i-gel™ is a new single-use supraglottic airway device without an inflatable cuff. This study was designed to compare the usefulness of i-gel™ versus a classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA) in small children.
Sixty-three children (age range : 4-72 months) were randomly assigned to an i-gel™ or cLMA group. We evaluated hemodynamic data, airway sealing ability, the success rate of insertion, and adverse events including an inadvertent sliding out during ventilation.
Demographic data and hemodynamic data obtained immediately after the insertion of these devices did not differ between the two groups. The success rates for insertion on the first attempt were 77 and 84% for i-gel™ and cLMA, respectively (P = 0.54), and the overall success rates were 87 and 100% respectively (P = 0.14). There were no significant differences in terms of airway leak pressure. The inserted i-gel™ inadvertently slid out in 8 of 31 patients but only one sliding out case occurred in the cLMA group (P = 0.02). There were no differences between the groups in terms of other side effects (e.g., coughing, bleeding) associated with the use of i-gel™ and cLMA (P = 0.75 and 0.49, respectively).
Oropharyngeal leak pressure and insertion success rate of i-gel™ are similar to those of cLMA. However, i-gel™ is prone to inadvertent sliding out of the mouth in small children. Therefore, it is recommended that the i-gel™ should be secured more tightly to avoid displacement of the device.
Laryngeal mask airway; i-gel™
The newest variation of the i-gel supraglottic airway is a pediatric version.
This study was designed to investigate the usefulness of the size 2 i-gel compared with the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) and classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA) of the same size in anesthetized, paralyzed children.
Settings and design:
A prospective, randomized, single-blinded study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital.
Ninety ASA grade I–II patients undergoing lower abdominal, inguinal and orthopedic surgery were included in this prospective study. The patients were randomly assigned to the i-gel, PLMA and cLMA groups (30 patients in each group). Size 2 supraglottic airway was inserted according to the assigned group. We assessed ease of insertion, hemodynamic data, oropharyngeal sealing pressure and postoperative complications.
There were no differences in the demographic and hemodynamic data among the three groups. The airway leak pressure of the i-gel group (27.1±2.6 cmH2O) was significantly higher than that of the PLMA group (22.73±1.2 cmH2O) and the cLMA group (23.63±2.3 cmH2O). The success rates for first attempt of insertion were similar among the three devices. There were no differences in the incidence of postoperative airway trauma, sore throat or hoarse cry in the three groups.
Hemodynamic parameters, ease of insertion and postoperative complications were comparable among the i-gel, PLMA and cLMA groups, but airway sealing pressure was significantly higher in the i-gel group.
Classic laryngeal mask airway; i-gel; pediatric patients; ProSeal laryngeal mask airway
The newest variation of the i-gel supraglottic airway is a pediatric version.
This study was designed to investigate the usefulness of the size 2 i-gel compared with the classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA) of the same size in anesthetized, paralyzed children.
Settings and Design:
A prospective, randomized, single-blinded study was conducted in tertiary care teaching hospital.
Subject and Methods:
Sixty ASA grade I–II patients undergoing lower abdominal, inguinal, and orthopedic surgery were included in this prospective study. The patients were randomly assigned to i-gel and cLMA groups (30 patients in each group). Size 2 supraglottic airway was inserted according to the assigned group. We assessed ease of insertion, hemodynamic data, oropharyngeal sealing pressure, and postoperative complications.
Statistical Analysis Used:
Parametric data were analyzed with the unpaired t-test and non-parametric data were analyzed with the Chi-square test. Unless otherwise stated, data are presented as mean (SD). Significance was taken as P < 0.05.
There were no differences in the demographic and hemodynamic data among the two groups. The airway leak pressure of the i-gel group (26.1 ± 2.4 cm H2O) was significantly higher than that of the cLMA group (22.64 ± 2.2 cm H2O). The success rates for first attempt of insertion were similar among the two devices. There were no differences in the incidence of postoperative airway morbidity among the two groups.
Hemodynamic parameters, ease of insertion, and postoperative complications were comparable between the i-gel and cLMA groups, but airway sealing pressure was significantly higher in i-gel group.
Classic laryngeal mask airway; i-gel; pediatric patients
The main responsibility of an anesthesiologist is to safely maintain an open airway and preserve sufficient gas exchange in the lungs. This role becomes more significant when managing children especially those with difficult airways (DA). In such cases, a quick appropriate action can decrease the related mortality and morbidity. Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is a device used in cases with difficult airways. Its placement is much more difficult in children especially those with DA. There is a greater risk of malpositioning and its insertion with routine techniques is sometimes impossible. In this article, we introduce a new method for replacement of LMA in difficult pediatric airways (DPA).
