To compare full transcriptome expression levels of matched tumor and normal samples from patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma stratified by known tumor etiologic factors.
Patients and Methods
Full transcriptome sequencing was analyzed for 10 matched tumor and normal tissue samples from patients with previously untreated oropharyngeal carcinoma. Transcriptomes were analyzed using massively parallel messenger RNA sequencing and validated using the NanoString nCounter system. Global gene expression levels were compared in samples grouped by smoking status and human papillomavirus status. This study was completed between June 10, 2010, and June 30, 2011.
Global gene expression analysis indicated tumor tissue from former smokers grouped more closely to the never smokers than the current smokers. Pathway analysis revealed alterations in the expression of genes involved in the p53 DNA damage-repair pathway, including CHEK2 and ATR, which display patterns of increased expression that is associated with human papillomavirus–negative current smokers rather than former or never smokers.
These findings support the application of messenger RNA sequencing technology as an important clinical tool for more accurately stratifying patients based on individual tumor biology with the goal of improving our understanding of tumor prognosis and treatment response, ultimately leading to individualized patient care strategies.
EGFR mutations underlie the sensitivity of lung cancers to erlotinib and gefitinib and can occur in any patient with this illness. Here we examine the frequency of EGFR mutations in smokers and men.
We determined the frequency of EGFR mutations and characterized their association with cigarette smoking status and male sex.
We tested 2,142 lung adenocarcinoma specimens for the presence of EGFR exon 19 deletions and L858R. EGFR mutations were found in 15% of tumors from former smokers (181 of 1,218; 95% CI, 13% to 17%), 6% from current smokers (20 of 344; 95% CI, 4% to 9%), and 52% from never smokers (302 of 580; 95% CI, 48% to 56%; P < .001 for ever v never smokers). EGFR mutations in former or current smokers represented 40% of all those detected (201 of 503; 95% CI, 36% to 44%). EGFR mutations were found in 19% (157 of 827; 95% CI, 16% to 22%) of tumors from men and 26% (346 of 1,315; 95% CI, 24% to 29%) of tumors from women (P < .001). EGFR mutations in men represented 31% (157 of 503; 95% CI, 27% to 35%) of all those detected.
A large number of EGFR mutations are found in adenocarcinoma tumor specimens from men and people who smoked cigarettes. If only women who were never smokers were tested, 57% of all EGFR mutations would be missed. Testing for EGFR mutations should be considered for all patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung at diagnosis, regardless of clinical characteristics. This strategy can extend the use of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors to the greatest number individuals with the potential for substantial benefit.
miRBase is the primary online repository for all microRNA sequences and annotation. The current release (miRBase 16) contains over 15 000 microRNA gene loci in over 140 species, and over 17 000 distinct mature microRNA sequences. Deep-sequencing technologies have delivered a sharp rise in the rate of novel microRNA discovery. We have mapped reads from short RNA deep-sequencing experiments to microRNAs in miRBase and developed web interfaces to view these mappings. The user can view all read data associated with a given microRNA annotation, filter reads by experiment and count, and search for microRNAs by tissue- and stage-specific expression. These data can be used as a proxy for relative expression levels of microRNA sequences, provide detailed evidence for microRNA annotations and alternative isoforms of mature microRNAs, and allow us to revisit previous annotations. miRBase is available online at: http://www.mirbase.org/.
