Anemia is common in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Numerous studies have associated anemia with increased risk of infection, length of hospital stay, and mortality in surgical populations. However, it is unclear whether and to what degree preoperative anemia in patients undergoing TJA influences postoperative periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and mortality.
We therefore (1) determined the incidence of preoperative anemia in patients undergoing TJA; (2) assessed the possible association between preoperative anemia and subsequent PJI; and (3) explored the relationship between preoperative anemia with postoperative mortality.
We identified 15,722 patients who underwent TJA from January 2000 to June 2007. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin < 12 g/dL in women and hemoglobin < 13 g/dL in men. We determined the effect of preoperative anemia, demographics, and comorbidities on postoperative complications.
Of the 15,222 patients, 19.6% presented with preoperative anemia. PJI occurred more frequently in anemic patients at an incidence of 4.3% in anemic patients compared with 2% in nonanemic patients. Thirty-day (0.4%), 90-day (0.6%), and 1-year (1.8%) mortality rates were not higher in patients with preoperative anemia. Forty-four percent of anemic patients received an allogenic transfusion compared with only 13.4% of nonanemic patients. Anemic patients had increased hospital stays averaging 4.3 days compared with 3.9 days in nonanemic patients. Anemia did not predict cardiac complications.
Our data demonstrate that preoperative anemia is associated with development of subsequent PJI. Preoperative anemia was not associated with 30-day, 60-day, or 1-year mortality in this cohort.
Level of Evidence
Level III, diagnostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the most devastating and costly complications following total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Diagnosis and management of PJI is challenging for surgeons. There is no “gold standard” for diagnosis of PJI, making distinction between septic and aseptic failures difficult. Additionally, some of the greatest difficulties and controversies involve choosing the optimal method to treat the infected joint. Currently, there is significant debate as to the ideal treatment strategy for PJI, and this has led to considerable international variation in both surgical and nonsurgical management of PJI. In this review, we will discuss diagnosis and management of PJI following TJA and highlight some recent advances in this field.
Periprosthetic joint infection; total joint arthroplasty; diagnosis and treatment of periprosthetic joint infection
Enterococcal periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are rare after joint arthroplasty. These cases are usually reported in series of PJIs caused by other pathogens. Because few studies have focused only on enterococcal PJIs, management and control of infection of these cases have not yet been well defined.
We asked (1) what is the proportion of enterococcal PJI in our institutes; and (2) what is the rate of infection control in these cases?
We respectively identified 22 and 14 joints with monomicrobial and polymicrobial PJI, respectively, caused by enterococcus. The diagnosis of PJI was made based on the presence of sinus tract or two positive intraoperative cultures. PJI was also considered in the presence of one positive intraoperative culture and abnormal serology. We determined the proportion of enterococcal PJI and management and control of infection in these cases. Minimum followup was 1.5 years (mean, 3.2 years).
The proportion of monomicrobial enterococcal PJI was 2.3% (22 of 955 cases of PJI). Mean number of surgeries was two (range, 1–4). Initial irrigation and débridement was performed in 10 joints and eight patients needed reoperation. Seven of the 16 joints were initially managed using two-stage exchange arthroplasty and did not need further operation. Six patients had a definitive resection arthroplasty. Salvage surgeries (fusion and above-knee amputation) were performed in three cases (8%). The infection was ultimately controlled in 32 of the 36 patients.
Management of enterococcal PJI is challenging and multiple operations may need to be performed to control the infection.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Clinical characteristics and control of the infection of patients with culture-negative (CN) prosthetic joint infection (PJI) have not been well assessed. Prior use of antimicrobial therapy has been speculated but not proven as a risk factor for CNPJI.
We therefore determined whether prior use of antimicrobial therapy, prior PJI, and postoperative wound healing complications were associated with CN PJI.
We performed a retrospective case-control study of 135 patients with CN PJI treated between January 1, 1985, and December 31, 2000 matched with 135 patients with culture-positive (CP) PJIs (control patients) during the study period. The time to failure of therapy compared between cases and control patients using a Kaplan-Meier analysis.