Materials and Methods
In this before and after, pre and post design clinical trial, we evaluated 30 children with congenital anomalies and difficult airways who were candidates for elective eye surgery (short term). A written consent was obtained from the parents or the legal guardians of those who met the inclusion criteria. Inhalation anesthesia was induced by sevoflurane. The patients had assisted spontaneous respiration. No muscle relaxant was administered. LMA was inserted using the classic method in the anesthesia depth of BIS = 35-40. After 2 unsuccessful attempts according to the criteria for adequate function of LMA, we tried placing the LMA using our innovated method after meeting the primary requirements and reaching the anesthesia depth of 35-40. In this method, the index finger of the left hand was placed on the tongue pushing it downwards (towards the floor of the mouth) when inserting the LMA. This way, we assisted LMA passing down the pharynx resulting in its adequate positioning. Criteria for adequate function of LMA in both classic and innovated insertion methods included monitoring of easy ventilation, no resistance during exhalation, adequate chest movement, no air leakage, optimal airway pressure, optimal lung compliance, level of oxygenation of arterial blood and level of CO2 at the end of exhalation. In case of presence of air leakage with bag pressure below 15 cm of water, lack of chest movement during inhalation, upper airway pressure over 20 cm of water, SPO2 lower than 90% and low compliance of the lung, LMA placement would be considered a failure. In such cases, LMA would be immediately extracted and the required depth of anesthesia would be reached using an oxygen mask and required inhalations. Complications occurring during the procedure and after LMA extraction would be recorded.
Our understudy population included 30 children in the age range of 1.5 months to 10 yrs (11 girls and 19 boys) who had clear DA criteria due to syndromes and severe congenital anomalies and were candidates for elective eye surgery. Duration of the operation was 30 to 60 minutes. In all 30 cases, LMA placement with the classic method was not successful after 2 attempts by an expert. LMA was successfully inserted for all cases by the same person using the innovated method after meeting the required criteria (BIS = 35-40). All ventilation indices were met and the operation was performed successfully with no complication.
There is always a risk of unsuccessful LMA placement in difficult pediatric airways using the classic method of insertion. The innovated method recommends pushing down the tongue by the index finger of the left hand. Considering the hypersensitivity of children to hypoxia and risk of unsuccessful LMA placement by the classic method, the innovated placement method is advised in children suffering from anomalies associated with macroglossia.
Difficult pediatric airway; LMA; Sevoflurane; Muscle relaxant; Hypoxia
Second generation extraglottic airway devices with gastric access and separate breathing channels have ushered in a new era where their use is increasingly prevalent in surgical patients who would have been traditionally intubated for general anesthesia. New innovations like the i-gel, which is constructed of a thermoplastic elastomer, provide an airtight seal around patient's perilaryngeal anatomy without the inflatable cuff mechanism found in the laryngeal mask airway supreme (LMAS).
We conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing the LMAS with the i-gel in 70 anesthetized paralyzed patients undergoing laparoscopic female sterilization. Our primary outcome measure was the oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP). We studied secondary outcomes of successful first attempt insertion rates, time and ease of the airway and gastric tube insertion, leak fractions and pharyngeal morbidity.
We found no difference in the OLP between LMAS and i-gel, 25.9 (4.2) versus 24.4 (4.3) s, P=0.153. Both devices had similar first attempt insertion rates (LMAS 94% vs. i-gel 91%) with similar ease and comparable times to achieve an effective airway, LMAS 14.7 (2.7) versus i-gel 16.5 (9.6) s, P=0.306, although gastric tube insertion was easier and faster for the LMAS, 7.9 (1.9) versus i-gel 14.8 (7.7) s, P<0.005. Intraoperatively, there was a significantly greater leak fraction with the i-gel of 0.06 (0.03) versus 0.04 (0.02) with the LMAS, P=0.013. Three patients (8.6%) with LMAS had mild sore throat; one patient (2.9%) had mucosal injury. No complications were documented in the i-gel group.
Both these extraglottic airway devices offer similar OLPs, high insertion success rates at the first attempt with similar ease and insertion times (albeit longer gastric tube insertion with i-gel). Both provided effective ventilation despite a higher leak fraction with i-gel that was clinically inconsequential.