Aberrant promoter hypermethylation is one of the major mechanisms in carcinogenesis and some critical growth regulatory genes have shown commonality in methylation across solid tumors. Twenty-six genes, 14 identified through methylation in colon and breast cancers, were evaluated using primary lung adenocarcinomas (n = 175) from current, former and never smokers. Tumor specificity of methylation was validated through comparison of 14 lung cancer cell lines to normal human bronchial epithelial cells derived from bronchoscopy of 20 cancer-free smokers. Twenty-five genes were methylated in 11–81% of primary tumors. Prevalence for methylation of TNFRSF10C, BHLHB5 and BOLL was significantly higher in adenocarcinomas from never smokers than smokers. The relation between methylation of individual genes was examined using pairwise comparisons. A significant association was seen between 138 (42%) of the possible 325 pairwise comparisons. Most notably, methylation of MMP2, BHLHB4 or p16 was significantly associated with methylation of 16–19 other genes, thus predicting for a widespread methylation phenotype. Kaplan–Meier log-rank test and proportional hazard models identified a significant association between methylation of SULF2 (a pro-growth, -angiogenesis and -migration gene) and better patient survival (hazard ratio = 0.23). These results demonstrate a high degree of commonality for targeted silencing of genes between lung and other solid tumors and suggest that promoter hypermethylation in cancer is a highly co-ordinated event.
MicroRNAs are short (~21 base) single stranded RNAs that, in plants, are generally coded by specific genes and cleaved specifically from hairpin precursors. MicroRNAs are critical for the regulation of multiple developmental, stress related and other physiological processes in plants. The recent annotation of the genome of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) allowed the identification of many putative conserved microRNA precursors, grouped into multiple gene families.
Here we use oligonucleotide arrays to provide the first indication that many of these microRNAs show differential expression patterns between tissues and during the maturation of fruit in the grapevine. Furthermore we demonstrate that whole transcriptome sequencing and deep-sequencing of small RNA fractions can be used both to identify which microRNA precursors are expressed in different tissues and to estimate genomic coordinates and patterns of splicing and alternative splicing for many primary miRNA transcripts.
Our results show that many microRNAs are differentially expressed in different tissues and during fruit maturation in the grapevine. Furthermore, the demonstration that whole transcriptome sequencing can be used to identify candidate splicing events and approximate primary microRNA transcript coordinates represents a significant step towards the large-scale elucidation of mechanisms regulating the expression of microRNAs at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths. Tobacco smoke exposure is the strongest aetiological factor associated with lung cancer. In this study, using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), we comprehensively examined the effect of active smoking by comparing the transcriptomes of clinical specimens obtained from current, former and never smokers, and identified genes showing both reversible and irreversible expression changes upon smoking cessation.
Twenty-four SAGE profiles of the bronchial epithelium of eight current, twelve former and four never smokers were generated and analyzed. In total, 3,111,471 SAGE tags representing over 110 thousand potentially unique transcripts were generated, comprising the largest human SAGE study to date. We identified 1,733 constitutively expressed genes in current, former and never smoker transcriptomes. We have also identified both reversible and irreversible gene expression changes upon cessation of smoking; reversible changes were frequently associated with either xenobiotic metabolism, nucleotide metabolism or mucus secretion. Increased expression of TFF3, CABYR, and ENTPD8 were found to be reversible upon smoking cessation. Expression of GSK3B, which regulates COX2 expression, was irreversibly decreased. MUC5AC expression was only partially reversed. Validation of select genes was performed using quantitative RT-PCR on a secondary cohort of nine current smokers, seven former smokers and six never smokers.
Expression levels of some of the genes related to tobacco smoking return to levels similar to never smokers upon cessation of smoking, while expression of others appears to be permanently altered despite prolonged smoking cessation. These irreversible changes may account for the persistent lung cancer risk despite smoking cessation.
Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rapidly fatal disease whose diagnosis, particularly through less invasive techniques such as analysis of pleural effusion, can be challenging. Currently, a commercially available diagnostic test based on microRNA expression patterns is purported to distinguish between mesothelioma and lung adenocarcinoma. Yet, the biological basis of this technology has not been reported in the literature, and little research has been aimed at determining how differential miRNA expression contributes to the differences in pathogenesis between these diseases, both of which can be caused by asbestos exposure. We sought to illuminate the molecular differences between mesothelioma and lung adenocarcinoma by using microRNA microarrays to identify patterns in the most differentially expressed microRNAs. From this, we identified a panel of microRNAs, including members of the miR-200 gene family, that were all downregulated in malignant pleural mesothelioma compared to lung adenocarcinoma. Using the more sensitive detection method of quantitative RT-PCR on an independent series of tumors, we validated the specificity of these alterations in 100 malignant pleural mesotheliomas and 32 lung adenocarcinomas. Statistical analysis reveals that these microRNAs exceed the current recommendations for biomarkers and could greatly aid in the differential diagnosis. Further examination led us to predict that they act as redundant regulators of wnt signaling, and suggests a role for this pathway in tumor progression. This research points to novel approaches utilizing microRNAs whose decreased expression is unique to mesothelioma as potentially suitable for rapid diagnosis, and reveals prospective new targets for the treatment of this deadly disease.
