Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common disease, responsible for significant healthcare expenditures, mostly because of hospitalization. Many practice guidelines on CAP have been developed, including admission criteria, but a few on appropriate hospitalization in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate appropriate hospital admission for CAP in a pediatric population.
We evaluated appropriate admission to a Pediatric Unit performing a retrospective analysis on CAP admitted pediatric patients from a Southern Italy area. Diagnosis was made based on clinical and radiological signs. Appropriate hospital admission was evaluated following clinical and non-clinical international criteria. Family ability to care children was assessed by evaluating social deprivation status.
In 2 winter seasons 120 pediatric patients aged 1-129 months were admitted because of CAP. Median age was 28.7 months. Raised body temperature was scored in 68.3% of patients, cough was present in 100% of cases, and abdominal pain was rarely evidenced. Inflammatory indices (ESR and CRP) were found elevated in 33.3% of cases. Anti-Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibodies were found positive in 20.4%. Trans-cutaneous (TC) SaO2 was found lower than 92% in 14.6%. Dyspnoea was present in 43.3%. Dehydration requiring i.v. fluid supplementation was scored in 13.3%. Evaluation of familial ability to care their children revealed that 76% of families (derived from socially depressed areas) were "at social risk", thus not able to appropriately care their children. Furthermore, analysis of CAP patients revealed that "at social risk" people accessed E.D. and were hospitalized more frequently than "not at risk" patients (odds ratio = 3.59, 95% CI: 1,15 to 11,12; p = 0.01), and that admitted "at social risk" people presented without clinical signs of severity (namely dyspnoea, and/or SaO2 ≤ 92%, and/or dehydration) more frequently than "not at risk" population (p = 0.005).
Dyspnoea was found to be the main clinical criterion to define an appropriate children admission for CAP. Other more objective evaluation (i.e. oxygen pulse oxymetry) could underestimate the necessity of hospitalization as patients discomfort could be more severe then indicated by TC SaO2. Furthermore, family inability to children care represents the main criterion for hospital admission in our geographic area. It reflects social deprivation status and it should be strongly considered in deciding for children hospital admission.
Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is common in childhood. Viruses account for most cases of CAP during the first two years of life. After this period, bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae become more frequent. CAP symptoms are nonspecific in younger infants, but cough and tachypnea are usually present in older children. Chest x-ray is useful for confirming the diagnosis. Most children can be managed empirically with oral antibiotics as outpatients without specific laboratory investigations. Those with severe infections or with persistent or worsening symptoms need more intensive investigations and may need admission to hospital. The choice and dosage of antibiotics should be based on the age of the patient, severity of the pneumonia and knowledge of local antimicrobial resistance patterns. The Canadian Paediatric Society recommends the use of the heptavalent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine, which is efficacious in reducing chest x-ray positive pneumonia by up to 20%.
Childhood; Community-acquired; Diagnosis; Pneumonia
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) account for a high proportion of ICU admissions, with Streptococcus pneumoniae being the main pathogen responsible for these infections. However, little is known on the clinical features and outcomes of ICU patients with pneumococcal pneumonia. The aims of this study were to provide epidemiological data and to determine risk factors of mortality in patients admitted to ICU for severe S. pneumoniae CAP.
We performed a retrospective review of two prospectively-acquired multicentre ICU databases (2001-2008). Patients admitted for management of severe pneumococcal CAP were enrolled if they met the 2001 American Thoracic Society criteria for severe pneumonia, had life-threatening organ failure and had a positive microbiological sample for S. pneumoniae. Patients with bronchitis, aspiration pneumonia or with non-pulmonary pneumococcal infections were excluded.
Two hundred and twenty two patients were included, with a median SAPS II score reaching 47 [36-64]. Acute respiratory failure (n = 154) and septic shock (n = 54) were their most frequent causes of ICU admission. Septic shock occurred in 170 patients (77%) and mechanical ventilation was required in 186 patients (84%); renal replacement therapy was initiated in 70 patients (32%). Bacteraemia was diagnosed in 101 patients. The prevalence of S. pneumoniae strains with decreased susceptibility to penicillin was 39.7%. Although antibiotherapy was adequate in 92.3% of cases, hospital mortality reached 28.8%. In multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for mortality were age (OR 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02-1.08)), male sex (OR 2.83 (95% CI: 1.16-6.91)) and renal replacement therapy (OR 3.78 (95% CI: 1.71-8.36)). Co-morbidities, macrolide administration, concomitant bacteremia or penicillin susceptibility did not influence outcome.
