organ-holding device (group 1) with that of an SPA using a commercially-available multichannel single-port device (group 2).
Between March 2010 and July 2011, a retrospective study was conducted of a total of 77 patients who underwent an SPA by three surgeons at department of surgery, Kangbuk Samsung Medical Center. Thirty-eight patients received an SPA using a glove port with a percutaneous organ-holding device. The other 39 patients received an SPA using a commercially-available multichannel single port (Octo-Port or SILS Port). Operative details and postoperative outcomes were collected and evaluated.
There were no differences in the mean operative times, times to pass gas, postoperative hospital stays, or cosmetic satisfaction scores between the two groups. The pain score in the first 24 hours after surgery was higher in group 2 than group 1 patients (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the trocar used in group 2 was more expensive than that used in group 1.
An SPA using a glove port with a percutaneous organ-holding device was associated with a lower pain score during the first 24 hours after surgery because of the shorter fascia incision length and a cheaper cost than an SPA using a commercially-available multichannel single-port device.
PMCID: PMC3953169  PMID: 24639970
Single port; Percutaneous organ-holding device; Laparoscopic appendectomy
3.  A comparison of transumbilical single-port laparoscopic appendectomy and conventional three-port laparoscopic appendectomy: from the diagnosis to the hospital cost 
Recently many cases of appendectomy have been conducted by single-incision laparoscopic technique. The aim of this study is to figure out the benefits of transumbilical single-port laparoscopic appendectomy (TULA) compared with conventional three-port laparoscopic appendectomy (CTLA).
From 2010 to 2012, 89 patients who were diagnosed as acute appendicitis and then underwent laparoscopic appendectomy a single surgeon were enrolled in this study and with their medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Cases of complicated appendicitis confirmed on imaging tools and patients over 3 points on the American Society of Anesthesia score were excluded.
Among the total of 89 patients, there were 51 patients in the TULA group and 38 patients in the CTLA group. The visual analogue scale (VAS) of postoperative day (POD) #1 was higher in the TULA group than in the CTLA group (P = 0.048). The operative time and other variables had no statistical significances (P > 0.05).
Despite the insufficiency of instruments and the difficulty of handling, TULA was not worse in operative time, VAS after POD #2, and the total operative cost than CTLA. And, if there are no disadvantages of TULA, TULA may be suitable in substituting three-port laparoscopic surgery and could be considered as one field of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery with the improvement and development of the instruments and revised studies.
PMCID: PMC3729989  PMID: 23908963
Laparoscopic appendectomy; Single incision
4.  Single-Port Laparoscopic Spleen Preserving Distal Pancreatectomy 
Minimally Invasive Surgery  2012;2012:197429.
Single-port laparoscopic surgery has become increasingly popular, with widened indication to more types of surgery. This report will present our initial experience with spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy technique through a small transumbilical incision using the single-port approach for a cystic tumor of pancreatic body. The surgery was done using specialized single-port instruments and normal laparoscopic instruments. The total operative time for this surgery is 233 minutes, and it was completed without drains. Patient was discharged from the hospital on the third day postoperatively in good condition.
PMCID: PMC3317064  PMID: 22482047
5.  Laparoscopic Appendectomy with a Single Incision in a Single Institute 
The laparoscopic appendectomy has become popular for the treatment of acute appendicitis. A single-incision laparoscopic appendectomy offers better cosmesis. We present the results of single-incision laparoscopic appendectomies in our hospital as initial experience.
A single-incision laparoscopic appendectomy was performed in 75 patients at The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon St. Mary's hospital. The operating time, operation type, hospital stay, surgical morbidities, and body mass index were compared.
This retrospective study revealed equal operation times in both the suppurative and the perforated appendicitis group. There was an increase in the hospital stay in the perforated appendicitis group. The postoperative complication rate was 4%, and the median operation time was 58.55 ± 31.79 minutes.
The single-incision laparoscopic appendectomy was easy and safe procedure for treating acute appendicitis. There were no differences in degree of inflammation and body mass index.
PMCID: PMC2998004  PMID: 21152227
Laparoscopic surgery; Appendectomy
6.  Single-incision multi-port laparoscopic appendectomy: How I do it 
Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) appendectomy seeks to further minimise the trauma of parietal access of laparoscopic appendectomy.
