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1.  A comparison of supraglottic airway i-gel™ vs. classic laryngeal mask airway in small children 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2014;66(2):127-130.
Background
i-gel™ is a new single-use supraglottic airway device without an inflatable cuff. This study was designed to compare the usefulness of i-gel™ versus a classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA) in small children.
Methods
Sixty-three children (age range : 4-72 months) were randomly assigned to an i-gel™ or cLMA group. We evaluated hemodynamic data, airway sealing ability, the success rate of insertion, and adverse events including an inadvertent sliding out during ventilation.
Results
Demographic data and hemodynamic data obtained immediately after the insertion of these devices did not differ between the two groups. The success rates for insertion on the first attempt were 77 and 84% for i-gel™ and cLMA, respectively (P = 0.54), and the overall success rates were 87 and 100% respectively (P = 0.14). There were no significant differences in terms of airway leak pressure. The inserted i-gel™ inadvertently slid out in 8 of 31 patients but only one sliding out case occurred in the cLMA group (P = 0.02). There were no differences between the groups in terms of other side effects (e.g., coughing, bleeding) associated with the use of i-gel™ and cLMA (P = 0.75 and 0.49, respectively).
Conclusions
Oropharyngeal leak pressure and insertion success rate of i-gel™ are similar to those of cLMA. However, i-gel™ is prone to inadvertent sliding out of the mouth in small children. Therefore, it is recommended that the i-gel™ should be secured more tightly to avoid displacement of the device.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2014.66.2.127
PMCID: PMC3948439  PMID: 24624270
Laryngeal mask airway; i-gel™
2.  Comparison of three supraglottic devices in anesthetised paralyzed children undergoing elective surgery 
Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia  2012;6(3):224-228.
Context:
The newest variation of the i-gel supraglottic airway is a pediatric version.
Aims:
This study was designed to investigate the usefulness of the size 2 i-gel compared with the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) and classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA) of the same size in anesthetized, paralyzed children.
Settings and design:
A prospective, randomized, single-blinded study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital.
Methods:
Ninety ASA grade I–II patients undergoing lower abdominal, inguinal and orthopedic surgery were included in this prospective study. The patients were randomly assigned to the i-gel, PLMA and cLMA groups (30 patients in each group). Size 2 supraglottic airway was inserted according to the assigned group. We assessed ease of insertion, hemodynamic data, oropharyngeal sealing pressure and postoperative complications.
Results:
There were no differences in the demographic and hemodynamic data among the three groups. The airway leak pressure of the i-gel group (27.1±2.6 cmH2O) was significantly higher than that of the PLMA group (22.73±1.2 cmH2O) and the cLMA group (23.63±2.3 cmH2O). The success rates for first attempt of insertion were similar among the three devices. There were no differences in the incidence of postoperative airway trauma, sore throat or hoarse cry in the three groups.
Conclusions:
Hemodynamic parameters, ease of insertion and postoperative complications were comparable among the i-gel, PLMA and cLMA groups, but airway sealing pressure was significantly higher in the i-gel group.
doi:10.4103/1658-354X.101212
PMCID: PMC3498659  PMID: 23162394
Classic laryngeal mask airway; i-gel; pediatric patients; ProSeal laryngeal mask airway
3.  Use of extraglottic airways in patients undergoing ambulatory laparoscopic surgery without the need for tracheal intubation 
Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia  2013;7(4):436-441.
Background:
Second generation extraglottic airway devices with gastric access and separate breathing channels have ushered in a new era where their use is increasingly prevalent in surgical patients who would have been traditionally intubated for general anesthesia. New innovations like the i-gel, which is constructed of a thermoplastic elastomer, provide an airtight seal around patient's perilaryngeal anatomy without the inflatable cuff mechanism found in the laryngeal mask airway supreme (LMAS).
Methods:
We conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing the LMAS with the i-gel in 70 anesthetized paralyzed patients undergoing laparoscopic female sterilization. Our primary outcome measure was the oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP). We studied secondary outcomes of successful first attempt insertion rates, time and ease of the airway and gastric tube insertion, leak fractions and pharyngeal morbidity.
Results:
We found no difference in the OLP between LMAS and i-gel, 25.9 (4.2) versus 24.4 (4.3) s, P=0.153. Both devices had similar first attempt insertion rates (LMAS 94% vs. i-gel 91%) with similar ease and comparable times to achieve an effective airway, LMAS 14.7 (2.7) versus i-gel 16.5 (9.6) s, P=0.306, although gastric tube insertion was easier and faster for the LMAS, 7.9 (1.9) versus i-gel 14.8 (7.7) s, P<0.005. Intraoperatively, there was a significantly greater leak fraction with the i-gel of 0.06 (0.03) versus 0.04 (0.02) with the LMAS, P=0.013. Three patients (8.6%) with LMAS had mild sore throat; one patient (2.9%) had mucosal injury. No complications were documented in the i-gel group.
