Unhealthy lifestyle choices frequently cause or worsen chronic diseases. Many internal medicine residents are inadequately trained to provide effective health behavior counseling, in part, due to prioritization of acute care in the traditional model of medical education and to other systemic barriers to teaching psychosocial aspects of patient care.
To address this gap in training, we developed and piloted a curriculum for a Primary Care Internal Medicine residency program that links a practical form of motivational interviewing (MI) training to the self-management support (SMS) component of the chronic care model.
PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING
All 30 primary care residents at Alameda County Medical Center were trained in the curriculum since it was initiated in 2007 during the California Academic Chronic Care Collaborative.
Residents participated in three modules during which the chronic care model was introduced and motivational interviewing skills were linked to the model’s self-management support component. This training was then reinforced in the clinical setting. Case-based interactive instruction, teaching videotapes, group role-plays, faculty demonstration, and observation of resident-patient interactions in the clinical setting were used to teach the curriculum.
A preliminary, qualitative assessment of this curriculum was done from a program standpoint and from the perspective of the learners. Residents reported increased sense of confidence when approaching patients about health behavior change. Faculty directly observed residents during clinical encounters using MI and SMS skills to work more collaboratively with patients and to improve patient readiness for self-management goal setting.
A curriculum that links motivational interviewing skills to the chronic care model’s self-management support component and is reinforced in the clinical setting is feasible to develop and implement. This curriculum may improve residents’ confidence with health behavior counseling and with preparing patients to become active participants in management of their chronic conditions.
chronic care model; self-management support; motivational interviewing; residency training; primary care
For decades, films across the world have entertained people and affected their attitudes regarding certain issues and conditions. Documentary films have been used by governments in different parts of the world to educate the general public and promote health and prevent the spread of disease as part of public health programs. Psychiatry as a branch of medicine like the rest of medicine continues to develop. With an increasing awareness among the general population and popularity of films showing various aspects of mental illnesses on the rise, educators and teachers are turning their attention to using films for education of medical students and psychiatric trainees. Although films may be stereotypical and prejudiced, they can be used successfully in teaching psychiatry trainees. In this paper, development of a movie club and its use are described and suggestions made to improve the use of films in this process.
Cinema; films; resident training; teaching
Moving in early career from public health physician to psychiatrist gives me a public health view of psychiatry and an interest in pursuing the goals of widening access to community-based services for people with mental disorders and promoting mental health in communities. Training in social medicine in the UK and psychiatry in Australia lead to studies of homelessness in people living with psychotic disorders, the health of family caregivers, assessing quality of life and mental health promotion.
Work with the World Health Organization (WHO) in the Western Pacific Region and the World Psychiatric Association (WPA) worldwide has given me opportunities to work with psychiatrists, mental health workers, service users and others in governments and non-government organisations implementing the recommendations of the World Health Report 2001 in countries with limited resources. My work as WPA Secretary for Publications seeks to improve information exchange in countries irrespective of their wealth. This is an exciting time to be working in a global village with technical capacity to reach into its furthest corners. Psychiatrists supported by WPA can help ensure that vulnerable people and communities and people living with mental disorders are well served in this new environment and no longer left out and left behind.
Public health; social medicine; health promotion; research dissemination; economic development
Psychiatric services remained virtually unknown in Nepal until 1961. The first psychiatric outpatient service was started in 1961, at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu. In 1984, the Psychiatry Department at Bir Hospital was separated and a mental hospital was created, which was later shifted to its current location at Lagankhel, Patan, in Kathmandu valley, in 1985. It is the only mental hospital in Nepal with a current bed strength of 50 beds. The new era in medical learning and teaching was ushered in Nepal with the establishment of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) under the Tribhuban University and the 400-bed Tribhuban University-Teaching Hospital (TU-Teaching Hospital), in the year 1983. BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS) at Dharan was established in 1993, as a part of the joint Indo–Nepal collaboration on developing an international standard teaching, training, and research-oriented medical institute similar to AIIMS, New Delhi. During the last one-and-half decades a number of privately run medical colleges have come up in Nepal. Outpatient and inpatient Psychiatry Departments have been established in most of these government as well as private medical institutes. At present, the postgraduate course (MD) in psychiatry has been running in two government-run institutes as well as three privately run medical colleges. Indian psychiatrists have played and are still playing significant roles in establishing as well as maintaining Psychiatry Departments, especially in the private sector medical colleges. They have also contributed to the growth of psychiatry research and postgraduate teaching in psychiatry, in Nepal.