We present our initial experience of 17 cases of SILS appendectomy which were completed using conventional laparoscopic instruments. We utiliesd a single-incision multi-port laparoscopic appendectomy (SIMPLA) technique.
The operative time was 63 ± 20 min, blood loss 6.5 ± 5 mL, bowel movement (passing stool) occurred in 2.6 ± 0.6 days. Most patients were discharged on the first operative day on oral diet. The analgesic usage and pain scores were similar to multi-port laparoscopic appendectomy. No complications were noted at follow-up till 4 weeks and the surgical wound healed in all patients with an inconspicuous scar.
Our initial experience with SILS appendectomy demonstrates its feasibility and supports the promise of minimising further the access of laparoscopic surgery. The clear advantage is its cosmetic benefit.
PMCID: PMC3002002  PMID: 21197239
Single-incision laparoscopic surgery; single access laparoscopic surgery; appendectomy; appendicectomy; single port access surgery
7.  Day-care laparoscopic appendectomies 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  1999;42(2):138-142.
To demonstrate the safety of laparoscopic appendectomy in a day-care setting and to compare patients selected for laparoscopic versus open appendectomy.
A retrospective, nonrandomized study.
A community hospital in a small town in British Columbia.
Ninety-four consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis.
Each patient underwent laparoscopic or open appendectomy as selected by the operating surgeon.
Outcome measures
Duration of operation and of hospital stay, morbidity and mortality.
The average operating time was 32 minutes for open appendectomy and 36 minutes for laparoscopic appendectomy. Two (4%) of the 52 patients who had a laparoscopic appendectomy had significant complications; 1 of them required reoperation for intra-abdominal abscess. Thirty-nine (75%) of the laparoscopic appendectomies were done as day-care procedures. The average length of stay for the remaining patients was 2.1 days. The overall complication rate for patients who underwent open appendectomy was 20%. The average length of stay for these patients was 3.2 days; no patient was discharged within 24 hours.
Laparoscopic appendectomy can be safely performed as a day-care procedure, even for selected patients with gangrenous or perforated appendices. Patients typically selected for open appendectomy include children and those with more advanced infection.
PMCID: PMC3788977  PMID: 10223076
8.  Single Incision Laparoscopic Pancreas Resection for Pancreatic Metastasis of Renal Cell Carcinoma 
Results of this study suggest that single incision laparoscopic subtotal pancreatectomy may be safely performed in centers experienced with advanced laparoscopic procedures.
Transumbilical single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) offers excellent cosmetic results and may be associated with decreased postoperative pain, reduced need for analgesia, and thus accelerated recovery. Herein, we report the first transumbilical single incision laparoscopic pancreatectomy case in a patient who had renal cell cancer metastasis on her pancreatic corpus and tail.
A 59-year-old female who had metastatic lesions on her pancreas underwent laparoscopic subtotal pancreatectomy through a 2-cm umbilical incision.
Single incision pancreatectomy was performed with a special port (SILS port) and articulated equipment. The procedure lasted 330 minutes. Estimated blood loss was 100mL. No perioperative complications occurred. The patient was discharged on the seventh postoperative day with a low-volume (20mL/day) pancreatic fistula that ceased spontaneously. Pathology result of the specimen was renal cell cancer metastases.
This is the first reported SILS pancreatectomy case, demonstrating that even advanced surgical procedures can be performed using the SILS technique in well-experienced centers. Transumbilical single incision laparoscopic pancreatectomy is feasible and can be performed safely in experienced centers. SILS may improve cosmetic results and allow accelerated recovery for patients even with malignancy requiring advanced laparoscopic interventions.
PMCID: PMC3083051  PMID: 21605524
Single incision; Pancreas; Resection
9.  Comparison of clinical outcomes and hospital cost between open appendectomy and laparoscopic appendectomy 
Laparoscopic appendectomy has been recognized to have many advantages such as greater cosmetic results, less postoperative pain and shorter hospital stays. On the other hand, the cost of laparoscopic procedures is still more expensive than that of open procedures in Korea. The aim of this study is to compare clinical outcomes and hospital costs between open appendectomy and laparoscopic appendectomy.
