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1.  Relative Efficiencies of Plasma Catechol Levels and Ratios for Neonatal Diagnosis of Menkes Disease 
Neurochemical research  2009;34(8):1464-1468.
Background
Menkes disease is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder resulting from mutation in a copper-transporting ATPase gene. Menkes disease can be detected by relatively high concentrations of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites compared to norepinephrine (NE) and its metabolites, presumably because dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) requires copper as a co-factor. The relative diagnostic efficiencies of levels of catechol analytes, alone or in combination, in neonates at genetic risk of Menkes disease have been unknown.
Methods
Plasma from 44 at-risk neonates less than 30 days old were assayed for DA, NE, and other catechols. Of the 44, 19 were diagnosed subsequently with Menkes disease, and 25 were unaffected.
Results
Compared to unaffected at-risk infants, those with Menkes disease had high plasma DA (P < 10−6) and low NE (P < 10−6) levels. Considered alone, neither DA nor NE levels had perfect sensitivity, whereas the ratio of DA:NE was higher in all affected than in all unaffected subjects (P = 2 × 10−8). Analogously, levels of the DA metabolite, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and the NE metabolite, dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG), were imperfectly sensitive, whereas the DOPAC:DHPG ratio was higher in all affected than in all unaffected subjects (P = 2 × 10−4). Plasma dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and the ratio of epinephrine (EPI):NE levels were higher in affected than in unaffected neonates (P = 0.0015; P = 0.013).
Conclusions
Plasma DA:NE and DOPAC:DHPG ratios are remarkably sensitive and specific for diagnosing Menkes disease in at-risk newborns. Affected newborns also have elevated DOPA and EPI:NE ratios, which decreased DBH activity alone cannot explain.
doi:10.1007/s11064-009-9933-8
PMCID: PMC3477515  PMID: 19234788
Menkes; Dopamine; Norepinephrine; Dopamine-β-hydroxylase; DHPG; DOPAC; Diagnosis
2.  L-DOPS corrects neurochemical abnormalities in a Menkes disease mouse model 
Annals of neurology  2012;73(2):259-265.
Objective
Menkes disease is a lethal neurodegenerative disorder of infancy caused by mutations in a copper-transporting ATPase gene, ATP7A. Among its multiple cellular tasks, ATP7A transfers copper to dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) within the lumen of the Golgi network or secretory granules, catalyzing the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine. In a well-established mouse model of Menkes disease, mottled-brindled, we tested whether systemic administration of L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine (L-DOPS), a drug used successfully to treat autosomal recessive norepinephrine deficiency, would improve brain neurochemical abnormalities and neuropathology.
Methods
At 8, 10, and 12 days of age, wild type and mo-br mice received intraperi-toneal injections of 200μg/g body weight of L-DOPS, or mock solution. Five hours after the final injection, the mice were euthanized and brains removed. We measured catecholamine metabolites affected by DBH via high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, and assessed brain histopathology.
Results
Compared to mock-treated controls, mo-br mice that received intraperitoneal L-DOPS showed significant increases in brain norepinephrine (P<0.001) and its deaminated metabolite, dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG, P<0.05). The ratio of a non-beta-hydroxylated metabolite in the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, to the beta-hydroxylated metabolite, dihydroxyphenylglycol, improved equivalently to results obtained previously with brain-directed ATP7A gene therapy (P<0.01). However, L-DOPS treatment did not arrest global brain pathology or improve somatic growth, as gene therapy had.
Interpretation
We conclude that 1) L-DOPS crosses the blood-brain barrier in mo-br mice and corrects brain neurochemical abnormalities, 2) norepinephrine deficiency is not the cause of neurodegeneration in mo-br mice, and 3) L-DOPS treatment may ameliorate noradrenergic hypofunction in Menkes disease.
doi:10.1002/ana.23787
PMCID: PMC3597755  PMID: 23224983
3.  In utero copper treatment for Menkes disease associated with a severe ATP7A mutation 
Molecular genetics and metabolism  2012;107(1-2):222-228.
Menkes disease is a lethal X-linked recessive neurodegenerative disorder of copper transport caused by mutations in ATP7A, which encodes a copper-transporting ATPase. Early postnatal treatment with copper injections often improves clinical outcomes in affected infants. While Menkes disease newborns appear normal neurologically, analyses of fetal tissues including placenta indicate abnormal copper distribution and suggest a prenatal onset of the metal transport defect. In an affected fetus whose parents found termination unacceptable and who understood the associated risks, we began in utero copper histidine treatment at 31.5 weeks gestational age. Copper histidine (900 μg per dose) was administered directly to the fetus by intramuscular injection (fetal quadriceps or gluteus) under ultrasound guidance. Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling enabled serial measurement of fetal copper and ceruloplasmin levels that were used to guide therapy over a four-week period. Fetal copper levels rose from 17 μg/dL prior to treatment to 45 μg/dL, and ceruloplasmin levels from 39 mg/L to 122 mg/L. After pulmonary maturity was confirmed biochemically, the baby was delivered at 35.5 weeks and daily copper histidine therapy (250 μg sc b.i.d.) was begun. Despite this very early intervention with copper, the infant showed hypotonia, developmental delay, and electroencephalographic abnormalities and died of respiratory failure at 5.5 months of age. The patient’s ATP7A mutation, which severely disrupted mRNA splicing, resulted in complete absence of ATP7A protein on Western blots. These investigations suggest that prenatally initiated copper replacement is inadequate to correct Menkes disease caused by severe loss-of-function mutations, and that postnatal ATP7A gene addition represents a rational approach in such circumstances.
doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2012.05.008
PMCID: PMC3444639  PMID: 22695177
4.  Molecular correlates of epilepsy in early diagnosed and treated Menkes disease 
Epilepsy is a major feature of Menkes disease, an X-linked recessive infantile neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in ATP7A, which produces a copper-transporting ATPase. Three prior surveys indicated clinical seizures and electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities in a combined 27 of 29 (93%) symptomatic Menkes disease patients diagnosed at 2 months of age or older. To assess the influence of earlier, presymptomatic diagnosis and treatment on seizure semiology and brain electrical activity, we evaluated 71 EEGs in 24 Menkes disease patients who were diagnosed and treated with copper injections in early infancy (≤6 weeks of age), and whose ATP7A mutations we determined. Clinical seizures were observed in only 12.5% (3/24) of these patients, although 46% (11/24) had at least one abnormal EEG tracing, including 50% of patients with large deletions in ATP7A, 50% of those with small deletions, 60% of those with nonsense mutations, and 57% of those with canonical splice junction mutations. In contrast, five patients with mutations shown to retain partial function, either via some correct RNA splicing or residual copper transport capacity, had neither clinical seizures nor EEG abnormalities. Our findings suggest that early diagnosis and treatment improve brain electrical activity and decrease seizure occurrence in classical Menkes disease irrespective of the precise molecular defect. Subjects with ATP7A mutations that retain some function seem particularly well protected by early intervention against the possibility of epilepsy.
doi:10.1007/s10545-010-9118-2
PMCID: PMC3113468  PMID: 20652413
5.  Clinical Outcomes in Menkes Disease Patients with a Copper-Responsive ATP7A Mutation, G727R 
Molecular genetics and metabolism  2008;95(3):174-181.
Menkes disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of infancy caused by defects in an X-linked copper transport gene, ATP7A. Evidence from a recent clinical trial indicates that favorable response to early treatment of this disorder with copper injections involves mutations that retain some copper transport capacity. In three unrelated infants, we identified the same mutation, G727R, in the second transmembrane segment of the ATP7A gene product that complemented a S. cerevisiae copper transport mutant, consistent with partial copper transport activity. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction studies showed approximately normal levels of ATP7AG727R transcript in two patients’ fibroblasts compared to wild type controls, but Western blot analyses showed markedly reduced quantities of ATP7A protein, suggesting post-translational degradation. We confirmed the latter by comparing degradation rates of mutant and wild type ATP7A via cyclohexamide treatment of cultured fibroblasts; half-life of the G727R mutant was 2.9 hr and for the wild-type, 11.4 hr. We also documented a X-box binding protein 1 splice variant in G727R cells - known to be associated with the cellular misfolded protein response. Patient A, diagnosed 6 months of age, began treatment at 228 days (7.6 mos) of age. At his current age (2 years), his overall neurodevelopment remains at a 2 to 4 month level. In contrast, patients B and C were diagnosed in the neonatal period, began treatment within 25 days of age, and show near normal neurodevelopment at their current ages, 3 years (B), and 7 months (C). The poor clinical outcome in patient A with the same missense mutation as patients A and B with near normal oucomes, confirms the importance of early medical intervention in Menkes disease and highlights the critical potential benefit of newborn screening for this disorder.
doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2008.06.015
PMCID: PMC2654537  PMID: 18752978
6.  Inherited Copper Transport Disorders: Biochemical Mechanisms, Diagnosis, and Treatment 
Current Drug Metabolism  2012;13(3):237-250.
Copper is an essential trace element required by all living organisms. Excess amounts of copper, however, results in cellular damage. Disruptions to normal copper homeostasis are hallmarks of three genetic disorders: Menkes disease, occipital horn syndrome, and Wilson’s disease.
Menkes disease and occipital horn syndrome are characterized by copper deficiency. Typical features of Menkes disease result from low copper-dependent enzyme activity. Standard treatment involves parenteral administration of copper-histidine. If treatment is initiated before 2 months of age, neurodegeneration can be prevented, while delayed treatment is utterly ineffective. Thus, neonatal mass screening should be implemented. Meanwhile, connective tissue disorders cannot be improved by copper-histidine treatment. Combination therapy with copper-histidine injections and oral administration of disulfiram is being investigated. Occipital horn syndrome characterized by connective tissue abnormalities is the mildest form of Menkes disease. Treatment has not been conducted for this syndrome.
