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1.  Single port laparoscopic appendectomy in children using glove port and conventional rigid instruments 
Purpose
To further improve the advantages of minimally invasive surgery, single port laparoscopic techniques continue to be developed. We report our initial experience with single port laparoscopic appendectomy (SPLA) in children and compare its outcomes to those of conventional laparoscopic appendectomy (CLA).
Methods
Clinical data were prospectively collected for SPLA cases performed at Chung-Ang University Hospital by a single surgeon between March 2011 and December 2011, including operative time, perioperative complications, conversion rate, and length of hospital stay. Each case of SPLA was performed using conventional laparoscopic instruments through Glove port placed into the single umbilical incision. To compare outcomes, a retrospective review was performed for those patients who underwent CLA between March 2010 and December 2010.
Results
Thirty-one patients underwent SPLA and 114 patients underwent CLA. Mean age (10.5 years vs. 11.1 years, P = 0.43), weight (48.2 kg vs. 42.9 kg, P = 0.27), and operation time (41.8 minutes vs. 37.9 minutes, P = 0.190) were comparable between both groups. Mean hospital stay was longer for CLA group (2.6 days vs. 3.7 days, P = 0.013). There was no conversion to conventional laparoscopic surgery in SPLA group. In CLA group, there were nine complications (7.9%) with 3 cases of postoperative ileuses and 6 cases wound problems. There was one complication (3.2%) of umbilical surgical site infection in SPLA group (P = 0.325).
Conclusion
The results of this study demonstrated that SPLA using conventional laparoscopic instruments is technically feasible and safe in children. SPLA using conventional laparoscopic instruments might be popularized by eliminating the need for specially designed instruments.
doi:10.4174/astr.2014.86.1.35
PMCID: PMC3994610  PMID: 24761405
Appendectomy; Laparoscopy; Single-incision; Pediatrics
2.  Pain after laparoscopic appendectomy: a comparison of transumbilical single-port and conventional laparoscopic surgery 
Purpose
Conventional laparoscopic appendectomy is performed using three ports, and single-port appendectomy is an attractive alternative in order to improve cosmesis. The aim of this study was to compare pain after transumbilical single-port laparoscopic appendectomy (SA) with pain after conventional three-port laparoscopic appendectomy (TA).
Methods
From April to September 2011, 50 consecutive patients underwent laparoscopic appendectomy for simple appendicitis without gangrene or perforation. Patients who had undergone appendectomy with a drainage procedure were excluded. The type of surgery was chosen based on patient preference after written informed consent was obtained. The primary endpoint was postoperative pain evaluated by the visual analogue scale score and postoperative analgesic use. Operative time, recovery of bowel function, and length of hospital stay were secondary outcome measures.
Results
SA using a SILS port (Covidien) was performed in 17 patients. The other 33 patients underwent TA. Pain scores in the 24 hours after surgery were higher in patients who underwent SA (P = 0.009). The change in postoperative pain score over time was significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.021). SA patients received more total doses of analgesics (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) in the 24 hours following surgery, but the difference was not statistically significant. The median operative time was longer for SA (P < 0.001).
Conclusion
Laparoscopic surgeons should be concerned about longer operation times and higher immediate postoperative pain scores in patients who undergo SA.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.82.3.172
PMCID: PMC3294111  PMID: 22403751
Appendicitis; Laparoscopic appendectomy; Single incision; SILS port; Postoperative pain
3.  One, two or three port appendectomy – a rational approach 
Introduction
Laparoscopic appendectomy is a safe and feasible technique accepted by many surgeons as the gold standard approach for the treatment of acute appendicitis in children. Traditionally laparoscopic appendectomy requires the use of three ports. However, surgical techniques with fewer ports have been reported.
Aim
To evaluate the efficacy of laparoscopic appendectomy in children according to the proposed 3-step protocol using one, two or three ports.
Material and methods
A total of 100 children with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis underwent laparoscopic appendectomy. Patients were treated according to the following protocol: transumbilical access with one 10 mm port using the laparoscope with working channel. The appendix was mobilized and delivered through the umbilical port and tied extracorporeally and removed. If the appendix was placed retrocecally or had adhesions, a second port was introduced. The appendix was mobilized and finally retrieved from the abdominal cavity through the camera port, and resected extracorporeally. In the cases of very short and gangrenous appendix and immobile colon, a third port was introduced and totally intra-abdominal appendectomy was performed. Patients were evaluated regarding the duration of the operation, and operative and postoperative complications.
Results
During the study period 100 children (58 males, 42 females) had laparoscopic appendectomy: 48 children by one-port technique (group I), 27 children by two-port technique (group II) and 25 children by three-port technique (group III). The mean operative time was 33 min (20-55 min) in group I, 39 min in group II (23-60 min), and 49 min (30-75 min) in group III. There were no intraoperative complications. Wound infections were recorded in 4 (8.3%) patients in group I, three (11.1%) in group II and four (16.0%) in group III. One patient in group III developed an abdominal abscess managed conservatively.
