Adiponectin, an abundant adipose tissue-derived protein, exerts protective effect against cardiovascular disease. Adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) mediate the beneficial effects of adiponectin on the cardiovascular system. However, the alteration of AdipoRs in cardiac remodeling is not fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of angiotensin II (AngII) on cardiac AdipoRs expression and explored the possible molecular mechanism. AngII infusion into rats induced cardiac hypertrophy, reduced AdipoR1 but not AdipoR2 expression, and attenuated the phosphorylations of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, and those effects were all reversed by losartan, an AngII type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker. AngII reduced expression of AdipoR1 mRNA and protein in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, which was abolished by losartan, but not by PD123319, an AT2 receptor antagonist. The antioxidants including reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger NAC, NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, Nox2 inhibitor peptide gp91 ds-tat, and mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I inhibitor rotenone attenuated AngII-induced production of ROS and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. AngII-reduced AdipoR1 expression was reversed by pretreatment with NAC, apocynin, gp91 ds-tat, rotenone, and an ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that AngII provoked the recruitment of c-Myc onto the promoter region of AdipoR1, which was attenuated by PD98059. Moreover, AngII-induced DNA binding activity of c-Myc was inhibited by losartan, NAC, apocynin, gp91 ds-tat, rotenone, and PD98059. c-Myc small interfering RNA abolished the inhibitory effect of AngII on AdipoR1 expression. Our results suggest that AngII inhibits cardiac AdipoR1 expression in vivo and in vitro and AT1 receptor/ROS/ERK1/2/c-Myc pathway is required for the downregulation of AdipoR1 induced by AngII.
Adiponectin is a protein hormone involved in maintaining energy homeostasis in metabolically active tissues. It enhances glucose and lipid metabolism via activation of AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) in skeletal muscle and liver. Energy homeostasis is vital for the heart to work as a pump. In this study, we investigated whether adiponectin and its receptors are expressed in adult ventricular cardiomyocytes. We observed adiponectin transcript and protein in cultured ventricular cardiomyocytes isolated from adult rat, by quantitative real-time PCR, ELISA assays, Western blots, and immunofluorescent staining. In addition, we detected adiponectin receptor (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) expression in the heart. AdipoR1 was expressed in rat myocardium at a level of about 50% of that in skeletal muscle; whereas adipoR2 was expressed at a similar level to that in liver. Rosiglitazone, a Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) activator, substantially elevated expression of adiponectin in cultured cardiomyocytes and its secretion into cultured media. Rosiglitazone also increased adipoR1 and adipoR2 expression in cardiomyocytes. Treatment of recombinant globular adiponectin in cultured cardiomyocytes increased fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake via activation of AMPK, suggesting a role for adiponectin in cardiac energy metabolism. Together, these data establish the existence of a local cardiac-specific adiponectin system that is regulated by PPARγ. Moreover, these findings indicate a role for adiponectin on normal myocardial energy homeostasis, in part, through the activation of AMPK.
adiponectin; adipoR1; adipoR2; rosiglitazone; AMPK; Fatty acid oxidation; glucose uptake; cardiomyocytes
Adiponectin is a mammalian hormone that exerts anti-diabetic, anti-cancer and cardioprotective effects through interaction with its major ubiquitously expressed plasma membrane localized receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Here, we report a Saccharomyces cerevisiae based method for investigating agonist-AdipoR interactions that is amenable for high-throughput scale-up and can be used to study both AdipoRs separately. Agonist-AdipoR1 interactions are detected using a split firefly luciferase assay based on reconstitution of firefly luciferase (Luc) activity due to juxtaposition of its N- and C-terminal fragments, NLuc and CLuc, by ligand induced interaction of the chimeric proteins CLuc-AdipoR1 and APPL1-NLuc (adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding domain and leucine zipper motif 1-NLuc) in a S. cerevisiae strain lacking the yeast homolog of AdipoRs (Izh2p). The assay monitors the earliest known step in the adiponectin-AdipoR anti-diabetic signaling cascade. We demonstrate that reconstituted Luc activity can be detected in colonies or cells using a CCD camera and quantified in cell suspensions using a microplate reader. AdipoR1-APPL1 interaction occurs in absence of ligand but can be stimulated specifically by agonists such as adiponectin and the tobacco protein osmotin that was shown to have AdipoR-dependent adiponectin-like biological activity in mammalian cells. To further validate this assay, we have modeled the three dimensional structures of receptor-ligand complexes of membrane-embedded AdipoR1 with cyclic peptides derived from osmotin or osmotin-like plant proteins. We demonstrate that the calculated AdipoR1-peptide binding energies correlate with the peptides’ ability to behave as AdipoR1 agonists in the split luciferase assay. Further, we demonstrate agonist-AdipoR dependent activation of protein kinase A (PKA) signaling and AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in S. cerevisiae, which are homologous to important mammalian adiponectin-AdipoR1 signaling pathways. This system should facilitate the development of therapeutic inventions targeting adiponectin and/or AdipoR physiology.