Wilson’s disease is characterized by copper toxicity that typically affects the hepatic and nervous systems severely. Various other symptoms are observed as well, yet its early diagnosis is sometimes difficult. Chelating agents and zinc are effective treatments, but are inefficient in most patients with fulminant hepatic failure. In addition, some patients with neurological Wilson’s disease worsen or show poor response to chelating agents. Since early treatment is critical, a screening system for Wilson’s disease should be implemented in infants. Patients with Wilson’s disease may be at risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. Understanding the link between Wilson’s disease and hepatocellular carcinoma will be beneficial for disease treatment and prevention.
doi:10.2174/138920012799320455
PMCID: PMC3290776  PMID: 21838703
Menkes disease; Wilson’s disease; occipital horn syndrome; ATP7A; ATP7B; disulfiram; zinc; trientine.
7.  Prenatal Treatment of Mosaic Mice (Atp7a mo-ms) Mouse Model for Menkes Disease, with Copper Combined by Dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC) 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e40400.
Menkes disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder in infants caused by mutations in the gene ATP7A which encodes a copper (Cu) transporter. Defects in ATP7A lead to accumulated copper in the small intestine and kidneys and to copper deficiencies in the brain and the liver. The copper level in the kidney in postnatal copper-treated Menkes patients may reach toxic levels. The mouse model, mosaic Atp7a mo-ms recapitulates the Menkes phenotype and die about 15.75±1.5 days of age. In the present study we found that prenatal treatment of mosaic murine fetuses throughout gestation days 7, 11, 15 and 18 with a combination of CuCl2 (50 mg/kg) and dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC) (280 mg/kg) leads to an increase in survival to about 76±25.3 days, whereas treatment with CuCl2 alone (50 mg/kg) only leads to survival for about 21 days ±5 days. These copper-DMDTC treated mutants showed an improved locomotor activity performance and a gain in body mass. In contrast to treatment with CuCl2 alone, a significant increase in the amount of copper was observed in the brain after prenatal copper-DMDTC treatment as well as a decrease in the amount of accumulated copper in the kidney, both leading towards a normalization of the copper level. Although copper-DMDTC prenatal treatment only leads to a small increase in the sub-normal copper concentration in the liver and to an increase of copper in the already overloaded small intestine, the combined results suggest that prenatal copper-DMDTC treatment also should be considered for humans.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040400
PMCID: PMC3399861  PMID: 22815746
8.  Identification of a Novel Mutation in the ATP7A Gene in a Korean Patient with Menkes Disease 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2011;26(7):951-953.
Menkes disease is an infantile-onset X-linked recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by diverse mutations in a copper-transport gene, ATP7A. Affected patients are characterized by progressive hypotonia, seizures, failure to thrive and death in early childhood. Here, we report a case of Menkes disease presented by intractable seizures and infantile spasms. A 3-month-old male infant had visited our pediatric clinic for lethargy, floppy muscle tone, poor oral intake and partial seizures. His hair was kinky, brown colored and fragile. Partial seizures became more frequent, generalized and intractable to antiseizure medications. An EEG showed frequent posteriorly dominant generalized spikes that were consistent with a generalized seizure. From a genetic analysis, a c.2743C>T (p.Gln915X) mutation was detected and diagnosed as Menkes disease. The mutation is a novel one that has not been previously reported as a cause of Menkes disease.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2011.26.7.951
PMCID: PMC3124728  PMID: 21738351
Menkes Disease; MNK Gene; ATP7A Mutation
9.  Somatic Mosaicism in Menkes Disease Suggests Choroid Plexus-mediated Copper Transport to the Developing Brain 
The primary mechanism of copper transport to the brain is unknown, although this process is drastically impaired in Menkes disease, an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in an evolutionarily conserved copper transporter, ATP7A. Potential central nervous system entry routes for copper include brain capillary endothelial cells that originate from mesodermal angioblasts and form the blood-brain barrier, and the choroid plexuses, which derive from embryonic ectoderm, and form the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. We exploited a rare (and first reported) example of somatic mosaicism for an ATP7A mutation to shed light on questions about copper transport into the developing brain. In a 20-month-old Menkes disease patient evaluated before copper treatment, blood copper and catecholamine concentrations were normal, whereas levels in cerebrospinal fluid were abnormal and consistent with his neurologically severe phenotype. We documented disparate levels of mosaicism for an ATP7A missense mutation, P1001L, in tissues derived from different embryonic origins; allele quantitation showed P1001L in approximately 27% and 88% of DNA samples from blood cells (mesoderm-derived) and cultured fibroblasts (ectoderm-derived), respectively. These findings imply that the P1001L mutation in the patient preceded formation of the three primary embryonic lineages at gastrulation, with the ectoderm layer ultimately harboring a higher percentage of mutation-bearing cells than mesoderm or endoderm. Since choroid plexus epithelia are derived from neuroectoderm, and brain capillary endothelial cells from mesodermal angioblasts, the clinical and biochemical findings in this infant support a critical role for the blood-CSF barrier (choroid plexus epithelia) in copper entry to the developing brain.
doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.33632
PMCID: PMC3117432  PMID: 20799318
Somatic mosaicism; Menkes disease; ATP7A; copper metabolism; choroid plexus
10.  The Mild Form of Menkes Disease: A 34 Year Progress Report on the Original Case 
JIMD Reports  2012;9:81-84.