Conclusions
One-port laparoscopic appendectomy is a feasible technique in children. It allows 48% of children to have the operation. The addition of a second port allows one to mobilize the appendix and perform extracorporeal resection in an additional 27% of cases. These approaches have shorter operative time compared to 3-port technique. Laparoscopic extracorporeal appendectomy, especially one-port, is found to be cost effective and have excellent cosmetic results.
doi:10.5114/wiitm.2011.33991
PMCID: PMC3796724  PMID: 24130637
laparoscopy; appendectomy; one port; transumbilical
4.  Transumbilical scarless surgery with thoracic trocar: easy and low-cost 
Purpose
Single-site laparoscopic surgery has become increasingly common. We herein report an easy and low-cost thoracic trocar technique (TTT) for these types of procedures and recommend the simpler name "transumbilical scarless surgery" (TUSS) to minimize confusion in nomenclature.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent TUSS by TTT using a thoracic trocar and surgical glove in our hospital between November 2011 and November 2012. Operating time, postoperative stay, and complications were detailed.
Results
A total of 101 TUSS by TTT were successfully performed, comprising appendectomy (n = 63), ovarian cyst excision (n = 7), splenectomy (n = 5), nephroureterectomy (n = 5), orchidopexy (n = 4), pyeloplasty (n = 3), nephrolithotomy (n = 2), orchiectomy (n = 2), varicocelectomy (n = 2), lymphangioma excision (n = 2), ureterectomy (n = 1), Morgagni diaphragmatic hernia repair (n = 1), ovarian detorsion (n = 1), antegrade continence enema (n = 1), intestinal resection anastomosis (n = 1), and intestinal duplication excision (n = 1). Kirschner wires were used for some organ traction. Nine patients required an additional port, but no major complications occurred. The postoperative stay (mean ± standard deviation) was 3.2 ± 1.4 days, and operating time was 58.9 ± 38.3 minutes.
Conclusion
We recommend the simpler name of TUSS to minimize confusion in nomenclature for all transumbilical single-incision laparoendoscopic surgeries. TTT is an easy and low-cost TUSS technique.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.84.6.360
PMCID: PMC3671005  PMID: 23741694
Minimally invasive surgical procedures; Laparoscopy; Appendectomy
5.  Initial experience of single port laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal hernia repair: nearly-scarless inguinal hernia repair 
Purpose
In the early 1990's laparoscopic hernioplasty gained popularity worldwide. Thereafter, laparoscopic surgeons have attempted to improve cosmesis using single port surgery. This study aims to introduce and assess the safety and feasibility of single port laparoscopic total extraperitoneal (TEP) hernia repair with a nearly-scarless umbilical incision.
Methods
Sixty three single port laparoscopic TEP hernia repairs were performed in sixty patients from June 2010 to March 2011 at Incheon St. Mary's Hospital, with the use of a glove single-port device and standard laparoscopic instruments. Demographic and clinical data, intraoperative findings, and postoperative course were reviewed.
Results
Of the 63 hernias treated, 31 were right inguinal hernias, 26 were left inguinal hernias and 3 were both inguinal hernias. There was one conversion to conventional three port laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal hernioplasty. Mean operative time was 62 minutes (range, 32 to 150 minutes). There were no intraoperative complications. Postoperative complications occurred in two cases (wound seroma and urinary retension) and were successfully treated conservatively. Mean hospital stay was 2.15 days.
Conclusion
Single port laparoscopic TEP hernia repair is safe and feasible. Umbilical incision provides an excellent cosmetic outcome. Prospective randomized studies comparing single port and conventional three port laparoscopic TEP repairs with short-term outcome and long-term recurrence rate are needed for confirmation.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.5.339
PMCID: PMC3229003  PMID: 22148127
Single port; SILS; LESS; TEP; Inguinal hernia
6.  Single-incision versus conventional laparoscopic appendectomy in 688 patients: a retrospective comparative analysis 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  2014;57(3):E89-E97.
Background
Laparoscopic surgery has become the standard for treating appendicitis. The cosmetic benefits of using single-incision laparoscopy are well known, but its duration, complications and time to recovery have not been well documented. We compared 2 laparoscopic approaches for treating appendicitis and evaluated postoperative pain, complications and time to full recovery.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the cases of consecutive patients with appendicitis and compared those who underwent conventional laparoscopic appendectomy (CLA) performed using 3 incisions and those who underwent single-incision laparoscopic appendectomy (SILA). During SILA, the single port was prepared to increase visibility of the operative site.
Results
Our analysis included 688 consecutive patients: 618 who underwent CLA and 70 who underwent SILA. Postsurgical complications occurred more frequently in the CLA than the SILA group (18.1% v. 7.1%, p = 0.018). Patients who underwent SILA returned to oral feeding sooner than those who underwent CLA (median 12 h v. 22 h, p < 0.001). These between-group differences remained significant after controlling for other factors. Direct comparison of only nonperforated cases, which was determined by pathological examination, revealed that SILA was significantly longer than CLA (60 min v. 50 min, p < 0.001). Patients who underwent SILA had longer in-hospital stays than those who underwent CLA (72 v. 55 h, p < 0.001); however, they had significantly fewer complications (3.0% v. 14.4%, p = 0.006).
Conclusion
In addition to its cosmetic advantages, SILA led to rapid recovery and no increase in postsurgical pain or complications.
doi:10.1503/cjs.023812
PMCID: PMC4035411  PMID: 24869622
7.  A comparison of transumbilical single-port laparoscopic appendectomy and conventional three-port laparoscopic appendectomy: from the diagnosis to the hospital cost 
Purpose
Recently many cases of appendectomy have been conducted by single-incision laparoscopic technique. The aim of this study is to figure out the benefits of transumbilical single-port laparoscopic appendectomy (TULA) compared with conventional three-port laparoscopic appendectomy (CTLA).