Adiponectin can act in the brain to increase energy expenditure and reduce body weight by mechanisms not entirely understood. We found that adiponectin type 1 and type 2 receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) are expressed in warm sensitive neurons of the hypothalamic preoptic area (POA) which play a critical role in the regulation of core body temperature (CBT) and energy balance. Thus, we tested the ability of adiponectin to influence CBT in wild-type mice and in mice deficient for AdipoR1 or AdipoR2. Local injection of adiponectin into the POA induced prolonged elevation of core body temperature and decreased respiratory exchange ratio (RER) indicating that increased energy expenditure is associated with increased oxidation of fat over carbohydrates. In AdipoR1 deficient mice, the ability of adiponectin to raise CBT was significantly blunted and its ability to decrease RER was completely lost. In AdipoR2 deficient mice, adiponectin had only diminished hyperthermic effects but reduced RER similarly to wild type mice. These results indicate that adiponectin can contribute to energy homeostasis by regulating CBT by direct actions on AdipoR1 and R2 in the POA.
Adiponectin; Adiponectin receptor; Temperature; Homeostasis; Preoptic area; Warm sensitive neurons
Adiponectin and adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1/2) are expressed in various tissues and are involved in the regulation of multiple functions such as energy metabolism and inflammatory responses. However, the effect of adiponectin and AdipoRs in submandibular glands has not been fully evaluated. In the present study, we found that mRNA and protein of both adiponectin and AdipoR1/2 were expressed in rat submandibular glands and in the SMG-C6 cell line, as evidenced by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Immunofluorescence staining showed that adiponectin was diffused in the cytoplasm, while AdipoR1/2 was concentrated in the membrane of acinar cells. Saliva flow was significantly increased by full length adiponectin (fAd) or globular adiponectin (gAd) perfusion in isolated rat submandibular glands. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR), an adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, also increased saliva secretion. fAd, gAd, and AICAR all increased the average width of apical tight junctions in perfused submandibular glands, and decreased transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in SMG-C6 cells, suggesting that adiponectin promoted secretion by modulating paracellular permeability. fAd and gAd increased p-AMPK levels, while AraA, an AMPK antagonist, abolished fAd- and gAd-induced changes in secretion, tight junction ultrastructure, and TER. Moreover, both AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were required for fAd- or gAd-induced p-AMPK and TER responses, suggesting from their inhibition following AdipoR1 or AdipoR2 knockdown, and co-knockdown of AdipoRs by RNA interference. Our results suggest that adiponectin functions as a promoter of salivary secretion in rat submandibular glands via activation of AdipoRs, AMPK, and paracellular permeability.
Obesity is a risk factor for asthma and type II diabetes. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ has been suggested to regulate inflammatory responses in diabetes and asthma. We investigated whether PPAR-α, PPAR-γ, adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1, AdipoR2), leptin, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α are expressed in rat lung tissues and whether the expression differs between obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) and lean Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats.
Materials and Methods
Obese and lean rats were given with a high fat diet or a 30% restricted diet for 32 weeks, and their blood glucose levels and weights were monitored. After 32 weeks, mRNA levels of PPAR-α, PPAR-γ, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, leptin, and TNF-α in lung tissues were measured using real time PCR.
PPAR-α, PPAR-γ, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, leptin, and TNF-α were expressed in both obese and lean rat lung tissues. Increased serum glucose levels on intraperitoneal glucose tolerance testing and a higher weight gain at 32 weeks were observed in OLETF control rats compared to OLETF diet restricted rats. PPAR-γ expression was markedly elevated in obese control and diet restricted rats compared to lean rats, although PPAR-γ expression in obese rats was not affected by diet restriction. Leptin was highly expressed in OLETF rats compared to LETO rats. TNF-α expression was enhanced in OLETF control rats compared LETO diet restricted rats, and decreased by diet restriction. PPAR-α, AdipoR1, and AdipoR2 expression were not significantly different between obese and lean rats.
PPAR-γ was highly expressed in the lung tissues of obese rats and may be a novel treatment target for regulating lung inflammation associated with obesity.
Obesity; peroxisome proliferator activated receptor; adiponectin receptor; lung; leptin; TNF-alpha
Adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1/R2) mediate the effects of adiponectin on glucose and lipid metabolism in vivo. We examined whether AdipoR1 and/or AdipoR2 mRNA expression in human adipose tissue is fat-depot specific. We also studied whether their expression in visceral and subcutaneous fat depots is associated with metabolic parameters and whether their expression is regulated by intensive physical exercise.
Research design and methods
We determined metabolic parameters and assessed AdipoR1 and R2 mRNA expression using quantitative real-time PCR in adipose tissue in an observational study of 153 subjects, and an interventional study of 60 subjects (20 each with normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetes) before and after intensive physical training for 4 weeks.