The use of prior antimicrobial therapy and postoperative wound drainage after index arthroplasty were associated with increased odds of PJI being culture-negative (odds ratio, 4.7; 95% CI, 2.8–8.1 and odds ratio, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.5–8.1, respectively). The percent (± SE) cumulative incidence free of treatment failure at 2 years followup was similar for CN and CP PJI: 75% (± 4%) and 79% (± 4%), respectively.
Prior antimicrobial therapy and postoperative wound drainage were associated with an increased risk of negative cultures among patients with PJI. Physicians should critically evaluate the need for antimicrobial therapy before establishing a microbiologic diagnosis of PJI in patients with suspected PJI.
Level of Evidence
Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Limited data are available regarding the risk factors and outcome of polymicrobial prosthetic joint infection (PJIs) when compared with monomicrobial PJI. Between January 1998 and November 2006, we retrospectively identified 34 of 174 prosthetic joint infections (19%) were polymicrobial. The 2-year cumulative probability of success of treating polymicrobial and monomicrobial PJIs was 63.8% and 72.8%, respectively. Twenty-six percent, 38%, and 29% of PJIs were treated with two-stage exchange, débridement and retention, or resection arthroplasty, respectively, and the 2-year survival rate free of treatment failure in each group was 77.7% (95% confidence interval, 42.8%–94.2%), 52.7% (95% confidence interval, 28.4%–75.9%), and 64.2% (95% confidence interval, 28.7%–88.9%). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (26.4% versus 7.1%) and anaerobes (11.7% versus 2.8%) were more common in polymicrobial PJIs. Polymicrobial PJIs occurred in patients with a soft tissue defect/dehiscence (23.5% versus 2.8%), drainage (79.4% versus 39.2%), or prior local irradiation (8.8% versus 0.71%). We found the following factors associated with polymicrobial prosthetic joint infections: the presence of a soft tissue defect/wound dehiscence (odds ratio, 5.9), drainage (odds ratio, 5.0), and age 65 years or older (odds ratio, 2.8).
Level of Evidence: Level III, prognostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Periprosthetic infection (PJI) is the most serious joint replacement complication, occurring in 0.8-1.9% of knee arthroplasties and 0.3-1.7% of hip arthroplasties. A definition of PJI was proposed in the November 2011 issue of the journal Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research. The presence of a fistula or of local inflammatory signs is indicative of PJI, but in many cases local pain is the only symptom. In the absence of underlying inflammatory conditions, C-reactive protein measurement is the most useful preoperative blood test for detecting infection associated with a prosthetic joint. The most useful preoperative diagnostic test is the aspiration of synovial joint fluid to obtain a total and differential cell count and culture. Intraoperative frozen sections of periprosthetic tissues produce excellent accuracy in predicting a diagnosis of PJI but only moderate accuracy in ruling out the diagnosis. In this process, obtaining a quality sample is the first step, and determines the quality of microbiological results. Specimens for culture should be obtained prior to the initiation of antibiotic treatment. Sonication of a removed implant may increase the culture yield. Plain radiography has low sensitivity and low specificity for detecting infection associated with a prosthetic joint. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may be useful in the evaluation of complex cases, but metal inserts interfere with these tests, and abnormalities may be non-specific. Labelled-leucocyte imaging (e.g., leucocytes labelled with indium-111) combined with bone marrow imaging with the use of technetium-99m–labelled sulphur colloid is considered the imaging test of choice when imaging is necessary.
Diagnosis; periprosthetic infection; joint replacement; hip; knee.
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been shown to have an increased susceptibility to the development of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) after hip or knee replacement. However, little information is available on the demographic data, outcome of treatment and prognostic factors in RA patients when compared to those in non-RA patients.