Methods
From 2010 to 2012, 89 patients who were diagnosed as acute appendicitis and then underwent laparoscopic appendectomy a single surgeon were enrolled in this study and with their medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Cases of complicated appendicitis confirmed on imaging tools and patients over 3 points on the American Society of Anesthesia score were excluded.
Results
Among the total of 89 patients, there were 51 patients in the TULA group and 38 patients in the CTLA group. The visual analogue scale (VAS) of postoperative day (POD) #1 was higher in the TULA group than in the CTLA group (P = 0.048). The operative time and other variables had no statistical significances (P > 0.05).
Conclusion
Despite the insufficiency of instruments and the difficulty of handling, TULA was not worse in operative time, VAS after POD #2, and the total operative cost than CTLA. And, if there are no disadvantages of TULA, TULA may be suitable in substituting three-port laparoscopic surgery and could be considered as one field of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery with the improvement and development of the instruments and revised studies.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.2.68
PMCID: PMC3729989  PMID: 23908963
Laparoscopic appendectomy; Single incision
8.  Outcomes of a Single-Port Laparoscopic Appendectomy Using a Glove Port With a Percutaneous Organ-Holding Device and Commercially-Available Multichannel Single-Port Device 
Annals of Coloproctology  2014;30(1):42-46.
Purpose
A laparoscopic appendectomy is now commonly performed. The push in recent years toward reducing the number of ports required to perform this surgery has led to the development of a single-port laparoscopic appendectomy (SPA). We compared postoperative pain after an SPA using a glove port with a percutaneous organ-holding device (group 1) with that of an SPA using a commercially-available multichannel single-port device (group 2).
Methods
Between March 2010 and July 2011, a retrospective study was conducted of a total of 77 patients who underwent an SPA by three surgeons at department of surgery, Kangbuk Samsung Medical Center. Thirty-eight patients received an SPA using a glove port with a percutaneous organ-holding device. The other 39 patients received an SPA using a commercially-available multichannel single port (Octo-Port or SILS Port). Operative details and postoperative outcomes were collected and evaluated.
Results
There were no differences in the mean operative times, times to pass gas, postoperative hospital stays, or cosmetic satisfaction scores between the two groups. The pain score in the first 24 hours after surgery was higher in group 2 than group 1 patients (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the trocar used in group 2 was more expensive than that used in group 1.
Conclusion
An SPA using a glove port with a percutaneous organ-holding device was associated with a lower pain score during the first 24 hours after surgery because of the shorter fascia incision length and a cheaper cost than an SPA using a commercially-available multichannel single-port device.
doi:10.3393/ac.2014.30.1.42
PMCID: PMC3953169  PMID: 24639970
Single port; Percutaneous organ-holding device; Laparoscopic appendectomy
9.  Single Incision Laparoscopic Pancreas Resection for Pancreatic Metastasis of Renal Cell Carcinoma 
Results of this study suggest that single incision laparoscopic subtotal pancreatectomy may be safely performed in centers experienced with advanced laparoscopic procedures.
Background:
Transumbilical single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) offers excellent cosmetic results and may be associated with decreased postoperative pain, reduced need for analgesia, and thus accelerated recovery. Herein, we report the first transumbilical single incision laparoscopic pancreatectomy case in a patient who had renal cell cancer metastasis on her pancreatic corpus and tail.
Methods:
A 59-year-old female who had metastatic lesions on her pancreas underwent laparoscopic subtotal pancreatectomy through a 2-cm umbilical incision.
Results:
Single incision pancreatectomy was performed with a special port (SILS port) and articulated equipment. The procedure lasted 330 minutes. Estimated blood loss was 100mL. No perioperative complications occurred. The patient was discharged on the seventh postoperative day with a low-volume (20mL/day) pancreatic fistula that ceased spontaneously. Pathology result of the specimen was renal cell cancer metastases.
Conclusion:
This is the first reported SILS pancreatectomy case, demonstrating that even advanced surgical procedures can be performed using the SILS technique in well-experienced centers. Transumbilical single incision laparoscopic pancreatectomy is feasible and can be performed safely in experienced centers. SILS may improve cosmetic results and allow accelerated recovery for patients even with malignancy requiring advanced laparoscopic interventions.
doi:10.4293/108680810X12924466008448
PMCID: PMC3083051  PMID: 21605524
Single incision; Pancreas; Resection
10.  Single-incision multi-port laparoscopic appendectomy: How I do it 
INTRODUCTION:
Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) appendectomy seeks to further minimise the trauma of parietal access of laparoscopic appendectomy.
METHODS:
We present our initial experience of 17 cases of SILS appendectomy which were completed using conventional laparoscopic instruments. We utiliesd a single-incision multi-port laparoscopic appendectomy (SIMPLA) technique.
RESULTS:
The operative time was 63 ± 20 min, blood loss 6.5 ± 5 mL, bowel movement (passing stool) occurred in 2.6 ± 0.6 days. Most patients were discharged on the first operative day on oral diet. The analgesic usage and pain scores were similar to multi-port laparoscopic appendectomy. No complications were noted at follow-up till 4 weeks and the surgical wound healed in all patients with an inconspicuous scar.