Extraglottic airway devices; i-gel; laparoscopic surgery; laryngeal mask airway supreme; leak fraction; leak pressures
Negative pressure pulmonary oedema (NPPO) is a life threatening condition, manifested due to upper airway obstruction in a spontaneously breathing patient. Upper airway obstruction caused by classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA) and ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) has been reported, and NPPO has also been reported following the use of cLMA. Search of literature did not confirm NPPO following the use of PLMA. We encountered a female patient of NPPO scheduled for incision and drainage of an abscess who had signs of airway obstruction following PLMA insertion. Multiple attempts were made to get patent airway without success. PLMA was replaced with endotracheal tube following which pink frothy secretion appeared in breathing circuit. Patient was managed successfully with ICU care.
Airway obstruction; negative pressure; negative pressure pulmonary oedema; ProSeal laryngeal mask airway
Fiberoptical assisted intubation via a placed laryngeal mask airway (LMA) has been described as save and easy procedure to manage a difficult airway. The laryngeal tube (LT) is a promising alternative to the LMA as supraglottic airway device. Fiberoptical assisted intubation via LT is possible, however considered more difficult. The aim of this study was to compare the fiberoptical assisted intubation via LT and LMA.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 22 anesthesiologists with different levels of experience participated in the study performed on an adult airway model. Primarily the supraglottic device was placed and correct position was confirmed by successful ventilation. A 5 mm internal diameter tracheal tube was loaded onto a flexible 3.6 mm fiberscope and the so prepared device was inserted into the proximal lumen of the LMA or the LT. The glottis was passed under visual control and the tube advanced into the trachea. After removal of the fiberscope, ventilation was examined clinically by inspection. Success rates, procedure time and observed complications of LMA versus LT were compared (U-test; P < 0.05).
Placement of the endotracheal tube was successful in all attempts using both the LMA and LT. There was no difference in the time needed for the placement procedure (33 [26-38] s LMA; 35 [32-38] s LT). Only minor technical complications were observed in both groups.
A fiberoptical assisted intubation via LT can be considered as a relevant alternative in advanced airway management.
Difficult airway; fiberoptic intubation; laryngeal mask; laryngeal tube
The standard recommended insertion technique for LMA Classic™ requires the insertion of index finger into the oral cavity. Several anesthesiologists are reluctant to do this. We conducted this study to evaluate the modified technique of insertion of LMA Classic™ (not requiring insertion of fingers into the patient's mouth) against the standard index finger insertion technique.
Materials and Methods:
This prospective, randomized, comparative study was conducted on 200 consenting patients. Patients suitable for anesthetic with LMA Classic™ were randomized to standard technique group (standard insertion technique) and modified technique group (technique not requiring digital intraoral manipulation). Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) was inserted by five designated anesthesiologists. Anesthetic protocol was standardized. Time taken to achieve an effective airway, ease of insertion, glottic view obtained through LMA, and incidence of sore throat were assessed.
Patient characteristics and duration of surgery were comparable between the groups. Time to achieve an effective airway was comparable [18.5 (8) s with standard technique and 19.7 (10) s with modified technique; data are mean (standard deviation)]. Ease of insertion (92 easy with standard technique and 91 easy with modified technique), success rate (99% in both the groups), glottic view with fiberoptic bronchoscope, and sore throat incidence (six patients with standard technique and eight patients with modified technique) were comparable. The first attempt success rate was significantly higher with the standard technique (98 patients in the standard technique group and 91 patients in the modified technique group).
LMA Classic™ can be inserted successfully without the need to insert index finger into patient's mouth, though the first attempt success rate is higher with the standard technique.
Insertion technique; LMA Classic™ Supraglottic device
Many tools have been developed to facilitate the insertion of the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion, which can be impeded by folding of its soft cuff. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of ProSeal LMA insertion guided by a soft, direct optical Foley Airway Stylet Tool (FAST) with the standard introducer tool (IT).
One hundred sixty patients undergoing general anesthesia using the ProSeal LMA as an airway management device were randomly allocated to either FAST-guided or IT-assisted groups. Following ProSeal LMA insertion, the glottic and esophageal openings were identified using a fiberoptic bronchoscope introduced through the airway and the drain tube. The primary outcomes were time taken to insert the ProSeal LMA and the success rate at the first attempt. Secondary end points included ease of insertion, hemodynamic response to insertion, and postoperative adverse events recorded in the recovery room and on the first postoperative morning.