Classical Menkes disease is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the copper-transporting ATPase ATP7A gene which, when untreated, is usually fatal in early childhood. A mild form of Menkes disease was originally reported in 1981 and clinical progress of the patient at 10 years described subsequently. The causative mutation is c.4085C>T in exon 21, causing an alanine to valine substitution in the highly conserved TM7 domain at the C-terminal end of the Menkes protein. Here we report his status at 34 years of age. Intellectual impairment is mild. Ataxia has nearly resolved but motor retardation, dysarthria and an extreme slow speech rate remain. In contrast to patients with the occipital horn syndrome, there have been no connective tissue complications of his mild Menkes disease. He has been under long-term copper therapy for more than 30 years and he continues to enjoy a good quality of life.
doi:10.1007/8904_2012_183
PMCID: PMC3565640  PMID: 23430551
11.  Phenotypic diversity of Menkes disease in mottled mice is associated with defects in localisation and trafficking of the ATP7A protein 
Journal of Medical Genetics  2007;44(10):641-646.
Owing to mutations in the copper‐transporting P‐type ATPase, ATP7A (or MNK), patients with Menkes disease (MD) have an inadequate supply of copper to various copper‐dependent enzymes. The ATP7A protein is located in the trans‐Golgi network, where it transports copper via secretory compartments to copper‐dependent enzymes. Raised copper concentrations result in the trafficking of ATP7A to the plasma membrane, where it functions in copper export. An important model of MD is the Mottled mouse, which possesses mutations in Atp7A. The Mottled mouse displays three distinct phenotypic severities: embryonic lethal, perinatal lethal and a longer‐lived viable phenotype. However, the effects of mutations from these phenotypic classes on the ATP7A protein are unknown. In this study, we found that these classes of mutation differentially affect the copper transport and trafficking functions of the ATP7A protein. The embryonic lethal mutation, Atp7amo11H (11H), caused mislocalisation of the protein to the endoplasmic reticulum, impaired glycosylation, and abolished copper delivery to the secretory pathway. In contrast, the perinatal lethal and viable mutations, Atp7amoMac (Macular) and Atp7amoVbr (Viable brindle) both resulted in a reduction in copper delivery to the secretory pathway and constitutive trafficking of the ATP7A protein to the plasma membrane in the absence of additional copper. In the case of Viable brindle, this hypertrafficking response was dependent on the catalytic phosphorylation site of ATP7A, whereas no such requirement was found for the Macular mutation. These findings provide evidence that the degree of MD severity in mice is associated with both copper transport and trafficking defects in the ATP7A protein.
doi:10.1136/jmg.2007.049627
PMCID: PMC2597975  PMID: 17483305
Menkes disease; mottled mice; copper; ATP7A; protein trafficking
12.  Exon duplications in the ATP7A gene: Frequency and Transcriptional Behaviour 
Background
Menkes disease (MD) is an X-linked, fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper metabolism, caused by mutations in the ATP7A gene. Thirty-three Menkes patients in whom no mutation had been detected with standard diagnostic tools were screened for exon duplications in the ATP7A gene.
Methods
The ATP7A gene was screened for exon duplications using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). The expression level of ATP7A was investigated by real-time PCR and detailed analysis of the ATP7A mRNA was performed by RT-PCR followed by sequencing. In order to investigate whether the identified duplicated fragments originated from a single or from two different X-chromosomes, polymorphic markers located in the duplicated fragments were analyzed.
Results
Partial ATP7A gene duplication was identified in 20 unrelated patients including one patient with Occipital Horn Syndrome (OHS). Duplications in the ATP7A gene are estimated from our material to be the disease causing mutation in 4% of the Menkes disease patients. The duplicated regions consist of between 2 and 15 exons. In at least one of the cases, the duplication was due to an intra-chromosomal event. Characterization of the ATP7A mRNA transcripts in 11 patients revealed that the duplications were organized in tandem, in a head to tail direction. The reading frame was disrupted in all 11 cases. Small amounts of wild-type transcript were found in all patients as a result of exon-skipping events occurring in the duplicated regions. In the OHS patient with a duplication of exon 3 and 4, the duplicated out-of-frame transcript coexists with an almost equally represented wild-type transcript, presumably leading to the milder phenotype.