Conclusions:
Both these extraglottic airway devices offer similar OLPs, high insertion success rates at the first attempt with similar ease and insertion times (albeit longer gastric tube insertion with i-gel). Both provided effective ventilation despite a higher leak fraction with i-gel that was clinically inconsequential.
doi:10.4103/1658-354X.121081
PMCID: PMC3858696  PMID: 24348297
Extraglottic airway devices; i-gel; laparoscopic surgery; laryngeal mask airway supreme; leak fraction; leak pressures
4.  Negative pressure pulmonary oedema following use of ProSeal LMA 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2013;57(2):188-190.
Negative pressure pulmonary oedema (NPPO) is a life threatening condition, manifested due to upper airway obstruction in a spontaneously breathing patient. Upper airway obstruction caused by classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA) and ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) has been reported, and NPPO has also been reported following the use of cLMA. Search of literature did not confirm NPPO following the use of PLMA. We encountered a female patient of NPPO scheduled for incision and drainage of an abscess who had signs of airway obstruction following PLMA insertion. Multiple attempts were made to get patent airway without success. PLMA was replaced with endotracheal tube following which pink frothy secretion appeared in breathing circuit. Patient was managed successfully with ICU care.
doi:10.4103/0019-5049.111854
PMCID: PMC3696269  PMID: 23825821
Airway obstruction; negative pressure; negative pressure pulmonary oedema; ProSeal laryngeal mask airway
5.  Insertion of LMA Classic™ with and without digital intraoral manipulation in anesthetized unparalyzed patients 
Background:
The standard recommended insertion technique for LMA Classic™ requires the insertion of index finger into the oral cavity. Several anesthesiologists are reluctant to do this. We conducted this study to evaluate the modified technique of insertion of LMA Classic™ (not requiring insertion of fingers into the patient's mouth) against the standard index finger insertion technique.
Materials and Methods:
This prospective, randomized, comparative study was conducted on 200 consenting patients. Patients suitable for anesthetic with LMA Classic™ were randomized to standard technique group (standard insertion technique) and modified technique group (technique not requiring digital intraoral manipulation). Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) was inserted by five designated anesthesiologists. Anesthetic protocol was standardized. Time taken to achieve an effective airway, ease of insertion, glottic view obtained through LMA, and incidence of sore throat were assessed.
Results:
Patient characteristics and duration of surgery were comparable between the groups. Time to achieve an effective airway was comparable [18.5 (8) s with standard technique and 19.7 (10) s with modified technique; data are mean (standard deviation)]. Ease of insertion (92 easy with standard technique and 91 easy with modified technique), success rate (99% in both the groups), glottic view with fiberoptic bronchoscope, and sore throat incidence (six patients with standard technique and eight patients with modified technique) were comparable. The first attempt success rate was significantly higher with the standard technique (98 patients in the standard technique group and 91 patients in the modified technique group).
Conclusions:
LMA Classic™ can be inserted successfully without the need to insert index finger into patient's mouth, though the first attempt success rate is higher with the standard technique.
doi:10.4103/0970-9185.101923
PMCID: PMC3511946  PMID: 23225929
Insertion technique; LMA Classic™ Supraglottic device
6.  Comparison of oral fiberoptic intubation via a modified guedel airway or a laryngeal mask airway in infants and children 
Background:
Though fiberoptic intubation (FOI) is considered the gold standard for securing a difficult airway in a child, it may be technically difficult in an anesthetized child. The hypothesis for this study was that it would be easier to perform FOI via a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) than a modified oropharyngeal airway with the advantage of maintaining anesthesia and oxygenation during the process.
Materials and Methods:
30 children aged 6 months to 5 years undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia were randomized to two groups to have fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) guided intubation either via a modified Guedel airway (FOB-ORAL) or a classic LMA (FOB-LMA). In the FOB-LMA group, the LMA was removed when a second smaller endotracheal tube was anchored to the proximal end of the tracheal tube in place.
Results:
Oral fiberoptic intubation was successful in all children. The first attempt success rate was 11/15 (73.33%) in the FOB-LMA group and 3/15 (20%) in the FOB-ORAL group (P = 0.012). Subsequent attempts at intubation were successful after 90° anticlockwise rotation of the endotracheal tube over the FOB. The time taken for fiberoptic bronchoscopy was significantly less in FOB-LMA group (59.20 ± 42.85 sec vs 108.66 ± 52.43 sec). The incidence of desaturation was higher in the FOB-ORAL group (6/15 vs 0/15).
Conclusion:
In children, fiberoptic bronchoscopy and intubation via an LMA has the advantage of being easier, with shorter intubation time and continuous oxygenation and ventilation throughout the procedure. Removal of the LMA following intubation requires particular care.
doi:10.4103/0970-9185.105797
PMCID: PMC3590542  PMID: 23493291
Difficult; equipment; fiberoptic bronchoscope; intubation; laryngeal mask airway; modified oropharyngeal Guedel airway; tracheal
7.  Comparative study between I-gel, a new supraglottic airway device, and classical laryngeal mask airway in anesthetized spontaneously ventilated patients 
Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia  2010;4(3):131-136.