In ICU, mortality of pneumococcal CAP remains high despite adequate antimicrobial treatment. Baseline demographic data and renal replacement therapy have a major impact on adverse outcome.
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a serious cause of morbidity among children in developed countries. The real impact of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on pneumococcal pneumonia is difficult to assess accurately.
Children aged ≤16 years with clinical and radiological pneumonia were enrolled in a multicenter prospective study. Children aged ≤16 years admitted for a minor elective surgery was recruited as controls. Nasopharyngeal samples for PCR serotyping of S. pneumoniae were obtained in both groups. Informations on age, gender, PCV7 vaccination status, day care/school attendance, siblings, tobacco exposure were collected.
In children with CAP (n=236), 54% of the nasopharyngeal swabs were PCR-positive for S. pneumoniae compared to 32% in controls (n=105) (p=0.003). Serotype 19A was the most common pneumococcal serotype carried in children with CAP (13%) and in controls (15%). Most common serotypes were non-vaccine types (39.4% for CAP and 47.1% for controls) and serotypes included only in PCV13 (32.3% for CAP and 23.5% for controls). There was no significant difference in vaccine serotype distribution between the two groups. In fully vaccinated children with CAP, the proportion of serotypes carried only in PCV13 was higher (51.4%) than in partially vaccinated or non vaccinated children (27.6% and 28.6% respectively, p=0.037).
Two to 4 years following introduction of PCV7, predominant S. pneumoniae serotypes carried in children with CAP were non PCV7 serotypes, and the 6 new serotypes included in PCV13 accounted for 51.4% of carried serotypes in fully vaccinated children.
Streptococcus pneumoniae; Serotypes; Pneumonia; Children; Vaccination
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia in children. Despite the use of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, the incidence of pneumococcal necrotizing pneumonia (PNP) has been increasing. Our objectives were to describe temporal trends in PNP and to evaluate pneumococcal serotypes associated with PNP in Utah.
We performed a retrospective review of all children <18 years of age who were cared for at a tertiary care children’s hospital and who had blood, lung tissue, broncheoalveolar lavage, or pleural fluid cultures that grew S. pneumoniae, as well as radiographic evidence of pneumonia, from January 1997 through March 2006. All S. pneumoniae isolates were typed.
A total of 124 children with pneumococcal pneumonia were identified, and 33 (27%) of these children had radiographic evidence of PNP. During the period 1997–2000, 5 (13%) of 39 cases of culture-confirmed pneumococcal pneumonia were associated with PNP. In contrast, during the period 2001–2006, 28 (33%) of 85 pneumococcal pneumonia cases were complicated by PNP (odds ratio, 3.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.11–12.03). Non–7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine serotypes comprised 49% of the isolates during 1997–2000 and 88% of isolates during 2001–2006 (odds ratio, 7.89; 95% confidence interval, 2.91–21.90). Pneumonia due to serotype 3 was most often associated with PNP. Eleven (79%) of 14 cases of serotype 3–associated pneumonia were associated with PNP. When compared with all other serotypes, serotype 3 was strongly associated with necrosis (odds ratio, 14.67; 95% confidence interval, 3.39–86.25).
PNP is a serious and increasingly common complication of S. pneumoniae pneumonia in Utah. Infection with serotype 3 is associated with an increased risk of developing PNP. The increase in the incidence of infection due to nonvaccine serotypes reported worldwide and the changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease should be considered when developing vaccine strategies.
The selection of initial antimicrobial treatment in a patient with community acquired pneumonia is an important clinical decision. Because this decision is usually made before the results of specific microbiological tests are available, we attempted to determine how well the presenting clinical features would allow prediction of microbial aetiology in 441 adults admitted to hospital with pneumonia. Five of 90 variable available on admission were selected for inclusion in a multivariate discriminant function analysis because of their strong association with one or more of the major aetiological subsets (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, "other," and undetermined). These variables were age, number of days ill before admission, presence or absence of bloody sputum and of lobar infiltration on chest radiograph, and white blood cell count. The microbial aetiology was correctly predicted by this discriminant function analysis in only 42% of cases, which gives a quantitative estimate of the degree of difficulty encountered in determining the microbial aetiology at the time of admission for pneumonia. When a similar discriminant function analysis was applied to the third of patients in whom the microbial aetiology was never determined, most of these cases were predicted to be due to Streptococcus pneumoniae.
The incidence of pediatric hospitalizations for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has declined after the widespread use of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. The national incidence of outpatient visits for CAP, however, is not well established. Although no pediatric CAP treatment guidelines are available, current data support narrow-spectrum antibiotics as the first-line treatment for most patients with CAP.
