Background and Objectives: Resistance to a wide variety of common antimicrobials has made the proliferation of Extended spectrum β-lactmase (ESBL) producing strains a serious global health concern that has complicated treatment strategies. The high proportion of ESBL producers among the Enterobacteriaceae and the complex molecular epidemiology with diverse types of ESBL genes are alarming. This study was undertaken to identify ESBL production in various Gram negative bacilli isolated and to further characterize ESBL producers among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp by PCR, which were initially screened by phenotypic method.
Materials and Methods: A total of 722 isolates of Gram negative bacilli were isolated. Presence of ESBL positivity was detected using the double disk synergy test (DDST). Their antibiogram was studied. PCR analysis for β-lactamase (bla) genes of the family TEM, SHV and CTX-M was also carried out using designed primers in 20 ESBL isolates each of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp.
Results: Among 722 Gram negative bacilli isolated 379 (52.49%) were ESBL producers. The major source of ESBL producers were respiratory tract samples, highest ESBL production was observed in Klebsiella sp. (67.04%). Resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics was observed among ESBL producers. Among ESBL producing genes prevalence of bla-CTX-M (82.5%) was highest, followed by bla-TEM (67.5%) and bla-SHV (57.5%) in the present study. The frequency of ESBL producing strains among clinical isolates has been steadily increasing. Advance drug resistance surveillance and molecular characteristics of ESBL isolates is necessary to guide the appropriate and judicious antibiotic use.
Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL); Double Disk Synergy Test (DDST); Antibiogram; Plasmid; PCR
The contribution of integrons to the dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) was analyzed on all ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolates from 1988 to 2000 at Ramón y Cajal Hospital. We studied 133 E. coli pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types: (i) 52 ESBL-producing clinical strains (C-ESBL) (16 TEM, 9 SHV, 21 CTX-M-9, 1 CTX-M-14, and 5 CTX-M-10); (ii) 43 non-ESBL blood clinical strains (C-nESBL); and (iii) 38 non-ESBL fecal isolates from healthy volunteers (V-nESBL). Class 1 integrons were more common among C-ESBL (67%) than among C-nESBL (40%) or V-nESBL (26%) (P < 0.001) due to the high number of strains with blaCTX-M-9, which is linked to an In6-like class 1 integron. Without this bias, class 1 integron occurrence would be similar in C-ESBL and C-nESBL groups (47% versus 40%). Occurrence of class 2 integrons was similar among clinical and community isolates (13 to 18%). No isolates contained class 3 integrons. The relatively low rate of class 1 integrons within transferable elements carrying blaTEM (23%) or blaSHV (33%) and the absence of class 2 integrons in all ESBL transconjugants mirror the assembly of translocative pieces containing blaTEM or blaSHV on local available transferable elements lacking integrons. The low diversity of class 1 integrons (seven types recovered in all groups) might indicate a wide dissemination of specific genetic elements in which they are located. In our environment, the spread of genetic elements encoding ESBL has no major impact on the dispersion of integrons, nor do integrons have a major impact on the spread of ESBL, except when blaESBL genes are within an integron platform such as blaCTX-M-9.
Consecutive clinical isolates of Escherichia coli (n = 87) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 25) with reduced susceptibilities to oxyimino-cephalosporins (MICs > 1 mg/liter) from 18 Norwegian laboratories during March through October 2003 were examined for blaTEM/SHV/CTX-M extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) genes, oxyimino-cephalosporin MIC profiles, ESBL phenotypes (determined by the ESBL Etest and the combined disk and double-disk synergy [DDS] methods), and susceptibility to non-β-lactam antibiotics. Multidrug-resistant CTX-M-15-like (n = 23) and CTX-M-9-like (n = 15) ESBLs dominated among the 50 ESBL-positive E. coli isolates. SHV-5-like (n = 9) and SHV-2-like (n = 4) ESBLs were the most prevalent in 19 ESBL-positive K. pneumoniae isolates. Discrepant ESBL phenotype test results were observed for one major (CTX-M-9) and several minor (TEM-128 and SHV-2/-28) ESBL groups and in SHV-1/-11-hyperproducing isolates. Negative or borderline ESBL results were observed when low-MIC oxyimino-cephalosporin substrates were used to detect clavulanic acid (CLA) synergy. CLA synergy was detected by the ESBL Etest and the DDS method but not by the combined disk method in SHV-1/-11-hyperproducing strains. The DDS method revealed unexplained CLA synergy in combination with aztreonam and cefpirome in three E. coli strains. The relatively high proportion of ESBL-producing E. coli organisms with a low ceftazidime MIC in Norway emphasizes that cefpodoxime alone or both cefotaxime and ceftazidime should be used as substrates for ESBL detection.