We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of all cases of PJI that were treated at our institution between 2002 and 2008. Of 346 episodes of PJI during the study period, 46 (13.3%) occurred in patients with RA. Compared to the non-RA cohort, RA patients with PJI were female predominant (74% vs 27%, p<0.001), younger (median age, 51 vs 63 years, p<0.001) and developed infection earlier (median joint age, 72 vs 128 days, p<0.001). The 2-year survival rate free of treatment failure was lower in RA patients with PJI episodes either treated with débridement (22% vs 52%, p = 0.002) or two-stage exchange (78% vs 95%, p = 0.004). A longer duration of symptoms before débridement surgery (median, 11 vs 5 days, p = 0.015), and absence of antibiotics in bone cement for two-stage exchange (relative risk, 8.0; p = 0.02) were associated with treatment failure in patients with RA.
The outcome of PJI in RA patients was generally worse than that in non-RA patients. Risk of treatment failure increased in the setting of delayed débridement and two-stage exchange without the use of antibiotic-impregnated bone cement. These findings highlight the importance of vigilant monitoring and aggressive treatment for PJI in RA patients.
Identification of Corynebacterium species may be challenging. Corynebacterium species are occasional causes of prosthetic joint infection (PJI), but few data are available on the subject. Based on the literature, C. amycolatum, C. aurimucosum, C. jeikeium, and C. striatum are the most common Corynebacterium species that cause PJI. We designed a rapid PCR assay to detect the most common human Corynebacterium species, with a specific focus on PJI. A polyphosphate kinase gene identified using whole-genome sequence was targeted. The assay differentiates the antibiotic-resistant species C. jeikeium and C. urealyticum from other species in a single assay. The assay was applied to a collection of human Corynebacterium isolates from multiple clinical sources, and clinically relevant species were detected. The assay was then tested on Corynebacterium isolates specifically associated with PJI; all were detected. We also describe the first case of C. simulans PJI.
The objective of this study was to assess natural microbial agents, history and risk factors for total joint arthroplasty (TJA) infections in patients receiving tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α-blockers, through the French RATIO registry and a case-control study.
Cases were TJA infections during TNFα-blocker treatments. Each case was compared to two controls (with TJA and TNFα-blocker therapy, but without TJA infection) matched on age (±15 years), TJA localization, type of rheumatic disorder and disease duration (±15 years). Statistical analyses included univariate and multivariate analyses with conditional logistic regression.
In the 20 cases (18 rheumatoid arthritis), TJA infection concerned principally the knee (n = 12, 60%) and the hip (n = 5, 25%). Staphylococcus was the more frequent microorganism involved (n = 15, 75%). Four patients (20%) were hospitalized in an intensive care unit and two died from infection. Eight cases (40%) versus 5 controls (13%) had undergone primary TJA or TJA revision for the joint subsequently infected during the last year (P = 0.03). Of these procedures, 5 cases versus 1 control were performed without withdrawing TNFα-blockers (P = 0.08). In multivariate analysis, predictors of infection were primary TJA or TJA revision for the joint subsequently infected within the last year (odds ratio, OR = 88.3; 95%CI 1.1-7,071.6; P = 0.04) and increased daily steroid intake (OR = 5.0 per 5 mg/d increase; 1.1-21.6; P = 0.03). Case-control comparisons showed similar distribution between TNFα-blockers (P = 0.70).
In patients receiving TNFα-blockers, TJA infection is rare but potentially severe. Important risk factors are primary TJA or TJA revision within the last year, particularly when TNFα-blockers are not interrupted before surgery, and the daily steroid intake.
Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a devastating complication after total joint arthroplasty. Lack of confirmation of an infecting organism poses a challenge with regard to the selection of an appropriate antibiotic agent and surgical treatment. It is unclear whether patients with negative cultures presumed to have infections achieve similar rates of infection-free survival as those with positive cultures.
The purposes of this study were (1) to report the infection control rates using irrigation and débridement and two-stage exchange for treatment of culture-negative PJIs; and (2) to compare infection control rates in culture-negative cases with those in culture-positive cases.
We retrospectively reviewed 55 patients with culture-negative PJI treated between 2000 and 2007. We compared the infection-free survival rate in the culture-negative patients with that of 295 culture-positive cases of PJI.