To estimate the incidence rates of outpatient CAP, examine time trends in antibiotics prescribed for CAP, and determine factors associated with broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing for CAP.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
The National Ambulatory and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys (1994–2007) were used to identify children aged 1 to 18 years with CAP using a validated algorithm. We determined age group–specific rates of outpatient CAP and examined trends in antibiotic prescribing for CAP. Data from 2006–2007 were used to study factors associated with broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing.
Overall, annual CAP visit rates ranged from 16.9 to 22.4 per 1000 population, with the highest rates occurring in children aged 1 to 5 years (range: 32.3–49.6 per 1000). Ambulatory CAP visit rates did not change between 1994 and 2007. Antibiotics commonly prescribed for CAP included macrolides (34% of patients overall), cephalosporins (22% overall), and penicillins (14% overall). Cephalosporin use increased significantly between 2000 and 2007 (P = .002). Increasing age, a visit to a nonemergency department office, and obtaining a radiograph or complete blood count were associated with broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing.
The incidence of pediatric ambulatory CAP visits has not changed significantly between 1994 and 2007, despite the introduction of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2000. Broad-spectrum antibiotics, particularly macrolides, were frequently prescribed despite evidence that they provide little benefit over penicillins.
pneumonia; physician practice patterns; antibiotic use; epidemiology; pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
A rapid diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia may allow the earlier use of narrow-spectrum antimicrobial therapy. It is unknown, however, whether rapid diagnostic testing of patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) admitted to hospital lowers costs. Therefore, an algorithm to calculate the costs associated with the diagnosis and treatment of CAP was formulated. Subsequently, the algorithm was applied to clinical data for 122 consecutively admitted patients with CAP whose sputum samples were Gram stained and whose urine was tested for Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen. The costs of initial antimicrobial therapy, personnel, and materials were measured. Compared to the most expensive empirical regimen, rapid diagnostic testing would result in cost savings per patient (PP) of €3.51 for Gram staining and €8.11 for urinary pneumococcal antigen testing (€1 is equal to US$1.13, from 2000 to 2002). Compared to the cheapest regimen, Gram staining would increase the cost by €2.25 PP, and urinary antigen testing would increase the cost by €24.26 PP. In our setting, the use of rapid diagnostic testing would not lower costs. Cost savings depend, however, on the differences in the prices of the different antibiotics chosen and the proportion of evaluable and positive samples.
Although the incidence of serious morbidity with childhood pneumonia has decreased over time, empyema as a complication of community-acquired pneumonia continues to be an important clinical problem. We reviewed the epidemiology and clinical management of empyema at 8 pediatric hospitals in a period before the widespread implementation of universal infant heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine programs in Canada.
Health records for children < 18 years admitted from 1/1/00–31/12/03 were searched for ICD-9 code 510 or ICD-10 code J869 (Empyema). Empyema was defined as at least one of: thoracentesis with microbial growth from pleural fluid, or no pleural fluid growth but compatible chemistry or cell count, or radiologist diagnosis, or diagnosis at surgery. Patients with empyemas secondary to chest trauma, thoracic surgery or esophageal rupture were excluded. Data was retrieved using a standard form with a data dictionary.
251 children met inclusion criteria; 51.4% were male. Most children were previously healthy and those ≤ 5 years of age comprised 57% of the cases. The median length of hospitalization was 9 days. Admissions occurred in all months but peaked in winter. Oxygen supplementation was required in 77% of children, 75% had chest tube placement and 33% were admitted to an intensive care unit. While similarity in use of pain medication, antipyretics and antimicrobial use was observed, a wide variation in number of chest radiographs and invasive procedures (thoracentesis, placement of chest tubes) was observed between centers. The most common organism found in normally sterile samples (blood, pleural fluid, lung biopsy) was Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Empyema occurs most commonly in children under five years and is associated with considerable morbidity. Variation in management by center was observed. Enhanced surveillance using molecular methods could improve diagnosis and public health planning, particularly with regard to the relationship between immunization programs and the epidemiology of empyema associated with community-acquired pneumonia in children.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in both developing and industrialized countries, especially among young children and in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. It is implicated in both invasive (e.g. meningitis and septicemia) as well as noninvasive disease (community-acquired pneumonia and otitis media). The objective of the current study was to describe the overall epidemiology of both invasive and noninvasive pneumococcal disease in Abu Dhabi over a 5-year period.