India; Nepal; psychiatry
This study evaluated parents’ experience with University of Massachusetts (UMass) Child Psychiatry Access Project (MCPAP), a consultation service to primary care providers (PCP), aimed at improving access to child psychiatry. Parent satisfaction questionnaire was sent to families referred to UMass MCPAP by their PCP, asking about their concerns leading to the referral, the satisfaction from the service provided, adequacy of the follow up plan, and outcome. Seventy-nine percent of parents agreed or strongly agreed that the services provided were offered in a timely manner. Fifty percent agreed or strongly agreed that their child’s situation improved following their contact with the services. Sixty-nine percent agreed or strongly agreed that the service met their family’s need. The results suggest moderate to high parental satisfaction with MCPAP model, but highlight ongoing challenges in making successful referrals for children’s mental health services in the community, following MCPAP recommendations.
child psychiatry; primary care; consultation liaison; parent satisfaction
Recruitment to psychiatry is insufficient to meet projected mental health service needs world-wide. We report on the career plans of final year medical students from 20 countries, investigating factors identified from the literature which influence psychiatric career choice.
Cross sectional electronic or paper survey. Subjects were final year medical students at 46 medical schools in participating countries. We assessed students’ career intentions, motivations, medical school teaching and exposure to psychiatry. We assessed students’ attitudes and personality factors. The main outcome measure was likelihood of specializing in psychiatry. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the joint effect of factors upon the main outcome.
2198 of 9135 (24%) of students responded (range 4 to 91%) across the countries. Internationally 4.5% of students definitely considered psychiatry as a career (range 1 to 12%). 19% of students (range 0 to 33%) were “quite likely”, and 25% were “definitely not” considering psychiatry. Female gender, experience of mental/physical illness, media portrayal of doctors, and positive attitudes to psychiatry, but not personality factors, were associated with choosing psychiatry. Quality of psychiatric placement (correlation coefficient = 0.22, p < 0.001) and number of placements (correlation coefficient =0.21, p < 0.001) were associated with higher ATP scores. During medical school, experience of psychiatric enrichment activities (special studies modules and university psychiatry clubs), experience of acutely unwell patients and perceived clinical responsibility were all associated with choice of psychiatry.
Multilevel logistic regression revealed six factors associated with students choosing psychiatry: importance of own vocation, odds ratio (OR) 3.01, 95% CI 1.61 to 5.91, p < 0.001); interest in psychiatry before medical school, OR 10.8 (5.38 to 21.8, p < 0.001); undertaking a psychiatry special study module, OR 1.45 (1.05 to 2.01, p = 0.03) or elective OR 4.28 (2.87- 6.38, p < 0.001); membership of a university psychiatry club, OR 3.25 (2.87 to 6.38, p < 0.001); and exposure to didactic teaching, OR 0.54 (0.40 to 0.72, p < 0.001).
We report factors relevant to medical student selection and psychiatry teaching which affect career choice. Addressing these factors may improve recruitment to psychiatry internationally.
Psychiatry; Career choice; Medical student; Attitude to psychiatry; Stigma; Enrichment activity; Recruitment; Gender; Medical school selection
The specialist psychiatric services available in India is insufficient to meet the mental health needs of the country. Training of general practitioners in psychiatry through short courses is one of the remedial strategies. In 1982-83, an ICMR Multi-Centre Project of Training in Psychiatry for Non-Psychiatrist Primary Care Doctors was successfully completed at Bangalore, Hyderabad and Vellore using the training methods developed at NIMHANS. This paper describes the training programme and the results.