One hundred forty patients were included in the final analysis: 66 in the FAST-guided group and 74 in the IT-assisted group. The success rate of FAST device-guided ProSeal LMA insertion (95.7%) was broadly comparable with IT-assisted insertion (98.7%). However, the time taken to insert the ProSeal LMA was significantly longer when the FAST technique was used (p <0.001). The incidence of correct alignment of the airway tube and the drain tube did not differ significantly between the groups. There were no significant differences in ease of insertion or hemodynamic responses to insertion, except that the incidence of postoperative sore throat was significantly higher in the FAST group on the first postoperative day (22.2% compared with 6.8% in the IT group; p =0.035).
Both FAST-guided and IT-assisted techniques achieved correct ProSeal LMA positioning, but the IT technique was significantly quicker and less likely to cause a sore throat.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02048657
ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (LMA); Foley Airway Stylet Tool (FAST); Introducer tool (IT); Fiberoptic bronchoscope
Though fiberoptic intubation (FOI) is considered the gold standard for securing a difficult airway in a child, it may be technically difficult in an anesthetized child. The hypothesis for this study was that it would be easier to perform FOI via a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) than a modified oropharyngeal airway with the advantage of maintaining anesthesia and oxygenation during the process.
Materials and Methods:
30 children aged 6 months to 5 years undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia were randomized to two groups to have fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) guided intubation either via a modified Guedel airway (FOB-ORAL) or a classic LMA (FOB-LMA). In the FOB-LMA group, the LMA was removed when a second smaller endotracheal tube was anchored to the proximal end of the tracheal tube in place.
Oral fiberoptic intubation was successful in all children. The first attempt success rate was 11/15 (73.33%) in the FOB-LMA group and 3/15 (20%) in the FOB-ORAL group (P = 0.012). Subsequent attempts at intubation were successful after 90° anticlockwise rotation of the endotracheal tube over the FOB. The time taken for fiberoptic bronchoscopy was significantly less in FOB-LMA group (59.20 ± 42.85 sec vs 108.66 ± 52.43 sec). The incidence of desaturation was higher in the FOB-ORAL group (6/15 vs 0/15).
In children, fiberoptic bronchoscopy and intubation via an LMA has the advantage of being easier, with shorter intubation time and continuous oxygenation and ventilation throughout the procedure. Removal of the LMA following intubation requires particular care.
Difficult; equipment; fiberoptic bronchoscope; intubation; laryngeal mask airway; modified oropharyngeal Guedel airway; tracheal
To compare two different supraglottic airway devices, the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and the I-gel, regarding easiness of insertion of the device, leak pressure, gastric insufflation, end tidal CO2, oxygen saturation, hemodynamic and postoperative complications in anesthetized, spontaneously ventilated adult patients performing different non-emergency surgical procedures.
Materials and Methods:
The study was carried out as a prospective, randomized, clinical trial among 80 patients who underwent different surgical procedures under general anesthesia with spontaneous ventilation in supine position. They were equally randomized into two groups: I-gel and LMA groups. Both the devices were compared with regard to heart rate, arterial BP, SPO2, end-tidal CO2, number and duration of insertion attempts, incidence of gastric insufflation, leak pressure and airway assessment after removal of the device.
No statistically significant difference was reported between both the groups, regarding heart rate, arterial BP, SPO2 and end-tidal CO2. The mean duration of insertion attempts was 15.6±4.9 seconds in the I-gel group, while it was 26.2±17.7 seconds in the LMA group. The difference between both the groups regarding duration of insertion attempts was statistically significant (P=0.0023*), while the number of insertion attempts was statistically insignificant between both the study groups (P>0.05). Leak pressure was (25.6±4.9 vs. 21.2±7.7 cm H2O) significantly higher among studied patients of the I-gel group (P=0.016*) and the incidence of gastric insufflation was significantly more with LMA group 9 (22.5%) vs. I-gel group (5%) (P=0.016).
Both LMA and I-gel do not cause any significant alteration in the hemodynamic status of the patients, end tidal CO2, and SPO2. The postoperative complications were not significantly different except nusea and vomiting was statistically significant higher in LMA group (P=0.032). among both LMA and I-gel patients. Insertion of I-gel was significantly easier and more rapid than insertion of LMA. Leak pressure was significantly higher with I-gel than LMA and thus incidence of gastric insufflation was significantly lower with I-gel.
Classical laryngeal mask airway; I-gel; supraglottic airway devices
The sniffing position is recommended for conventional laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion. However, there has been a high success rate of LMA insertion with the head in the neutral position. The effect of a difficult airway on the ease of LMA insertion is not clear. In this study, we compared the ease of LMA ProSeal™ (PLMA) insertion and the fiberoptic scoring according to the head position and the presence of a difficult airway.