Objective:
To compare two different supraglottic airway devices, the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and the I-gel, regarding easiness of insertion of the device, leak pressure, gastric insufflation, end tidal CO2, oxygen saturation, hemodynamic and postoperative complications in anesthetized, spontaneously ventilated adult patients performing different non-emergency surgical procedures.
Materials and Methods:
The study was carried out as a prospective, randomized, clinical trial among 80 patients who underwent different surgical procedures under general anesthesia with spontaneous ventilation in supine position. They were equally randomized into two groups: I-gel and LMA groups. Both the devices were compared with regard to heart rate, arterial BP, SPO2, end-tidal CO2, number and duration of insertion attempts, incidence of gastric insufflation, leak pressure and airway assessment after removal of the device.
Results:
No statistically significant difference was reported between both the groups, regarding heart rate, arterial BP, SPO2 and end-tidal CO2. The mean duration of insertion attempts was 15.6±4.9 seconds in the I-gel group, while it was 26.2±17.7 seconds in the LMA group. The difference between both the groups regarding duration of insertion attempts was statistically significant (P=0.0023*), while the number of insertion attempts was statistically insignificant between both the study groups (P>0.05). Leak pressure was (25.6±4.9 vs. 21.2±7.7 cm H2O) significantly higher among studied patients of the I-gel group (P=0.016*) and the incidence of gastric insufflation was significantly more with LMA group 9 (22.5%) vs. I-gel group (5%) (P=0.016).
Conclusion:
Both LMA and I-gel do not cause any significant alteration in the hemodynamic status of the patients, end tidal CO2, and SPO2. The postoperative complications were not significantly different except nusea and vomiting was statistically significant higher in LMA group (P=0.032). among both LMA and I-gel patients. Insertion of I-gel was significantly easier and more rapid than insertion of LMA. Leak pressure was significantly higher with I-gel than LMA and thus incidence of gastric insufflation was significantly lower with I-gel.
doi:10.4103/1658-354X.71250
PMCID: PMC2980656  PMID: 21189847
Classical laryngeal mask airway; I-gel; supraglottic airway devices
8.  Comparison of the ease of laryngeal mask airway ProSeal insertion and the fiberoptic scoring according to the head position and the presence of a difficult airway 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2011;60(4):244-249.
Background
The sniffing position is recommended for conventional laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion. However, there has been a high success rate of LMA insertion with the head in the neutral position. The effect of a difficult airway on the ease of LMA insertion is not clear. In this study, we compared the ease of LMA ProSeal™ (PLMA) insertion and the fiberoptic scoring according to the head position and the presence of a difficult airway.
Methods
After obtaining informed consent from the subjects, we enrolled 144 adult patients (age range: 18-65) with an ASA physical status 1 or 2. After evaluation of the airway, all the patients were grouped into the EA (easy airway) group (n = 68) and the DA (difficult airway) group (n = 76). According to the head position, each group was divided into the EA-SE (extension) group (n = 35), the EA-SN (sniffing) group (n = 33), the DA-SE group (n = 39) and the DA-SN group (n = 37). The success rate and insertion time at the first attempt were evaluated. The position of the PLMA was fiberoptically scored from the mask aperture of the airway tube in the original head position. After the head position was changed to the sniffing and neutral positions in the SE and SN group, respectively, the position of PLMA was re-evaluated fiberoptically.
Results
The success rate and insertion time at the first attempt and the fiberoptic score showed no significant difference among the groups. After head position was changed, there were no significant changes in the fiberopitc scores.
Conclusions
A difficult airway and the head position had no influence on the ease of PLMA insertion and the fiberopic score. Therefore, the head position can be selected according to the individual patient's situation.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2011.60.4.244
PMCID: PMC3092958  PMID: 21602973
Diffcult airway; Laryngeal mask airway; Neutral position; Sniffing position
9.  A prospective, randomized, Single-blinded, comparative study of Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway and ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway in pediatric patients 
Context:
ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway (PLMA) is extensively being used in pediatric anesthesia.
Aims:
To evaluate the efficacy of PLMA as compared to Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway (CLMA) for airway maintenance in pediatric patients.
Settings and Design:
A prospective, randomized, Single-blinded study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital.
Materials and Methods:
Sixty ASA I and II children were included. Patients were randomized to either size 2 PLMA or size 2 CLMA groups. Parameters noted were time for insertion, number of attempts, airway sealing pressure, blood pressures (systolic, diastolic, and mean), pulse rate, end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), and postoperative change in abdominal circumference, and airway trauma.
Statistical analysis used:
Parametric data were analyzed with the unpaired t-test and non-parametric data were analyzed with the chi-square (χ2) test. Unless otherwise stated, data are presented as mean (SD). Significance was taken as P < 0.05.