Overall infection control rate in culture-negative cases was 73% at minimum 1-year followup (mean, 47 months; range, 12–119 months). We found similar infection control rates in culture-negative and culture-positive PJI. Infection-free survival rates in both groups were highest after two-stage exchange arthroplasty and postoperative vancomycin therapy.
Our observations suggest aggressive two-stage exchange arthroplasty and postoperative parenteral vancomycin therapy in patients with culture-negative PJI achieves similar rates of infection-free survival as with patients having culture-positive PJI.
Level of Evidence
Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a challenging complication associated with total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Traffic in the operating room (OR) increases bacterial counts in the OR, and may lead to increased rates of infection.
Our purposes were to (1) define the incidence of door opening during primary and revision TJA, providing a comparison between the two types of procedures, and (2) identify the causes of door opening in order to develop a strategy to reduce traffic in the operating room.
An observer collected data during 80 primary and 36 revision TJAs. Surgeries were performed under vertical, laminar flow. Operating room personnel were unaware of the observer, thus removing bias from traffic. The observer documented the number, reason, and personnel involved in the event of a door opening from time of tray opening to closure of the surgical site.
The average operating time for primary and revision procedures was 92 and 161 minutes, respectively. Average door openings were 60 in primary cases and 135 in revisions, yielding per minute rates of 0.65 and 0.84, respectively. The circulating nurse and surgical implant representatives constituted the majority of OR traffic.
Traffic in the OR is a major concern during TJA. Revision cases demonstrated a particularly high rate of traffic. Implementation of strategies, such as storage of instruments and components in the operating room and education of OR personnel, is required to reduce door openings in the OR.
Periprosthetic tissue and/or synovial fluid PCR has been previously studied for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) diagnosis; however, few studies have assessed the utility of PCR on biofilms dislodged from the surface of explanted arthroplasties using vortexing and sonication (i.e., sonicate fluid PCR). We compared sonicate fluid 16S rRNA gene real-time PCR and sequencing to culture of synovial fluid, tissue, and sonicate fluid for the microbiologic diagnosis of PJI. PCR sequences generating mixed chromatograms were decatenated using RipSeq Mixed. We studied sonicate fluids from 135 and 231 subjects with PJI and aseptic failure, respectively. Synovial fluid, tissue, and sonicate fluid culture and sonicate fluid PCR had similar sensitivities (64.7, 70.4, 72.6, and 70.4%, respectively; P > 0.05) and specificities (96.9, 98.7, 98.3, and 97.8%, respectively; P > 0.05). Combining sonicate fluid culture and PCR, the sensitivity was higher (78.5%, P < 0.05) than those of individual tests, with similar specificity (97.0%). Thirteen subjects had positive sonicate fluid culture but negative PCR, and 11 had negative sonicate fluid culture but positive PCR (among which 7 had prior use of antimicrobials). Broad-range PCR and culture of sonicate fluid have equivalent performance for PJI diagnosis.
During a two-stage revision for prosthetic joint infections (PJI), joint aspirations, open tissue sampling and serum inflammatory markers are performed before re-implantation to exclude ongoing silent infection. We investigated the performance of these diagnostic procedures on the risk of recurrence of PJI among asymptomatic patients undergoing a two-stage revision. A total of 62 PJI were found in 58 patients. All patients had intra-operative surgical exploration during re-implantation, and 48 of them had intra-operative microbiological swabs. Additionally, 18 joint aspirations and one open biopsy were performed before second-stage reimplantation. Recurrence or persistence of PJI occurred in 12 cases with a mean delay of 218 days after re-implantation, but only four pre- or intraoperative invasive joint samples had grown a pathogen in cultures. In at least seven recurrent PJIs (58%), patients had a normal C-reactive protein (CRP, <10 mg/l) level before re-implantation. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values of pre-operative invasive joint aspiration and CRP for the prediction of PJI recurrence was 0.58, 0.88, 0.5, 0.84 and 0.17, 0.81, 0.13, 0.86, respectively. As a conclusion, pre-operative joint aspiration, intraoperative bacterial sampling, surgical exploration and serum inflammatory markers are poor predictors of PJI recurrence. The onset of reinfection usually occurs far later than reimplantation.