Between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2010, 471 patients were diagnosed with acute appendicitis. Of these, 418 patients met the inclusion criteria and were divided into two groups of open appendectomy (OA) group and laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) group. We analyzed the clinical data and hospital costs.
The mean operation time for laparoscopic appendectomy (72.17 minutes) was significantly longer than that of open appendectomy (46.26 minutes) (P = 0.0004). The mean amounts of intravenous analgesics for OA group (2.00 times) was greater than that of LA group (1.86 times) (P < 0.0001). The complication rate was similar between the two groups (OA, 6.99% vs. LA, 10.87%; P = 0.3662). The mean length of postoperative hospital stay was shorter in LA group (OA, 4.55 days vs. LA, 3.60 days; P = 0.0002). The mean total cost covered by the National Health Insurance was more expensive in LA group (OA, 1,259,842 won [Korean monetary unit] vs. LA, 1,664,367 won; P = 0.0057).
Clinical outcomes of laparoscopic appendectomy were superior to that of open appendectomy even though the cost of laparoscopic appendectomy was more expensive than that of open appendectomy. Whenever surgeons manage a patient with appendicitis, laparoscopic appendectomy should be considered as the procedure of choice.
PMCID: PMC3229000  PMID: 22148124
Appendicitis; Appendectomy; Hospital costs; Clinical outcomes
10.  Acute appendicitis: position paper, WSES, 2013 
Appendectomy is one of the most frequently performed operative procedures in general surgery departments of every size and category. Laparoscopic Appendectomy – LA - as compared to Open Appendectomy – OA - was very controversial at first but has found increasing acceptance all over the World, although the percentage of its acceptance is different in the various single National setting. Various meta-analyses and Cochrane reviews have compared LA with OA and different technical details. Furthermore, new surgical methods have recently emerged, namely, the single-port/incision laparoscopic appendectomy and NOTES technique. Their distribution among the hospitals, however, is unclear. Using laparoscopic mini-instruments with trocars of 2–3.5 mm diameter is proposed as a reliable alternative due to less postoperative pain and improved aesthetics. How to proceed in case of an inconspicuous appendix during a procedure planned as an appendectomy remains controversial despite existing study results. But the main question still is: operate or not operate an acute appendicitis, in the meaning of an attempt of a conservative antibiotic therapy. Therefore, we have done a literature survey on the performance of appendectomies and their technical details as well as the management of the intraoperative finding of an inconspicuous appendix in order to write down – under the light of the latest evidence – a position paper.
PMCID: PMC3984433  PMID: 24708651
11.  SILACIG: A novel technique of single-incision laparoscopic appendicectomy based on institutional experience of 29 cases 
More reports of single-incision laparoscopic appendectomy are appearing in literature as it is an improvement over multiport laparoscopy in further reducing the trauma to abdomen. But, most of techniques require expensive gadgets like commercial ports and manoeuverable instruments, which are not available at many centres. In this context, a feasibility study of our own operative technique of single-incision laparoscopic appendectomy with less expensive conventional instrumentation was conducted at a single centre.
This prospective study was carried out in tertiary care teaching institute of a semi-urban area in South India over a period of 1 year from March 2011 to February 2012. Twenty-nine patients of appendicitis were included in this study. Based on the principles of single-incision laparoscopy, we developed a glove port utilizing readily available operation theatre equipment.
Mean operative time was 56±12 minutes. Mean age of subjects was 34±15 years. M: F ratio was 2:1. There was no significant perioperative morbidity or mortality. Mean follow-up period was 8 months.
Our initial experience with this technique of single-incision laparoscopic appendectomy demonstrates its feasibility, safety at a very low cost.
PMCID: PMC3673578  PMID: 23741113
Appendicectomy; glove port; single incision laparoscopy
12.  Comparison of Laparoscopic-Assisted Appendectomy with Intracorporal Laparoscopic Appendectomy and Open Appendectomy 
A laparoscopic appendectomy is associated with less postoperative pain and a shorter postoperative stay than the open technique. However, the open technique is faster and less expensive than the completely laparoscopic method. A laparoscopic-assisted appendectomy has the advantages of both the laparoscopic and open techniques.
A retrospective study involving 83 patients was performed comparing the three different techniques. The comparison studied operating time, surgical expense, and postoperative stay.