AdipoR1 and R2 mRNA expression is not significantly different between omental and subcutaneous fat, but their expression is several fold lower in adipose tissue than in muscle. AdipoR2 mRNA expression in visceral fat is highly correlated with its expression in subcutaneous fat. AdipoR2 mRNA expression in both visceral and subcutaneous fat is positively associated with circulating adiponectin and HDL levels but negatively associated with obesity as well as parameters of insulin resistance, glycemia and other lipid levels before and after adjustment for fat mass. Physical training for 4 weeks resulted in increased AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNA expression in subcutaneous fat.
AdipoR2 mRNA expression in fat is negatively associated with insulin resistance and metabolic parameters independently of obesity, and may mediate the improvement of insulin resistance in response to exercise.
Adiponectin; AdipoR1; AdipoR2; adipose tissue; obesity; diabetes; exercise training
Adiponectin is an adipokine that is specifically and abundantly expressed in adipose tissue and directly sensitizes the body to insulin. Hypoadiponectinemia, caused by interactions of genetic factors such as SNPs in the Adiponectin gene and environmental factors causing obesity, appears to play an important causal role in insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome, which are linked to obesity. The adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, which mediate the antidiabetic metabolic actions of adiponectin, have been cloned and are downregulated in obesity-linked insulin resistance. Upregulation of adiponectin is a partial cause of the insulin-sensitizing and antidiabetic actions of thiazolidinediones. Therefore, adiponectin and adiponectin receptors represent potential versatile therapeutic targets to combat obesity-linked diseases characterized by insulin resistance. This Review describes the pathophysiology of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors in insulin resistance, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome.
Reproductive dysfunction in the diabetic female rat is associated with altered folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the reduction of steroid production have not been described. Adiponectin is an adipocytokine that has insulin-sensitizing actions including stimulation of glucose uptake in muscle and suppression of glucose production in liver. Adiponectin acts via two receptor isoforms – AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 – that are regulated by hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia in liver and muscle. We have recently identified AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in rat ovary. However, their regulation in ovaries of diabetic female rat remains to be elucidated.
We incubated rat primary granulosa cells in vitro with high concentrations of glucose (5 or 10 g/l) + or - FSH (10-8 M) or IGF-1 (10-8 M), and we studied the ovaries of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ) in vivo. The levels of oestradiol and progesterone in culture medium and serum were measured by RIA. We used immunoblotting to assay key steroidogenesis factors (3beta HSD, p450scc, p450 aromatase, StAR), and adiponectin receptors and various elements of signalling pathways (MAPK ERK1/2 and AMPK) in vivo and in vitro. We also determined cell proliferation by [3H] thymidine incorporation.
Glucose (5 or 10 g/l) impaired the in vitro production in rat granulosa cells of both progesterone and oestradiol in the basal state and in response to FSH and IGF-1 without affecting cell proliferation and viability. This was associated with substantial reductions in the amounts of 3beta HSD, p450scc, p450 aromatase and StAR proteins and MAPK ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In contrast, glucose did not affect the abundance of AdipoR1 or AdipoR2 proteins. In vivo, as expected, STZ treatment of rats caused hyperglycaemia and insulin, adiponectin and resistin deficiencies. Plasma progesterone and oestradiol levels were also reduced in STZ rats. However, the amounts of 3beta HSD and p450 aromatase were the same in STZ rat ovary and controls, and the amounts of StAR and p450scc were higher. Streptozotocin treatment did not affect adiponectin receptors in rat ovary but it increased AMPK phosphorylation without affecting MAPK ERK1/2 phosphorylation.
High levels of glucose decrease progesterone and oestradiol production in primary rat granulosa cells and in STZ-treated rats. However, the mechanism that leads to reduced ovarian steroid production seems to be different. Furthermore, adiponectin receptors in ovarian cells are not regulated by glucose.
Adiponectin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue and has a variety of functions including the inhibition of tumor growth. The expression and function of the two major adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, in malignant tissue have not been well characterized. In the present study, we evaluated the mRNA levels of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 expression in 48 surgically resected colorectal cancer specimens, as well as normal colonic mucosa, by quantitative RT-PCR. The values obtained were standardized by β-actin mRNA, and the correlation between their relative expression levels and the clinicopathological characteristics of the patients was examined. The relative expression levels of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were significantly reduced in cancer tissue compared with normal tissue (AdipoR1: 0.97±0.39 vs. 1.37±0.41, P<0.0001; AdipoR2: 0.92±0.31 vs. 1.60±0.46, P<0.0001). AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 levels were further reduced in tumors with nodal metastases and the difference was statistically significant in the case of AdipoR2 (0.79±0.27 vs. 1.02±0.30, P=0.012). The results of this study demonstrated that the expression levels of adiponectin receptors are reduced in cancer specimens compared to normal tissue, indicating a downregulation in the course of the development and progression of colorectal cancer. Since adiponectin is abundantly present in the whole body and has inhibitory effects on cancer cells, this downregulation of the receptors may be an escape mechanism of malignant cells from the suppressive effects of adiponectin.