We describe treatment failure rates by antibiotic duration for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) managed with debridement, antibiotics and implant retention (DAIR).
We retrospectively collected data from all the cases of PJI that were managed with DAIR over a 5 year period. Surgical debridement, microbiological sampling, early intravenous antibiotics and prolonged oral follow-on antibiotics were used.
One hundred and twelve cases of PJI were identified. Twenty infections (18%) recurred during a mean follow-up of 2.3 years. The mean duration of antibiotic use was 1.5 years. Failure was more common after arthroscopic debridement, for previously revised joints and for Staphylococcus aureus infection. There were 12 failures after stopping antibiotics and 8 while on antibiotics [hazard ratio (HR) = 4.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4–12.8, P = 0.01]. However, during the first 3 months of follow-up, there were eight failures after stopping antibiotics and two while on antibiotics (HR = 7.0, 95% CI 1.5–33, P = 0.015). The duration of antibiotic therapy prior to stopping did not predict outcome.
PJI may be managed by DAIR. The risk of failure with this strategy rises after stopping oral antibiotics, but lengthening antibiotic therapy may simply postpone, rather than prevent, failure.
prosthetic; infection; management
Propionibacterium acnes is increasingly recognized as an important agent of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). However, the optimum culture conditions for recovery of this organism from PJI specimens have not been determined. By applying a prolonged 28-day culture incubation to all periprosthetic specimens received for bacterial culture from 198 revision arthroplasty procedures, we retrospectively determined that a 13-day culture incubation period is necessary for the recovery of P. acnes from patients with PJI. Incubation beyond this period was associated with increasing recovery of nondiagnostic isolates: 21.7% of P. acnes isolates believed to be clinically unimportant were recovered after 13 days of incubation. Importantly, a diagnosis of P. acnes PJI would have been missed in 29.4% of patients had extended culture incubation been applied only to anaerobic culture media. Although specimens from P. acnes PJIs were more commonly associated with the presence of ≥2 culture media positive for growth, acute inflammation (≥5 neutrophils/high-power field) was observed in only 40% of patients with PJIs that had more than one specimen submitted for bacterial culture. These results support the need for a minimum culture incubation period of 13 days to be applied to both aerobic and anaerobic culture media for all periprosthetic specimens. Optimal recovery of infecting organisms from PJI specimens will be an important component in generating a universal definition for PJI due to indolent agents of infection, such as P. acnes.
The etiological diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) requires the isolation of microorganisms from periprosthetic samples. Microbiological cultures often yield false-positive and false-negative results. 16S rRNA gene PCR combined with sequencing (16SPCR) has proven useful for diagnosing various infections. We performed a prospective study to compare the utility of this approach with that of culture to diagnose PJI using intraoperative periprosthetic samples. We analyzed 176 samples from 40 patients with PJI and 321 samples from 82 noninfected patients using conventional culture and 16SPCR. Three statistical studies were undertaken following a previously validated mathematical model: sample-to-sample analysis, calculation of the number of samples to be studied, and calculation of the number of positive samples necessary to diagnose PJI. When only the number of positive samples is taken into consideration, a 16SPCR-positive result in one sample has good specificity and positive predictive value for PJI (specificity, 96.3%; positive predictive value, 91.7%; and likelihood ratio [LR], 22), while 3 positive cultures with the same microorganism are necessary to achieve similar specificity. The best combination of results for 16SPCR was observed when 5 samples were studied and the same microorganism was detected in 2 of them (sensitivity, 94%; specificity, 100%; and LR, 69.62). The results for 5 samples with 2 positive cultures were 96% and 82%, respectively, and the likelihood ratio was 1.06. 16SPCR is more specific and has a better positive predictive value than culture for diagnosis of PJI. A positive 16SPCR result is largely suggestive of PJI, even when few samples are analyzed; however, culture is generally more sensitive.