The provision of quality out-patient psychiatric care to a predominately black inner-city population, in a University setting such as ours, is a complex and challenging task. This paper addresses service and teaching issues related to the provision of that care in the Adult Unit of the Howard University Hospital Mental Health Clinic. In this setting there is a mandate for clinical teaching and research as well, two vital components in the delivery of quality psychiatric service by knowledgeable and skilled health care providers.
Smokers with mental illness and addictive disorders account for nearly one in two cigarettes sold in the United States and are at high risk for smoking-related deaths and disability. Psychiatry residency programs provide a unique arena for disseminating tobacco treatment guidelines, influencing professional norms, and increasing access to tobacco cessation services among smokers with mental illness. The current study evaluated the Rx for Change in Psychiatry curriculum, developed for psychiatry residency programs and focused on identifying and treating tobacco dependence among individuals with mental illness.
The 4-hour curriculum emphasized evidence-based, patient-oriented cessation treatments relevant for all tobacco users, including those not yet ready to quit. The curriculum was informed by comprehensive literature review, consultation with an expert advisory group, faculty interviews, and a focus group with psychiatry residents. This study reports on evaluation of the curriculum in 2005–2006, using a quasi-experimental design, with 55 residents in three psychiatry residency training programs in Northern California.
The curriculum was associated with improvements in psychiatry residents’ knowledge, attitudes, confidence, and counseling behaviors for treating tobacco use among their patients, with initial changes from pre- to posttraining sustained at 3-months’ follow-up. Residents’ self-reported changes in treating patients’ tobacco use were substantiated through systematic chart review.
The evidence-based Rx for Change in Psychiatry curriculum is offered as a model tobacco treatment curriculum that can be implemented in psychiatry residency training programs and disseminated widely, thereby effectively reaching a vulnerable and costly population of smokers.
Over the years Consultation-Liaison (C-L) psychiatry has contributed significantly to the growth of the psychiatry and has brought psychiatry very close to the advances in the medicine. It has also led to changes in the medical education and in the providing comprehensive management to the physically ill. In India, although the General Hospital Psychiatric units were established in 1930s, C-L Psychiatry has never been the main focus of training and research. Hence there is an urgent need to improve C-L Psychiatry services and training to provide best and optimal care to the patients and provide best education to the trainees.
Consultation; liaison; psychosomatic; India
After implementation of an integrated consulting psychiatry model and psychology services within primary care at a federally qualified health center, patients have increased access to needed mental health services, and primary care clinicians receive the support and collaboration needed to meet the psychiatric needs of the population.
Access to care; primary care; community health centers; medically underserved; psychiatry; behavioral medicine
Psychiatry training programs provide a unique arena for affecting professional norms and increasing access to tobacco cessation services among smokers with mental illness. Psychiatry Rx for Change emphasizes evidence-based patient-oriented tobacco treatments relevant for tobacco users with psychiatric disorders. Following Diffusion of Innovations theory and the RE-AIM framework, the curriculum is being disseminated to psychiatry residency and graduate psychiatric nursing programs in the Western United States with plans to study curriculum adoption, implementation, and maintenance on a broad scale. Psychiatry Rx for Change aims to increase the likelihood that smokers with co-occurring disorders will receive evidence-based cessation treatment.
tobacco; nicotine dependence; education; training; dissemination
For Norwegian general practitioners (GPs), acute treatment of mental illness and substance abuse are among the most commonly experienced emergency situations in out-of-hours primary healthcare. The largest share of acute referrals to emergency psychiatric wards occurs out-of-hours, and out-of-hours services are responsible for a disproportionately high share of compulsory referrals. Concerns exist regarding the quality of mental healthcare provided in the out-of-hours setting. The aim of this study was to explore which challenges GPs experience when providing emergency care out-of-hours to patients presenting problems related to mental illness or substance abuse.
We conducted a qualitative study based on two individual interviews and six focus groups with purposively sampled GPs (totally 45 participants). The interviews were analysed successively in an editing style, using a thematic approach based on methodological descriptions by Charmaz and Malterud.