The completely laparoscopic method was performed on 24 patients with an average surgical time of 88.9 minutes, average charges of $604, and average postoperative stay of 2.6 days. The open technique was performed on 26 patients with a surgical time of 77.1 minutes, charges of $42, and a postoperative stay of 2.4 days. The laparoscopic-assisted technique was performed on 33 patients with a surgical time of 70.3 minutes, charges of $208, and a postoperative stay of 1.8 days.
The laparoscopic-assisted method of appendix removal can be performed as efficiently as the open technique but at <67% of the cost of the complete laparoscopic method. The postoperative stay is shorter for the laparoscopic-assisted technique than for the open technique. Thus, the laparoscopic-assisted technique is a cost-effective method for removing the appendix.
PMCID: PMC3015413  PMID: 11303994
Appendicitis; Appendectomy; Laparoscopy; Cost-benefit analysis
13.  One, two or three port appendectomy – a rational approach 
Laparoscopic appendectomy is a safe and feasible technique accepted by many surgeons as the gold standard approach for the treatment of acute appendicitis in children. Traditionally laparoscopic appendectomy requires the use of three ports. However, surgical techniques with fewer ports have been reported.
To evaluate the efficacy of laparoscopic appendectomy in children according to the proposed 3-step protocol using one, two or three ports.
Material and methods
A total of 100 children with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis underwent laparoscopic appendectomy. Patients were treated according to the following protocol: transumbilical access with one 10 mm port using the laparoscope with working channel. The appendix was mobilized and delivered through the umbilical port and tied extracorporeally and removed. If the appendix was placed retrocecally or had adhesions, a second port was introduced. The appendix was mobilized and finally retrieved from the abdominal cavity through the camera port, and resected extracorporeally. In the cases of very short and gangrenous appendix and immobile colon, a third port was introduced and totally intra-abdominal appendectomy was performed. Patients were evaluated regarding the duration of the operation, and operative and postoperative complications.
During the study period 100 children (58 males, 42 females) had laparoscopic appendectomy: 48 children by one-port technique (group I), 27 children by two-port technique (group II) and 25 children by three-port technique (group III). The mean operative time was 33 min (20-55 min) in group I, 39 min in group II (23-60 min), and 49 min (30-75 min) in group III. There were no intraoperative complications. Wound infections were recorded in 4 (8.3%) patients in group I, three (11.1%) in group II and four (16.0%) in group III. One patient in group III developed an abdominal abscess managed conservatively.
One-port laparoscopic appendectomy is a feasible technique in children. It allows 48% of children to have the operation. The addition of a second port allows one to mobilize the appendix and perform extracorporeal resection in an additional 27% of cases. These approaches have shorter operative time compared to 3-port technique. Laparoscopic extracorporeal appendectomy, especially one-port, is found to be cost effective and have excellent cosmetic results.
PMCID: PMC3796724  PMID: 24130637
laparoscopy; appendectomy; one port; transumbilical
14.  Single-Port Transumbilical Laparoscopic Appendectomy: A Preliminary Multicentric Comparative Study in 87 Patients with Acute Appendicitis 
Minimally Invasive Surgery  2012;2012:492409.
Introduction. Laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) has been performed in many approaches such as open, laparoscopic and recently Single Port Access (SPAA). In order to elucidate its potential advantages, we compared the two laparoscopic approaches. Methods. 87 patients were included in a multicentric study for suspected appendicitis in order to perform (SPAA) appendectomy or laparoscopic appendectomy (LA). All outcomes, including blood loss, operative time, complications, and length of stay and pain were recorded prospectively. Results. There were 46 patients in the SPAA group and 41 in the LAG with a mean operative time of 40,4 minutes in the SPAA group and 35,0 minutes in the LA group. Only one patient was converted to an open approach. We described only 2 complications. Pain was graded 2,8 in the SPAA group and 2,9 in the LA group, according to the AVS after 24 hours. Patients in the SPAA Group were more satisfied (7,5 versus 6,9) (P < 0.05). Same results were found for the cosmetic result (8,6 versus 7,4) (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Using the single port approach feasible and safe. The true benefit of the technique should be assessed by new randomised controlled trials.