DESIGN AND SETTING:
Retrospective review of all pediatric (≤ 5 year old) pneumococcal disease admissions to Shaikh Khalifa Medical City (SKMC) and Mafraq Hospital in Abu Dhabi from 1 January 2001 till 31 December 2005.th
We retrieved computerized data from the health information management systems (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD9) diagnosis codes) as well as manual surveillance in the laboratory record of pneumococcal isolates.
The incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease was 13.6/100 000 per year (95% CI, 6.5-24.9) and the incidence of noninvasive pneumococcal disease was 172.5/100 000 per year (95% CI, 143.8-205.2). The total incidence rate was 186.0/100 000 per year (95% CI, 156.2-219.9).
This epidemiological survey indicates that the incidence rates in the United Arab Emiratea are higher than in Western countries where conjugate pneumococcal vaccine has been introduced. This study is important as it documents the incidence of pneumococcal disease in the era before introduction of the conjugate pneumococcal vaccine and allows for future research to document the impact of a new vaccine considering the geographic variation of pneumococcal serotypes.
The incidence of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) almost triples for older adults aged 65 years or older. In Canada, CAP is a leading cause of hospital admissions and mortality. Although CAP is very prevalent, complications due to CAP may be reduced with the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV). The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of pneumococcal vaccination among community-dwelling older adults with clinically diagnosed CAP.
A telephone survey was used to collect detailed information from adults aged 60 years and older with clinically diagnosed CAP. This was a community wide study with participants being recruited from all radiology clinics in one Ontario community.
The most important predictors of pneumococcal vaccination among older adults included: getting an influenza vaccine within the past year (OR 14.5, 95% CI 4.27 to 49.0); at least weekly contact with a friend (OR 3.97, 95% CI 1.71 to 9.24); having one or more co-morbidities/chronic conditions (OR 3.64, 95% CI 1.60 to 8.28); being 70 years of age or older (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.21 to 5.40); having health problems that limited physical activities (OR 5.37, 95% CI 1.49 to 19.3); having little or no bodily pain (OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.25 to 6.73); and reporting having spiritual values or religious faith (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.03 to 11.67).
A wide range of factors, including demographic, co-morbidity, quality of life, social support and lifestyle were found to be associated with pneumococcal vaccination status among older adults with clinically diagnosed CAP. The findings from this study could inform future pneumococcal immunization strategies by identifying individuals who are least likely to receive the PPV.
A study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the 23‐valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) in immunocompetent patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
A randomised controlled trial was carried out in 596 patients with COPD of mean (SD) age 65.8 (9.7) years, 298 of whom received PPV. The main outcome was radiographically proven community acquired pneumonia (CAP) of pneumococcal or unknown aetiology after a mean period of 979 days (range 20–1454).
There were 58 first episodes of CAP caused by pneumococcus or of unknown aetiology, 25 in the intervention group and 33 in the non‐intervention group. Kaplan‐Meier survival curves for CAP did not show significant differences between the intervention and non‐intervention arms (log rank test = 1.15, p = 0.28) in the whole group of patients. The efficacy of PPV in all patients was 24% (95% CI −24 to 54; p = 0.333). In the subgroup aged <65 years the efficacy of PPV was 76% (95% CI 20 to 93; p = 0.013), while in those with severe functional obstruction (forced expiratory volume in 1 second <40%) it was 48% (95% CI −7 to 80; p = 0.076). In younger patients with severe airflow obstruction the efficacy was 91% (95% CI 35 to 99; p = 0.002). There were only five cases of non‐bacteraemic pneumococcal CAP, all in the non‐intervention group (log rank test = 5.03; p = 0.025). Multivariate analysis gave a hazard ratio for unknown and pneumococcal CAP in the vaccinated group, adjusted for age, of 0.20 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.68; p = 0.01).
PPV is effective in preventing CAP in patients with COPD aged less than 65 years and in those with severe airflow obstruction. No differences were found among the other groups of patients with COPD.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; anti‐pneumococcal vaccine; pneumonia
Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nasopharyngeal colonization plays an important role in the development and transmission of pneumococcal diseases, and infants and young children are considered to be the main reservoir of this pathogen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rates and characteristics associated with nasopharyngeal carriage, the distribution of serotypes and the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Streptococcus pneumoniae among children in a large metropolitan area in Brazil before the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.
Between March and June 2010, nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 242 children aged <6 years attending one day care center and the emergency room of a pediatric hospital. Pneumococcal isolates were identified by conventional methods and serotypes were determined by a sequential multiplex PCR assay and/or the Quellung reaction. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of the pneumococci were assessed by the disk diffusion method. MICs for erythromycin and penicillin were also performed. Erythromycin resistance genes were investigated by PCR.