Mesothelioma; microRNA; wnt-signaling; Lung Adenocarcinoma
There is a need for new, noninvasive risk assessment tools for use in lung cancer population screening and prevention programs.
To investigate the technical feasibility of determining DNA methylation in exhaled breath condensate, we applied our previously-developed method for tag-adapted bisulfite genomic DNA sequencing (tBGS) for mapping of DNA methylation, and adapted it to exhaled breath condensate (EBC) from lung cancer cases and non-cancer controls. Promoter methylation patterns were analyzed in DAPK, RASSF1A and PAX5β promoters in EBC samples from 54 individuals, comprised of 37 controls [current- (n = 19), former- (n = 10), and never-smokers (n = 8)] and 17 lung cancer cases [current- (n = 5), former- (n = 11), and never-smokers (n = 1)].
We found: (1) Wide inter-individual variability in methylation density and spatial distribution for DAPK, PAX5β and RASSF1A. (2) Methylation patterns from paired exhaled breath condensate and mouth rinse specimens were completely divergent. (3) For smoking status, the methylation density of RASSF1A was statistically different (p = 0.0285); pair-wise comparisons showed that the former smokers had higher methylation density versus never smokers and current smokers (p = 0.019 and p = 0.031). For DAPK and PAX5β, there was no such significant smoking-related difference. Underlying lung disease did not impact on methylation density for this geneset. (4) In case-control comparisons, CpG at -63 of DAPK promoter and +52 of PAX5β promoter were significantly associated with lung cancer status (p = 0.0042 and 0.0093, respectively). After adjusting for multiple testing, both loci were of borderline significance (padj = 0.054 and 0.031). (5) The DAPK gene had a regional methylation pattern with two blocks (1)~-215~-113 and (2) -84 ~+26); while similar in block 1, there was a significant case-control difference in methylation density in block 2 (p = 0.045); (6)Tumor stage and histology did not impact on the methylation density among the cases. (7) The results of qMSP applied to EBC correlated with the corresponding tBGS sequencing map loci.
Our results show that DNA methylation in exhaled breath condensate is detectable and is likely of lung origin. Suggestive correlations with smoking and lung cancer case-control status depend on individual gene and CpG site examined.
MicroRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that regulate the stability and translation of mRNAs. Profiling experiments, using microarray or deep sequencing technology, have identified microRNAs that are preferentially expressed in certain tissues, specific stages of development, or disease states such as cancer. Deep sequencing utilizes massively parallel sequencing, generating millions of small RNA sequence reads from a given sample. Profiling of microRNAs by deep sequencing measures absolute abundance and allows for the discovery of novel microRNAs that have eluded previous cloning and standard sequencing efforts. Public databases provide in silico predictions of microRNA gene targets by various algorithms. To better determine which of these predictions represent true positives, microRNA expression data can be integrated with gene expression data to identify putative microRNA:mRNA functional pairs. Here we discuss tools and methodologies for the analysis of microRNA expression data from deep sequencing.
deep sequencing; expression profiling; microRNA
Deep sequencing techniques provide a remarkable opportunity for comprehensive understanding of tumorigenesis at the molecular level. As omics studies become popular, integrative approaches need to be developed to move from a simple cataloguing of mutations and changes in gene expression to dissecting the molecular nature of carcinogenesis at the systemic level and understanding the complex networks that lead to cancer development.