Very little is known about the prevalence and composition of various types of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) in pediatric patients. The aims of this study were the following: (i) to determine the prevalence of ESBLs among Enterobacteriaceae in a tertiary-care pediatric population; (ii) to characterize the genetic composition of the identified ESBL enzymes; and (iii) to determine the relative prevalence of CTX-M enzymes and Escherichia coli ST131 strains among ESBL-producing isolates in the same pediatric patient population. Among the 1,430 Enterobacteriaceae isolates screened for elevated MICs to cefotaxime and/or ceftazidime from pediatric patients during a 1-year period, 94 isolates possessed at least one ESBL gene. CTX-M was the most commonly isolated ESBL type, consisting of 74% of all ESBLs versus 27% TEM and 24% SHV enzymes. Sequence analysis and probe-specific real-time PCR revealed that the majority (80%) of the CTX-M-type ESBLs were CTX-M-15 enzymes, followed by CTX-M-14 (17%) and CTX-M-27(2.8%). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and repetitive PCR analyses revealed that the relative prevalence of ST131 among ESBL-producing E. coli isolates is 10.2%. This study highlights the growing problem of ESBL resistance in pediatric Enterobacteriaceae isolates and demonstrates a transition toward the predominance of CTX-M-type enzymes among ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae organisms causing pediatric infections.
Transmission of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Enterobacteriaceae in households outweighs nosocomial dissemination in the non-outbreak setting. Importation of ESBL producers into the hospitals is as frequent as transmission during hospital stay. ESBL–Klebsiella pneumoniae might be more efficiently transmitted within the hospital than ESBL–Escherichia coli.
Background. Studies about transmission rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Enterobacteriaceae in hospitals and households are scarce.
Methods. Eighty-two index patients with new carriage of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-Ec; n = 72) or ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-Kp; n = 10) and their hospital (n = 112) and household (n = 96) contacts were studied prospectively from May 2008 through September 2010. Isolates were phenotypically and molecularly characterized (sequencing of bla genes, repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction, pulse-field gel electrophoresis, and multilocus sequence typing). Transmission was defined as carriage of a clonally-related ESBL producer with identical blaESBL gene(s) in the index patient and his or her contact(s).
Results. CTX-M-15 was the most prevalent ESBL in ESBL-Ec (58%) and ESBL-Kp (70%) in the index patients. Twenty (28%) ESBL-Ec isolates were of the hyperepidemic clone ST131. In the hospital, transmission rates were 4.5% (ESBL-Ec) and 8.3% (ESBL-Kp) and the incidences of transmissions were 5.6 (Ec) and 13.9 (Kp) per 1000 exposure days, respectively. Incidence of ESBL-Kp hospital transmission was significantly higher than that of ESBL-Ec (P < .0001), despite implementation of infection control measures in 75% of ESBL-Kp index patients but only 22% of ESBL-Ec index patients. Detection of ESBL producers not linked to an index patient was as frequent (ESBL-Ec, 5.7%; ESBL-Kp, 16.7%) as nosocomial transmission events. In households, transmission rates were 23% for ESBL-Ec and 25% for ESBL-Kp.
Conclusions. Household outweighs nosocomial transmission of ESBL producers. The effect of hospital infection control measures may differ between different species and clones of ESBL producers.
Infections caused by extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing bacteria have been emerging worldwide and the majority of ESBL-producing E. coli strains are isolated from patients with urinary tracts infections. The purpose of this study was to compare the host-response mechanisms in human polymorphonucleated leukocytes (PMN) and renal epithelial cells when stimulated by ESBL- or non-ESBL-producing uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolates. The host-pathogen interaction of these ESBL-producing strains in the urinary tract is not well studied.
The ability of ESBL strains to evoke ROS-production from PMN cells was significantly higher than that of the non-ESBL strains. The growth of ESBL strains was slightly suppressed in the presence of PMN compared to non-ESBL strains after 30 min and 2 h, but the opposite was observed after 5 and 6 h. The number of migrating PMN was significantly higher in response to ESBL strains compared to non-ESBL strains. Stimulation of A498 cells with ESBL strains elicited lower production of IL-6 and IL-8 compared to non-ESBL strains.
Significant differences in host-response mechanisms were identified when host cells were stimulated by ESBL- or non-ESBL producing strains. The obtained results on the early interactions of ESBL-producing strains with the host immune system may provide valuable information for management of these infections.