The overall colonization rate was 49.2% and it was considerably higher among children in the day care center. Pneumococcal carriage was more common among day care attenders and cohabitants with young siblings. The most prevalent serotypes were 6B, 19F, 6A, 14, 15C and 23F, which accounted for 61.2% of the isolates. All isolates were susceptible to clindamycin, levofloxacin, rifampicin and vancomycin. The highest rate of non-susceptibility was observed for sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (51.2%). Penicillin non-susceptible pneumococci (PNSP) accounted for 27.3% of the isolates (MICs of 0.12-4 μg/ml). Penicillin non-susceptibility was strongly associated with serotypes 14 and 23F. Hospital attendance and the presence of respiratory or general symptoms were frequently associated with PNSP carriage. The two erythromycin-resistant isolates (MICs of 2 and 4 μg/ml) belonged to serotype 6A, presented the M phenotype and harbored the mef(A/E) gene.
Correlations between serotypes, settings and penicillin non-susceptibility were observed. Serotypes coverage projected for the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was low (45.5%), but pointed out the potential reduction of PNSP nasopharyngeal colonization by nearly 20%.
Streptococcus pneumoniae; Nasopharyngeal carriage; Serotypes; Antimicrobial resistance; Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines
In September 2006, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was added to the UK immunization programme. We aimed to evaluate the impact of PCV7 on the incidence of all-cause community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. A prospective survey was undertaken in 2008–2009 at 11 hospitals in North East England of children aged 0–16 years with radiologically confirmed pneumonia. Data were compared to those from a similar survey undertaken in the same hospitals in 2001–2002. A total of 542 children were enrolled, of which 74% were aged <5 years. PCV7 uptake was 90·7%. The incidence of pneumonia was 11·8/10 000 [95% confidence interval (CI) 10·9–12·9], and the hospitalization rate was 9·9/10 000 (95% CI 9·0–10·9). Compared to 2001, there was a 19% (95% CI 8–29) reduction in the rate of CAP in those aged <5 years, and in those <2 years a 33·1% (95% CI 20–45) reduction in the incidence of CAP and 38·1% (95% CI 24–50) reduction in hospitalization rates. However, for those unvaccinated aged ⩾5 years, there was no difference in the incidence of CAP and hospitalization rate between both surveys. Since 2001, the overall reduction in incidence was 17·7% (95% CI 8–26) and for hospitalization 18·5% (95% CI 8–28). For the <5 years age group there was a lower incidence of CAP in PCV7-vaccinated children (25·2/10 000, 95% CI 22·6–28·2) than in those that were not vaccinated (37·4/10 000, 95% CI 29·2–47·1). In conclusion, PCV7 has reduced both incidence and rate of hospitalization of pneumonia in children, particularly in the <2 years age group.
Children; incidence; pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; pneumonia
The causative micro-organism in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often difficult to predict. Different studies have examined chronic morbidity and clinical symptoms as predictors for microbial aetiology of pneumonia. The aim of our study was to assess whether prior outpatient antimicrobial treatment is predictive for determining the microbial aetiology of CAP.
This was a hospital-based prospective observational study including all patients admitted with CAP between 1 October 2004 and 1 August 2006. Microbial investigations included sputum, blood culture, sputum PCR, antigen testing and serology. Exposure to antimicrobial drugs prior to hospital admission was ascertained through community pharmacy dispensing records. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess whether prior outpatient antimicrobial treatment is a predictor of microbial aetiology. Patient demographics, co-morbidities and pneumonia severity were considered to be other potential predictors.
Overall, 201 patients were included in the study. The microbial aetiology was determined in 64% of the patients. The five most prevalent pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae, Heamophilus influenzae, Legionella spp., Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Influenza virus A+B. Forty-seven of the patients (23%) had received initial antimicrobial treatment as outpatients. Multivariate analyses revealed that initial outpatient beta-lactam treatment was associated with a threefold increased chance of finding atypical pathogens and a threefold decreased probability of pneumococcal infection; the corresponding odds ratios were 3.51 (95% CI 1.25–9.99) and 0.30 (95% CI 0.10–0.90), respectively. Patients who received macrolides prior to hospitalisation had an increased probability of viral pneumonia.
Prior outpatient antimicrobial therapy has a predictive value in the diagnostic workup aimed at identifying the causative pathogen and planning corresponding antimicrobial treatment in patients hospitalised for pneumonia.
Aetiology; Antibiotics; Diagnosis; Outcome assessment; Pneumonia
National clinical practice guidelines have recommended specific empiric antimicrobial regimes for patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia. However, evidence confirming improved mortality with many of these regimes is lacking. Our aim was to determine the association between the empiric use of a β-lactam with fluoroquinolone, compared with other recommended antimicrobial therapies, and mortality in patients hospitalized with severe community-acquired pneumonia.