Results:
There was no statistical difference between the two groups for the success rates at the first attempt of insertion, airway sealing pressure, hemodynamic responses, SpO2, EtCO2 and postoperative changes in abdominal circumference. Patients in the PLMA group had longer time of insertion and higher incidence of airway trauma.
Conclusions:
The PLMA and the CLMA were comparable for hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters and change in abdominal circumference; however, the time taken for insertion and airway trauma was more with PLMA.
doi:10.4103/0970-9185.98323
PMCID: PMC3409939  PMID: 22869936
Classic laryngeal mask airway; pediatric patients; ProSeal laryngeal mask airway
10.  Randomized comparison of the i-gel™, the LMA Supreme™, and the Laryngeal Tube Suction-D using clinical and fibreoptic assessments in elective patients 
BMC Anesthesiology  2012;12:18.
Background
The i-gel™, LMA-Supreme (LMA-S) and Laryngeal Tube Suction-D (LTS-D) are single-use supraglottic airway devices with an inbuilt drainage channel. We compared them with regard to their position in situ as well as to clinical performance data during elective surgery.
Methods
Prospective, randomized, comparative study of three groups of 40 elective surgical patients each. Speed of insertion and success rates, leak pressures (LP) at different cuff pressures, dynamic airway compliance, and signs of postoperative airway morbidity were recorded. Fibreoptic evaluation was used to determine the devices’ position in situ.
Results
Leak pressures were similar (i-gel™ 25.9, LMA-S 27.1, LTS-D 24.0 cmH2O; the latter two at 60 cmH2O cuff pressure) as were insertion times (i-gel™ 10, LMA-S 11, LTS-D 14 sec). LP of the LMA-S was higher than that of the LTS-D at lower cuff pressures (p <0.05). Insertion success rates differed significantly: i-gel™ 95%, LMA-S 95%, LTS-D 70% (p <0.05). The fibreoptically assessed position was more frequently suboptimal with the LTS-D but this was not associated with impaired ventilation. Dynamic airway compliance was highest with the i-gel™ and lowest with the LTS-D (p <0.05). Airway morbidity was more pronounced with the LTS-D (p <0.01).
Conclusion
All devices were suitable for ventilating the patients’ lungs during elective surgery.
Trial registration
German Clinical Trial Register DRKS00000760
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-12-18
PMCID: PMC3434115  PMID: 22871204
Laryngeal mask airway; Leak pressure; Laryngeal Tube
11.  Laryngeal Mask Airway Insertion in Adults: Comparison between Fully Deflated and Partially Inflated Technique 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2013;54(3):747-751.
Purpose
The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is a supraglottic airway device designed to seal around the laryngeal inlet. A controlled study was designed to compare the effectiveness and complications in inserting the LMA when the cuff is fully deflated and partially inflated.
Materials and Methods
American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II 172 female patients scheduled for gynecologic procedures were included in this study. Patients were randomly allocated into one of the two groups; fully deflated (n=86) and partially inflated group (n=86). A size #4 LMA was inserted. The number of attempts, time taken for successful insertion, grade of leak, grade of fiberoptic view, and complications were evaluated.
Results
All 172 patients completed the study protocol. The number of attempts, time taken for successful insertion, and grade of leak were not significantly different between the two groups. The grade of fiberoptic view and complications were lower in the fully deflated group.
Conclusion
The fully deflated method is more accurate and safe because of better fiberoptic view and lesser complications than the partially inflated group.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2013.54.3.747
PMCID: PMC3635636  PMID: 23549825
Complication; laryngeal mask airway
12.  Effects of addition of ketamine, fentanyl and saline with Propofol induction on hemodynamics and laryngeal mask airway insertion conditions in oral clonidine premedicated children 
Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia  2012;6(2):140-144.
Background:
The aim of this double-blind, prospective, randomized, controlled study was to compare the effect of addition of ketamine; fentanyl and saline with propofol anesthesia on hemodynamic profile and laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion conditions in oral clonidine premedicated children.
Methods:
180 children (age 2 - 10 years) were at first given oral clonidine (4 μg/kg) 90 minutes before operation, and then were randomly allocated to receive either ketamine 0.5 mg/kg (n=60), fentanyl 1 μg/kg (n=60) or 0.9% normal saline (n=60) before induction with propofol 3.0 mg/kg. Insertion of LMA was performed within 1 minute of injection of propofol. Heart rate and mean blood pressure were noted 1 min before induction (baseline), immediately after induction, before and after insertion of LMA for up to 3 min. Following LMA insertion, 6 subjective end points were noted-mouth opening, coughing, swallowing, patient's movement, laryngospasm, and ease of an insertion. LMA insertion summed score was prepared depending upon these variables.
Results:
LMA insertion summed score was nearly similar in ketamine and fentanyl group, which were significantly better than saline group (P<0.004). Mean blood pressure and heart rate were maintained in ketamine than with fentanyl or saline group. Incidence of prolonged apnea (>120 secs.) was higher in fentanyl group compared to ketamine and saline group.