Safety and uncertainty were the dominating themes in the discussions. The threat to personal safety due to unpredictable patient behaviour was a central concern, and present security precautions in the out-of-hours services were questioned. The GPs expressed high levels of uncertainty in their work with patients presenting problems related to mental illness or substance abuse. The complexity of the problems presented, shortage of time, limited access to reliable information and limited range of interventions available during out-of-hours contributed to this uncertainty. Perceived access to second opinion seemed to have a major impact on subjectively experienced work stress.
The GPs experienced out-of-hours psychiatry as a field with high levels of uncertainty and limited support to help them meet the experienced challenges. This might influence the quality of care provided. If the current organisation of emergency mental healthcare is to be kept, we need to provide GPs with a better support framework out-of-hours.
The purpose of this study was to determine resident satisfaction with an acute care psychiatric clinic designed in collaboration with a nearby community mental health center. We also sought to demonstrate that this rotation helps meet program requirements for emergency psychiatry training, provides direct assessments of resident interviewing skills and clinical knowledge in the postgraduate year-1, and provides exposure to public sector systems of care.
We developed a resident satisfaction questionnaire and fielded it to each of the residents who participated in the clinic over the first 3 years. Data were collected, organized, and analyzed.
Of the 15 residents in the acute care psychiatric clinic, 12 completed and returned the satisfaction questionnaires. Educational aspects of the clinic experience were rated favorably.
This postgraduate year-1 acute care psychiatric clinic provides a mechanism for the fulfillment of emergency psychiatry training as well as direct supervision of clinical encounters, which is a satisfactory and useful educational experience for trainees.
Seasonal and monthly variations in utilization of psychiatric services have been inadequately studied in India.
This study sought to determine the pattern of psychiatric services utilization by patients with four broad categories of diagnosis (mood disorders (F30-39): neurotic stress-related and somatoform disorders (F40-48), schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (F20-29) and mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (F10-19) in different seasons and months of the last six years.
Materials and Methods:
We conducted a teaching hospital data-based study of new patients diagnosed with psychiatric illness in the department of psychiatry, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh. Four diagnostic groups consisting of 12058 psychiatric patients who had been diagnosed and treated in the department of psychiatry of this institute from 1999-2004 were included in this evaluation. Bed occupancy rate (BOR), average length of stay (ALOS) of inpatients and seasonal index were determined. Information about weather variables (mean daily temperature, mean rainfall) was collected from the meterological department of Chandigarh.
Psychiatric services were utilized by 31.1% of patients with mood disorders in the summer and by 34.23% of patients with neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders in the autumn. Statistical analysis revealed significant difference in new cases of these two groups of disorders in different seasons.
Our study showed a significant relationship between utilization of psychiatric patients especially with mood disorders and neurotic, stress related and somatoform disorders with season (summer and autumn respectively).
Mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use; mood disorders; neurotic stress-related and somatoform disorders; schizophrenia; schizotypal and delusional disorders
Directors of postgraduate internal medicine programs face many problems in program design, particularly when numbers of house staff continue to decrease. This paper examines the training requirements of a resident in internal medicine and proposes a curriculum based on set rotations in the three key areas of training--subspecialty services, critical care and the clinical teaching unit. The distribution of time in these three areas and the balance of exposure to inpatients and outpatients are discussed in detail. This program design ensures exposure to all the key elements of internal medicine in 3 years and should prevent significant gaps in knowledge at the time of certification. The implications for "service" in major teaching hospitals is discussed. Hospital departments and administrators must confront the prospect of hospital units without house staff. Most important, program directors must resist sacrificing the pedagogic essentials of a training program for service requirements.
Mental health care is important for everyone, especially teenagers. However, seeking mental health services may be challenging for teenagers, particularly when they are also parents. Offering mental health care in a safe, attractive and easily accessible manner, such as primary care, increases the chances that teenage parents will receive help. Comprehensive care models need to be established to address the many needs that at-risk young mothers and their children face. There are a number of programmes available to teenage mothers that either address healthcare and psychosocial needs or focus primarily on improvements in parenting skills; yet an integrated model that delivers medical, psychiatric and psychosocial care and facilitates positive parenting skills seems to be missing. Through a university–community partnership we have recently developed a model curriculum – the Mom Power (MP) group programme – at the University of Michigan which aims to close this gap in service delivery. We elaborate on core elements and key features of this 10-week group intervention programme for high-risk teenage mothers and their children, and present preliminary outcomes data. Analyses on the first 24 MP group graduates suggest that despite ongoing life trauma during the intervention period, teenage mothers show improvements in depression and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms post intervention, and also self-rate as less guilty and shameful regarding their parenting skills after programme completion. Although preliminary, due to design and statistical limitations, these results show promise regarding feasibility and effectiveness of this integrated approach for teenage mothers with young children delivered through primary care.