CONCLUSION:
Our initial experience with SILS appendectomy demonstrates its feasibility and supports the promise of minimising further the access of laparoscopic surgery. The clear advantage is its cosmetic benefit.
doi:10.4103/0972-9941.72372
PMCID: PMC3002002  PMID: 21197239
Single-incision laparoscopic surgery; single access laparoscopic surgery; appendectomy; appendicectomy; single port access surgery
11.  Single-Incision Laparoscopic Ladd's Procedure for Intestinal Malrotation 
Single-incision laparoscopic Ladd's procedure for symptomatic intestinal malrotation in an adult appears to be feasible and safe with minimal postoperative pain and satisfactory cosmesis.
Introduction:
The potential of single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) as a less invasive and more cosmetically appealing technique has prompted the expansion of its adoption. SILS has been shown to be a safe and feasible alternative to traditional multiport cholecystectomy, appendectomy, colectomy, and many other laparoscopic procedures. The objective of this study is to provide an initial report of the feasibility of correcting intestinal malrotation via a single-incision laparoscopic transumbilical approach.
Case Description:
A 29-year-old woman presented with symptomatic congenital intestinal malrotation. She elected to undergo a Ladd's procedure using a single-incision laparoscopic approach with a SILS port and standard laparoscopic instruments. The procedure was accomplished without additional ports or conversion to laparotomy, and no intraoperative or postoperative complications were noted. Total operative time was 106 minutes. The patient had minimal postoperative pain and was satisfied with the cosmetic outcome.
Conclusion:
When performed by a surgeon experienced in the SILS technique, single-incision laparoscopic Ladd's procedure for symptomatic intestinal malrotation in an adult is feasible and safe, with minimal postoperative pain and favorable cosmetic outcome.
doi:10.4293/108680813X13654754534954
PMCID: PMC3939329  PMID: 24680157
Minimally invasive surgical procedures; Laparoscopy; Intestinal volvulus; Digestive system surgical procedures
12.  Single-port laparoscopic adrenalectomy for a right-sided aldosterone-producing adenoma: a case report 
Introduction
Single-port laparoscopic adrenalectomy is one of the most interesting surgical advances. Here, we evaluate the safety and feasibility of single-port laparoscopic adrenalectomy as treatment for a right-sided aldosterone-producing adenoma.
Case presentation
A 39-year-old Japanese woman presented with hypertension and hypokalemia. Abdominal computed tomography and an endocrinological workup revealed a 19mm right adrenal tumor with primary aldosteronism. Our patient was informed of the details of the surgical procedure and our efforts to reduce the number of incisions needed - ideally, to a single incision - when removing her adrenal gland. A single-port laparoscopic adrenalectomy was attempted. A multichannel port was inserted through a 2.5cm umbilical incision. A 5mm flexible laparoscope, articulating laparoscopic dissector and tissue sealing device were the primary tools used in the operation. The right liver lobe was evaluated using a percutaneous instrument, providing good visualization of the operative field surrounding her right adrenal gland. The single-port laparoscopic adrenalectomy was successfully completed without any intraoperative complications. The operating time was 76 minutes, and her blood loss was 5mL. Oral intake was resumed on the first postoperative day, and the length of her hospital stay was three days. Her postoperative course was uneventful with no morbidity within one month of follow-up, and our patient had excellent cosmetic results.
Conclusions
Single-port laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe and feasible procedure for patients with a right-sided adrenal tumor when performed by a surgeon experienced in laparoscopic and adrenal surgery. However, more surgical experience using this technique is required to confirm our initial impressions.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-6-208
PMCID: PMC3423033  PMID: 22809170
13.  Single-Port Transumbilical Laparoscopic-Assisted Adnexal Surgery 
Single-port transumbilical laparoscopic-assisted surgery for large, benign adnexal tumors was found to be a feasible alternative to conventional laparoscopic or open surgical methods.
Objectives:
To evaluate the efficiency and feasibility of single-port access transumbilical laparoscopic-assisted surgery in patients with large (>8cm) adnexal tumors and to present our initial experience.
Methods:
Twenty-two patients with presumably benign adnexal tumors who have undergone single-port access transumbilical laparoscopic-assisted surgery were enrolled. The procedure was performed using the method of exteriorization and extracorporeal surgery of adnexal tumors outside the abdominal cavity under laparoscopic guidance with preservation of as much ovarian tissue as possible. In each case, a homemade single-port device was inserted into the abdomen through a 2-cm umbilical incision. The clinical characteristics and operative outcomes of these patients were reviewed.
Results:
Twenty of 22 cases were completed successfully. The one failed case required an additional trocar for adequate adhesiolysis, and the other case needed intraperitoneal drainage. The median operating time was 50 minutes (range, 35 to 120), and the estimated blood loss was 38mL (range, 10 to 300). Cyst rupture occurred in 2 cases, but there were no major postoperative complications.
Conclusion:
Single-port access transumbilical laparoscopic-assisted surgery for benign and relatively large adnexal tumors is feasible and could be an alternative to convention open laparotomy or laparoscopic surgery.
doi:10.4293/108680811X13071180406510
PMCID: PMC3148876  PMID: 21902980
Single-port access laparoscopy; Ovarian tumor; Cystectomy
14.  A Retrospective Study of Two-port Appendectomy and its Comparison with Open Appendectomy and Three-port Appendectomy 
Background/Aims:
To establish the efficacy of two-port appendectomy as an alternative to standard laparoscopic and open appendectomy in the management of acute appendicitis.