Extended spectrum beta-lactamases; Urinary tract infections; Renal epithelial cells; Polymorphonucleated leukocytes; Uropathogenic E. coli
This study was conducted to evaluate risk factors for mortality and treatment outcome of bloodstream infections due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-EK). ESBL production in stored K. pneumoniae and E. coli blood isolates from Jan 1998 to Dec 2002 was phenotypically determined according to NCCLS guidelines and/or the double-disk synergy test. A total of 133 patients with ESBL-EK bacteremia, including 66 patients with ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae and 67 with ESBL-producing E. coli, were enrolled. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 25.6% (34 of 133). Independent risk factors for mortality were severe sepsis, peritonitis, neutropenia, increasing Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, and administration of broad-spectrum cephalosporin as definitive antimicrobial therapy (P < 0.05 for each of these risk factors). In 117 of the 133 patients, excluding 16 patients who died within 3 days after blood culture sample acquisition, the 30-day mortality rates according to definitive antibiotics were as follows: carbapenem, 12.9% (8 of 62); ciprofloxacin, 10.3% (3 of 29); and others, such as cephalosporin or an aminoglycoside, 26.9% (7 of 26). When patients who received appropriate definitive antibiotics, such as carbapenem or ciprofloxacin, were evaluated, mortality in patients receiving inappropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy was found not to be significantly higher than mortality in those receiving appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy (18.9 versus 15.5%; P = 0.666). Carbapenem and ciprofloxacin were the most effective antibiotics in antimicrobial therapy for ESBL-EK bacteremia. A delay in appropriate definitive antimicrobial therapy was not associated with higher mortality if antimicrobial therapy was adjusted appropriately according to the susceptibility results. Our data suggest that more prudent use of carbapenem as empirical antibiotic may be reasonable.
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria have an important role in nosocomial infections. Due to the limited availability of information about the molecular epidemiology of ESBL producing bacteria in Mashhad, we decided to investigate about TEM, CTX and SHV ESBLs among urinary Escherichia coli isolates in Mashhad, a city in northeast Iran.
Materials and Methods
One hundred and eleven clinical isolates of E. coli were diagnosed from hospitalized patients in 2009. After performing antibiogram and phenotypic confirmation test, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed by blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX primers and restriction digestion was carried out using PstI and TaqI (Fermentas-Lithuania) for confirmation.
ESBL producers of E. coli isolates were 33.3%. Among 37 ESBL-producing isolates, 35 (94.6%), 21 (56.8%) and 5 (13.5%) were shown to have blaCTX, blaTEM and blaSHV, genes respectively. Co-resistance to non-beta lactam antibiotics was observed more with ESBL producers (P < 0.05).
The results showed that the studied ESBL genes are found with high prevalence and among them blaCTX is more widespread in urine E. coli isolates in Mashhad.
Antibiotic resistance; Escherichia coli; Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase; Urinary tract infection
The rate of occurrence of the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing phenotype among Escherichia coli isolates in Tel Aviv is 12% (22). The aim of this study was to understand the molecular epidemiology of E. coli ESBL producers and to identify the ESBL genes carried by them. We studied 20 single-patient ESBL-producing E. coli clinical isolates. They comprised 11 distinct nonrelated pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotypes: six isolates belonged to the same PFGE clone, four other clones included two isolates each, and six unrelated clones included only one isolate. All isolates produced various beta-lactamases with pIs ranging from 5.2 to 8.2, varying within similar PFGE clones. The most prevalent ESBL gene was blaCTX-M; 16 isolates carried blaCTX-M-2 and three carried a new ESBL gene designated blaCTX-M-39. Three strains carried blaSHV (two blaSHV-12 and one blaSHV-5), and two strains carried inhibitor-resistant ESBL genes, blaTEM-33 and blaTEM-30; 18 strains carried blaTEM-1 and eight strains carried blaOXA-2. Plasmid mapping and Southern blot analysis with a CTX-M-2 probe demonstrated that blaCTX-M-2 is plasmid borne. The wide dissemination of ESBLs among E. coli isolates in our institution is partly related to clonal spread, but more notably to various plasmid-associated ESBL genes, occurring in multiple clones, wherein the CTX-M gene family appears almost uniformly. We report here a new CTX-M gene, designated blaCTX-M-39, which revealed 99% homology with blaCTX-M-26, with a substitution of arginine for glutamine at position 225.