Conclusion:
Even in oral clonidine premedicated children, addition of ketamine with propofol provides hemodynamic stability and comparable conditions for LMA insertion like fentanyl propofol with significantly less prolonged apnea.
doi:10.4103/1658-354X.97027
PMCID: PMC3385256  PMID: 22754440
Fentanyl; ketamine; laryngeal mask airway insertion; oral clonidine; propofol
13.  A Comparison of the Performance of the I-gel™ vs. the LMA-S™during Anesthesia: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e71910.
Background and Objective
Conflicting results were found between the I-gel™ and the LMA-Supreme™ during anesthesia, so we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare the effectiveness and safety of the I-gel™ vs. the LMA-Supreme™during anesthesia.
Methods
A comprehensive search was conducted using Pubmed, EMbase, ISI Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library, China Journal Full-text Database, Chinese Biomedical Database, Chinese Scientific Journals Full-text Database, CMA Digital Periodicals, and Google scholar to find RCTs that compare the LMA-S™ with the i-gel™during anesthesia. Two reviewers independently selected trials, extracted data, and assessed the methodological qualities and evidence levels. Data were analyzed by RevMan 5.0 and comprehensive meta-analysis software.
Results
Ten RCTs were included. There were no significant differences in oropharyngeal leak pressures (mean difference [MD] 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] –1.10 2.53), device placement time (MD –1.3, 95%CI –4.07 1.44), first attempt insertion success (risk ratio [RR] 1.01, 95% CI 0.9 1.14), grade 3 and 4 fiberoptic view (RR 0.89, 95%CI 0.65 1.21), and blood on removal (RR 0.62, 95%CI 0.32 1.22) between the i-gel™ and the LMA-Supreme™, respectively. However, the LMA-Supreme™was associated with easier gastric tube insertion (RR 1.17, 95%CI 1.07 1.29), and more sore throat (RR 2.56, 95%CI 1.60 4.12) than the i-gel™ group.
Conclusions
The LMA-Supreme™ and i-gel™ were similarly successful and rapidly inserted. However, the LMA-Supreme™ was shown to be easier for gastric tube insertion and associated with more sore throat compared with the i-gel™.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071910
PMCID: PMC3741209  PMID: 23951266
14.  The relationship of placement accuracy and insertion times for the laryngeal mask airway to the training of inexperienced dental students. 
Anesthesia Progress  2002;49(1):9-13.
Any health care professional can be faced with a medical emergency in which the patient needs ventilatory support. Bag-valve-mask ventilation with the assistance of an oropharyngeal airway that uses 100% oxygen is currently the preferred method for artificial ventilation. This procedure is generally performed ineffectively by most dentists inexperienced in airway management. We examined whether a short and simple period of training by dental students inexperienced in airway management would increase the speed and accuracy of the placement of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA), which may be a superior airway device to the bag-valve-mask and oropharyngeal airway. Thirty-five dental students inexperienced in airway management were divided into 3 groups. The first group received only a demonstration on how to use the LMA. The second and third groups received the demonstration plus practiced inserting the LMA 5 and 10 times, respectively. A dental anesthesiologist graded the placement of the LMA with a tracheobroncho-fiberscope (fiberoptic bronchoscope). Those who practiced inserting the LMA 5 times faired better than those who received no training; however, those who practiced 10 times did not do any better than the second group. The LMA can be inserted rapidly and effectively by dentists inexperienced in airway management after a short period of simple training that may be critical when personnel experienced in intubation are not readily available.
Images
PMCID: PMC2007408  PMID: 12779108
15.  Managing difficult airway in patients with post-burn mentosternal and circumoral scar contractures 
Securing the airway is a crucial aspect during reconstructive surgeries of patients with extensive post-burn mentosternal scar contractures; however, the American Society of Anesthesiologists Difficult Airway Management Algorithm recommendation of initial direct laryngoscopy may not be appropriate for these complicated patients. Consequently, there is a significant risk for failure of intubation and airway emergency. We suggest that initial attempts at securing the airway be made with indirect laryngoscopy. Many airway techniques have been effectively used in burn patients, but the role of awake blind or fiberoptic bronchoscopy, although well established in the non-burn population, has yet to be evaluated in burn patients. We report a case series of successful management of difficult airways with fiberoptic bronchoscopy in patients with varying degrees of post-burn head and neck scar contractures.
PMCID: PMC3462526  PMID: 23071905
Burn airway; neck contracture; fiberoptic bronchoscopy; laryngeal mask airway
16.  Troubleshooting ProSeal LMA 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2009;53(4):414-424.
Summary
Supraglottic devices have changed the face of the airway management. These devices have contributed in a big way in airway management especially, in the difficult airway scenario significantly decreasing the pharyngolaryngeal morbidity. There is a plethora of these devices, which has been well matched by their wider acceptance in clinical practice. ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) is one such frequently used device employed for spontaneous as well as controlled ventilation. However, the use of PLMA at times maybe associated with certain problems. Some of the problems related with its use are unique while others are akin to the classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA). However, expertise is needed for its safe and judicious use, correct placement, recognition and management of its various malpositions and complications. The present article describes the tests employed for proper confirmation of placement to assess the ventilatory and the drain tube functions of the mask, diagnosis of various malpositions and the management of these aspects. All these areas have been highlighted under the heading of troubleshooting PLMA. Many problems can be solved by proper patient and procedure selection, maintaining adequate depth of anaesthesia, diagnosis and management of malpositions. Proper fixation of the device and monitoring cuff pressure intraoperatively may bring down the incidence of airway morbidity.