Materials and Methods:
Of the 151 patients included in the study, 47 patients were in the open group, 61 in two-port and 43 patients were included in the three-port group. Only patients with uncomplicated acute appendicitis were included in the study. Patients with complicated appendicitis like perforated appendix, appendicular lump and appendicular abscess were excluded from the study. Patients converted to open procedure after initial diagnosis and patients with other pathology in addition to appendicitis were also excluded. Patients with recurrent appendicitis and chronic appendicitis were excluded. The total number of excluded cases was 50. Data were compared with cases of open and three-port appendectomy.
Results:
The mean operative time was 43.94, 35.74, and 59.65 min (SD: 18.91, 11.06, 19.29) for open, two-port, and three-port appendectomy groups respectively. Mean length of stay in days was 3.02, 1.93, and 2.26 (SD: 1.27, 1.04,1.09) for open, two-port, and three-port appendectomy groups respectively. Surgical site infection was significantly lower (P = 0.03) in laparoscopy group as compared to that in open appendectomy group. Seven patients (4.63%) developed surgical site infection, 5 (10.63%) in the open and 2 (1.92%) in the laparoscopy group. Surgical site infection was 1.63% and 2.32% in two-port and three-port appendectomy groups respectively.
Conclusions:
For uncomplicated appendicitis, the two-port appendectomy technique significantly reduces operative time as well as length of hospital stay. It also reduces surgical site infection as compared to open appendectomy group.
doi:10.4103/1319-3767.70611
PMCID: PMC2995095  PMID: 20871191
Laparoscopy; appendectomy; two-port technique
15.  Clinical experience with a multifunctional, flexible surgery system for endolumenal, single-port, and NOTES procedures 
Surgical Endoscopy  2010;25(2):586-592.
Background
Single-port and incisionless surgical approaches hold the promise of fewer complications, reduced pain, faster recovery, and improved cosmesis compared with traditional open or laparoscopic approaches. The ability to select an access approach (i.e., endolumenal, single-port, transvaginal, or transgastric) with one platform may be important to optimization of individual patient results. The authors report their results using these four separate surgical approaches tailored to three different therapeutic procedures, all with the use of a single flexible platform, the Incisionless Operating Platform (IOP).
Methods
After institutional review board approval, the IOP was used to perform nine cholecystectomies via transvaginal (TV) (n = 4), transgastric (TG) (n = 4), and single-port transumbilical (TU) (n = 1) access. Two appendectomies were performed via TG access. Endolumenal access was used for 18 gastric pouch and stoma reductions after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The TG and TV procedures involved the use of one to three trocars. The recorded data included safety, procedural success, operative time, patient pain assessment (on a 0–10 scale) at discharge, and length of hospital stay.
Results
Procedural success was achieved for 16 of 18 endolumenal procedures, 1 of 1 single-port procedure, and 10 of 10 NOTES procedures. For 5 of 10 NOTES procedures, only one small trocar was required. The mean operative times were 79 min for pouch with stoma reduction, 171 min for cholecystectomy, and 274 min for appendectomy. Of 29 patients, 27 were discharged in 24 h or less. The average pain scores were 0.44 for pouch with stoma reduction, 1.3 for cholecystectomy, and 2.5 for appendectomy. No significant complications occurred. The ergonomics of IOP allowed the surgeon to interface with the system using an endoscopic or laparoscopic orientation.
Conclusion
Availability of a multifunctional, flexible surgery platform provides a choice of a single-port or incisionless surgical approach with the potential to reduce complications, pain, and recovery time while improving cosmesis.
doi:10.1007/s00464-010-1225-5
PMCID: PMC3032221  PMID: 20734085
Endolumenal surgery; Incisionless surgery; NOTES instrumentation; NOTES surgery; Single-port-access surgery
16.  The experience of transumbilical endoscopic appendectomies 
Minimally invasive surgery is being widely accepted in various fields of surgery. Although several appendectomy techniques have been reported but, there is no standardization. We report here the experiences of transumbilical endoscopic appendectomy in humans. Between July 2008 and September 2010, ten patients with appendicitis successfully underwent transumbilical endoscopic appendectomies. There were 7 cases of suppurative, 2 cases of gangrenous and 1 case of perforated in operative findings. The ages of the patients were 13-56 years (mean age, 32.7 ± 15.4 years). Under general anesthesia, a 15-mm port was inserted through the umbilicus and then a two-channel endoscope was inserted in the peritoneal cavity. After appendix identification, counter-traction of the appendix with a direct abdominal wall puncture using a straight round needle prolene was performed to achieve good visualization of the operative field. Tissue dissection was performed using an endoscopic needle knife. Tissue grasping and resected appendix retrieval were done with endoscopic forceps. The average operation time was 79.5 ± 23.6 minutes (range, 45 to 110 minutes). No procedures were converted to laparoscopic or open appendectomy. Hospital stay was 4-6 days. All patients completely recovered without complications. As it is highly maneuverable, we believe transumbilical endoscopic appendectomy can be a feasible method. And, as surgeons want to proceed from laparoscopic surgery to natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, this procedure could be a triable method.
doi:10.4174/astr.2014.86.5.278
PMCID: PMC4024928  PMID: 24851231
Appendectomy; Transumbilical approach; Endoscopy
17.  Transumbilical Single-Incision Laparoscopic Resection of Focal Hepatic Lesions 
Background and Objectives:
Transumbilical single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is gaining in popularity as a minimally invasive technique. The reduced pain and superior cosmetic appearance it affords make it attractive to many patients. For this study, we focused on SILS, analyzing the outcomes of transumbilical single-incision laparoscopic liver resection (SILLR) achieved at our institution between January 2010 and February 2013.