PMCID: PMC3359719  PMID: 22655190
15.  Suprapubic approach for laparoscopic appendectomy 
To evaluate the results of laparoscopic appendectomy using two suprapubic port incisions placed below the pubic hair line.
Prospective hospital based descriptive study.
Department of surgery of a tertiary care teaching hospital located in Rohtas district of Bihar. The study was carried out over a period of 11months during November 2011 to September 2012.
Seventy five patients with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis.
Materials and Methods:
All patients underwent laparoscopic appendectomy with three ports (one 10-mm umbilical for telescope and two 5 mm suprapubic as working ports) were included. Operative time, conversion, complications, hospital stay and cosmetic results were analyzed.
Total number of patients was 75 which included 46 (61.33%) females and 29 (38.67%) males with Mean age (±Standard deviation {SD}) at the time of the diagnosis was 30.32 (±8.86) years. Mean operative time was 27.2 (±5.85) min. One (1.33%) patient required conversion to open appendectomy. No one patient developed wound infection or any other complication. Mean hospital stay was 22.34 (±12.18) h. Almost all patients satisfied with their cosmetic results.
A laparoscopic approach using two supra pubic ports yields the better cosmetic results and also improves the surgeons working position during laparoscopic appendectomy. Although, this study had shown better cosmetic result and better working position of the surgeon, however it needs further comparative study and randomized controlled trial to confirm our findings.
PMCID: PMC3783786  PMID: 24082738
Laparoscopic appendectomy; open appendectomy; supra pubic approach
16.  Laparoscopic Appendectomy in Children Can Be Done as a Fast-Track or Same-Day Surgery 
Laparoscopic surgery has reduced the length of hospital stay for common operations like cholecystectomy, gastric fundoplication, and appendectomy. We have noticed a reduction in length of hospital stay for children undergoing laparoscopic appendectomy. We, therefore, looked at our data to assess whether laparoscopic appendectomy in children could be performed as fast-track or same-day surgery (≤24-hour postoperative stay).
We performed a retrospective review of the records of all children who underwent laparoscopic appendectomy for suspected appendicitis during a 3-year period (7/97 to 7/00).
Laparoscopic appendectomy was performed in 79 children (44 boys and 35 girls), between 2 to 17 years of age (mean, 11 years). In 4 (5%) children with perforated appendicitis, the laparoscopic appendectomy was converted to an open appendectomy. At operation, 51 (64.5%) had acute appendicitis, 22 (27.8%) had perforated appendicitis, 4 (5%) had ruptured ovarian cysts, and 2 (2.5%) had no pathology. The median operative time was 54 minutes. Total length of stay for all 79 patients was a median of 58 hours, and median postoperative LOS was 35 hours. Complications included wound infection (2), abdominal abscess (4), drug rash (2), and epididymo-orchitis (1). In 57 (72%) children without perforated appendicitis, the total length of hospital stay was a median of 42 hours, while median postoperative length of stay was only 28 hours. Thirty-two (56%) children went home in <24 hours following laparoscopic appendectomy. No significant morbidity was noted in the nonperforated group (drug rash,1; fever >24 hrs, 3); and no readmissions or reoperations were necessary on follow-up.
Laparoscopic appendectomy is safe and effective for treating children with appendicitis. Laparoscopic appendectomy may be safely performed as fast-track or same-day surgery, in select children without perforated appendicitis, with a postoperative stay of ≤24 hours.
PMCID: PMC3015535  PMID: 15119660
Laparoscopic appendectomy; Pediatric laparoscopy; Same-day surgery
17.  Single-Incision Laparoscopic Ladd's Procedure for Intestinal Malrotation 
Single-incision laparoscopic Ladd's procedure for symptomatic intestinal malrotation in an adult appears to be feasible and safe with minimal postoperative pain and satisfactory cosmesis.
The potential of single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) as a less invasive and more cosmetically appealing technique has prompted the expansion of its adoption. SILS has been shown to be a safe and feasible alternative to traditional multiport cholecystectomy, appendectomy, colectomy, and many other laparoscopic procedures. The objective of this study is to provide an initial report of the feasibility of correcting intestinal malrotation via a single-incision laparoscopic transumbilical approach.