PMCID: PMC2894503  PMID: 20640203
Airway management; Equipment; ProSeal laryngeal mask airway; Classic laryngeal mask airway; Troubleshooting
17.  The New Perilaryngeal Airway (CobraPLA™)1 Is as Efficient as the Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA™)2, But Provides Better Airway Sealing Pressures 
Anesthesia and analgesia  2004;99(1):272-278.
The Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) is a frequently-used efficient airway device, yet it sometimes seals poorly, thus reducing the efficacy of positive-pressure ventilation. The Perilaryngeal Airway (CobraPLA) is a novel airway device with a larger pharyngeal cuff (when inflated). We tested the hypothesis that the CobraPLA was superior to LMA with regard to insertion time and airway sealing pressure and comparable to LMA in airway adequacy and recovery characteristics. After midazolam and fentanyl, 81 ASA I-II outpatients having elective surgery were randomized to receive an LMA or CobraPLA. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (2.5 mg/kg, IV), and the airway inserted. We measured 1) insertion time; 2) adequacy of the airway (no leak at 15-cm-H2O peak pressure or tidal volume of 5 ml/kg); 3) airway sealing pressure; 4) number of repositioning attempts; and 5) sealing quality (no leak at tidal volume of 8 ml/kg). At the end of surgery, gastric insufflation, postoperative sore throat, dysphonia, and dysphagia were evaluated. Data were compared with unpaired t-tests, chi-square tests, or Fisher’s Exact tests; P<0.05 was significant. Patient characteristics, insertion times, airway adequacy, number of repositioning attempts, and recovery were similar in each group. Airway sealing pressure was significantly greater with CobraPLA (23±6 cm H2O) than LMA (18±5 cm H2O, P<0.001). The CobraPLA has insertion characteristics similar to LMA, but better airway sealing capabilities.
PMCID: PMC1364541  PMID: 15281543
Airway: Sealing. Cuff Pressure. Insertion. Leak. Pharynx; Equipment: Laryngeal mask airway. Perilaryngeal airway; Ventilation: Controlled. Spontaneous; Anesthesia
18.  Comparison of I-gel with proseal LMA in adult patients undergoing elective surgical procedures under general anesthesia without paralysis: A prospective randomized study 
Background:
We compared i-gel and ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) regarding time taken for insertion, effective seal, fiberoptic view of larynx, ease of Ryle's tube insertion, and postoperative sore throat assessment.
Materials and Methods:
In a prospective, randomized manner, 48 adult patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II of either gender between 18 and 60 years presenting for a short surgical procedure were assigned to undergo surgery under general anesthesia on spontaneous ventilation using either the i-gel or PLMA. An experienced nonblinded anesthesiologist inserted appropriate sized i-gel or PLMA in patients using standard insertion technique and assessed the intraoperative findings of the study regarding regarding time taken for respective device insertion, effective seal, fiberoptic view of larynx, ease of Ryle's tube insertion, and postoperative sore throat assessment. Postoperative assessment of sore throat was done by blinded anesthesia resident.
Results:
The time required for insertion of i-gel was lesser (21.98 ± 5.42 and 30.60 ± 8.51 s in Group I and Group P, respectively; P = 0.001). Numbers of attempts for successful insertions were comparable and in majority, device was inserted in first attempt. The mean airway leak pressures were comparable. However, there were more number of patients in Group P who had airway leak pressure >20 cm H2O. The fiberoptic view of glottis, ease of Ryle's tube insertion, and incidence of complications were comparable.
Conclusion:
Time required for successful insertion of i-gel was less in adult patients undergoing short surgical procedure under general anesthesia on spontaneous ventilation. Patients with airway leak pressure >20 cm H2O were more in PLMA group which indicates its better suitability for controlled ventilation.
doi:10.4103/0970-9185.130008
PMCID: PMC4009636  PMID: 24803754
Airway leak pressure; i-gel; PLMA; time for insertion
19.  Anaesthetic management of post-burn contractures, a recurrent challenge from oil pipeline vandalization in Nigeria: a case report 
Cases Journal  2009;2:9141.
A 13 year- old girl presented to the department with sternomental contractures as a result of facial burns from kerosene explosion. Difficult airway was envisaged. Over the period of time she developed sub-mental contracture with keloids; and was scheduled for release of contractures and flap closure.