Cefepime was evaluated in vivo against two inoculum sizes of four strains of Escherichia coli that produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in a murine neutropenic thigh infection model to characterize the pharmacodynamic activity of cefepime in the presence of ESBL-producing bacteria and to evaluate if differences in lengths of cefepime exposure are required with various inocula. Three strains possessed a single enzyme each: TEM-10, TEM-12, and TEM-26. The fourth strain possessed two TEM-derived ESBLs and a third uncharacterized enzyme. Two non-ESBL-producing E. coli strains were included for comparison. Mice received various doses of cefepime to achieve a spectrum of percentages of time the drug was above the MIC (%T>MICs) for each isolate at both inocula. No significant difference in cefepime exposure was required to achieve similar bactericidal effects for ESBL- and non-ESBL-producing isolates when the starting inoculum was 105 CFU of E. coli per thigh. The increased MICs observed in vitro for the ESBL-producing strains at 107 CFU/ml did not predict the amount of exposure required to achieve a comparable level of bactericidal activity in vivo at the corresponding starting inoculum of 107 CFU/thigh. Compared to the cefepime exposure in tests with the lower inoculum (105 CFU/thigh), less exposure was required when the starting inoculum was 107 CFU/thigh (%T>MIC, 6% versus 26%), such that similar doses (in milligrams per kilogram of body weight) produced similar bactericidal effects with both inocula of ESBL-producing isolates. Equivalent exposures of cefepime produced similar effects against the microorganisms regardless of the presence of ESBL production. Pharmacodynamic profiling undertaken with conventional cefepime MIC determinations predicted in vivo microbial outcomes at both inoculum sizes for the ESBL-producing isolates evaluated in this study. These data support the use of conventional MIC determinations in the pharmacodynamic assessment of cefepime.
There is no information regarding the resistance mechanisms of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in community setting in Cameroon. The current study aimed to determine the proportion of ESBLs in Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the community and to analyse some risk factors associated with ESBL carriage.
Faecal samples were collected from 208 different outpatients and 150 healthy student volunteers between 3 January and 3 April 2009. Enterobacterial isolates resistant to third-generation cephalosporins were screened for ESBL production by the double-disk synergy test. Presumptive ESBL-producing isolates with positive synergy test were identified by Mass Spectrometry using the BioTyper MALDI-TOF. For such ESBL positive isolates, antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the Vitek 2 system. PCR and sequencing were performed for the detection of different types of ESBL genes in presumptive ESBL-producing isolates. Statistical methods were used for the univariate calculation of risk factors.
During the study period, a total of 358 faecal samples were analysed; 58 of such samples (16%) showed an ESBL phenotype and were confirmed by PCR. The proportion of ESBL producers in faecal carriage was statistically different between outpatients and student volunteers (23.1% vs. 6.7%: p < 0.000). According to a univariate analysis, previous use of antibiotics (ciprofloxacin) appeared to be a risk factor for ESBL carriage (p < 0.05).
Escherichia coli was the species most frequently isolated among the ESBL producers in outpatients (66.7%) and student volunteers (90%). Isolates showed additional resistance to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole but none of them was resistant to temocillin, amikacin or meropenem. Most of the strains (97%) produced a CTX-M group 1 enzymes [CTX-M-15 (98%) or CTX-M-1 (2%)] and the remaining strains produced SHV-12 enzyme (3%).
The use of drugs such as amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole does not seem appropriate for empirical treatment because of emerging resistance. The implementation in Cameroon or in other African countries of methods of screening ESBL-producing organisms in routine laboratories is of great importance in order for us to offer patients appropriate treatment and for infection control efforts to succeed.
Objectives: Production of extended spectrum beta -lactamases (ESBLs) by clinical isolates of pathogenic E. coli is a very serious therapeutic threat. This study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of ESBLs and associated drug resistance in E. coli isolates from urine and pus, and to report the drift from 2005 to 2009-10.
Methodology: Among 173 E. coli isolates, 82 were phenotypically detected as ESBL producers by standard cefotaxime / clavulanic acid and ceftazidime / clavulanic acid disc diffusion tests. Antimicrobial resistance of all ESBL producers was assessed by disc diffusion method. Presence of CTX-M, TEM, SHV and OXA groups was investigated by PCR.
Results: The prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli increased significantly from 33.7% in 2005 to 60.0% in 2009-10 (urine: 31.8% to 62.9%; pus: 41.1% to 55.5%). Resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, ticarcillin-clavulanic acid, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was above 85% in both sets of isolates. Imipenem and Fosfomycin resistance was non-existent in 2005 but ranged from 3-15% in 2009-10. Remarkable increase from 9.5% to 64.7% in urinary tract isolates and from 0 to 55% in pus isolates was observed in colistin sulphate resistance. The dissemination of genes encoding ESBLs was: CTX-M 3.5%; TEM 10.7%; both CTX-M and TEM 3.5% in 2005, and CTX-M 42.5%; TEM 48.1%; both CTX-M and TEM 29.6% in 2009-10.
Conclusions: Our results showed very rapid emergence of multidrug resistant ESBL producing E. coli in Pakistan posing a very serious threat in the treatment of nosocomial and community acquired infections.