Conclusions
In general, patients with duplication of only 2 exons exhibit a milder phenotype as compared to patients with duplication of more than 2 exons. This study provides insight into exon duplications in the ATP7A gene.
doi:10.1186/1750-1172-6-73
PMCID: PMC3240829  PMID: 22074552
13.  Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of central catecholamine deficiency in Parkinson’s disease and other synucleinopathies 
Brain  2012;135(6):1900-1913.
Central catecholamine deficiency characterizes α-synucleinopathies such as Parkinson’s disease. We hypothesized that cerebrospinal fluid levels of neuronal metabolites of catecholamines provide neurochemical biomarkers of these disorders. To test this hypothesis we measured cerebrospinal fluid levels of catechols including dopamine, norepinephrine and their main respective neuronal metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and dihydroxyphenylglycol in Parkinson’s disease and two other synucleinopathies, multiple system atrophy and pure autonomic failure. Cerebrospinal fluid catechols were assayed in 146 subjects—108 synucleinopathy patients (34 Parkinson’s disease, 54 multiple system atrophy, 20 pure autonomic failure) and 38 controls. In 14 patients cerebrospinal fluid was obtained before or within 2 years after the onset of parkinsonism. The Parkinson’s disease, multiple system atrophy and pure autonomic failure groups all had lower cerebrospinal fluid dihydroxyphenylacetic acid [0.86 ± 0.09 (SEM), 1.00 ± 0.09, 1.32 ± 0.12 nmol/l] than controls (2.15 ± 0.18 nmol/l; P < 0.0001; P < 0.0001; P = 0.0002). Dihydroxyphenylglycol was also lower in the three synucleinopathies (8.82 ± 0.44, 7.75 ± 0.42, 5.82 ± 0.65 nmol/l) than controls (11.0 ± 0.62 nmol/l; P = 0.009, P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001). Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid was lower and dihydroxyphenylglycol higher in Parkinson’s disease than in pure autonomic failure. Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid was 100% sensitive at 89% specificity in separating patients with recent onset of parkinsonism from controls but was of no value in differentiating Parkinson’s disease from multiple system atrophy. Synucleinopathies feature cerebrospinal fluid neurochemical evidence for central dopamine and norepinephrine deficiency. Parkinson’s disease and pure autonomic failure involve differential dopaminergic versus noradrenergic lesions. Cerebrospinal fluid dihydroxyphenylacetic acid seems to provide a sensitive means to identify even early Parkinson’s disease.
doi:10.1093/brain/aws055
PMCID: PMC3359749  PMID: 22451506
Parkinson's; dopamine; norepinephrine; DHPG; DOPAC; biomarker
14.  Essential Roles in Development and Pigmentation for the Drosophila Copper Transporter DmATP7D⃞V⃞ 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2006;17(1):475-484.
Defects in the mammalian Menkes and Wilson copper transporting P-type ATPases cause severe copper homeostasis disease phenotypes in humans. Here, we find that DmATP7, the sole Drosophila orthologue of the Menkes and Wilson genes, is vital for uptake of copper in vivo. Analysis of a DmATP7 loss-of-function allele shows that DmATP7 is essential in embryogenesis, early larval development, and adult pigmentation and is probably required for copper uptake from the diet. These phenotypes are analogous to those caused by mutation in the mouse and human Menkes genes, suggesting that like Menkes, DmATP7 plays at least two roles at the cellular level: delivering copper to cuproenzymes required for pigmentation and neuronal function and removing excess cellular copper via facilitated efflux. DmATP7 displays a dynamic and unexpected expression pattern in the developing embryo, implying novel functions for this copper pump and the lethality observed in DmATP7 mutant flies is the earliest seen for any copper homeostasis gene.
doi:10.1091/mbc.E05-06-0492
PMCID: PMC1345683  PMID: 16251357
15.  Decreased stress responsivity of central and peripheral catecholaminergic systems in aged 344/N Fischer rats. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1995;95(3):1217-1224.
We investigated the effects of stress on central and peripheral sympatho-adrenal and sympatho-neural functions in healthy, intact young (3-4 mo) and aged (24 mo) male Fischer 344/N rats. Extracellular fluid (ECF) levels of the catecholamines norepinephrine (NE), dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG), methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) were obtained by microdialysis in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus at baseline and during immobilization (IMMO). The baseline levels of these substances were similar in both age groups, and their concentrations increased significantly in response to IMMO. The IMMO-induced increases of NE and MHPG, however, were significantly smaller in old than in young rats. Plasma levels of the catecholamines NE, DHPG, MHPG, DOPAC, dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), epinephrine (EPI), dopamine (DA), and HVA were also determined in young and old rats during IMMO. Basal levels of these substances were significantly higher in old than in young rats. The magnitude of the IMMO-induced increases in the majority of these compounds however, was significantly smaller in old than in young rats. We conclude that, at the basal state, aging in the Fischer rat is associated with normal PVN ECF, but high plasma catecholamine levels; at stress state, however, old rats have substantially lesser activation of their central and peripheral catecholaminergic systems than young rats.