A retrospective observational study was conducted at two tertiary teaching hospitals. Eligible subjects were admitted with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia and had a chest X-ray and a discharge ICD-9 diagnosis consistent with this. Subjects were excluded if they received 'comfort measures only' during the admission, had been transferred from another acute care hospital, did not meet criteria for severe pneumonia, or were treated with non-guideline-concordant antibiotics. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess the association between 30-day mortality and the use of a β-lactam antibiotic with a fluoroquinolone compared with other guideline-concordant therapies, after adjustment for potential confounders including a propensity score.
Data were abstracted on 172 subjects at the two hospitals. The mean age was 63.5 years (SD 15.0). The population was 88% male; 91% were admitted through the emergency department and 62% were admitted to the intensive care unit within the first 24 hours after admission. Mortality was 19.8% at 30 days. After adjustment for potential confounders the use of a β-lactam with a fluoroquinolone (odds ratio 2.71, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 6.1) was associated with increased mortality.
The use of initial empiric antimicrobial therapy with a β-lactam and a fluoroquinolone was associated with increased short-term mortality for patients with severe pneumonia in comparison with other guideline-concordant antimicrobial regimes. Further research is needed to determine the range of appropriate empiric antimicrobial therapies for patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia.
In adult population with community acquired pneumonia high levels of pro-adrenomedullin (pro-ADM) have been shown to be predictors of worse prognosis. The role of this biomarker in pediatric patients had not been analyzed to date. The objective of this study is to know the levels of pro-ADM in children with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and analyze the relation between these levels and the patients’ prognosis.
Prospective observational study including patients attended in the emergency service (January to October 2009) admitted to hospital with CAP and no complications at admission. The values for pro-ADM were analyzed in relation to: need for oxygen therapy, duration of oxygen therapy, fever and antibiotic therapy, complications, admission to the intensive care unit, and length of hospital stay. Fifty patients were included. Ten presented complications (7 pleural effusion). The median level of pro-ADM was 1.0065 nmol/L (range 0.3715 to 7.2840 nmol/L). The patients presenting complications had higher levels of pro-ADM (2.3190 vs. 1.1758 nmol/L, p = 0.013). Specifically, the presence of pleural effusion was associated with higher levels of pro-ADM (2.9440 vs. 1.1373 nmol/L, p < 0.001).
In our sample of patients admitted to hospital with CAP, pro-ADM levels are related to the development of complications during hospitalization.
Pro-adrenomedullin; Pneumonia; Children
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common childhood infection. CAP complications, such as parapneumonic empyema (PPE), are increasing and are frequently caused by antibiotic-resistant organisms. No clinical guidelines currently exist for management of pediatric CAP and no published data exist about variations in antibiotic prescribing patterns. Our objectives were to describe variation in CAP clinical management for hospitalized children by pediatric infectious disease consultants and to examine associations between recommended antibiotic regimens and local antibiotic resistance levels.
We surveyed pediatric members of the Emerging Infections Network, which consists of 259 pediatric infectious disease physicians. Participants responded regarding their recommended empiric antibiotic regimens for hospitalized children with CAP with and without PPE and their recommendations for duration of therapy. Participants also provided information about the prevalence of penicillin non-susceptible S. pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in their community.
We received 148 responses (57%). For uncomplicated CAP, respondents were divided between recommending beta-lactams alone (55%) versus beta-lactams in combination with another class (40%). For PPE, most recommended a combination of a beta-lactam plus an anti-MRSA agent, however, they were divided between clindamycin (44%) and vancomycin (57%). The relationship between reported antibiotic resistance and empiric regimen was mixed. We found no relationship between aminopenicillin use and prevalence of penicillin non-suscepetible S. pneumoniae or clindamycin use and clindamycin resistance, however, respondents were more likely to recommend an anti-MRSA agent when MRSA prevalence increased.
Substantial variability exists in recommendations for CAP management. Development of clinical guidelines via antimicrobial stewardship programs and dissemination of data about local antibiotic resistance patterns represent opportunities to improve care.
A reliable prediction of the causative agent of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is not possible based on clinical features. Our aim was to test, whether the measurement of the expression of complement receptors or Fcγ receptors on neutrophils and monocytes would be a useful preliminary test to differentiate between bacterial and viral pneumonia.