colorectal cancer; adiponectin receptor; lymph node metastasis
Adiponectin receptor-1 (AdipoR1) expression in skeletal muscle has been suggested to play an important role in insulin resistance and diabetes. We aimed at evaluating the presence of novel AdiopR1 splice variants in human muscle and their regulation under physiological and pathophysiological states.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
AdipoR1 5′UTR mRNA transcripts, predicted from bioinformatics data, were evaluated in fetal and adult human tissues. Expression and function of the identified transcripts were assessed in cultured human skeletal muscle cells and in muscle biopsies obtained from individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and type 2 diabetes (n = 49).
Screening of potential AdipoR1 5′UTR splice variants revealed a novel highly abundant muscle transcript (R1T3) in addition to the previously described transcript (R1T1). Unlike R1T1, R1T3 expression was significantly increased during fetal development and myogenesis, paralleled with increased AdipoR1 protein expression. The 5′UTR of R1T3 was found to contain upstream open reading frames that repress translation of downstream coding sequences. Conversely, AdipoR1 3′UTR was associated with enhanced translation efficiency during myoblast-myotube differentiation. A marked reduction in muscle expression of R1T3, R1T1, and R1T3-to-R1T1 ratio was observed in individuals with type 2 diabetes compared with expression levels of NGT subjects, paralleled with decreased expression of the differentiation marker myogenin. Among NGT subjects, R1T3 expression was positively correlated with insulin sensitivity.
These results indicate that AdipoR1 receptor expression in human skeletal muscle is subjected to posttranscriptional regulation, including alternative splicing and translational control. These mechanisms play an important role during myogenesis and may be important for whole-body insulin sensitivity.
The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is not well understood; however, the progression of fatty liver to NASH has been linked to oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in the liver, leading to inflammation. Although the adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) has been identified as a modulator of oxidative stress and inflammation in the liver, it remains unclear whether the receptor has hepatic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in NASH. In this study, we used an animal model of NASH to examine hepatic AdipoR2. Obese fa/fa Zucker rats fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFC) diet spontaneously developed fatty liver with inflammation and fibrosis, characteristic of NASH, after 4, 8, or 12 weeks of HFC diet consumption. AdipoR2 expression was significantly decreased, whereas the expression of genes related to NADPH oxidase complex were increased. As a result of the decrease in AdipoR2 expression, the mRNA expression of genes located downstream of AdipoR2, i.e., Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD) and Mn-SOD, also decreased. Furthermore, the expression of genes related to inflammation was increased. Increased oxidative stress and inflammation by down-regulation of AdipoR2 may contribute to the progression of NASH. Thus, the AdipoR2 might be a crucially important regulator of hepatic oxidative stress and inflammation in NASH.
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; adiponectin receptor 2; inflammation; oxidative stress; Zucker rats
Low adiponectin levels are an independent risk factor for, and mediate the effect of obesity on endometrial cancer in epidemiology studies. The direct or indirect mechanisms underlying these findings remain to be elucidated. We first examined the expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and 2 (AdipoR2) in normal human endometrium and in endometrial cancer tissues ex vivo. We then utilized KLE and RL95-2 human endometrial cancer cell lines in vitro to study relative expression of AdipoRs, to investigate the effect of adiponectin on activating intracellular signaling pathways, and to assess its potential to alter malignant properties. We report for the first time that the relative expression level of AdipoR1 is higher than AdipoR2 in human endometrial cancer tissue but the expression of AdipoRs is not statistically different from non-neoplastic tissues. We also demonstrate for the first time in endometrial cancer cell lines in vitro that adiponectin suppresses endometrial cancer proliferation acting through AdipoRs. Adiponectin also increases the expression of the adaptor molecule LKB1 which is required for adiponectin-mediated activation of AMPK/S6 axis and modulation of cell proliferation, colony formation, adhesion and invasion of KLE and RL95-2 cell lines. These novel mechanistic studies provide for the first time in vitro and ex vivo evidence for a causal role of adiponectin in endometrial cancer.
adiponectin; adiponectin receptor; intracellular signaling; LKB1; AMPK; endometrial adenocarcinoma
Adiponectin is inversely related to BMI, positively correlates with insulin sensitivity, and has anti-atherogenic effects. In recent years, adiponectin has been well studied in the field of oncology. Adiponectin has been shown to have antiproliferative effects on gastric cancer, and adiponectin expression is inversely correlated with clinical staging of the disease. However, no studies have reported the correlation between serum adiponectin and receptor expression with disease progression.