Images
PMCID: PMC441460  PMID: 7883970
16.  First trimester prenatal diagnosis of Menkes disease by DNA analysis. 
Journal of Medical Genetics  1994;31(8):615-617.
Menkes disease is an X linked recessive disorder of copper metabolism characterised by neurological symptoms and connective tissue manifestations. The defective gene in Menkes disease has recently been isolated and the gene product is predicted to be a copper transporting ATPase. The diagnosis of Menkes disease has hitherto been performed by biochemical analysis, based on intracellular accumulation of copper. Cloning the gene opened up the possibility of establishing precise and reliable carrier and prenatal diagnosis by defining the molecular defect. In this report we describe the partial deletion of the Menkes gene in a patient who had inherited the mutation from his phenotypically normal mother. This information enabled us to perform prenatal diagnosis by direct mutation analysis of the mother's sixth pregnancy and we detected the same deletion, indicating that the male fetus was affected. This first prenatal diagnosis of Menkes disease by direct mutation analysis shows some advantages of DNA analysis compared to biochemical diagnosis.
Images
PMCID: PMC1050022  PMID: 7815418
17.  Fibroblast silver loading for the diagnosis of Menkes disease. 
Journal of Medical Genetics  1998;35(10):849-851.
Menkes disease is a genetic disorder of copper metabolism. Copper uptake and retention assays on fibroblast or amniotic fluid cell cultures have been used for pre- and postnatal diagnosis. These copper loading tests are complicated by the use of 64Cu, which is not commonly available and has a very short (12.8 hours) physical half life. Besides copper, silver is also a substrate for the bacterial homologue of the Menkes transport protein. We report here that loading tests using radioactive silver (110mAg), instead of copper, can be used for the diagnosis of Menkes disease. 110mAg is commercially available and has a convenient physical half life of 250 days, which makes it suitable for use in diagnostic laboratories. Our studies support the hypothesis that reduction of divalent to monovalent copper is an essential step preceding transport.
PMCID: PMC1051463  PMID: 9783711
18.  Menkes disease 
Menkes disease (MD) is a lethal multisystemic disorder of copper metabolism. Progressive neurodegeneration and connective tissue disturbances, together with the peculiar ‘kinky' hair are the main manifestations. MD is inherited as an X-linked recessive trait, and as expected the vast majority of patients are males. MD occurs due to mutations in the ATP7A gene and the vast majority of ATP7A mutations are intragenic mutations or partial gene deletions. ATP7A is an energy dependent transmembrane protein, which is involved in the delivery of copper to the secreted copper enzymes and in the export of surplus copper from cells. Severely affected MD patients die usually before the third year of life. A cure for the disease does not exist, but very early copper-histidine treatment may correct some of the neurological symptoms.
doi:10.1038/ejhg.2009.187
PMCID: PMC2987322  PMID: 19888294
Menkes disease; ATP7A; copper
19.  Safety of Intracerebroventricular Copper Histidine in Adult Rats 
Classical Menkes disease is an X-linked recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in a P-type ATPase (ATP7A) that normally delivers copper to the developing central nervous system. Infants with large deletions, or other mutations in ATP7A that incapacitate copper transport to the brain, show poor clinical outcomes and subnormal brain copper despite early subcutaneous copper histidine (CuHis) injections. These findings suggest a need for direct central nervous system approaches in such patients. To begin to evaluate an aggressive but potentially useful new strategy for metabolic improvement of this disorder, we studied the acute and chronic effects of CuHis administered by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection in healthy adult rats. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after ICV CuHis showed diffuse T1-signal enhancement, indicating wide brain distribution of copper after ICV administration, and implying the utility of this paramagnetic metal as a MRI contrast agent. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of CuHis, defined as the highest dose that did not induce overt toxicity, growth retardation, or reduce lifespan, was 0.5 mcg. Animals receiving multiple infusions of this MTD showed increased brain copper concentrations, but no significant differences in activity, behavior, and somatic growth, or brain histology compared to saline-injected controls. Based on estimates of the brain copper deficit in Menkes disease patients, CuHis doses 10-fold lower than the MTD found in this study may restore proper brain copper concentration. Our results suggest that ICV CuHis administration have potential as a novel treatment approach in Menkes disease infants with severe mutations. Future trials of direct CNS copper administration in mouse models of Menkes disease will be informative.
doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2007.01.010
PMCID: PMC2570033  PMID: 17336116
Copper histidine; Intracerebral administration; Maximum tolerated dose; Menkes disease; Copper transport
20.  Opportunities in multi dimensional trace metal imaging: Taking copper associated disease research to the next level 
Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry  2012;405(6):1809-1820.