Anaesthesia was induced with halothane and 100% oxygen. A size 3 laryngeal mask airway (LMA) was inserted and anaesthesia maintained with oxygen/nitrous oxide/halothane/muscle relaxant technique. The successful placement of LMA at 2nd attempt was aided by a surgical incision on the submental contracture. Blood loss was 600 mls and a unit of packed red blood cells was transfused. She made full recovery and was discharged home after 1 month.
doi:10.1186/1757-1626-2-9141
PMCID: PMC2803938  PMID: 20062658
20.  Comparison of classic laryngeal mask airway with Ambu laryngeal mask for tracheal tube exchange: A prospective randomized controlled study 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2013;57(3):259-264.
Background and Aim:
Exchanging endotracheal tube (ETT) with classic laryngeal mask airway™ (CLMA™) prior to emergence from anaesthesia is a safe technique to prevent the coughing and haemodynamic changes during extubation. We had compared CLMA™ and AMBU laryngeal mask™ (ALM™) during ETT/laryngeal mask (LM) for haemodynamic changes and other parameters.
Methods:
A total of 100 American Society of Anesthesiologist Grade I and II adult female patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia were selected and randomly divided into two groups of 50 patients each. In Group I, CLMA™ and in Group II, ALM™ was placed prior to tracheal extubation. Haemodynamic parameters were recorded during ETT/LM exchange. Glottic view was seen through the LM using flexible fibrescope. Coughing/bucking during removal of LM, ease of placement and post-operative sore throat for both groups were graded and recorded.
Statistical Analysis:
Data within the groups was analysed using paired t-test while between the groups was analysed using unpaired t-test. Chi-square test was used to analyse grades of glottic view, coughing, and post-operative sore throat.
Results:
In Group I, there was a significant rise in systolic blood pressure and heart rate in contrast to insignificant rise in Group II. Glottis view was significantly better in Group II. Incidence of coughing, ease of placement and post-operative sore throat was identical between both groups.
Conclusion:
ALM™ is superior to CLMA™ for exchange of ETT before extubation due to greater haemodynamic stability during exchange phase and is better positioned.
doi:10.4103/0019-5049.115613
PMCID: PMC3748680  PMID: 23983284
Ambu laryngeal mask™; classic laryngeal mask airway™; endotracheal tube; extubation
21.  Randomized Double-Blind Comparison of Ketamine-Propofol and Fentanyl-Propofol for the Insertion of Laryngeal Mask Airway in Children 
Background:
Till date, different combinations of adjuncts with induction agents have been tried for Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) insertion; yet, the ideal combination that provides the best insertion conditions with minimal side effects has not been identified, particularly in children.
Patients & Methods:
Hundred paediatric ASA grade I and II patients, aged 3-12 years, were randomly allocated to receive intravenously either fentanyl 2μg kg-1 (Group F, n=50) or ketamine 0.5 mg kg-1 (Group K, n=50), before induction of anaesthesia with propofol 3.5 mg kg-1. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured before induction (baseline), immediately before induction, immediately before LMA insertion, and at 1, 3 and 5 minutes after LMA insertion. Following LMA insertion, the following six subjective endpoints were graded by a blinded anaesthetist using ordinal scales graded 1 to 3: mouth opening, gagging, swallowing, head and limb movements, laryngospasm and resistance to insertion. Duration and incidence of apnoea was also recorded.
Results:
The incidence of resistance to mouth opening, resistance to LMA insertion and incidence of swallowing was not statistically significant between the two groups. Coughing/ gagging was seen in 8% patients in group K as compared to 28% patients in group K. Limb/ head movements were observed in 64% patients in the fentanyl group and in 76% patients in the ketamine group. Laryngospasm was not seen in any patient in either group. Incidence of apnoea was 80% in the fentanyl group and 50% in the ketamine group. The heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were consistently higher in the ketamine group as compared to the fentanyl group.
Conclusion:
The combination of fentanyl (2μg kg-1) and propofol (3.5mg kg-1) provides better conditions for LMA insertion in children than a combination of ketamine (0.5 mg kg-1) and propofol (3.5mg kg-1).
PMCID: PMC3146167  PMID: 21804715
Ketamine: Propofol; Fentanyl: blood pressure; heart rate; laryngeal mask airway insertion
22.  Case of difficult intubation overcome by the laryngeal mask airway. 
A case of difficult intubation is described in which the problem was overcome by use of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA). The patient had difficulty in mouth opening due to severe burn scar contracture around the mouth and limited access prevented tracheal intubation. The use of LMA is shown to have obviated the need for tracheal intubation in the case of a patient whose injuries would have made this technique difficult.
PMCID: PMC3053760  PMID: 8198766
23.  SWIVIT - Swiss video-intubation trial evaluating video-laryngoscopes in a simulated difficult airway scenario: study protocol for a multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial in Switzerland 
Trials  2013;14:94.
Background
Video-laryngoscopes are marketed for intubation in difficult airway management. They provide a better view of the larynx and may facilitate tracheal intubation, but there is no adequately powered study comparing different types of video-laryngoscopes in a difficult airway scenario or in a simulated difficult airway situation.