Sixty-eight patients with CAP were studied prospectively. Thirteen patients had pneumococcal pneumonia; 13 patients, influenza A pneumonia; 5 patients, atypical pneumonia, and 37 patients, aetiologically undefined pneumonia. Leukocyte receptor expression was measured within 2 days of hospital admission.
The mean expression of complement receptor 1 (CR1) on neutrophils was significantly higher in the patients with pneumococcal pneumonia than in those with influenza A pneumonia. The mean expression of CR1 was also significantly higher in aetiologically undefined pneumonia than in influenza A pneumonia, but there was no difference between pneumococcal and undefined pneumonia.
Our results suggest that the expression of CR1 is higher in classical bacterial pneumonia than in viral pneumonia. Determination of the expression of CR1 may be of value as an additional rapid tool in the aetiological diagnosis, bacterial or viral infection, of CAP. These results are preliminary and more research is needed to assess the utility of this new method in the diagnostics of pneumonia.
The increasing use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and pneumococcal immunization along with shifting community exposures may have altered the burden of Streptococcus pneumoniae disease in HIV-infected persons. We describe the burden and risk factors for pneumococcal disease in the modern era of HIV care and evaluate the use of a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV-23).
The incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) between January 1st, 2000 and January 1st, 2010 in a regional HIV population in Southern Alberta, Canada was determined by linking comprehensive laboratory and hospital surveillance data. Clinical and epidemiologic data including risk factors for S. pneumoniae, history of pneumococcal immunization, serotypes of infections, and length of any hospitalizations for pneumococcal disease were evaluated with multivariate analysis. CD4 count and viral load at immunization were evaluated with a nested case-control analysis.
In 1946 HIV-patients with 11,099 person-years of follow up, there were 68 distinct episodes of pneumococcal disease occurring in 50 patients. Increased risk was seen if female, age >60, Aboriginal ethnicity, lower education, injection drug use, smoking, nadir CD4 <200/μL, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and hepatitis C. Overall, the incidence of IPD was 342/100,000 person-years and was reduced to 187/100,000 within three years of PPV-23 immunization (P < 0.01). Although 78% of patients received PPV-23, 74% of IPD episodes were caused by PPV-23 serotypes. In a case-control analysis, HIV viral load at immunization was significantly predictive of PPV-23 failure, while CD4 count was not. 80% of IPD cases required hospitalization: median length of stay was 7 days (range: 1-71); four patients died.
Despite universal access to intensive measures to prevent pneumococcal disease including the widespread use of HAART and PPV-23 immunization, the incidence of IPD remains high in HIV patients with its associated morbidity and mortality.
To describe the spectrum of clinical features and management of community acquired pneumonia in the UK.
Prospectively recorded clinical details for all children with possible pneumonia and chest x ray (CXR) changes in 13 hospitals in the North of England between 2001 and 2002.
89% of 711 children presenting to hospital with pneumonia were admitted; 96% received antibiotics, 70% intravenously. 20% had lobar CXR changes, 3% empyema and 4% required intensive care. Respiratory rate (RR), hypoxia and dyspnoea all correlated with each other and prompted appropriate interventions. Admission in children, not infants, was independently associated with RR, oxygen saturation, lobar CXR changes and pyrexia. Neither C‐reactive protein, lobar CXR changes or pyrexia were associated with severity. Children over 1 year old with perihilar CXR changes more often had severe disease (p = 0.001). Initial intravenous antibiotics were associated with lobar CXR changes in infants and children and with dyspnoea, pyrexia and pleural effusion in children. The presence of pleural effusion increased duration of antibiotic treatment (p<0.001). Cefuroxime was the most often used intravenous antibiotic in 61%. Oral antibiotics included a penicillin in 258 (46%), a macrolide in 192 (34%) and a cephalosporin in 117 (21%). Infants stayed significantly longer (p<0.001) as did children with severe disease (p<0.01), effusions (p = 0.005) or lobar CXR changes (p⩽0.001).
There is a high rate of intravenous antibiotic administration in hospital admissions for pneumonia. Despite lobar CXR changes not being independently associated with severe disease, initial lobar CXR changes and clinical assessment in children independently influenced management decisions, including admission and route of antibiotics.