Pathogenic E. coli; ESBL production; Drug resistance; Genotypic characterization
β-Lactamases continue to be the leading cause of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics among gram-negative bacteria. In recent years there has been an increased incidence and prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), enzymes that hydrolyze and cause resistance to oxyimino-cephalosporins and aztreonam. The majority of ESBLs are derived from the widespread broad-spectrum β-lactamases TEM-1 and SHV-1. There are also new families of ESBLs, including the CTX-M and OXA-type enzymes as well as novel, unrelated β-lactamases. Several different methods for the detection of ESBLs in clinical isolates have been suggested. While each of the tests has merit, none of the tests is able to detect all of the ESBLs encountered. ESBLs have become widespread throughout the world and are now found in a significant percentage of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in certain countries. They have also been found in other Enterobacteriaceae strains and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Strains expressing these β-lactamases will present a host of therapeutic challenges as we head into the 21st century.
Objective: The emergence of ESBL producing Enterobacter cloacae in clinical isolates is posing a serious threat for treating nosocomial infections. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacter cloacae and to compare the phenotypic methods used for the characterization of ESBL producing strains.
Methodology: This cross sectional observational study was conducted during April 2011 to March 2012 at Microbiology department of The Children’s Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Lahore. A total number of 20,257 various clinical samples were analyzed during the study period. Enterobacter cloacae were identified using API 20E system and ESBL detection was carried out using double-disk synergy test (DDST) and CLSI confirmatory test.
Enterobacter cloacae were isolated from 221 samples, out of which 33 (14.93%) were ESBL producers and 188 (85.07%) were non-ESBL producers. The gender distribution of ESBL producing Enterobacter cloacae was 21 (63.6%) in males and 12 (36.4%) in females. Highest frequency (63%) of ESBL producing Enterobacter cloacae was detected in blood samples. Comparison of DDST and CLSI confirmatory test showed that 25 (75.75%) isolates were characterized by DDST and 33 (100%) using CLSI confirmatory test.
Conclusion: The present study shows moderately high frequency of ESBL producing Enterobacter cloacae among children. DDST was found to be less efficient in ESBL detection as compared to CLSI confirmatory test.
ESBL producing Enterobacter cloacae; Characterization of ESBL; Double-disk synergy test (DDST); CLSI confirmatory test
Broilers and broiler meat products are highly contaminated with extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) or plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli and are considered to be a source for human infections. Both horizontal and vertical transmission might play a role in the presence of these strains in broilers. As not much is known about the presence of these strains in the whole production pyramid, the epidemiology of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in the Dutch broiler production pyramid was examined. Cloacal swabs of Grandparent stock (GPS) birds (one−/two-days (breed A and B), 18 and 31 weeks old (breed A)), one-day old Parent stock birds (breed A and B) and broiler chickens of increasing age (breed A) were selectively cultured to detect ESBL/AmpC-producing isolates. ESBL/AmpC-producing isolates were found at all levels in the broiler production pyramid in both broiler breeds examined. Prevalence was already relatively high at the top of the broiler production pyramid. At broiler farms ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli were still present in the environment of the poultry house after cleaning and disinfection. Feed samples taken in the poultry house also became contaminated with ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli after one or more production weeks. The prevalence of ESBL/AmpC-positive birds at broiler farms increased within the first week from 0–24% to 96–100% independent of the use of antibiotics and stayed 100% until slaughter. In GPS breed A, prevalence at 2 days, 18 weeks and 31 weeks stayed below 50% except when beta-lactam antibiotics were administered. In that case prevalence increased to 100%. Interventions minimizing ESBL/AmpC contamination in broilers should focus on preventing horizontal and vertical spread, especially in relation to broiler production farms.
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli are increasingly common in nosocomial and community settings. Furthermore, fluoroquinolone (FQ) and even multidrug resistance (MDR) appear to be associated with certain ESBL genotypes. The purpose of the present study was to determine which ESBL genotypes are associated with FQ and MDR in E coli urinary isolates in Manitoba.
The authors determined the antimicrobial susceptibility, genetic similarity and ESBL genotype of 27 FQ-resistant and seven FQ-susceptible, ESBL-producing urinary isolates submitted to the clinical microbiology laboratories of two teaching hospitals between October 2000 and April 2005. Susceptibilities to beta-lactams, FQs, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), doxycycline (DOX), gentamicin (GM) and tigecycline were determined by microbroth dilution; pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to determine genetic relatedness, and ESBL genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing.