Copper plays an important role in numerous biological processes across all living systems predominantly because of its versatile redox behavior. Cellular copper homeostasis is tightly regulated and disturbances lead to severe disorders such as Wilson disease (WD) and Menkes disease. Age related changes of copper metabolism have been implicated in other neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The role of copper in these diseases has been topic of mostly bioinorganic research efforts for more than a decade, metal-protein interactions have been characterized and cellular copper pathways have been described. Despite these efforts, crucial aspects of how copper is associated with AD, for example, is still only poorly understood. To take metal related disease research to the next level, emerging multi dimensional imaging techniques are now revealing the copper metallome as the basis to better understand disease mechanisms. This review will describe how recent advances in X-ray fluorescence microscopy and fluorescent copper probes have started to contribute to this field specifically WD and AD. It furthermore provides an overview of current developments and future applications in X-ray microscopic methodologies.
doi:10.1007/s00216-012-6437-1
PMCID: PMC3566297  PMID: 23079951
imaging; X-ray; fluorescence; copper; neurological disease
21.  The T1048I mutation in ATP7A gene causes an unusual Menkes disease presentation 
BMC Pediatrics  2012;12:150.
Background
The ATP7A gene encodes the ATP7A protein, which is a trans-Golgi network copper transporter expressed in the brain and other organs. Mutations in this gene cause disorders of copper metabolism, such as Menkes disease. Here we describe the novel and unusual mutation (p.T1048I) in the ATP7A gene of a child with Menkes disease. The mutation affects a conserved DKTGT1048 phosphorylation motif that is involved in the catalytic activity of ATP7A. We also describe the clinical course and the response to copper treatment in this patient.
Case presentation
An 11-month-old male Caucasian infant was studied because of hypotonia, ataxia and global developmental delay. The patient presented low levels of serum copper and ceruloplasmin, and was shown to be hemizygous for the p.T1048I mutation in ATP7A. The diagnosis was confirmed when the patient was 18 months old, and treatment with copper-histidinate (Cu-His) was started immediately. The patient showed some neurological improvement and he is currently 8 years old. Because the p.T1048I mutation affects its catalytic site, we expected a complete loss of functional ATP7A and a classical Menkes disease presentation. However, the clinical course of the patient was mild, and he responded to Cu-His treatment, which suggests that this mutation leads to partial conservation of the activity of ATP7A.
Conclusion
This case emphasizes the important correlation between genotype and phenotype in patients with Menkes disease. The prognosis in Menkes disease is associated with early detection, early initiation of treatment and with the preservation of some ATP7A activity, which is necessary for Cu-His treatment response. The description of this new mutation and the response of the patient to Cu-His treatment will contribute to the growing body of knowledge about treatment response in Menkes disease.
doi:10.1186/1471-2431-12-150
PMCID: PMC3489546  PMID: 22992316
ATP7A; Menkes disease; Copper transporter; Cu-His treatment
22.  Cell-specific ATP7A transport sustains copper-dependent tyrosinase activity in melanosomes 
Nature  2008;454(7208):1142-1146.
SUMMARY
Copper is a cofactor for many cellular enzymes and transporters1. To load onto secreted and endomembrane cuproproteins, copper is translocated from the cytosol into membrane-bound organelles by ATP7A or ATP7B transporters, the genes for which are mutated in the copper imbalance syndromes, Menkes and Wilson disease, respectively2. Endomembrane cuproproteins are thought to stably incorporate copper upon transit through the trans Golgi network (TGN), within which ATP7A3 accumulates by dynamic cycling through early endocytic compartments4. Here we show that the pigment cell-specific cuproenzyme tyrosinase acquires copper only transiently and inefficiently within the TGN of melanocytes. To catalyze melanin synthesis, tyrosinase is subsequently reloaded with copper within specialized organelles called melanosomes. Copper is supplied to melanosomes by ATP7A, a cohort of which localizes to melanosomes in a Biogenesis of Lysosome-related Organelles Complex-1 (BLOC-1)-dependent manner. These results indicate that cell type-specific localization of a metal transporter is required to sustain metallation of an endomembrane cuproenzyme, providing a mechanism for exquisite spatial control of metalloenzyme activity. Moreover, as BLOC-1 subunits are mutated in subtypes of the genetic disease, Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS), these results also show that defects in copper transporter localization contribute to hypopigmentation, and hence perhaps other systemic defects, in HPS.
doi:10.1038/nature07163
PMCID: PMC2812007  PMID: 18650808
23.  Association of anosmia with autonomic failure in Parkinson disease 
Neurology  2010;74(3):245-251.
Background:
Olfactory dysfunction and autonomic failure are gaining recognition as nonmotor manifestations of Parkinson disease (PD). This observational study assessed whether in PD anosmia and autonomic failure are related to each other or to neuroimaging evidence of striatal dopamine deficiency.