Patients and Methods:
Pre- and postoperative data from 17 patients subjected to transumbilical SILLR for various hepatic lesions (8 hemangiomas, 2 hepatocellular carcinomas, 2 metastases, 2 calculi of left intrahepatic duct, and 3 adenomas) were assessed. Altogether, eight wedge resections, seven left lateral lobectomies, a combination wedge resection/left lateral lobectomy, and a proximal left hemihepatectomy segmentectomy were performed, as well as four simultaneous laparoscopic cholecystectomies. In each instance, three ports were installed through an umbilical incision. Once vessels and bleeding were controlled, the lesion(s) were resected with 5-mm margins of normal liver. Resected tissues were then bagged and withdrawn through the umbilical incision. The follow-up period lasted for a minimum of 6 months.
Results:
All 17 patients were successfully treated through a single umbilical incision. The procedures required 55 to 185 minutes to complete, with blood loss of 30 to 830 mL. Subjects regained bowel activity 0.8 to 2.3 days postoperatively and were discharged after 3 to 10 days. There were few complications (23.5%), limited to pleural effusion, wound infection, and incisional hernia.
Conclusions:
Transumbilical SILLR is challenging to perform through conventional laparoscopic instrumentation. The risk of bleeding and technical difficulties is high for lesions of the posterosuperior hepatic segment. Surgical candidates should be carefully selected to optimize the benefits of this technique.
doi:10.4293/JSLS.2014.00397
PMCID: PMC4154436  PMID: 25392646
Laparoscopy; Single-incision surgery; Hepatectomy
18.  Outcomes and cost analysis of laparoscopic versus open appendectomy for treatment of acute appendicitis: 4-years experience in a district hospital 
BMC Surgery  2014;14:14.
Background
Laparoscopic appendectomy is not yet unanimously considered the “gold standard” in the treatment of acute appendicitis because of its higher operative time, intra-abdominal abscess risk, and costs compared to open appendectomy. This study aimed to compare outcomes and cost of laparoscopic and open appendectomy in a district hospital.
Methods
A retrospective analysis of 230 patients who underwent appendectomy at the Division of General Surgery of the Civil Hospital of Ragusa, Italy, from May 2008 to May 2012 was performed. The variables analyzed included patients data (age, gender, previous abdominal surgery, preoperative WBC count, duration of symptoms, ASA risk score), rate of uncomplicated or complicated appendicitis, operative time, postoperative complications, length of hospital stay, and total costs. The patients were divided in two groups according to the surgical approach and compared for each variable. The results were analyzed using the t Student test for quantitative variables, and the Chi-square test with Yates correction and Fisher exact test for categorical.
Results
Laparoscopic appendectomy was performed in 139 patients, open appendectomy in 91. Two cases (1.4%) were converted to open procedure and included in the laparoscopic group data. Patient data and rate of complicated appendicitis were similar in the two study groups. There was no statistical difference (p = 0.476) in the mean operative time between the laparoscopic (52.2 min; range, 20–155) and open appendectomy (49.3 min; range, 20–110) groups. The overall incidence of minor and major complications was significantly lower (p = 0.006) after laparoscopic appendectomy (2.9%, 4 cases) than after open appendectomy (13.2%, 12 cases); rate of intra-abdominal abscess were similar. The length of hospital stay was significantly shorter (p = 0.001) in laparoscopic group (2.75 days; range, 1–8) than in open group (3.87 days; range, 1–19). The mean total cost was 2282 Euro in laparoscopic group and 2337 Euro in open group, with a no significant difference of 55 Euro (p = 0.812).
Conclusion
Laparoscopic appendectomy is associated with fewer complications, shorter hospital stay, and similar operative time, intra-abdominal abscess rate, and total costs, compared with open appendectomy. Therefore, laparoscopic appendectomy can be recommended as preferred approach in acute appendicitis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-14-14
PMCID: PMC3984427  PMID: 24646120
Laparoscopic appendectomy; Open appendectomy; Costs; Complications; Intra-abdominal abscess; Operative time; Length of hospital stay
19.  SILACIG: A novel technique of single-incision laparoscopic appendicectomy based on institutional experience of 29 cases 
INTRODUCTION:
More reports of single-incision laparoscopic appendectomy are appearing in literature as it is an improvement over multiport laparoscopy in further reducing the trauma to abdomen. But, most of techniques require expensive gadgets like commercial ports and manoeuverable instruments, which are not available at many centres. In this context, a feasibility study of our own operative technique of single-incision laparoscopic appendectomy with less expensive conventional instrumentation was conducted at a single centre.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
This prospective study was carried out in tertiary care teaching institute of a semi-urban area in South India over a period of 1 year from March 2011 to February 2012. Twenty-nine patients of appendicitis were included in this study. Based on the principles of single-incision laparoscopy, we developed a glove port utilizing readily available operation theatre equipment.
RESULTS:
Mean operative time was 56±12 minutes. Mean age of subjects was 34±15 years. M: F ratio was 2:1. There was no significant perioperative morbidity or mortality. Mean follow-up period was 8 months.