After obtaining informed consent from the subjects, we enrolled 144 adult patients (age range: 18-65) with an ASA physical status 1 or 2. After evaluation of the airway, all the patients were grouped into the EA (easy airway) group (n = 68) and the DA (difficult airway) group (n = 76). According to the head position, each group was divided into the EA-SE (extension) group (n = 35), the EA-SN (sniffing) group (n = 33), the DA-SE group (n = 39) and the DA-SN group (n = 37). The success rate and insertion time at the first attempt were evaluated. The position of the PLMA was fiberoptically scored from the mask aperture of the airway tube in the original head position. After the head position was changed to the sniffing and neutral positions in the SE and SN group, respectively, the position of PLMA was re-evaluated fiberoptically.
The success rate and insertion time at the first attempt and the fiberoptic score showed no significant difference among the groups. After head position was changed, there were no significant changes in the fiberopitc scores.
A difficult airway and the head position had no influence on the ease of PLMA insertion and the fiberopic score. Therefore, the head position can be selected according to the individual patient's situation.
Diffcult airway; Laryngeal mask airway; Neutral position; Sniffing position
This study compared the safety and efficacy of the Supreme Laryngeal Mask Airway (S-LMA) with that of the ProSeal-LMA (P-LMA) in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Material and Methods:
Sixty adults were randomly allocated. Following anaesthesia induction, experienced LMA users inserted the airway devices.
Oropharyngeal leak pressure was similar in groups (S-LMA, 27.8±2.9 cmH2O; P-LMA, 27.0±4.7 cmH2O; p=0.42) and did not change during the induction of and throughout pneumoperitoneum. The first attempt success rates were 93% with both S-LMA and P-LMA. Mean airway device insertion time was significantly shorter with S-LMA than with P-LMA (12.5±4.1 seconds versus 15.6±6.0 seconds; p=0.02). The first attempt success rates for the drainage tube insertion were similar (P-LMA, 93%; S-LMA 100%); however, drainage tubes were inserted more quickly with S-LMA than with P-LMA (9.0±3.2 seconds versus 14.7±6.6 seconds; p=0.001). In the PACU, vomiting was observed in five patients (three females and two males) in the S-LMA group and in one female patient in the P-LMA group (p=0.10).
Both airway devices can be used safely in laparoscopic cholecystectomies with suitable patients and experienced users. However, further studies are required not only for comparing both airway devices in terms of postoperative nausea and vomiting but also for yielding definitive results.
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; supraglottic airway devices; laryngeal mask airway; proseal; supreme
ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway (PLMA) is extensively being used in pediatric anesthesia.
To evaluate the efficacy of PLMA as compared to Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway (CLMA) for airway maintenance in pediatric patients.
Settings and Design:
A prospective, randomized, Single-blinded study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital.
Materials and Methods:
Sixty ASA I and II children were included. Patients were randomized to either size 2 PLMA or size 2 CLMA groups. Parameters noted were time for insertion, number of attempts, airway sealing pressure, blood pressures (systolic, diastolic, and mean), pulse rate, end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), and postoperative change in abdominal circumference, and airway trauma.
Statistical analysis used:
Parametric data were analyzed with the unpaired t-test and non-parametric data were analyzed with the chi-square (χ2) test. Unless otherwise stated, data are presented as mean (SD). Significance was taken as P < 0.05.
There was no statistical difference between the two groups for the success rates at the first attempt of insertion, airway sealing pressure, hemodynamic responses, SpO2, EtCO2 and postoperative changes in abdominal circumference. Patients in the PLMA group had longer time of insertion and higher incidence of airway trauma.
The PLMA and the CLMA were comparable for hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters and change in abdominal circumference; however, the time taken for insertion and airway trauma was more with PLMA.
Classic laryngeal mask airway; pediatric patients; ProSeal laryngeal mask airway
The i-gel™, LMA-Supreme (LMA-S) and Laryngeal Tube Suction-D (LTS-D) are single-use supraglottic airway devices with an inbuilt drainage channel. We compared them with regard to their position in situ as well as to clinical performance data during elective surgery.
Prospective, randomized, comparative study of three groups of 40 elective surgical patients each. Speed of insertion and success rates, leak pressures (LP) at different cuff pressures, dynamic airway compliance, and signs of postoperative airway morbidity were recorded. Fibreoptic evaluation was used to determine the devices’ position in situ.