The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcome of acute prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) due to gram-negative bacilli (GNB) treated without implant removal. Patients with an acute PJI due to GNB diagnosed from 2000 to 2007 were prospectively registered. Demographics, comorbidity, type of implant, microbiology data, surgical treatment, antimicrobial therapy, and outcome were recorded. Classification and regression tree analysis, the Kaplan-Meier survival method, and the Cox regression model were applied. Forty-seven patients were included. The mean age was 70.7 years, and there were 15 hip prostheses and 32 knee prostheses. The median number of days from the time of arthroplasty was 20. The most frequent pathogens were members of the Enterobacteriaceae family in 41 cases and Pseudomonas spp. in 20 cases. Among the Enterobacteriaceae, 14 were resistant to ciprofloxacin, while all Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. The median durations of intravenous and oral antibiotic treatment were 14 and 64 days, respectively. A total of 35 (74.5%) patients were in remission after a median follow-up of 463 days (interquartile range, 344 to 704) days. By use of the Kaplan-Meier survival curve, a C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration of ≤15 mg/dl (P = 0.03) and receipt of a fluoroquinolone, when all GNB isolated were susceptible (P = 0.0009), were associated with a better outcome. By use of a Cox regression model, a CRP concentration of ≤15 mg/dl (odds ratio [OR], 3.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 12.5; P = 0.043) and receipt of a fluoroquinolone (OR, 9.09; 95% CI, 1.96 to 50; P = 0.005) were independently associated with better outcomes. Open debridement without removal of the implant had a success rate of 74.5%, and the factors associated with good prognosis were a CRP concentration at the time of diagnosis ≤15 mg/dl and treatment with a fluoroquinolone.
Background and purpose
Debridement and retention of the prosthesis is often attempted to treat early prosthetic joint infection (PJI). However, previous studies have found inconsistent results, with success rates ranging from 21% to 100%, and little has been written in the literature about hip function. We have therefore analyzed the clinical and functional outcome of early PJIs treated with this procedure.
Patients and methods
38 patients with early PJI after primary hip arthroplasty who were treated with debridement and retention of the implant between 1998 and 2005 were studied prospectively, with a median follow-up time of 4 (0.8–10) years. Early infection was defined as that which occurred within 4 weeks of index arthroplasty. The primary outcome measure was infection control. Functional outcome was assessed with the Harris hip score.
27 of 38 patients were successfully treated, with no signs of infection or continued antibiotic treatment at the latest follow-up. Median Harris hip score was 86 (47–100) points. In 9 of the 11 patients for whom treatment failed, infection was successfully treated with 1-stage or 2-stage reimplantation or resection. Intraoperative cultures were positive in 36 hips, and the most frequently isolated organisms were Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). 15 infections were polymicrobial, and only 8 of them were successfully treated with debridement and retention of the implant.
Our data suggest that debridement and retention of the prosthesis is a reasonable treatment option in early PJI after primary hip arthroplasty, with satisfactory functional results.
The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus causing prosthetic joint infection (PJI) supports investigation of higher doses of daptomycin in the management of PJI. This was a prospective, randomized controlled trial studying safety and efficacy of daptomycin (6 and 8 mg/kg of body weight) compared with standard-of-care therapy for PJI. This open-label study randomized 75 patients undergoing 2-stage revision arthroplasty to daptomycin at 6 or 8 mg/kg or a comparator (vancomycin, teicoplanin, or semisynthetic penicillin). After prosthesis removal, patients received 6 weeks of antibiotic treatment and a 2- to 6-week antibiotic-free period before implantation of a new prosthesis. Test of cure (TOC) was within 1 to 2 weeks after reimplantation. The primary objective was evaluation of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels. Secondary objectives were clinical efficacy and microbiological assessments. Of 73 CPK safety population patients, CPK elevation of >500 U/liter occurred in 4 of 25 (16.0%) (daptomycin, 6 mg/kg) and 5 of 23 (21.7%) (daptomycin, 8 mg/kg) daptomycin-treated patients and 2 of 25 (8.0%) comparator patients. Adverse-event rates were similar among daptomycin and comparator groups. Among modified intent-to-treat patients at TOC, clinical success rates were 14 of 24 (58.3%) for 6 mg/kg daptomycin, 14 of 23 (60.9%) for 8 mg/kg daptomycin, and 8 of 21 (38.1%) for the comparator. Overall microbiological success at TOC was 12 of 24 (50.0%) for 6 mg/kg daptomycin, 12 of 23 (52.2%) for 8 mg/kg daptomycin, and 8 of 21 (38.1%) for comparator patients. In conclusion, daptomycin at 6 and 8 mg/kg given for up to 6 weeks was safe and appeared to be effective in managing staphylococcal PJI using a 2-stage revision arthroplasty technique in a total of 49 patients.