adolescent mental health; intervention; primary care; teenage mothers
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the mental health component of the family medicine residency program at Memorial University of Newfoundland, which contains no formal mental health training with psychiatrists, adequately prepares residents for practice, and to assess which aspects of their training enhanced their mental health skills most. DESIGN: Cross-sectional mailed survey. SETTING: A 2-year family practice residency program with a focus on training for rural practice offering integrated and eclectic multidisciplinary mental health training rather than formal psychiatry experience. PARTICIPANTS: Graduates of the family practice residency program, 1990 to 1995. Completed questionnaires were returned by 62 of 116 physicians. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Confidence of respondents in dealing with 23 mental health problems. RESULTS: Respondents felt prepared to address most of the mental health needs of their patients. Higher levels of confidence were associated with lower referral rates. There was no significant relationship between time spent in practice and confidence in dealing with mental health problems. Graduates' confidence correlated with areas in the program identified as strong. CONCLUSIONS: The program appears to train family doctors effectively to meet the mental health needs of their patients.
According to The Indonesian Medical Council, 2006, Indonesian competence-based medical curriculum should be oriented towards family medicine. We aimed to find out if the educational goal of patient-centered care within family medicine (comprehensive care and continuous care) were adequately transferred from the expected curriculum to implemented curriculum and teaching process.
Discourse analysis was done by 3 general practitioners of scenarios and learning objectives of an Indonesian undergraduate medical curriculum. The coders categorized those sentences into two groups: met or unmet the educational goal of patient-centered care.
Text analysis showed gaps in patient-centered care training between the scenarios and the learning objectives which were developed by both curriculum committee and the block planning groups and the way in which the material was taught. Most sentences in the scenarios were more relevant to patient-centered care while most sentences in the learning objectives were more inclined towards disease-perspectives.
There is currently a discrepancy between expected patient-centered care values in the scenario and instructional materials that are being used.
Patient-centered care; Comprehensive care; Continuous care; Discourse analysis
Despite the 1984 United Nations’s Convention Against Torture calling to train doctors to work with torture survivors, many physicians are unaware of their obligation and few are taught the requisite clinical skills.
To describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a curriculum to teach residents to work with torture survivors.
Medicine residents in New York City
A 2-component curriculum consisting of a series of workshops and clinical experiences, which provide content, skills, and practices regarding the medical, psychological, ethical, and legal aspects of evaluating and caring for torture survivors.
All 22 trainees received surveys before and after training. Surveys assessed residents’ relevant prior experience, beliefs, skills, and attitudes regarding working with torture survivors. At baseline, 23% of residents described previous human rights trainings and 17% had work experiences with torture survivors. Before the curriculum, 81% of residents reported doctors should know how to evaluate survivors, although only 5% routinely screened patients for torture. After the curriculum, residents reported significant improvements in 3 educational domains—general knowledge, sequelae, and self-efficacy to evaluate torture survivors.
This curriculum addresses the disparity between doctors’ obligations, and training to work with torture survivors. It is likely to achieve its educational goals, and can potentially be adapted to other residencies.
torture; survivors; doctors; New York City; resident education
Family physicians may spend up to 50% of their time diagnosing and managing mental disorders and emotional problems, but this is not always reflected in the training they receive. This study of the teaching of psychiatry in the 16 family medicine residency programs in Canada showed that although the majority of program directors are reasonably satisfied with the current training, they see room for improvement—particularly in finding psychiatrists with a better understanding of family practice, in integrating the teaching to a greater degree with clinical work, thereby increasing its relevance, and in utilizing more suitable clinical settings.
residency training; psychiatry; family medicine
This study examined the referral patterns of rural/remote primary care physicians (PCPs) as well as their needs and interests for further training in child/adolescent mental health.