Of 34 ESBL-producing organisms, 27 (79.4%) were found to be ciprofloxacin (CIP) resistant, 27 (79.4%) were SXT resistant, eight (23.5%) were GM resistant and 29 (85.3%) were DOX resistant. Twenty-three (67.6%) had MDR, with concomitant resistance to CIP and SXT; 16 had concomitant resistance to CIP, SXT and DOX; and seven (20.6%) had MDR, with concomitant resistance to CIP, SXT, DOX and GM. All isolates were susceptible to tigecycline. Of 27 FQ-resistant ESBL-producing organisms, seven (25.9%) were genotype CTX-M-14, 19 (70.4%) were genotype CTX-M-15 and one (3.7%) was genotype CTX-M-24. Among the seven FQ-susceptible strains, three (42.8%) expressed SHV-type enzymes, three (42.8%) expressed TEM-type enzymes and one (14.3%) expressed CTX-M-9. CTX-M-15 was the most common MDR-associated genotype. Of a total of 19 strains, 18 (94.7%) were resistant to FQs and SXT; 15 (78.9%) were resistant to FQs, SXT and DOX; and five (26.3%) were resistant to FQs, SXT, DOX and GM. PFGE analysis revealed genetic similarity within CTX-M-15-producing isolates only.
CTX-M-15 in E coli is strongly associated with an MDR phenotype compared with other genotypes. CTX-M-14 is associated with FQ resistance only. PFGE suggests clonality of CTX-M-15-producing isolates within and among hospitals.
CTX-M-15; ESBL; Escherichia coli; Fluoroquinolone-resistant; Molecular epidemiology; Multidrug-resistant
We determined the prevalence and characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes of Enterobacteriaceae in retail chicken meat and humans in the Netherlands. Raw meat samples were obtained, and simultaneous cross-sectional surveys of fecal carriage were performed in 4 hospitals in the same area. Human blood cultures from these hospitals that contained ESBL genes were included. A high prevalence of ESBL genes was found in chicken meat (79.8%). Genetic analysis showed that the predominant ESBL genes in chicken meat and human rectal swab specimens were identical. These genes were also frequently found in human blood culture isolates. Typing results of Escherichia coli strains showed a high degree of similarity with strains from meat and humans. These findings suggest that the abundant presence of ESBL genes in the food chain may have a profound effect on future treatment options for a wide range of infections caused by gram-negative bacteria.
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes; drug resistance; chicken meat; humans; bacteria; Escherichia coli; Klebsiella; transmission; The Netherlands; research
We assessed the prevalence and phenotypic characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers among cefuroxime-resistant (CXM-R) (MIC ≥ 32 μg/ml) members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in our institution. The 438 CXM-R clinical isolates obtained from nonurine sources among inpatients were screened. ESBL production was confirmed by disk diffusion assay using cefpodoxime (CPD), cefotaxime (CTX), and ceftazidime (CTZ) with and without clavulanate (CLAV). A difference of ≥5 mm in the size of the zone of inhibition in the presence of CLAV for at least one of the agents was considered representative of the ESBL phenotype: 186 isolates (42.5%) were confirmed as ESBL producers. The isolates tested and the rates of ESBL producers were as follows: Klebsiella spp. (n = 81), 79%; Proteus spp. (n = 58), 62%; Escherichia coli (n = 64), 53%; Enterobacter spp. (n = 69), 42%; Serratia spp. (n = 70), 14%; Citrobacter spp. (n = 25), 24%; Providencia spp. (n = 21), 24%; Morganella spp. (n = 41), 5%; and Kluyvera (n = 3), 0%. The overall sensitivity of isolated ESBL confirmatory tests was 79% for CPD-CLAV, 66% for CTZ-CLAV, and 91% for CTX-CLAV. Sensitivities of CTZ-CLAV confirmatory tests for Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp., E. coli, and Enterobacter spp. were 84, 22, 76, and 62%, respectively, and those for CTX-CLAV were 95, 97, 94, and 83%, respectively. They were 90% for CPD-CLAV and CTZ-CLAV, 95% for CPD-CLAV and CTX-CLAV, and 100% for CTZ-CLAV and CTX-CLAV. ESBL production was highly prevalent among Enterobacteriaceae. Using resistance to CXM as an ESBL screening criterion is a suitable option in high-incidence areas where Klebsiella spp. are not the dominant ESBL producers. This screening criterion may simplify the screening test and improve its sensitivity, although at the price of testing more isolates. The CTX-CLAV combination confirmed ESBL producers better than the CTZ-CLAV combination, with sensitivity varying between species. Combined CTZ-CLAV and CTX-CLAV testing detected all these strains; CPD-CLAV provided no additional benefit.