Here, we describe a high-throughput, multi-dimensional sequencing study of primary lung adenocarcinoma tumors and adjacent normal tissues of six Korean female never-smoker patients. Our data encompass results from exome-seq, RNA-seq, small RNA-seq, and MeDIP-seq. We identified and validated novel genetic aberrations, including 47 somatic mutations and 19 fusion transcripts. One of the fusions involves the c-RET gene, which was recently reported to form fusion genes that may function as drivers of carcinogenesis in lung cancer patients. We also characterized gene expression profiles, which we integrated with genomic aberrations and gene regulations into functional networks. The most prominent gene network module that emerged indicates that disturbances in G2/M transition and mitotic progression are causally linked to tumorigenesis in these patients. Also, results from the analysis strongly suggest that several novel microRNA-target interactions represent key regulatory elements of the gene network.
Our study not only provides an overview of the alterations occurring in lung adenocarcinoma at multiple levels from genome to transcriptome and epigenome, but also offers a model for integrative genomics analysis and proposes potential target pathways for the control of lung adenocarcinoma.
Over the past year, the MARG has focused on 3 biotechnology research and education areas: 1) completion and analysis of aperformance study of multiple DNA microarray and deep-sequencing platforms for microRNA profiling; 2) development of synthetic microRNA standards for validating methods and platforms for microRNA profilingassays in core and research laboratories; and 3) expanding MARG focus to include other genomic profiling platforms.We will present an overview on current MARG activities and new initiatives including the launch of a new webforum for genomic profiling technology and assays. The results of the microRNA profiling study on 5 DNA array platforms and 2 next-generation sequencers will be presented and discussed. Finally, we will summarize our progress in developing a set of synthetic microRNA standards that can be used by core laboratories to test methods and validate platforms for microRNA profiling.These standards will be made available to ABRF member labs after testing in MARG laboratories is complete.
Tobacco smoking is responsible for over 90% of lung cancer cases, and yet the precise molecular alterations induced by smoking in lung that develop into cancer and impact survival have remained obscure.
We performed gene expression analysis using HG-U133A Affymetrix chips on 135 fresh frozen tissue samples of adenocarcinoma and paired noninvolved lung tissue from current, former and never smokers, with biochemically validated smoking information. ANOVA analysis adjusted for potential confounders, multiple testing procedure, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, and GO-functional classification were conducted for gene selection. Results were confirmed in independent adenocarcinoma and non-tumor tissues from two studies. We identified a gene expression signature characteristic of smoking that includes cell cycle genes, particularly those involved in the mitotic spindle formation (e.g., NEK2, TTK, PRC1). Expression of these genes strongly differentiated both smokers from non-smokers in lung tumors and early stage tumor tissue from non-tumor tissue (p<0.001 and fold-change >1.5, for each comparison), consistent with an important role for this pathway in lung carcinogenesis induced by smoking. These changes persisted many years after smoking cessation. NEK2 (p<0.001) and TTK (p = 0.002) expression in the noninvolved lung tissue was also associated with a 3-fold increased risk of mortality from lung adenocarcinoma in smokers.
Our work provides insight into the smoking-related mechanisms of lung neoplasia, and shows that the very mitotic genes known to be involved in cancer development are induced by smoking and affect survival. These genes are candidate targets for chemoprevention and treatment of lung cancer in smokers.