Case Description:
A 29-year-old woman presented with symptomatic congenital intestinal malrotation. She elected to undergo a Ladd's procedure using a single-incision laparoscopic approach with a SILS port and standard laparoscopic instruments. The procedure was accomplished without additional ports or conversion to laparotomy, and no intraoperative or postoperative complications were noted. Total operative time was 106 minutes. The patient had minimal postoperative pain and was satisfied with the cosmetic outcome.
When performed by a surgeon experienced in the SILS technique, single-incision laparoscopic Ladd's procedure for symptomatic intestinal malrotation in an adult is feasible and safe, with minimal postoperative pain and favorable cosmetic outcome.
PMCID: PMC3939329
Minimally invasive surgical procedures; Laparoscopy; Intestinal volvulus; Digestive system surgical procedures
18.  Clinical experience with a multifunctional, flexible surgery system for endolumenal, single-port, and NOTES procedures 
Surgical Endoscopy  2010;25(2):586-592.
Single-port and incisionless surgical approaches hold the promise of fewer complications, reduced pain, faster recovery, and improved cosmesis compared with traditional open or laparoscopic approaches. The ability to select an access approach (i.e., endolumenal, single-port, transvaginal, or transgastric) with one platform may be important to optimization of individual patient results. The authors report their results using these four separate surgical approaches tailored to three different therapeutic procedures, all with the use of a single flexible platform, the Incisionless Operating Platform (IOP).
After institutional review board approval, the IOP was used to perform nine cholecystectomies via transvaginal (TV) (n = 4), transgastric (TG) (n = 4), and single-port transumbilical (TU) (n = 1) access. Two appendectomies were performed via TG access. Endolumenal access was used for 18 gastric pouch and stoma reductions after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The TG and TV procedures involved the use of one to three trocars. The recorded data included safety, procedural success, operative time, patient pain assessment (on a 0–10 scale) at discharge, and length of hospital stay.
Procedural success was achieved for 16 of 18 endolumenal procedures, 1 of 1 single-port procedure, and 10 of 10 NOTES procedures. For 5 of 10 NOTES procedures, only one small trocar was required. The mean operative times were 79 min for pouch with stoma reduction, 171 min for cholecystectomy, and 274 min for appendectomy. Of 29 patients, 27 were discharged in 24 h or less. The average pain scores were 0.44 for pouch with stoma reduction, 1.3 for cholecystectomy, and 2.5 for appendectomy. No significant complications occurred. The ergonomics of IOP allowed the surgeon to interface with the system using an endoscopic or laparoscopic orientation.
Availability of a multifunctional, flexible surgery platform provides a choice of a single-port or incisionless surgical approach with the potential to reduce complications, pain, and recovery time while improving cosmesis.
PMCID: PMC3032221  PMID: 20734085
Endolumenal surgery; Incisionless surgery; NOTES instrumentation; NOTES surgery; Single-port-access surgery
19.  Transumbilical single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy using traditional laparoscopic instruments: a report of thirty-six cases 
Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of the operation of transumbilical single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (TSPLC) by traditional laparoscopic instruments and summarize the initial experience. Methods: Sixty subjects with cholelithiasis were divided into two groups. One group (36 cases) underwent TSPLC and the control group (24 cases) underwent traditional three-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Postoperative complications were observed and operation time, hospital days, visual analogue scale (VAS) after 6 and 24 h of operation, and subject satisfaction score were measured. Results: TSPLC and traditional LC were performed successfully in the two groups. The operation time in the TSPLC group was significantly longer than that in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference in hospital stay and VAS between the TSPLC and control groups. The subject satisfaction score in the TSPLC group was 91.2, significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.01). All subjects recovered from the operation and no postoperative complication occurred during the period of two weeks after operation. Conclusions: TSPLC is a feasible and safe method for cholecystectomy, although it may be more time-consuming. However, it is welcomed by patients who are more concerned with cosmetic outcomes. Future studies are needed to confirm its disadvantages and contraindications.
PMCID: PMC3190102  PMID: 21960350
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Minimally invasive surgery; Traditional laparoscopic instruments
20.  Single-Port Transumbilical Laparoscopic-Assisted Adnexal Surgery 
Single-port transumbilical laparoscopic-assisted surgery for large, benign adnexal tumors was found to be a feasible alternative to conventional laparoscopic or open surgical methods.