Phenotypic and genotypic methods were used to characterize extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolated in 2007 from 11 different Canadian medical centers. Of the 209 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates tested, 148 (71%) produced CTX-M-15, 17 (8%) produced CTX-M-14, 5 (2%) produced CTX-M-3, and 1 produced CTX-M-27. Overall, 96 (46%) of the ESBL producers belonged to clonal complex ST131, with the highest prevalence in Brampton, Calgary, and Winnipeg. ST131 is an important cause of community onset urinary tract infections due to ESBL-producing E. coli across Canada.
CTX-M [a major type of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)] producing Escherichia coli are increasingly involved in human infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate potential reservoirs for such strains: soils, cattle, and farm environment. The prevalence of blaCTX-M genes was determined directly from soil DNA extracts obtained from 120 sites in Burgundy (France) using real-time PCR. blaCTX-M targets were found in 20% of the DNA extracts tested. Samples of cattle feces (n = 271) were collected from 182 farms in Burgundy. Thirteen ESBL-producing isolates were obtained from 12 farms and further characterized for the presence of bla genes. Of the 13 strains, five and eight strains carried blaTEM-71 genes and blaCTX-M-1 genes respectively. Ten strains of CTX-M-1 producing E. coli were isolated from cultivated and pasture soils as well as from composted manure within two of these farms. The genotypic analysis revealed that environmental and animal strains were clonally related. Our study confirms the occurrence of CTX-M producing E. coli in cattle and reports for the first time the occurrence of such strains in cultivated soils. The environmental competence of such strains has to be determined and might explain their long term survival since CTX-M isolates were recovered from a soil that was last amended with manure 1 year before sampling.
extended-spectrum beta-lactamase; CTX-M; cattle; soil; Burgundy; farm environment
Resistance to contemporary broad-spectrum beta-lactams, mediated by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes, is an increasing problem worldwide. The Etest (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) ESBL screen uses stable gradient technology to evaluate the MIC of ceftazidime alone compared with the MIC of ceftazidime with clavulanic acid (2 micrograms/ml) to facilitate the recognition of strains expressing inhibitable enzymes. In the present study, ESBL-producing strains (17 Escherichia coli transconjugants) were studied to define "sensitive" interpretive criteria for the Etest ESBL screen. These criteria (reduction of the ceftazidime MIC by > 2 log2 dilution steps in the presence of clavulanic acid) defined a group of 92 probable ESBL-positive organisms among the 225 tested strains of Klebsiella species and E. coli having suspicious antibiogram phenotypes. With a subset of 82 clinical strains, the Etest ESBL screen was more sensitive (100%) than the disk approximation test (87%) and was more convenient. The MICs of ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin at which 50% of isolates are inhibited were 16- to 128-fold higher (coresistance) for the ESBL screen-positive group of strains than for the ESBL screen-negative group of strains. Some strains for which cephalosporin MICs were elevated and which were Etest ESBL screen negative were also cefoxitin resistant, i.e., consistent with a chromosomally mediated AmpC resistance phenotype. The Etest ESBL screen test with the ceftazidime substrate appears to be a useful method for detecting or validating the presence of enteric bacilli potentially producing this type of beta-lactamase.
Organisms producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have been reported in many countries, but there is no information on the prevalence of ESBL-producing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in Cameroon. A total of 259 Enterobacteriaceae strains were isolated between 1995 and 1998 from patients at the Yaounde Central Hospital in Cameroon. Enterobacterial isolates resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporin and monobactam were screened for ESBL production by the double-disk (DD) synergy test. Thirty-one (12%) of these Enterobacteriaceae strains were shown to be positive by the DD synergy test, suggesting the presence of ESBLs. Resistance to oxyimino-cephalosporins and monobactams of 12 (38.7%) of the 31 strains—i.e., 6 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 4 Escherichia coli, 1 Citrobacter freundii, and 1 Enterobacter cloacae strain—was transferred to E. coli HK-225 by conjugation. Resistance to gentamicin, gentamicin plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was cotransferred into 6, 2, and 1 of these transconjugants, respectively. All 12 transconjugants were resistant to amoxicillin, piperacillin, all of the cephalosporins, and aztreonam but remained susceptible to cefoxitin and imipenem. Crude extracts of β-lactamase-producing transconjugants were able to reduce the diameters of inhibition zones around disks containing penicillins, narrow- to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins or monobactams when tested against a fully susceptible E. coli strain but had no effect on such zones around cefoxitin, imipenem, and amoxicillin-clavulanate disks. The β-lactamases produced by the 12 tranconjugants turned out to be SHV-12 by DNA sequencing. Therefore, the ESBL SHV-12 is described for the first time in Cameroon.