In this study, we evaluated expression levels of 2 adiponectin receptors--AdipoR1 and AdipoR2--and attempted to correlate their expression with prognosis in gastric cancer patients. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 expression in gastric cancer cell lines (MKN45, TMK-1, NUGC3, and NUGC4) was evaluated by western blotting analysis, and the antiproliferative potential of adiponectin was examined in vitro. Serum adiponectin levels were evaluated in 100 gastric cancer patients, and the expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 was assessed by immunohistochemical staining.
MKN45 and NUGC3 expressed higher levels of AdipoR1 compared to NUGC4, even though there was no significance in AdipoR2 expression. The antiproliferative effect of adiponectin was confirmed in MKN45 and NUGC3 at 10 μg/ml. No significant associations were observed between serum adiponectin levels and clinicopathological characteristics, but lymphatic metastasis and peritoneal dissemination were significantly higher in the negative AdipoR1 immunostaining group (24/32, p = 0.013 and 9/32, p = 0.042, respectively) compared to the positive AdipoR1 group (lymphatic metastasis, 33/68; peritoneal dissemination, 8/68). On the other hand, AdipoR2 expression was only associated with histopathological type (p = 0.001). In survival analysis, the AdipoR1 positive staining group had significantly longer survival rates than the negative staining group (p = 0.01). However, multivariate analysis indicated that AdipoR1 was not an independent prognostic factor on patient's survival on gastric cancer.
In gastric cancer, adiponectin has the possibility to be involved in cell growth suppression via AdipoR1. The presence of AdipoR1 could be a novel anticancer therapeutic target in gastric cancer.
Adiponectin; AdipoR1; AdipoR2; gastric cancer; survival
Adiponectin is a predominantly adipocyte-derived hormone which influences insulin sensitivity and energy homeostasis through at least two receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. In animal models, adiponectin may regulate ovarian steroidogenesis, folliculogenesis, and ovulation. The receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 are present in the human ovary, but their regulation is unknown. In these studies, we determined the effects of LH receptor activation on the expression and function of the two adiponectin receptors in human granulosa cells.
Granulosa cells were obtained at the time of oocyte retrieval in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Cells were isolated and cultured for 48 h in DMEM/F12 medium with 5 % FBS and 50 ug/ml gentamicin. Medium was changed to low serum for 12 h and cells were treated with hCG (100 ng/ml), forskolin (30 μMol/L), or FSH (1 IU/ml) for 24 h for mRNA experiments. mRNA was isolated and RT PCR was performed using Taqman assays and quantification with the delta delta CT method. For immunocytochemistry, cells were grown on chamber slides and treated with hCG for 1 to 24 h and fixed with acetone. ICC was performed with polyclonal rabbit primary antibodies followed by alexa fluor goat anti-rabbit antibody and imaging with a fluorescence microscope and Zeiss software analysis. 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD) enzyme activity was determined by measuring the progesterone produced when cells were provided with an excess of 22-hydroxy-cholesterol as substrate following an incubation with hCG (1 IU/ml) and/or adiponectin (10 ng/ml). Progesterone content in the media was determined by ELISA.
Messenger RNA for the two Adiponectin receptors is differentially regulated by activation of LHR with hCG treatment. AdipoR2 was increased nearly 4-fold (p < 0.05), whereas AdipoR1 expression was not changed by hCG treatment. Treatment with either FSH or forskolin (an activator of cAMP) had similar effects. Basal AdipoR2 protein was fairly low in granulosa cells in culture however treatment of cells with hCG resulted in a discernible increase in immunodetectable cytoplasmic protein as early as 6 h after treatment and was maintained for at least 24 h. The number of cells positive for AdipoR2 at 6 h increased from a basal of 20 % to almost 60 % (p < 0.05). Adiponectin treatment of hCG-primed cells resulted in increased 3βHSD activity by approximately 60 % over hCG alone and more than 3-fold over basal levels.
AdipoR2 is regulated by the LH receptor function via a cAMP dependant mechanism. Increased expression of adipoR2 prior to and following ovulation may contribute to enhanced 3βHSD activity and increased progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum of the ovary. Dysregulation of adiponectin that may occur with PCOS may impair normal progesterone production.
Ovary; Granulosa; Adiponectin; Adiponectin receptor; PCOS; Progesterone
Adiponectin (Adipoq), a protein secreted by adipocytes in inverse proportion to the adipose mass present, modulates energy homeostasis and increases insulin sensitivity. Tissue Adipoq signaling decreases in settings of maternal diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and endometriosis, conditions which are associated with reproductive difficulty. Our objective was to define the expression and hormonal regulation of Adipoq and its receptors in the mouse preimplantation embryo and uterus.