community acquired pneumonia; childhood pneumonia; lobar pneumonia; severity; antibiotics
The limitations of conventional microbiologic methods (CMM) for etiologic diagnosis of community pneumococcal pneumonia have made faster diagnostic techniques necessary. Our aim was to evaluate the usefulness of the immunochromatography (ICT) technique for detecting urinary Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen in the etiologic diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonias (CAP). This was a prospective study on in-patients with CAP in a tertiary hospital conducted from October 2000 to March 2004. Apart from using CMM to reach an etiologic diagnosis, we determined pneumococcal antigen in concentrated urine by ICT. We also determined the urinary pneumococcal antigen (UPA) content in patients from two control groups to calculate the specificity of the technique. One group was comprised of in-patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma, with respiratory infection, and without pneumonia; the other group included fractures. We studied 959 pneumonia patients and determined UPA content in 911 (95%) of them. We diagnosed the etiology of 253 cases (28%) using CMM; S. pneumoniae was the most common etiologic agent (57 cases). ICT analysis was positive for 279 patients (31%). Using this technique, the percentage of diagnoses of pneumococcal pneumonias increased by 26%, while the overall etiologic diagnosis increased from 28 to 49%. The technique sensitivity was 81%; the specificity oscillated between 80% in CAP with nonpneumococcal etiology and 99% for patients with fractures without infections. Determination of UPA is a rapid, simple analysis with good sensitivity and specificity, which increased the percentage of etiologic diagnoses. Positive UPA may persist in COPD patients with probable pneumococcal colonization or recent pneumococcal infections.
Pneumonia occurring outside of the hospital setting has traditionally been categorized as community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, when pneumonia is associated with health care risk factors (prior hospitalization, dialysis, residing in a nursing home, immunocompromised state), it is now more appropriately classified as a health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP). The relative incidences of CAP and HCAP among patients requiring hospital admission is not well described. The objective of this retrospective cohort study, involving 639 patients with culture-positive CAP and HCAP admitted between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2005, was to characterize the incidences, microbiology, and treatment patterns for CAP and HCAP among patients requiring hospital admission. HCAP was more common than CAP (67.4% versus 32.6%). The most common pathogens identified overall included methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (24.6%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (20.3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.8%), methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (13.8%), and Haemophilus influenzae (8.5%). The hospital mortality rate was statistically greater among patients with HCAP than among those with CAP (24.6% versus 9.1%; P < 0.001). Administration of inappropriate initial antimicrobial treatment was statistically more common among HCAP patients (28.3% versus 13.0%; P < 0.001) and was identified as an independent risk factor for hospital mortality. Our study found that the incidence of HCAP was greater than that of CAP among patients with culture-positive pneumonia requiring hospitalization at Barnes-Jewish Hospital. Patients with HCAP were more likely to initially receive inappropriate antimicrobial treatment and had a greater risk of hospital mortality. Health care providers should differentiate patients with HCAP from those with CAP in order to provide more appropriate initial antimicrobial therapy.
Cases of patients admitted to hospital with community-acquired pneumonia over a three-year period were reviewed to determine whether pneumococcal pneumonia and pneumococcal bacteremia occurred as frequently as reported in urban and university-based studies. Pneumococcus was isolated in only 25 of 202 patients (12 percent) in whom adequate attempts at culture were made, only one patient had documented pneumococcal bacteremia and no patients died of pneumococcal pneumonia proved by culture. Prospective studies in community hospitals should be considered to define more clearly the epidemiology of pneumococcal pneumonia in the nonurban United States population. These studies would also contribute to a rational policy for use of pneumococcal vaccine in this country.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is associated with high case-fatality rates and serious chronic sequelae. The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude of invasive pneumococcal infections in a pediatric population without universal vaccination during childhood in a single hospital.
DESIGN AND SETTING:
Retrospective review of all pediatric cases of invasive pneumococcal infection during a 7-year period.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
We reviewed the microbiological and clinical records of cases of IPD in children <13 years of age admitted to the Armed Forces Hospital, Southern Region, Saudi Arabia.
We identified 41 patients with IPD; 27 (66%) were <2 years of age. Four (50%) of those with pneumoccal meningitis were <2 years of age. The case fatality was 3 of 41 (7.3%) due to meningitis and 2 of 41 (5%) due to sepsis, with a case fatality of 5 (12%) due to meningitis and sepsis. Nine patients developed sequelae; of those with meningitis, 5 (73%) developed sequelae. Only 15 (41%) patients had predisposing medical conditions. The overall intermediate and high levels of pneumococcal resistance to penicillin and ceftriaxone were found to be 48.5%, 2.4% and 2.4%, 0%, respectively. None of the pneumococcal isolates were serotyped, and none of the patients had been vaccinated against pneumococcal infections in our hospital.
Despite the presence of a targeted immunization program, a considerable number of cases of invasive pneumococcal infections were reported among our pediatric population over a period of 7 years. Prospective studies in serotypes and antibiotic resistance from the southern region are needed to provide baseline information for the formulation and evaluation of a national prevention and control program.