MicroRNAs are a class of small RNAs that are increasingly being recognized as important regulators of gene expression. Although hundreds of microRNAs are present in the mammalian genome, genetic studies addressing their physiological roles are at an early stage. We have shown that mice deficient for bic/microRNA-155 are immunodeficient and display increased lung airway remodeling. We demonstrate a requirement of bic/microRNA-155 for the function of B and T lymphocytes and dendritic cells. Transcriptome analysis of bic/microRNA-155–deficient CD4+ T cells identified a wide spectrum of microRNA-155–regulated genes, including cytokines, chemokines, and transcription factors. Our work suggests that bic/microRNA-155 plays a key role in the homeostasis and function of the immune system.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of plant development and seed formation. In Brassica napus, an important edible oil crop, valuable lipids are synthesized and stored in specific seed tissues during embryogenesis. The miRNA transcriptome of B. napus is currently poorly characterized, especially at different seed developmental stages. This work aims to describe the miRNAome of developing seeds of B. napus by identifying plant-conserved and novel miRNAs and comparing miRNA abundance in mature versus developing seeds. Members of 59 miRNA families were detected through a computational analysis of a large number of reads obtained from deep sequencing two small RNA and two RNA-seq libraries of (i) pooled immature developing stages and (ii) mature B. napus seeds. Among these miRNA families, 17 families are currently known to exist in B. napus; additionally 29 families not reported in B. napus but conserved in other plant species were identified by alignment with known plant mature miRNAs. Assembled mRNA-seq contigs allowed for a search of putative new precursors and led to the identification of 13 novel miRNA families. Analysis of miRNA population between libraries reveals that several miRNAs and isomiRNAs have different abundance in developing stages compared to mature seeds. The predicted miRNA target genes encode a broad range of proteins related to seed development and energy storage. This work presents a comparative study of the miRNA transcriptome of mature and developing B. napus seeds and provides a basis for future research on individual miRNAs and their functions in embryogenesis, seed maturation and lipid accumulation in B. napus.
Playing a central role in the maintenance of hemostasis as well as in thrombotic disorders, platelets contain a relatively diverse messenger RNA (mRNA) transcriptome as well as functional mRNA-regulatory microRNAs, suggesting that platelet mRNAs may be regulated by microRNAs. Here, we elucidated the complete repertoire and features of human platelet microRNAs by high-throughput sequencing. More than 492 different mature microRNAs were detected in human platelets, whereas the list of known human microRNAs was expanded further by the discovery of 40 novel microRNA sequences. As in nucleated cells, platelet microRNAs bear signs of post-transcriptional modifications, mainly terminal adenylation and uridylation. In vitro enzymatic assays demonstrated the ability of human platelets to uridylate microRNAs, which correlated with the presence of the uridyltransferase enzyme TUT4. We also detected numerous microRNA isoforms (isomiRs) resulting from imprecise Drosha and/or Dicer processing, in some cases more frequently than the reference microRNA sequence, including 5′ shifted isomiRs with redirected mRNA targeting abilities. This study unveils the existence of a relatively diverse and complex microRNA repertoire in human platelets, and represents a mandatory step towards elucidating the intraplatelet and extraplatelet role, function and importance of platelet microRNAs.
The use of new, deep sequencing technologies has greatly accelerated microRNA discovery. We have applied this approach to the identification of chicken microRNAs and to the comparison of microRNAs in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) infected with Marek's disease virus (MDV) to those present in uninfected CEF.
We obtained 125,463 high quality reads that showed an exact match to the chicken genome. The majority of the reads corresponded to previously annotated chicken microRNAs; however, the sequences of many potential novel microsRNAs were obtained. A comparison of the reads obtained in MDV-infected and uninfected CEF indicates that infection does not significantly perturb the expression profile of microRNAs. Frequently sequenced microRNAs include miR-221/222, which are thought to play a role in growth and proliferation. A number of microRNAs (e.g., let-7, miR-199a-1, 26a) are expressed at lower levels in MDV-induced tumors, highlighting the potential importance of this class of molecules in tumorigenesis.
Deep sequencing technology is highly suited for small RNA discovery. This approach is independent of comparative sequence analysis, which has been the primary method used to identify chicken microRNAs. Our results have confirmed the expression of many microRNAs identified by sequence similarity and identified a pool of candidate novel microRNAs.
KRAS mutations are found in ~ 25% of lung adenocarcinomas in Western countries and, as a group, have been strongly associated with cigarette smoking. These mutations are predictive of poor prognosis in resected disease as well as resistance to treatment with erlotinib or gefitinib.
We determined the frequency and type of KRAS codon 12 and 13 mutations and characterized their association with cigarette smoking history in patients with lung adenocarcinomas.