Implantation of joint prostheses is becoming increasingly common, especially for the hip and knee. Infection is considered to be the most devastating of prosthesis-related complications, leading to prolonged hospitalization, repeated surgical intervention, and even definitive loss of the implant. The main risk factors to periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are advanced age, malnutrition, obesity, diabetes mellitus, HIV infection at an advanced stage, presence of distant infectious foci, and antecedents of arthroscopy or infection in previous arthroplasty. Joint prostheses can become infected through three different routes: direct implantation, hematogenic infection, and reactivation of latent infection. Gram-positive bacteria predominate in cases of PJI, mainly Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. PJIs present characteristic signs that can be divided into acute and chronic manifestations. The main imaging method used in diagnosing joint prosthesis infections is X-ray. Computed tomography (CT) scan may assist in distinguishing between septic and aseptic loosening. Three-phase bone scintigraphy using technetium has high sensitivity, but low specificity. Positron emission tomography using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) presents very divergent results in the literature. Definitive diagnosis of infection should be made by isolating the microorganism through cultures on material obtained from joint fluid puncturing, surgical wound secretions, surgical debridement procedures, or sonication fluid. Success in treating PJI depends on extensive surgical debridement and adequate and effective antibiotic therapy. Treatment in two stages using a spacer is recommended for most chronic infections in arthroplasty cases. Treatment in a single procedure is appropriate in carefully selected cases.
Due to the rise in prosthetic joint implantations, prosthetic joint infections (PJI) are increasing. Most PJI are treated outside the hospital setting via community-based parenteral antiinfective therapy (CoPAT) after initial surgical management, although little is reported about the short-term complications of CoPAT. We therefore ascertained the numbers of unanticipated readmissions, unplanned surgeries, and CoPAT complications within 12 weeks of hospital discharge in patients with PJI on CoPAT. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 74 patients with PJI. Twenty-seven (73% of readmitted patients) were for unanticipated reasons within 12 weeks of hospital discharge; 16 (43% of readmitted) underwent an unplanned surgery. Nine patients (12% of total cohort) had CoPAT-related adverse events. Our data suggest patients with PJI on CoPAT represent a complex cohort that needs to be monitored closely for complications early after hospital discharge.
Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
The accurate diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) is crucial for therapy and the prevention of complications. No diagnostic test of PJI is 100% accurate. The aim of this study was to assess the use of anti-granulocyte scintigraphy using 99 mTc-labeled monoclonal antibodies to diagnose PJI after total joint arthroplasty. A systematic search of all relevant studies published through January 2013 was conducted using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, OVID, and ScienceDirect databases. Observational studies that assessed the accuracy of the anti-granulocyte scintigraphy with monoclonal antibodies or antibody fragments labeled with technetium 99 m in diagnosis for PJI and provided data on specificity and sensitivity were identified. Standard methods recommended for meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy were used. Nineteen studies were eligible for inclusion. The results demonstrated that the area under the summary receiver operator curve was 0.88, and the diagnostic accuracy (Q*) was 0.81. Additionally, the diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was 18.76 with a corresponding 95% confidence interval of 10.45–33.68. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic method for the diagnosis of PJI were 83% and 79%, respectively, while the pooled positive likelihood ratio (PLR) was 3.56, and the negative likelihood ratio (NLR) was 0.26. Anti-granulocyte scintigraphy using 99 mTc-labeled monoclonal antibodies has a reasonable role in the diagnosis of PJI after total joint arthroplasty. Due to the limitations of the present meta-analysis, additional high-quality original studies are required to confirm the predictive value.