To evaluate the efficiency and feasibility of single-port access transumbilical laparoscopic-assisted surgery in patients with large (>8cm) adnexal tumors and to present our initial experience.
Twenty-two patients with presumably benign adnexal tumors who have undergone single-port access transumbilical laparoscopic-assisted surgery were enrolled. The procedure was performed using the method of exteriorization and extracorporeal surgery of adnexal tumors outside the abdominal cavity under laparoscopic guidance with preservation of as much ovarian tissue as possible. In each case, a homemade single-port device was inserted into the abdomen through a 2-cm umbilical incision. The clinical characteristics and operative outcomes of these patients were reviewed.
Twenty of 22 cases were completed successfully. The one failed case required an additional trocar for adequate adhesiolysis, and the other case needed intraperitoneal drainage. The median operating time was 50 minutes (range, 35 to 120), and the estimated blood loss was 38mL (range, 10 to 300). Cyst rupture occurred in 2 cases, but there were no major postoperative complications.
Single-port access transumbilical laparoscopic-assisted surgery for benign and relatively large adnexal tumors is feasible and could be an alternative to convention open laparotomy or laparoscopic surgery.
PMCID: PMC3148876  PMID: 21902980
Single-port access laparoscopy; Ovarian tumor; Cystectomy
21.  Two-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy with modified suture retraction of the fundus: A practical approach 
Although transumbilical single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) has been demonstrated to be superior cosmetic, it is only limited to simple cases at present. In complex cases, the standard four- or three-port LC is still the treatment of choice.
To summarize the clinical effect of a modified technique in two-port LC.
A consecutive series of patients with benign gallbladder diseases admitted to the provincial teaching hospital who underwent LC in the past 4 years were included. A modified two-port LC was the first choice except for those requiring laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE).
The operation was done with suture retraction of the fundus by a needle-like retractor. The patients’ data, including the operative time, time consumed by gallbladder retraction, operative bleeding, conversion rate, rate of adding trocars, and postoperative complications were recorded.
Data were expressed as percentage and mean with standard deviation.
Total 107 patients with chronic calculous cholecystitis (N = 61), acute calculous cholecystitis (N = 43), and cholecystic polyps (N = 3) received two-port LC. The procedure was successful in 99 out of 107 cases (success rate, 92.5%), and a third trocar was added in the remaining 8 cases (7.5%) due to severe pathological changes. The operative time was 47.2 (±13.21) min. There was no conversion to open surgery.
Two-port LC using a needle-like retractor for suture retraction of the gallbladder fundus is a practical approach when considering the safety, convenience, and indications as well as relatively minimal invasion.
PMCID: PMC3764655  PMID: 24019690
Needle-like retractor; suture retraction of the fundus; two-port LC
22.  Transumbilical scarless surgery with thoracic trocar: easy and low-cost 
Single-site laparoscopic surgery has become increasingly common. We herein report an easy and low-cost thoracic trocar technique (TTT) for these types of procedures and recommend the simpler name "transumbilical scarless surgery" (TUSS) to minimize confusion in nomenclature.
We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent TUSS by TTT using a thoracic trocar and surgical glove in our hospital between November 2011 and November 2012. Operating time, postoperative stay, and complications were detailed.
A total of 101 TUSS by TTT were successfully performed, comprising appendectomy (n = 63), ovarian cyst excision (n = 7), splenectomy (n = 5), nephroureterectomy (n = 5), orchidopexy (n = 4), pyeloplasty (n = 3), nephrolithotomy (n = 2), orchiectomy (n = 2), varicocelectomy (n = 2), lymphangioma excision (n = 2), ureterectomy (n = 1), Morgagni diaphragmatic hernia repair (n = 1), ovarian detorsion (n = 1), antegrade continence enema (n = 1), intestinal resection anastomosis (n = 1), and intestinal duplication excision (n = 1). Kirschner wires were used for some organ traction. Nine patients required an additional port, but no major complications occurred. The postoperative stay (mean ± standard deviation) was 3.2 ± 1.4 days, and operating time was 58.9 ± 38.3 minutes.
We recommend the simpler name of TUSS to minimize confusion in nomenclature for all transumbilical single-incision laparoendoscopic surgeries. TTT is an easy and low-cost TUSS technique.