KRAS mutational analysis was performed on 482 lung adenocarcinomas, 81 (17%) of which were obtained from patients who had never smoked cigarettes. KRAS mutations were found in 15% (12/81; 95% CI 8%-24%) of tumors from never smokers. Similarly, 22% (69/316; 95% CI 17%-27%) of tumors from former smokers, and 25% (21/85; 95% CI 16%-35%) of tumors from current smokers had KRAS mutations. The frequency of KRAS mutation was not associated with age, gender, or smoking history. The number of pack years of cigarette smoking did not predict an increased likelihood of KRAS mutations. Never smokers were significantly more likely than former or current smokers to have a transition mutation (G→A) rather than the transversion mutations known to be smoking related (G→T or G→C; p<0.0001).
Based upon our data, KRAS mutations are not rare among never smokers with lung adenocarcinoma and such patients have a distinct KRAS mutation profile. The etiologic and biological heterogeneity of KRAS mutant lung adenocarcinomas is worthy of further study.
In the work of Chari et al. entitled "Effect of active smoking on the human bronchial epithelium transcriptome" the authors use SAGE to identify candidate gene expression changes in bronchial brushings from never, former, and current smokers. These gene expression changes are categorized into those that are reversible or irreversible upon smoking cessation. A subset of these identified genes is validated on an independent cohort using RT-PCR. The authors conclude that their results support the notion of gene expression changes in the lungs of smokers which persist even after an individual has quit.
This correspondence raises questions about the validity of the approach used by the authors to analyze their data. The majority of the reported results suffer deficiencies due to the methods used. The most fundamental of these are explained in detail: biases introduced during data processing, lack of correction for multiple testing, and an incorrect use of clustering for gene discovery. A randomly generated "null" dataset is used to show the consequences of these shortcomings.
Most of Chari et al.'s findings are consistent with what would be expected by chance alone. Although there is clear evidence of reversible changes in gene expression, the majority of those identified appear to be false positives. However, contrary to the authors' claims, no irreversible changes were identified. There is a broad consensus that genetic change due to smoking persists once an individual has quit smoking; unfortunately, this study lacks sufficient scientific rigour to support or refute this hypothesis or identify any specific candidate genes. The pitfalls of large-scale analysis, as exemplified here, may not be unique to Chari et al.
There has been resurgence of interest in lung cancer screening using low‐dose computed tomography. The implications of directing a screening programme at smokers has been little explored.
A nationwide telephone survey was conducted. Demographics, certain clinical characteristics and attitudes about screening for lung cancer were ascertained. Responses of current, former and never smokers were compared.
2001 people from the US were interviewed. Smokers were significantly (p<0.05) more likely than never smokers to be male, non‐white, less educated, and to report poor health status or having had cancer, and less likely to be able to identify a usual source of healthcare. Compared with never smokers, current smokers were less likely to believe that early detection would result in a good chance of survival (p<0.05). Smokers were less likely to be willing to consider computed tomography screening for lung cancer (71.2% (current smokers) v 87.6% (never smokers) odds ratio (OR) 0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32 to 0.71). More never smokers as opposed to current smokers believed that the risk of disease (88% v 56%) and the accuracy of the test (92% v 71%) were important determinants in deciding whether to be screened (p<0.05). Only half of the current smokers would opt for surgery for a screen‐diagnosed cancer.
The findings suggest that there may be substantial obstacles to the successful implementation of a mass‐screening programme for lung cancer that will target cigarette smokers.
MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression and are over- or under-expressed in most tumors, including colorectal adenocarcinoma. MicroRNAs are potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets and agents, but limited information on microRNAome alterations during progression in the well-known adenoma-adenocarcinoma sequence is available to guide their usage.
We profiled 866 human microRNAs by microarray analysis in 69 matched specimens of microsatellite-stable adenocarcinomas, adjoining precursor adenomas including areas of high- and low-grade dysplasia, and nonneoplastic mucosa.