Leak pressures were similar (i-gel™ 25.9, LMA-S 27.1, LTS-D 24.0 cmH2O; the latter two at 60 cmH2O cuff pressure) as were insertion times (i-gel™ 10, LMA-S 11, LTS-D 14 sec). LP of the LMA-S was higher than that of the LTS-D at lower cuff pressures (p <0.05). Insertion success rates differed significantly: i-gel™ 95%, LMA-S 95%, LTS-D 70% (p <0.05). The fibreoptically assessed position was more frequently suboptimal with the LTS-D but this was not associated with impaired ventilation. Dynamic airway compliance was highest with the i-gel™ and lowest with the LTS-D (p <0.05). Airway morbidity was more pronounced with the LTS-D (p <0.01).
All devices were suitable for ventilating the patients’ lungs during elective surgery.
German Clinical Trial Register DRKS00000760
Laryngeal mask airway; Leak pressure; Laryngeal Tube
The ideal airway management modality in pediatric patients with syndromes like Klippel-Feil syndrome is a great challenge and is technically difficult for an anesthesiologist. Half of the patients present with the classic triad of short neck, low hairline, and fusion of cervical vertebra. Numerous associated anomalies like scoliosis or kyphosis, cleft palate, respiratory problems, deafness, genitourinary abnormalities, Sprengel's deformity (wherein the scapulae ride high on the back), synkinesia, cervical ribs, and congenital heart diseases may further add to the difficulty. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy alone can be technically difficult and patient cooperation also becomes very important, which is difficult in pediatric patients. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy with the aid of supraglottic airway devices is a viable alternative in the management of difficult airway in children. We report a case of Klippel-Feil syndrome in an 18-month-old girl posted for cleft palate surgery. Imaging of spine revealed complete fusion of the cervical vertebrae with hypoplastic C3 and C6 vertebrae and thoracic kyphosis. We successfully managed airway in this patient by fiberoptic intubation through classic laryngeal mask airway (LMA). After intubation, we used second smaller endotracheal tube (ETT) to stabilize and elongate the first ETT while removing the LMA.
Fiberoptic intubation; Klippel-Feil syndrome; laryngeal mask airway; The ideal airway management modality in pediatric patients with syndromes like Klippel-Feil syndrome is a great challenge and is technically difficult for an anesthesiologist. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy alone can be technically difficult and patient cooperation also becomes very important, which is difficult in pediatric patients. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy with the aid of supraglottic airway devices is a viable alternative in the management of difficult airway in children
The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is a supraglottic airway device designed to seal around the laryngeal inlet. A controlled study was designed to compare the effectiveness and complications in inserting the LMA when the cuff is fully deflated and partially inflated.
Materials and Methods
American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II 172 female patients scheduled for gynecologic procedures were included in this study. Patients were randomly allocated into one of the two groups; fully deflated (n=86) and partially inflated group (n=86). A size #4 LMA was inserted. The number of attempts, time taken for successful insertion, grade of leak, grade of fiberoptic view, and complications were evaluated.
All 172 patients completed the study protocol. The number of attempts, time taken for successful insertion, and grade of leak were not significantly different between the two groups. The grade of fiberoptic view and complications were lower in the fully deflated group.
The fully deflated method is more accurate and safe because of better fiberoptic view and lesser complications than the partially inflated group.
Complication; laryngeal mask airway
The aim of this double-blind, prospective, randomized, controlled study was to compare the effect of addition of ketamine; fentanyl and saline with propofol anesthesia on hemodynamic profile and laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion conditions in oral clonidine premedicated children.
180 children (age 2 - 10 years) were at first given oral clonidine (4 μg/kg) 90 minutes before operation, and then were randomly allocated to receive either ketamine 0.5 mg/kg (n=60), fentanyl 1 μg/kg (n=60) or 0.9% normal saline (n=60) before induction with propofol 3.0 mg/kg. Insertion of LMA was performed within 1 minute of injection of propofol. Heart rate and mean blood pressure were noted 1 min before induction (baseline), immediately after induction, before and after insertion of LMA for up to 3 min. Following LMA insertion, 6 subjective end points were noted-mouth opening, coughing, swallowing, patient's movement, laryngospasm, and ease of an insertion. LMA insertion summed score was prepared depending upon these variables.
LMA insertion summed score was nearly similar in ketamine and fentanyl group, which were significantly better than saline group (P<0.004). Mean blood pressure and heart rate were maintained in ketamine than with fentanyl or saline group. Incidence of prolonged apnea (>120 secs.) was higher in fentanyl group compared to ketamine and saline group.