PMCID: PMC3671005  PMID: 23741694
Minimally invasive surgical procedures; Laparoscopy; Appendectomy
23.  Transumbilical Single Port Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy: A Technical Report on Right and Left Adrenalectomy Using the Glove Port 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2012;53(2):442-445.
Recently, single port laparoscopic surgery has been the focus of attention due to the advanced laparoscopic skills accumulated from experience and developments in laparoscopic instruments. Herein, we present two cases of initial single port laparoscopic adrenalectomies. Case 1 was a 38-year-old female patient diagnosed with primary hyperaldosteronism because of a the right adrenal 2.5-cm sized adenoma, and case 2 was a 31-year-old female patient diagnosed with primary adrenal Cushing's syndrome because of a left adrenal 2.9-cm sized adenoma. Both patients successfully underwent single port laparoscopic adrenalectomies via a transumbilical transperitoneal approach. There was no estimated blood loss and the total operating times were 60 and 70 minutes, respectively. Both patients recovered uneventfully. We believe that this technique presented could provide potential benefits (lesser wound pain, better cosmetic satisfaction, and shorter convalescence) if the indications are carefully selected.
PMCID: PMC3282955  PMID: 22318837
Minimally invasive; laparoscopy; single port; adrenalectomy
24.  Learning Curve for a Laparoscopic Appendectomy by a Surgical Trainee 
The laparoscopic appendectomy has been a basic part of the principal of a more complex laparoscopic technique for the surgical trainee. As the number of laparoscopic appendectomies performed by surgical trainees has increased, we are trying to check the stability of, which is controversial, and the learning curve associated with a laparoscopic appendectomy.
We studied the demographics, histologic diagnoses, operative time, the number of complicated cases, and hospital duration of one hundred and three patients who underwent an open appendectomy (group A, 53) or a laparoscopic appendectomy (group B, 50) retrospectively through a review of their medical records. The learning curve for the laparoscopic appendectomy was established through the moving average and ANOVA methods.
There were no differences in the operative times (A, 64.15 ± 29.88 minutes; B, 58.2 ± 20.72 minutes; P-value, 0.225) and complications (A, 11%; B, 6%; P-value, 0.34) between group A and group B. Group B was divided into group C who underwent the operation in the early period (before the learning curve) and group D who underwent the operation in the later period (after the learning curve). The average operative time for group C was 66.83 ± 21.55 minutes, but it was 45.25 ± 10.19 minutes for group D (P-value < 0.0001). Although this difference was statistically significant, no significant difference in the complication rate was observed between the two groups.
A laparoscopic appendectomy, compared with an open appendectomy, performed by a surgical trainee is safe. In this study, the learning curve for a laparoscopic appendectomy was thirty cases.
PMCID: PMC2998026  PMID: 21152134
Appendectomy; Laparoscopy; Learning curve
25.  Laparoscopic Appendectomy in Patients With a Body Mass Index of 25 or Greater: Results of a Double Blind, Prospective, Randomized Trial 
The reported advantages of the laparoscopic approach to appendectomy are shortened hospital stay, less postoperative pain, and earlier return to usual activities (work). However, a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial comparing laparoscopic appendectomy with open appendectomy in active-duty males failed to disclose a benefit of laparoscopic appendectomy with regards to postoperative pain and return to work. The aim of our study was to compare open and laparoscopic appendectomy in overweight patients.
We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind study to determine whether laparoscopic appendectomy or the open procedure in overweight patients offers a significant reduction in lost workdays, postoperative pain, or operative time from. Open appendectomy in overweight patients (those with a body mass index ≥25) may be more difficult due to excessive sub-cutaneous adipose tissue. The open incision may be of considerable size, which may result in increased postoperative pain and a prolonged convalescence.
There was a statistically significant increase in operative time for laparoscopic appendectomy of 11 minutes. As expected, the aggregate incision length for open appendectomy was twice that of the laparoscopic appendectomy.
The data from this prospective, randomized, double-blind study failed to demonstrate any significant reduction in lost workdays, postoperative pain, or operative time with laparoscopic appendectomy.
PMCID: PMC3015793  PMID: 17663093
Appendectomy; Body Mass Index

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