We found 230 microRNAs that were significantly differentially expressed during progression, including 19 not reported previously. Altered microRNAs clustered into two major patterns of early (type I) and late (type II) differential expression. The largest number (n = 108) was altered at the earliest step from mucosa to low-grade dysplasia (subtype IA) prior to major nuclear localization of β-catenin, including 36 microRNAs that had persistent differential expression throughout the entire sequence to adenocarcinoma. Twenty microRNAs were intermittently altered (subtype IB), and six were transiently altered (subtype IC). In contrast, 33 microRNAs were altered late in high-grade dysplasia and adenocarcinoma (subtype IIA), and 63 in adenocarcinoma only (subtype IIB). Predicted targets in 12 molecular pathways were identified for highly altered microRNAs, including the Wnt signaling pathway leading to low-grade dysplasia. β-catenin expression correlated with downregulated microRNAs.
Our findings suggest that numerous microRNAs play roles in the sequence of molecular events, especially early events, resulting in colorectal adenocarcinoma. The temporal patterns and complexity of microRNAome alterations during progression will influence the efficacy of microRNAs for clinical purposes.
Recent literature has revealed that genetic exchange of microRNA between cells can be essential for cell-cell communication, tissue-specificity and developmental processes. In stem cells, as in other cells, this can be accomplished through microvesicles or exosome mediated transfer. However, molecular profiles and functions of microRNAs within the cells and in their exosomes are poorly studied. Next generation sequencing technologies could provide a broad-spectrum of microRNAs and their expression and identify possible microRNA targets. In this work, we performed deep sequencing of microRNAs to understand the profile and expression of the microRNAs in microvesicles and intracellular environment of human embryonic stem cells derived mesenchymal stem cells (hES-MSC).
We outline a workflow pertaining to visualizing, statistical analysis and interpreting deep sequencing data of known intracellular and extracellular microRNAs from hES-MSC). We utilized these results of which directed our attention towards establishing hepatic nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4A) as a downstream target of let-7 family of microRNAs.
In our study, significant differences in expression profile of microRNAs were found in the intracellular and extracellular environment of hES-MSC. However, a high level of let-7 family of microRNAs is predominant in both intra- and extra- cellular samples of hES-MSC. Further results derived from visualization of our alignment data and network analysis showed that let-7 family microRNAs could affect the downstream target HNF4A, which is a known endodermal differentiation marker. The elevated presence of let-7 microRNA in both intracellular and extra cellular environment further suggests a possible intercellular signalling mechanism through microvesicles transfer. We suggest that let-7 family microRNAs might play a signalling role via such a mechanism amongst populations of stem cells in maintaining self renewal property by suppressing HNF4A expression. This is in line with recent paradigm where microRNAs regulate self-renewal and differentiation pathways of embryonic stem cells by forming an integral biological network with transcription factors.
In summary, our study using a combination of alignment, statistical and network analysis tools to examine deep sequencing data of microRNAs in hES-MSC has led to a result that (i) identifies intracellular and exosome microRNA expression profiles of hES-MSCwith a possible mechanism of miRNA mediated intercellular regulation by these cells and (ii) placed HNF4A within the cross roads of regulation by the let-7 family of microRNAs.
Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. Early detection is the key to improve the survival of lung adenocarcinoma patients. We have previously shown that microRNAs were stably present in sputum and could be applied to diagnosis of lung cancer. The aim of this study was to develop a panel of microRNAs that can be used as highly sensitive and specific sputum markers for early detection of lung adenocarcinoma. This study contained three phases: (1) marker discovery using microRNA profiling on paired normal and tumor lung tissues from 20 patients with lung adenocarcinoma; (2) marker optimization by real-time RT-qPCR on sputum of a case-control cohort consisting of 36 cancer patients and 36 health individuals; and (3) validation on an independent set of 64 lung cancer patients and 58 cancer-free subjects. From the surgical tissues, seven microRNAs with significantly altered expression were identified, of which “four” were overexpressed and “three” were underexpressed in all 20 tumors. On the sputum samples of the case-control cohort, four (miR-21, miR-486, miR-375, and miR-200b) of the seven microRNAs were selected, which in combination produced the best prediction in distinguishing lung adenocarcinoma patients from normal subjects with 80.6% sensitivity and 91.7% specificity. Validation of the marker panel in the independent populations confirmed the sensitivity and specificity that provided a significant improvement over any single one alone. The sputum markers demonstrated the potential of translation to laboratory settings for improving the early detection of lung adenocarcinoma.