In North America, a two-stage exchange arthroplasty remains the preferred surgical treatment for chronic periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). Currently, there are no proper indicators that can guide orthopaedic surgeons in patient selection for two-stage exchange or the appropriate conditions in which to reimplant.
To identify (1) the rate of recurrent PJI after two-stage exchange and (2) the role of 15 presurgical and 11 operative factors in influencing the outcome of two-stage revision.
Patients and Methods
From a prospective database we identified 117 patients who had undergone two-stage exchange arthroplasty for PJI of the knee from 1997 to 2007. Failure of two-stage revision was defined as any treated knee requiring further treatment for PJI. We identified 15 presurgical and 11 surgical factors that might be related to failure. Minimum followup was 2 years (average, 3.4 years; range, 2–9.4 years).
Thirty-three of 117 reimplantations (28%) required reoperation for infection. Age, gender, body mass index, and comorbidity indices were similar in both groups. Multivariate analysis provided culture-negative (odds ratio [OR], 4.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3–15.7), methicillin-resistant organisms (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 0.8–10.3), and increased reimplantation operative time (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.0–1.03) as predictors of failure. ESR and CRP values at the time of reimplantation and time from resection to reimplantation were not predictors.
Our observations suggest the failure rate after two-stage reimplantation for infected TKA is relatively high. Culture-negative or methicillin-resistant PJI increases the risk of failure over four- and twofold, respectively. We identified no variables that would guide the surgeon in identifying acceptable circumstances in which to perform the second stage.
Level of Evidence
Level III, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Prosthetic joint infections (PJI) caused by methicillin-resistant staphylococci represent a major therapeutic challenge. We examined the effectiveness of surgical treatment in treating infection of total hip or knee arthroplasty caused by methicillin-resistant staphylococcal strains and the variables influencing treatment success. One hundred and twenty-seven patients were treated at our institution between 1999 and 2006. There were 58 men and 69 women, with an average age of 66 years. Patients were followed for a minimum of 2 years or until recurrence of infection. Débridement and retention of the prosthesis was performed in 35 patients and resection arthroplasty in 92. Débridement controlled the infection in only 37% of cases whereas two-stage exchange arthroplasty controlled the infection in 75% of hips and 60% of knees. Preexisting cardiac disease was associated with a higher likelihood of failure to control infection in all treatment groups. Antibiotic-resistant Staphylococci continue to compromise treatment outcome of prosthetic joint infections, especially in patients with medical comorbidities. New preventive and therapeutic strategies are needed.
Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
We describe rates of success for two-stage revision of prosthetic joint infection (PJI), including data on reimplantation microbiology.
We retrospectively collected data from all the cases of PJI that were managed with two-stage revision over a 4 year period. Patients were managed with an antibiotic-free period before reimplantation, in order to confirm, clinically and microbiologically, that infection was successfully treated.
One hundred and fifty-two cases were identified. The overall success rate (i.e. retention of the prosthesis over 5.75 years of follow-up) was 83%, but was 89% for first revisions and 73% for re-revisions [hazard ratio = 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2–7.4, P = 0.023]. Reimplantation microbiology was frequently positive (14%), but did not predict outcome (hazard ratio = 1.3, 95% CI 0.4–3.7, P = 0.6). Furthermore, most unplanned debridements following the first stage were carried out before antibiotics were stopped (25 versus 2 debridements).
We did not identify evidence supporting the use of an antibiotic-free period before reimplantation and routine reimplantation microbiology. Re-revision was associated with a significantly worse outcome.
infected arthroplasty; antibiotic; complications; re-revision