METHODS AND RESULTS
By real-time quantitative PCR, mRNA transcripts for Adipoq, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, Ppara, Ppard, FATP1 (SLC27A1) and acyl CoA oxidase (Acox1) were identified in mouse 2-cell and 8-cell embryos, while blastocyst stage embryos and trophoblast stem (TS) cells expressed mRNA for all genes except Adipoq. Protein expression of Adipoq, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, the insulin sensitive transporters GLUT8 (Slc2A8), GLUT12 (Slc2A12) and p-PRKAA1 was identified by immunofluorescence staining in all stages of preimplantation embryos including the blastocyst. In situ hybridization demonstrated the presence of Adipoq, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNA in the mouse decidual cells of the implantation site and in artificially decidualized cells, and the expression of these proteins was confirmed by western blotting. Flow cytometry confirmed cell surface expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in TS cells and decidual cells.
These results suggest for the first time that Adipoq signaling may play an important role in preimplantation embryo development and uterine receptivity by autocrine and paracrine methods in the mouse. Implantation failures and pregnancy loss, specifically those experienced in women with maternal metabolic conditions such as diabetes, obesity and PCOS, may be the result of aberrant Adipoq and AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 expression and suboptimal decidualization in the uterus.
adiponectin; adiponectin receptor; preimplantation embryo; uterus; decidua
Contribution of individual adiponectin isoforms to lipolysis regulation remains unknown. We investigated the impact of full-length, trimeric and globular adiponectin isoforms on spontaneous lipolysis in subcutaneous abdominal (SCAAT) and visceral adipose tissues (VAT) of obese and non-obese subjects. Furthermore, we explored the role of AMPK (5'-AMP-activated protein kinase) in adiponectin-dependent lipolysis regulation and expression of adiponectin receptors type 1 and 2 (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) in SCAAT and VAT. Primary adipocytes isolated from SCAAT and VAT of obese and non-obese women were incubated with 20 µg/ml of: A) full-length adiponectin (physiological mixture of all adiponectin isoforms), B) trimeric adiponectin isoform or C) globular adiponectin isoform. Glycerol released into media was used as a marker of lipolysis. While full-length adiponectin inhibited lipolysis by 22% in non-obese SCAAT, globular isoform inhibited lipolysis by 27% in obese SCAAT. No effect of either isoform was detected in non-obese VAT, however trimeric isoform inhibited lipolysis by 21% in obese VAT (all p<0.05). Trimeric isoform induced Thr172 p-AMPK in differentiated preadipocytes from a non-obese donor, while globular isoform induced Ser79 p-ACC by 32% (p<0.05) and Ser565 p-HSL by 52% (p = 0.08) in differentiated preadipocytes from an obese donor. AdipoR2 expression was 17% and 37% higher than AdipoR1 in SCAAT of obese and non-obese groups and by 23% higher in VAT of obese subjects (all p<0.05). In conclusion, the anti-lipolytic effect of adiponectin isoforms is modified with obesity: while full-length adiponectin exerts anti-lipolytic action in non-obese SCAAT, globular and trimeric isoforms show anti-lipolytic activity in obese SCAAT and VAT, respectively.
Adiponectin, protein secreted mainly by white adipose tissue, is an important factor linking the regulation of metabolic homeostasis and reproductive processes. The biological activity of the hormone is mediated via two distinct receptors, termed adiponectin receptor 1(AdipoR1) and adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2). The present study analyzed mRNA and protein expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in the anterior (AP) and posterior (NP) pituitary of cyclic pigs.
The total of 20 animals was assigned to one of four experimental groups (n = 5 per group) as follows: days 2–3 (early-luteal phase), 10–12 (mid-luteal phase), 14–16 (late-luteal phase), 17–19 (follicular phase) of the oestrous cycle. mRNA and protein expression were analyzed using real-time PCR and Western Blot methods, respectively.
The lowest AdipoR1 gene expression was detected in AP on days 10–12 relative to days 2–3 and 14–16 (p < 0.05). In NP, AdipoR1 mRNA levels were elevated on days 10–12 and 14–16 (p < 0.05). AdipoR2 gene expression in AP was the lowest on days 10–12, and an expression peak occurred on days 2–3 (p < 0.05). In NP, the lowest (p < 0.05) expression of AdipoR2 mRNA was noted on days 17–19. The AdipoR1 protein content in AP was the lowest on days 17–19 (p < 0.05), while in NP the variations in protein expression levels during the oestrous cycle were negligible. AdipoR2 protein in AP was most abundant on days 10–12, and it reached the lowest level on days 2–3 and 17–19 of the cycle (p < 0.05). The presence of AdipoR2 protein in NP was more pronounced on days 10–12 (p < 0.05).
Our study was the first experiment to demonstrate that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNAs and proteins are present in the porcine pituitary and that adiponectin receptors expression is dependent on endocrine status of the animals.
Adiponectin; Adiponectin receptor; Pituitary; Oestrous cycle; Pig
Adiponectin is a key mediator of the metabolic syndrome that is caused by visceral fat accumulation. Adiponectin and its receptors are known to be expressed in osteoblasts, but their actions with regard to bone metabolism are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of adiponectin on the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.