MicroRNA; sputum; lung adenocarcinoma; real-time RT-qPCR; diagnosis
The incidence rate of suicidal ideation amongst current and former smokers versus never smokers is not known.
The age-adjusted incidence of suicidal ideation was highest among current smokers, followed by former, and never smokers. The adjusted hazard for suicide ideation was 2.22 (95%CI=1.48, 3.33) and 1.19 (95%CI=0.78, 1.82) for current and former smokers respectively, compared to never smokers.
Current smokers have increased risks of suicidal ideation above and beyond the risk for never and former smokers regardless of age, gender, history of depressive disorder and/or anxiety symptoms, and alcohol abuse/dependence. Smoking cessation might be beneficial for some suicide prevention efforts.
It has been recognized that patients with non-small cell lung cancer who are lifelong never-smokers constitute a distinct clinical entity. The aim of this study was to assess clinical risk factors for survival among never-smokers with non-small cell lung cancer.
All consecutive non-small cell lung cancer patients diagnosed (n = 285) between May 2005 and May 2009 were included. The clinical characteristics of never-smokers and ever-smokers (former and current) were compared using chi-squared or Student's t tests. Survival curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and log-rank tests were used for survival comparisons. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was evaluated by adjusting for age (continuous variable), gender (female vs. male), smoking status (never- vs. ever-smoker), the Karnofsky Performance Status Scale (continuous variable), histological type (adenocarcinoma vs. non-adenocarcinoma), AJCC staging (early vs. advanced staging), and treatment (chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy vs. the best treatment support).
Of the 285 non-small cell lung cancer patients, 56 patients were never-smokers. Univariate analyses indicated that the never-smoker patients were more likely to be female (68% vs. 32%) and have adenocarcinoma (70% vs. 51%). Overall median survival was 15.7 months (95% CI: 13.2 to 18.2). The never-smoker patients had a better survival rate than their counterpart, the ever-smokers. Never-smoker status, higher Karnofsky Performance Status, early staging, and treatment were independent and favorable prognostic factors for survival after adjusting for age, gender, and adenocarcinoma in multivariate analysis.
Epidemiological differences exist between never- and ever-smokers with lung cancer. Overall survival among never-smokers was found to be higher and independent of gender and histological type.
Lung neoplasm; Non-small cell lung cancer; Adenocarcinoma; Never-smoker; Smoking
microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to play an essential role in the modulation of numerous biological processes in eukaryotes. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an ideal model organism for the study of many metabolic processes including responses to sulfur-deprivation. We used a deep sequencing platform to extensively profile and identify changes in the miRNAs expression that occurred under sulfur-replete and sulfur-deprived conditions. The aim of our research was to characterize the differential expression of Chlamydomonas miRNAs under sulfur-deprived conditions, and subsequently, the target genes of miRNA involved in sulfur-deprivation were further predicted and analyzed.
By using high-throughput sequencing, we characterized the microRNA transcriptomes under sulphur-replete and sulfur-deprived conditions in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We predicted a total of 310 miRNAs which included 85 known miRNAs and 225 novel miRNAs. 13 miRNAs were the specific to the sulfur-deprived conditions. 47 miRNAs showed significantly differential expressions responding to sulfur-deprivation, and most were up-regulated in the small RNA libraries with sulfur-deprivation. Using a web-based integrated system (Web MicroRNAs Designer 3) and combing the former information from a transcriptome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, 22 miRNAs and their targets involved in metabolism regulation with sulfur-deprivation were verified.
Our results indicate that sulfur-deprivation may have a significant influence on small RNA expression patterns, and the differential expressions of miRNAs and interactions between miRNA and its targets might further reveal the molecular mechanism responding to sulfur-deprivation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.