Surveys were mailed to Canadian rural/remote PCPs requesting participants’ demographic information, training and qualifications, referral patterns, and identification of needs and interests for continuing medical education (CME).
PCPs were most likely to refer to mental health programs, and excessive wait times are the most common deterrent. Major reasons for referral were to obtain recommendations regarding medications and assessing non-responsive patients. While PCPs expressed higher levels of confidence in making appropriate referrals, they were much less confident in their knowledge and skills in managing mental health problems. Professional development in child/adolescent psychiatry is a moderate or highly perceived CME need. Overall, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was the most commonly chosen topic of interest and CME in the community was preferred, but some regional differences emerged.
PCPs viewed limited community resources and self-identified gaps in skills as barriers to service provision. Professional development in child and adolescent mental health for PCPs by preferred modes appears desired.
needs assessment; rural/remote; primary care physicians; mental health; professional development; psychiatry; child/adolescent; évaluation des besoins; régions rurales ou éloignées; médecins de première ligne; santé mentale; formation professionnelle; psychiatrie; enfant et adolescent
Medical schools are currently charged with a lack of education as far as empathic/relational skills and the meaning of being a health-care provider are concerned, thus leading to increased interest in medical humanities.
Medical humanities can offer an insight into human illness and in a broader outlook into human condition, understanding of one self, responsibility. An empathic relation to patients might be fostered by a matching approach to humanities and sciences, which should be considered as subjects of equal relevance, complementary to one another. Recently, movies have been used in medical – especially psychiatric - trainees education, but mainly within the limits of teaching a variety of disorders. A different approach dealing with the use of cinema in the training of psychiatry residents is proposed, based on Jung and Hillman’s considerations about the relation between images and archetypes, archetypal experience and learning.
Selected full-length movies or clips can offer a priceless opportunity to face with the meaning of being involved in a care-providing, helping profession.
Education; Empathy; Emotion; Psychiatry trainees; Students; Cinema; Movies; Films
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requirements stipulate that psychiatry residents need to be educated in the area of emergency psychiatry. Existing research investigating the current state of this training is limited, and no research to date has assessed whether the ACGME Residency Review Committee requirements for psychiatry residency training are followed by psychiatry residency training programs.
We administered, to chief resident attendees of a national leadership conference, a 24‐item paper survey on the types and amount of emergency psychiatry training provided by their psychiatric residency training programs. Descriptive statistics were used in the analysis.
Of 154 surveys distributed, 111 were returned (72% response rate). Nearly one‐third of chief resident respondents indicated that more than 50% of their program's emergency psychiatry training was provided during on‐call periods. A minority indicated that they were aware of the ACGME program requirements for emergency psychiatry training. While training in emergency psychiatry occurred in many programs through rotations—different from the on‐call period—direct supervision was available during on‐call training only about one‐third of the time.
The findings suggest that about one‐third of psychiatry residency training programs do not adhere to the ACGME standards for emergency psychiatry training. Enhanced knowledge of the ACGME requirements may enhance psychiatry residents' understanding on how their programs are fulfilling the need for more emergency psychiatry training. Alternative settings to the on‐call period for emergency psychiatry training are more likely to provide for direct supervision.
This article summarises the findings of recent priority setting exercises for psychiatric research and of a mapping of research capacity and resources in south Asia. The priorities for research in the region, as in other developing countries, are related to ‘implementation’ science, i.e. the field of inquiry investigating acceptable and affordable methods of delivering effective treatments for mental disorders, which aims to help close the large treatment gap. “Discovery” research which aims to strengthen our understanding of the nature of mental disorders through well-designed epidemiological and descriptive clinical studies, and expand the armamentarium of effective treatments by mapping and evaluating indigenous approaches to mental health care is also an important priority. However, research capacity and resources in the region are scarce and need strengthening by action from diverse stakeholders including the Indian Psychiatric Society.
Research priorities; research capacity; implementation science; epidemiology