CONCLUSION:
Our initial experience with this technique of single-incision laparoscopic appendectomy demonstrates its feasibility, safety at a very low cost.
doi:10.4103/0972-9941.110967
PMCID: PMC3673578  PMID: 23741113
Appendicectomy; glove port; single incision laparoscopy
20.  Clinical Outcomes of Laparoscopic Versus Open Appendectomy 
Results of this study suggest that laparoscopic appendectomy offers the benefit of a shortened hospital stay, decreased need for postoperative anesthesia, and early return to normal activities.
Background:
Appendectomy, being the most common surgical procedure performed in general surgery, is still being performed by both open and laparoscopic methods due to a lack of consensus as to which is the most appropriate method. Because further trials are necessary and few such studies have been performed in developing countries, we decided to evaluate the outcomes of the 2 procedures to share our experience with the international community.
Methods:
Consecutive patients with suspected acute appendicitis who underwent laparoscopic (LA) (n=48) and open (n=52) appendectomy (OA) over a period of 3 years were studied. Clinical outcomes were compared between the 2 groups in relation to operative time, analgesia used, length of hospital stay, return to work, resumption of a regular diet, and postoperative complications.
Results:
Mean age of patients was 25.8 years in the laparoscopic and 25.5 years in the open group. Patient demographics were similar in both groups (P>0.05). There was significantly less need for analgesia (1.0±0.5 in LA and 1.5±0.6 doses in OA), a short hospital stay (1.4±0.7 in LA and 3.4±1.0 days in OA), early return to work (12.6±3.3 in LA and 19.1±3.1 days in OA), and less time needed to return to a regular diet (20.1±2.9 in LA and 22.0±4.7, P<0.05 in OA) in the laparoscopic appendectomy group. Operative time was significantly shorter (54.9±14.7 in LA and 13.6±12.6 minutes in OA) in the open group. Total number of complications was less in the laparoscopic group; however, there was no statistically significant difference.
Conclusion:
The laparoscopic technique is a safe and clinically beneficial operative procedure. It provides certain advantages over open appendectomy, including short hospital stay, decreased requirement of postoperative analgesia, early food tolerance, and earlier return to normal activities. Where feasible, laparoscopy should be undertaken as the initial procedure of choice for most cases of suspected appendicitis.
doi:10.4293/108680809X1258998404524
PMCID: PMC3030794  PMID: 20202400
Laparoscopic appendectomy; Suspected appendicitis
21.  Transumbilical single-incision endoscopic splenectomy: Report of ten cases 
AIM: To investigate the feasibility and clinical application of transumbilical single-incision endoscopic splenectomy using conventional laparoscopic instruments.
METHODS: Between 2010 and 2012, transumbilical single-incision endoscopic splenectomy was performed in 10 patients in our department, of whom 4 had refractory idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, 4 had enlarged splenic cyst and 2 had splenic hematoma. A 2.5-cm curved incision was made at the lower umbilicus edge, and a 10 mm laparoscope was inserted into the middle of the incision. A 5-mm harmonic scalpel was placed on the right side, and a 5-mm auxiliary instrument on the left side of the laparoscope. Splenic ligaments were incised with a harmonic scalpel, and the splenic pedicle was cut with an Endo-gastrointestinal anastomosis. The spleen was dissected and placed in a large retrieval bag, blended, and then removed.
RESULTS: All transumbilical single-incision endoscopic splenectomies were performed successfully with mean operative time of 80 ± 5 min and mean blood loss of 150 ± 20 mL. Conversion to laparotomy or multi-port laparoscopic surgery was not required in all cases. All patients were discharged on postoperative days 4-6. During the postoperative hospitalization period, no painkillers were required. No intra-abdominal complications such as infection, ascites, gastric leakage, pancreatic leakage, or wound infection occurred in any case during the 6-mo follow-up.
CONCLUSION: Transumbilical single-incision endoscopic splenectomy using conventional laparoscopic instruments is technically feasible and safe in selected patients.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i1.258
PMCID: PMC3886017  PMID: 24415880
Single-incision endoscopic surgery; Splenectomy; Transumbilical single-incision endoscopic splenectomy; Intra-abdominal complications
22.  Glove Technique in Single-Port Access Laparoscopic Surgery: Results of an Initial Experience 
Minimally Invasive Surgery  2012;2012:415430.
Introduction. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is a virtually “scarless” technique. A retrospective analysis is performed to evaluate an initial experience of this surgical approach. Materials and Methods. From January 2010 to October 2011, SILS was considered as a minimally invasive approach to abdominal disease. The access was made by a standard wound protector and a size 6 glove. A series of little accesses were made on the tips of the glove-fingers to induce pneumoperitoneum and to create a working channel for the laparoscopic instruments. An analysis of costs of this technique was made too. Results. SILS was successfully completed with low cost in 34 patients: 20 appendectomy, 12 cholecystectomy, and 2 right colectomy were performed with a median operative time of 35, 45, and 67.5 minutes, respectively. In no patient any conversion to standard laparoscopy or to open surgery was needed. The postoperative course was uneventful in all patients. In right hemicolectomy, the oncological parameters were respected. Conclusions. In this paper the glove-port technique showed multiple advantages. The SILS is a feasible approach for some pathologies in selected patients. The glove-port is a simple, low-cost, reproducible, and sure method to perform SILS in a high-experienced laparoscopic surgical centre.
doi:10.1155/2012/415430
PMCID: PMC3337489  PMID: 22567226
23.  Transumbilical laparo-endoscopic single site surgery for adrenal cortical adenoma inducing primary aldosteronism: initial experience 
BMC Research Notes  2011;4:364.