Methods:
Olfactory function was assessed by the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) in 23 patients with sporadic PD. Baroreflex-cardiovagal gain was quantified from the relationship between cardiac interbeat interval and systolic pressure during the Valsalva maneuver and baroreflex-sympathoneural function by responses of systolic pressure to the Valsalva maneuver and of hemodynamics and plasma norepinephrine (NE) and dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) levels to orthostasis. 6-[18F]Fluorodopamine PET and plasma and skeletal muscle microdialysate NE and DHPG were used to indicate cardiac and extracardiac noradrenergic innervation and brain 6-[18F]fluorodopa PET to indicate striatal dopaminergic innervation. Parkinsonism was assessed by UPDRS scores.
Results:
Compared to patients with PD and normal to moderately decreased sense of smell, patients with anosmic PD had lower mean baroreflex-cardiovagal gain (p = 0.04), larger falls in systolic pressure during the Valsalva maneuver and orthostasis (p = 0.04, p = 0.02), smaller orthostatic increments in plasma NE and DHPG (p = 0.003, p = 0.03), lower cardiac septal:hepatic and renal cortical:hepatic ratios of 6-[18F]fluorodopamine-derived radioactivity (p = 0.01, p = 0.06), and lower microdialysate NE and DHPG (p = 0.01; p = 0.006). Neither clinical severity of parkinsonism nor the putamen:occipital cortex ratio of 6-[18F]fluorodopa-derived radioactivity was related to the UPSIT category.
Conclusions:
In Parkinson disease, anosmia is associated with baroreflex failure and cardiac and organ-selective extracardiac noradrenergic denervation, independently of parkinsonism or striatal dopaminergic denervation.
GLOSSARY
= dihydroxyphenylglycol;
= least significant difference;
= norepinephrine;
= orthostatic hypotension;
= Parkinson disease;
= quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test;
= Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale;
= University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181ca014c
PMCID: PMC2809034  PMID: 20083801
24.  Multiple mechanisms account for lower plasma iron in young copper deficient rats 
Copper deficiency lowers brain copper and iron during development. The reduced iron content could be due to hypoferremia. Experiments were conducted to evaluate plasma iron and “ferroxidase” hypotheses by determining copper and iron status of Holtzman albino rats following gestational/lactational copper deficiency. Copper deficient (Cu−) dams on treatment for 5 weeks, two of gestation and three of lactation, had markedly lower copper content of milk and mammary tissue, and lower milk iron. Newborn pups from Cu− dams had lower copper and iron concentrations. Compared to Cu+ pups, Cu− pups, analyzed between postnatal age (P) 0 and P26, were smaller, anemic, had lower plasma iron, cardiac hypertrophy, and near zero ceruloplasmin activity. Liver copper in Cu+ pups increased then decreased during development and major reductions were evident in Cu− pups. Liver iron in Cu+ pups decreased with age while nursing but increased after eating solid food. Liver iron was lower in Cu− pups at P0 and P13 and normal at P20 and P26. Small intestinal copper decreased with age in Cu+ pups and was lower in Cu− pups. Intestinal iron levels in Cu- pups were higher than Cu+ pups postweaning in some experiments. Reduction in plasma iron in Cu− pups is likely due to a decreased “ferroxidase” function leading to lower placental iron transport, a lower milk iron diet, and partial block in iron uptake from intestine but is not due to failure to mobilize hepatic iron, in contrast to older rats eating diet with adequate iron.
doi:10.1007/s10534-007-9123-6
PMCID: PMC2701467  PMID: 18038202
Copper deficiency; Rats; Plasma iron; Ceruloplasmin; Milk; Intestine
25.  Normal Levels of Plasma Free Carnitine and Acylcarnitines in Follow-Up Samples from a Presymptomatic Case of Carnitine Palmitoyl Transferase 1 (CPT1) Deficiency Detected Through Newborn Screening in Denmark 
JIMD Reports  2011;3:11-15.
Carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) 1 A deficiency is a rare disorder of hepatic long-chain fatty acid oxidation. CPT1 deficiency is included in newborn screening programs in a number of countries to allow presymptomatic detection and early treatment of affected patients.
We present a case of presymptomatic CPT1A deficiency detected through newborn screening in Denmark with diagnostic levels of carnitine and acylcarnitines in the initial dried blood spot. Levels of plasma-free carnitine and acylcarnitines in follow-up samples were normal, but reverted to diagnostic levels when the patient developed clinical symptoms at the age of 8 months. At that time, a diagnosis of CPT1A deficiency was confirmed by sequence analysis of the CPT1A gene revealing homozygosity for a novel c.167C>T variation in exon 3. Enzyme activity measurements showed a relatively mild enzyme defect with a decreased residual enzyme activity of 17–25%. We conclude that CPT1A gene testing and/or enzyme assay is mandatory to confirm an abnormal newborn screen suggesting CPT1A deficiency to avoid delayed diagnoses.
doi:10.1007/8904_2011_35
PMCID: PMC3509854  PMID: 23430868

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