Adiponectin receptor type 1 (AdipoR1) mRNA was detected in the cells by RT-PCR. The adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMP kinase) was phosphorylated by both adiponectin and a pharmacological AMP kinase activator, 5-amino-imidazole-4-carboxamide-riboside (AICAR), in the cells. AdipoR1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection potently knocked down the receptor mRNA, and the effect of this knockdown persisted for as long as 10 days after the transfection. The transfected cells showed decreased expressions of type I collagen and osteocalcin mRNA, as determined by real-time PCR, and reduced ALP activity and mineralization, as determined by von Kossa and Alizarin red stainings. In contrast, AMP kinase activation by AICAR (0.01–0.5 mM) in wild-type MC3T3-E1 cells augmented their proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization. BrdU assay showed that the addition of adiponectin (0.01–1.0 μg/ml) also promoted their proliferation. Osterix, but not Runx-2, appeared to be involved in these processes because AdipoR1 siRNA transfection and AICAR treatments suppressed and enhanced osterix mRNA expression, respectively.
Taken together, this study suggests that adiponectin stimulates the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblasts via the AdipoR1 and AMP kinase signaling pathways in autocrine and/or paracrine fashions.
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been implicated in alcohol and drug addiction. We recently identified the small G protein K-ras as an alcohol-regulated gene in the ACC by gene expression analysis. We show here that the adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) was differentially regulated by alcohol in the ACC in a K-ras-dependent manner. Additionally, withdrawal-associated increased drinking was attenuated in AdipoR2 null mice. Intracellular recordings revealed that adiponectin increased the excitability of ACC neurons and that this effect was more pronounced during alcohol withdrawal, suggesting that AdipoR2 signaling may contribute to increased ACC activity. Altogether, the data implicate K-ras-regulated pathways involving AdipoR2 in the cellular and behavioral actions of alcohol that may contribute to overactivity of the ACC during withdrawal and excessive alcohol drinking.
Neural plasticity; PI3K; Jak/Stat; ERK; MAPK; adipokines; Acrp30; apM1
Adiponectin is the most abundant plasma protein synthesized for the most part in adipose tissue, and it is an insulin-sensitive hormone, playing a central role in glucose and lipid metabolism. In addition, it increases fatty acid oxidation in the muscle and potentiates insulin inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Two adiponectin receptors have been identified: AdipoR1 is the major receptor expressed in skeletal muscle, whereas AdipoR2 is mainly expressed in liver. Consumption of high levels of dietary fat is thought to be a major factor in the promotion of obesity and insulin resistance. Excessive levels of cortisol are characterized by the symptoms of abdominal obesity, hypertension, glucose intolerance or diabetes and dyslipidemia; of note, all of these features are shared by the condition of insulin resistance. Although it has been shown that glucocorticoids inhibit adiponectin expression in vitro and in vivo, little is known about the regulation of adiponectin receptors. The link between glucocorticoids and insulin resistance may involve the adiponectin receptors and adrenalectomy might play a role not only in regulate expression and secretion of adiponectin, as well regulate the respective receptors in several tissues.
Feeding of a high-fat diet increased serum glucose levels and decreased adiponectin and adipoR2 mRNA expression in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissues, respectively. Moreover, it increased both adipoR1 and adipoR2 mRNA levels in muscle and adipoR2 protein levels in liver. Adrenalectomy combined with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone treatment resulted in increased glucose and insulin levels, decreased serum adiponectin levels, reduced adiponectin mRNA in epididymal adipose tissue, reduction of adipoR2 mRNA by 7-fold in muscle and reduced adipoR1 and adipoR2 protein levels in muscle. Adrenalectomy alone increased adiponectin mRNA expression 3-fold in subcutaneous adipose tissue and reduced adipoR2 mRNA expression 2-fold in liver.
Hyperglycemia as a result of a high-fat diet is associated with an increase in the expression of the adiponectin receptors in muscle. An excess of glucocorticoids, rather than their absence, increase glucose and insulin and decrease adiponectin levels.
Muscle lipid oxidation is stimulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ or adiponectin receptor signalling. We studied human myocyte expression of the PPARδ and adiponectin receptor genes and their relationship to lipid parameters of the donors. The mRNA levels of the three adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, and T-cadherin, were highly interrelated (r ≥ 0.91). However, they were not associated with GPBAR1, an unrelated membrane receptor. In addition, the adiponectin receptors were positively associated with PPARδ expression (r ≥ 0.75). However, they were not associated with PPARα. Using stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, PPARδ was a significant determinant of T-cadherin (P = .0002). However, pharmacological PPARδ activation did not increase T-cadherin expression. The myocyte expression levels of AdipoR1 and T-cadherin were inversely associated with the donors' fasting plasma triglycerides (P < .03). In conclusion, myocyte expression of PPARδ and the adiponectin receptors are highly coordinated, and this might be of relevance for human lipid metabolism in vivo.