Current knowledge on extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in animals is based largely on cross-sectional studies and qualitative data. The aim of this longitudinal study was to elucidate carriage proportions and fecal counts of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in pigs during the production cycle. At each of three ESBL-positive single-sited farrow-to-finisher pig farms (farms A, B, and C) included in the study, individual fecal samples were taken from 17 to 20 sows 1 week before farrowing and from 2 piglets of each sow's litter four times from birth to slaughter (as piglets, weaners, and finishers). Cefotaxime (CTX)-resistant coliforms in feces were counted on MacConkey agar containing 2 μg/ml CTX and characterized for the presence of ESBL-encoding genes by PCR and sequencing. CTX-M-positive pigs were detected in all age groups at farms A (blaCTX-M-9 group, compatible with blaCTX-M-14/17) and B (blaCTX-M-1 group, compatible with blaCTX-M-1/61), whereas only three weaners were positive at farm C (blaCTX-M-1 group, compatible with blaCTX-M-1/61). A significant decrease in carriage was detected during the production cycle, with on average 50% carriage immediately after birth, 58% just before weaning, 29% during weaning, and 12% during finishing. The observed reduction in numbers of CTX-M-positive pigs was accompanied by a significant reduction in mean fecal counts of CTX-resistant coliforms from ∼107 CFU/g in piglets to ∼103 CFU/g in finishers (P < 0.001). These findings provide novel information about the epidemiology of ESBLs at the farm level and have important implications for assessments of risks of meat contamination during slaughter.
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae have rapidly spread worldwide and pose a serious threat for health care-associated (HA) infection. We conducted molecular detection and characterization of ESBL-related bla genes, including blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, blaVEB, blaOXA, blaPER, and blaGES, among 362 isolates of ESBL-producing E. coli (n = 235) and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (n = 127) collected from patients who met the definition of HA infection at two major university hospitals in Thailand from December 2004 to May 2005. The prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae, patient demographics and the susceptibilities of these bacteria to various antimicrobial agents were described. A total of 87.3% of isolates carried several bla genes. The prevalence of blaCTX-M was strikingly high: 99.6% for ESBL-producing E. coli (CTX-M-14, -15, -27, -40, and -55) and 99.2% for ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (CTX-M-3, -14, -15, -27, and -55). ISEcp1 was found in the upstream region of blaCTX-M in most isolates. Up to 77.0% and 71.7% of ESBL-producing E. coli and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae, respectively, carried blaTEM; all of them encoded TEM-1. ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae carried blaSHV at 87.4% (SHV-1, -2a, -11, -12, -27, -71, and -75) but only at 3.8% for ESBL-producing E. coli (SHV-11 and -12). bla genes encoding VEB-1 and OXA-10 were found in both ESBL-producing E. coli (8.5% and 8.1%, respectively) and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (10.2% and 11.8%, respectively). None of the isolates were positive for blaPER and blaGES. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that there was no major clonal relationship among these ESBL producers. This is the first study to report CTX-M-3, CTX-M-27, CTX-M-40, SHV-27, SHV-71, and SHV-75 in Thailand and to show that CTX-M ESBL is highly endemic in the country.
We characterized two new CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) variants in Escherichia coli isolates from stool samples of two elderly patients admitted at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Israel. Both patients underwent treatment with cephalosporins prior to isolation of the E. coli strains.
ESBLs were detected by the double-disk synergy test and PCR-sequencing of β-lactamase genes. The blaCTX-M genes were cloned into the pCR-BluntII-TOPO vector in E. coli TOP10. The role of amino-acid substitutions V77A and D240G was analyzed by site-directed mutagenesis of the blaCTX-M-94 and blaCTX-M-100 genes and comparative characterization of the resulting E. coli recombinants. MICs of β-lactams were determined by Etest. Plasmid profiling, mating experiments, replicon typing and sequencing of blaCTX-M flanking regions were performed to identify the genetic background of the new CTX-M variants.
The novel CTX-M β-lactamases, CTX-M-94 and -100, belonged to the CTX-M-25-group. Both variants differed from CTX-M-25 by the substitution V77A, and from CTX-M-39 by D240G. CTX-M-94 differed from all CTX-M-25-group enzymes by the substitution F119L. Glycine-240 was associated with reduced susceptibility to ceftazidime and leucine-119 with increased resistance to ceftriaxone. blaCTX-M-94 and blaCTX-M-100 were located within ISEcp1 transposition units inserted into ∼93 kb non-conjugative IncFI and ∼130 kb conjugative IncA/C plasmids, respectively. The plasmids carried also different class 1 integrons.
This is the first report on CTX-M-94 and -100 ESBLs, novel members of the CTX-M-25-group.