Background
We have started using laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) in urologic surgery, although its use has not gained momentum due to its level of difficulty. We here report our initial experience with transumbilical LESS for adrenal cortical adenoma by using a single port with a multichannel cannula (SILS port) and bent laparoscopic instrumentation.
Findings
A multichannel port (SILS port), bent laparoscopic instrument (Roticulator Endo Mini-Shears) and Opti4 laparoscopic electrodes were used in all cases. The intraperitoneal space was approached through the umbilicus. The SILS port was placed through a 2 cm incision at the inner edge of the umbilicus. A 5 mm flexible laparoscope was introduced to keep the laparoscope outside, and surgical specimens were extracted using an Endocatch bag. In addition, as a case control study, we compared perioperative data of LESS adrenalectomy (LESS-A) with that of conventional laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA). We performed transumbilical LESS-A for adrenal cortical adenoma in 12 cases, beginning in December, 2009. All procedures were successfully completed, with only one incision through the umbilicus, and without conversion to a standard laparoscopic approach. Mean operative time for LESS-A was 121.2 ± 7.8 min, which was slightly longer than LA (110.2 ± 7.3 min). For right adrenal tumors, we used a miniport (2 mm port) in addition to a SILS port, and were able to successfully perform adrenalectomy "with no visible scaring". Tumor laterality and patient BMI did not affect surgical morbidity in these procedures. Moreover, there was no significant difference between LESS-A and LA in blood loss, analgesic requirement, hospital stay, and scar satisfaction.
Conclusions
The transumbilical approach in LESS for adrenalectomy is safe and feasible and also improves cosmetic outcome compared with standard laparoscopic procedures. Improvements in surgical devices may aid the further development of this approach.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-4-364
PMCID: PMC3196717  PMID: 21943322
24.  Comparison of clinical outcomes and hospital cost between open appendectomy and laparoscopic appendectomy 
Purpose
Laparoscopic appendectomy has been recognized to have many advantages such as greater cosmetic results, less postoperative pain and shorter hospital stays. On the other hand, the cost of laparoscopic procedures is still more expensive than that of open procedures in Korea. The aim of this study is to compare clinical outcomes and hospital costs between open appendectomy and laparoscopic appendectomy.
Methods
Between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2010, 471 patients were diagnosed with acute appendicitis. Of these, 418 patients met the inclusion criteria and were divided into two groups of open appendectomy (OA) group and laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) group. We analyzed the clinical data and hospital costs.
Results
The mean operation time for laparoscopic appendectomy (72.17 minutes) was significantly longer than that of open appendectomy (46.26 minutes) (P = 0.0004). The mean amounts of intravenous analgesics for OA group (2.00 times) was greater than that of LA group (1.86 times) (P < 0.0001). The complication rate was similar between the two groups (OA, 6.99% vs. LA, 10.87%; P = 0.3662). The mean length of postoperative hospital stay was shorter in LA group (OA, 4.55 days vs. LA, 3.60 days; P = 0.0002). The mean total cost covered by the National Health Insurance was more expensive in LA group (OA, 1,259,842 won [Korean monetary unit] vs. LA, 1,664,367 won; P = 0.0057).
Conclusion
Clinical outcomes of laparoscopic appendectomy were superior to that of open appendectomy even though the cost of laparoscopic appendectomy was more expensive than that of open appendectomy. Whenever surgeons manage a patient with appendicitis, laparoscopic appendectomy should be considered as the procedure of choice.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.5.321
PMCID: PMC3229000  PMID: 22148124
Appendicitis; Appendectomy; Hospital costs; Clinical outcomes
25.  Laparoscopic Assisted Two Port Open Appendicectomy 
Oman Medical Journal  2008;23(3):166-169.
Objectives
The laparoscopic appendicectomy can be performed using one to several ports. We present our experience of two port laparoscopic assisted open appendicectomy. The objective was to assess the results retrospectively in terms of complications and its limitations.
Methods
Between years 1998-2007, a two port laparoscopic assisted appendectomy was attempted in 2380 adult patients with suspected appendicitis. The patients with localized or generalized peritonitis were included. The appendicectomy was performed via an assisted two port method using 10 mm umbilical optical port and another 10 mm port in right iliac fossa. The children aged 12 and below and pregnant patients were excluded. All patients had their laparoscopic appendicectomy within 48 hours of admission.
Results
Two port laparoscopic assisted appendicectomy was successful in 86.9% of cases. Acute appendicitis was the cause of acute abdomen in 88.9% of the patients. The accessory port was required in 8.5% of patients to complete the appendicectomy and the conversion rate to open was 4.6%. The mean operation time was 25 minutes and the mean hospital stay was 1.5 days. The port site infection was seen in 14, bleeding in 20, parietal wall abscess in three cases and intra-abdominal abscesses in 4 patients.
Conclusion
This approach is simple, can be converted to total intracorporeal by inserting accessory port or to open appendicectomy when required and has advantage of full laparoscopy of abdomen. It has its limitations in cases of extreme obesity, thick mesentery, gangrenous appendix, very large and thick appendix, and difficulty in finding the appendix, control of bleeding, division of adhesions and to deal with other associated pathology. Cost was minimized by using non-disposable port. The overall morbidity was low. There were no specific complications related to this technique and incidence of port site infection was similar to other approaches of laparoscopic appendicectomy.
PMCID: PMC3282326  PMID: 22359707
Laparoscopy; Acute abdomen; Appendicitis; Two port

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