Adiponectin is an adipokine whose plasma levels are inversely related to degrees of insulin resistance (IR) or obesity. It enhances glucose disposal and mitochondrial substrate oxidation in skeletal muscle and its actions are mediated through binding to receptors, especially adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1). However, the in vivo significance of adiponectin sensitivity and the molecular mechanisms of muscle insulin sensitization by adiponectin have not been fully established. We used in vivo electrotransfer to overexpress AdipoR1 in single muscles of rats, some of which were fed for 6 wk with chow or high-fat diet (HFD) and then subjected to hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. After 1 wk, the effects on glucose disposal, signaling, and sphingolipid metabolism were investigated in test vs. contralateral control muscles. AdipoR1 overexpression (OE) increased glucose uptake and glycogen accumulation in the basal and insulin-treated rat muscle and also in the HFD-fed rats, locally ameliorating muscle IR. These effects were associated with increased phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1, Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β. AdipoR1 OE also caused increased phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase, and acetyl-coA carboxylase as well as increased protein levels of adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding domain, and leucine zipper motif-1 and adiponectin, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, and uncoupling protein-3, indicative of increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Although neither HFD feeding nor AdipoR1 OE caused generalized changes in sphingolipids, AdipoR1 OE did reduce levels of sphingosine 1-phosphate, ceramide 18:1, ceramide 20:2, and dihydroceramide 20:0, plus mRNA levels of the ceramide synthetic enzymes serine palmitoyl transferase and sphingolipid Δ-4 desaturase, changes that are associated with increased insulin sensitivity. These data demonstrate that enhancement of local adiponectin sensitivity is sufficient to improve skeletal muscle IR.
Obesity is a major risk factor for asthma and it influences airway smooth muscle function and responsiveness. Adiponectin is inversely associated with obesity and its action is mediated through at least 2 cell membrane receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2). Leptin is positively associated with obesity. We investigated whether human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells express adiponectin receptors and whether adiponectin and leptin regulate human ASM cell proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release.
Materials and Methods
Human ASM cells were growth-arrested in serum-deprived medium for 48 hours and then stimulated with PDGF, adiponectin and leptin. After 48 hours of stimulation, proliferation was determined using a cell proliferation ELISA kit. Human AdipoR1 and -R2 mRNA expressions were determined by RT-PCR using human-specific AdipoR1 and -R2 primers. Concentrations of VEGF, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α in cell culture supernatant were determined by ELISA.
Both AdipoR1 and AdipoR2
mRNA were expressed in the cultured human ASM cells. However, adiponectin did not suppress PDGF-enhanced ASM cell proliferation, nor did leptin promote ASM cell proliferation. Leptin promoted VEGF release by human ASM cells, while adiponectin did not influence VEGF release. Neither leptin nor adiponectin influenced MCP-1 secretion from human ASM cells. Adiponectin and MIP-1α were not secreted by human ASM cells.
Human ASM cells expressed
adiponectin receptors. However, adiponectin did not regulate human ASM cell proliferation or VEGF release, while leptin stimulated VEGF release by human ASM cells.
Smooth muscle cells; cell proliferation; vascular endothelial growth factor; leptin; adiponectin; receptors
Globular adiponectin (gAd) is a type of adipocytokine, which is mainly produced by adipose tissue. It has been reported that gAd acts as a pro- as well as an anti-inflammatory factor. Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 are pro-inflammatory cytokines. To investigate the role of gAd on periodontal tissues, the expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and the effect of gAd on the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 were investigated in periodontal ligament (PDL) and gingival fibroblasts.
PDL and gingival fibroblasts were cultured from human periodontal tissues. gAd derived from Escherichia coli and murine myeloma cells were used. The expression of AdipoR1 was estimated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot. The expression of cytokines was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
PDL and gingival fibroblasts expressed both mRNA and protein of AdipoR1. gAd derived from E. coli increased the production of IL-6 and IL-8, but polymyxin B, an inhibitor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), inhibited IL-6 and IL-8 production induced by gAd in both types of cells. gAd derived from murine myeloma cells did not induce IL-6 and IL-8 production in those cells. gAd derived from E. coli contained higher levels of LPS than gAd derived from murine myeloma cells. LPS increased production of IL-6 and IL-8 in PDL and gingival fibroblasts, but pretreatment of cells with gAd derived from murine myeloma cells did not inhibit LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 expression.
Our results suggest that PDL and gingival fibroblasts express AdipoR1 and that gAd does not act as a modulator of IL-6 and IL-8 expression in PDL and gingival fibroblasts.
Adiponectin; Periodontal ligament; Fibroblasts; Receptors; Cytokines