Even in oral clonidine premedicated children, addition of ketamine with propofol provides hemodynamic stability and comparable conditions for LMA insertion like fentanyl propofol with significantly less prolonged apnea.
Fentanyl; ketamine; laryngeal mask airway insertion; oral clonidine; propofol
Supraglottic devices have changed the face of the airway management. These devices have contributed in a big way in airway management especially, in the difficult airway scenario significantly decreasing the pharyngolaryngeal morbidity. There is a plethora of these devices, which has been well matched by their wider acceptance in clinical practice. ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) is one such frequently used device employed for spontaneous as well as controlled ventilation. However, the use of PLMA at times maybe associated with certain problems. Some of the problems related with its use are unique while others are akin to the classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA). However, expertise is needed for its safe and judicious use, correct placement, recognition and management of its various malpositions and complications. The present article describes the tests employed for proper confirmation of placement to assess the ventilatory and the drain tube functions of the mask, diagnosis of various malpositions and the management of these aspects. All these areas have been highlighted under the heading of troubleshooting PLMA. Many problems can be solved by proper patient and procedure selection, maintaining adequate depth of anaesthesia, diagnosis and management of malpositions. Proper fixation of the device and monitoring cuff pressure intraoperatively may bring down the incidence of airway morbidity.
Airway management; Equipment; ProSeal laryngeal mask airway; Classic laryngeal mask airway; Troubleshooting
Securing the airway is a crucial aspect during reconstructive surgeries of patients with extensive post-burn mentosternal scar contractures; however, the American Society of Anesthesiologists Difficult Airway Management Algorithm recommendation of initial direct laryngoscopy may not be appropriate for these complicated patients. Consequently, there is a significant risk for failure of intubation and airway emergency. We suggest that initial attempts at securing the airway be made with indirect laryngoscopy. Many airway techniques have been effectively used in burn patients, but the role of awake blind or fiberoptic bronchoscopy, although well established in the non-burn population, has yet to be evaluated in burn patients. We report a case series of successful management of difficult airways with fiberoptic bronchoscopy in patients with varying degrees of post-burn head and neck scar contractures.
Burn airway; neck contracture; fiberoptic bronchoscopy; laryngeal mask airway
Babies with Pierre Robin syndrome have serious life-threatening risks because of acute respiratory distress and difficult airway management. It is difficult to perform endotracheal intubation in these babies for general anesthesia. We present successful insertion of laryngeal mask airway in a neonate with typical clinical features of Pierre-Robin syndrome using a size 1 laryngeal mask airway for a ventriculoperitoneal shunt operation. The patient had micrognathia, glossoptosis with cleft palate, and partial trismus. His mouth opening was restricted to 0.6 cm. Anesthesia was deepened with sevoflurane, maintaining spontaneous ventilation, but laryngoscopy was impossible because of the limited mouth opening. After unsuccessful attempts to insert an LMA by standard and rotational techniques, it was inserted using a novel modified rotational LMA insertion technique, which we have termed the ‘squeezing technique’.
Pierre-Robin syndrome; Difficult endotracheal intubation; Laryngeal mask airway; Pierre-Robin sendromu; Zor endotrekeal entübasyon; Laringeal maske
Any health care professional can be faced with a medical emergency in which the patient needs ventilatory support. Bag-valve-mask ventilation with the assistance of an oropharyngeal airway that uses 100% oxygen is currently the preferred method for artificial ventilation. This procedure is generally performed ineffectively by most dentists inexperienced in airway management. We examined whether a short and simple period of training by dental students inexperienced in airway management would increase the speed and accuracy of the placement of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA), which may be a superior airway device to the bag-valve-mask and oropharyngeal airway. Thirty-five dental students inexperienced in airway management were divided into 3 groups. The first group received only a demonstration on how to use the LMA. The second and third groups received the demonstration plus practiced inserting the LMA 5 and 10 times, respectively. A dental anesthesiologist graded the placement of the LMA with a tracheobroncho-fiberscope (fiberoptic bronchoscope). Those who practiced inserting the LMA 5 times faired better than those who received no training; however, those who practiced 10 times did not do any better than the second group. The LMA can be inserted rapidly and effectively by dentists inexperienced in airway management after a short period of simple training that may be critical when personnel experienced in intubation are not readily available.
The Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) is a frequently-used efficient airway device, yet it sometimes seals poorly, thus reducing the efficacy of positive-pressure ventilation. The Perilaryngeal Airway (CobraPLA) is a novel airway device with a larger pharyngeal cuff (when inflated). We tested the hypothesis that the CobraPLA was superior to LMA with regard to insertion time and airway sealing pressure and comparable to LMA in airway adequacy and recovery characteristics. After midazolam and fentanyl, 81 ASA I-II outpatients having elective surgery were randomized to receive an LMA or CobraPLA. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (2.5 mg/kg, IV), and the airway inserted. We measured 1) insertion time; 2) adequacy of the airway (no leak at 15-cm-H2O peak pressure or tidal volume of 5 ml/kg); 3) airway sealing pressure; 4) number of repositioning attempts; and 5) sealing quality (no leak at tidal volume of 8 ml/kg). At the end of surgery, gastric insufflation, postoperative sore throat, dysphonia, and dysphagia were evaluated. Data were compared with unpaired t-tests, chi-square tests, or Fisher’s Exact tests; P<0.05 was significant. Patient characteristics, insertion times, airway adequacy, number of repositioning attempts, and recovery were similar in each group. Airway sealing pressure was significantly greater with CobraPLA (23±6 cm H2O) than LMA (18±5 cm H2O, P<0.001). The CobraPLA has insertion characteristics similar to LMA, but better airway sealing capabilities.
Airway: Sealing. Cuff Pressure. Insertion. Leak. Pharynx; Equipment: Laryngeal mask airway. Perilaryngeal airway; Ventilation: Controlled. Spontaneous; Anesthesia
Background and Objective
Conflicting results were found between the I-gel™ and the LMA-Supreme™ during anesthesia, so we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare the effectiveness and safety of the I-gel™ vs. the LMA-Supreme™during anesthesia.
A comprehensive search was conducted using Pubmed, EMbase, ISI Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library, China Journal Full-text Database, Chinese Biomedical Database, Chinese Scientific Journals Full-text Database, CMA Digital Periodicals, and Google scholar to find RCTs that compare the LMA-S™ with the i-gel™during anesthesia. Two reviewers independently selected trials, extracted data, and assessed the methodological qualities and evidence levels. Data were analyzed by RevMan 5.0 and comprehensive meta-analysis software.
Ten RCTs were included. There were no significant differences in oropharyngeal leak pressures (mean difference [MD] 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] –1.10 2.53), device placement time (MD –1.3, 95%CI –4.07 1.44), first attempt insertion success (risk ratio [RR] 1.01, 95% CI 0.9 1.14), grade 3 and 4 fiberoptic view (RR 0.89, 95%CI 0.65 1.21), and blood on removal (RR 0.62, 95%CI 0.32 1.22) between the i-gel™ and the LMA-Supreme™, respectively. However, the LMA-Supreme™was associated with easier gastric tube insertion (RR 1.17, 95%CI 1.07 1.29), and more sore throat (RR 2.56, 95%CI 1.60 4.12) than the i-gel™ group.
The LMA-Supreme™ and i-gel™ were similarly successful and rapidly inserted. However, the LMA-Supreme™ was shown to be easier for gastric tube insertion and associated with more sore throat compared with the i-gel™.
We compared i-gel and ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) regarding time taken for insertion, effective seal, fiberoptic view of larynx, ease of Ryle's tube insertion, and postoperative sore throat assessment.
Materials and Methods:
In a prospective, randomized manner, 48 adult patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II of either gender between 18 and 60 years presenting for a short surgical procedure were assigned to undergo surgery under general anesthesia on spontaneous ventilation using either the i-gel or PLMA. An experienced nonblinded anesthesiologist inserted appropriate sized i-gel or PLMA in patients using standard insertion technique and assessed the intraoperative findings of the study regarding regarding time taken for respective device insertion, effective seal, fiberoptic view of larynx, ease of Ryle's tube insertion, and postoperative sore throat assessment. Postoperative assessment of sore throat was done by blinded anesthesia resident.
The time required for insertion of i-gel was lesser (21.98 ± 5.42 and 30.60 ± 8.51 s in Group I and Group P, respectively; P = 0.001). Numbers of attempts for successful insertions were comparable and in majority, device was inserted in first attempt. The mean airway leak pressures were comparable. However, there were more number of patients in Group P who had airway leak pressure >20 cm H2O. The fiberoptic view of glottis, ease of Ryle's tube insertion, and incidence of complications were comparable.
Time required for successful insertion of i-gel was less in adult patients undergoing short surgical procedure under general anesthesia on spontaneous ventilation. Patients with airway leak pressure >20 cm H2O were more in PLMA group which indicates its better suitability for controlled ventilation.
Airway leak pressure; i-gel; PLMA; time for insertion