Methods/Design
The objective of this trial is to evaluate and to compare the clinical performance of three video-laryngoscopes with a guiding channel for intubation (Airtraq™, A. P. Advance™, King Vision™) and three video-laryngoscopes without an integrated tracheal tube guidance (C-MAC™, GlideScope™, McGrath™) in a simulated difficult airway situation in surgical patients. The working hypothesis is that each video-laryngoscope provides at least a 90% first intubation success rate (lower limit of the 95% confidence interval >0.9). It is a prospective, patient-blinded, multicenter, randomized controlled trial in 720 patients who are scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia, requiring tracheal intubation at one of the three participating hospitals. A difficult airway will be created using an extrication collar and taping the patients’ head on the operating table to substantially reduce mouth opening and to minimize neck movement. Tracheal intubation will be performed with the help of one of the six devices according to randomization. Insertion success, time necessary for intubation, Cormack-Lehane grade and percentage of glottic opening (POGO) score at laryngoscopy, optimization maneuvers required to aid tracheal intubation, adverse events and technical problems will be recorded. Primary outcome is intubation success at first attempt.
Discussion
We will simulate the difficult airway and evaluate different video-laryngoscopes in this highly realistic and clinically challenging scenario, independently from manufacturers of the devices. Because of the sufficiently powered multicenter design this study will deliver important and cutting-edge results that will help clinicians decide which device to use for intubation of the expected and unexpected difficult airway.
Trial registration
NCT01692535
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-14-94
PMCID: PMC3651724  PMID: 23556410
Video-laryngoscope; Difficult airway; Airtraq; A. P. Advance; C-MAC; Glidescope; King vision; Mcgrath
24.  Comparison of clinical performance of the I-gel with LMA proseal 
Aim:
To compare insertion characteristics of 2 different supraglottic devices [I-gel and Proseal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA)] and to observe any associated complications.
Study Design:
This prospective, randomized study was conducted in 80 patients [Group I - I-gel insertion (n = 40) and Group P - LMA Proseal insertion (n =40)] of ASA grades I/II, of either sex in the age group 18-65 years. Both groups were compared with respect to ease of insertion, insertion attempts, fiberoptic assessment, airway sealing pressure, ease of gastric tube placement, and other complications.
Materials and Methods:
All patients were asked to fast overnight. Patients were given alprazolam 0.25 mg orally at 10 p.m. the night before surgery and again 2 hours prior to surgery with 1-2 sips of water. Glycopyrrolate 0.2 mg, metoclopramide 10 mg, and ranitidine 50 mg were administered intravenously to the patients 45 minutes prior to the surgery. Once adequate depth of anesthesia was achieved either of the 2 devices, selected using a random computerized table, was inserted by an experienced anesthesiologist. In group I, I-gel was inserted and in patients of group P, PLMA was inserted.
Statistical Analysis:
Student t-test and Mann-Whitney test were employed to compare the means; for categorical variables, Chi-square test was used.
Result:
Mean insertion time for the I-gel (11.12 ± 1.814 sec) was significantly lower than that of the PLMA (15.13 ± 2.91 sec) (P = 0.001). I-gel was easier to insert with a better anatomic fit. Mean airway sealing pressure in the PLMA group (29.55 ± 3.53 cm H2O) was significantly higher than in the I-gel group (26.73 ± 2.52 cm H2O; P = 0.001). Ease of gastric tube insertion was significantly higher in the I-gel group (P = 0.001). Incidence of blood staining of the device, sore throat and dysphagia were observed more in PLMA group. No other complications were observed in either of the groups.
doi:10.4103/0970-9185.105798
PMCID: PMC3590543  PMID: 23493414
Airway sealing; cuff pressure; fiberoptic; I-gel; insertion; leak; proseal laryngeal mask airway
25.  Usefulness of a Cook® airway exchange catheter in laryngeal mask airway-guided fiberoptic intubation in a neonate with Pierre Robin syndrome -A case report- 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2013;64(2):168-171.
The case of a 33-day-old boy with Pierre Robin syndrome using a Cook® airway exchange catheter in laryngeal mask airway-guided fiberoptic intubation is presented. After induction with sevoflurane, classical reusable laryngeal mask airway (LMA) #1 was inserted and ultrathin fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) was passed through. A Cook® airway exchange catheter (1.6 mm ID, 2.7 mm OD) was passed through the LMA under the guidance of the FOB but failed to enter the trachea despite many trials. Then, an endotracheal tube (3.0 mm ID) was mounted on the FOB and railroaded over the FOB. After successful intubation, the Cook® airway exchange catheter was placed in the midtrachea through the lumen of the endotracheal tube. Even though the tracheal tube was accidentally displaced out of the trachea during LMA removal, the endotracheal tube could be easily railroaded over the airway exchange catheter.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2013.64.2.168
PMCID: PMC3581788  PMID: 23458916
Airway exchange catheter; Fiberoptic intubation; Laryngeal mask airway; Pierre robin syndrome

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