Severe thrombocytopenia is a major risk factor for haemorrhage, and yet platelet function and bleeding risk at low platelet counts are poorly understood because of limitations of platelet function testing at very low platelet counts.
To examine and compare platelet function in severely thrombocytopenic patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or myelodysplasia (MDS) to patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
Whole blood flow cytometric measurement of platelet activation and platelet reactivity to agonists was correlated with the immature platelet fraction (IPF) and bleeding symptoms.
Compared with patients with ITP, patients with AML/MDS had smaller platelets, lower IPF, and substantially lower platelet surface expression of activated GPIIb/IIIa and GPIb both with and without addition of ex vivo ADP or TRAP. In both ITP and AML/MDS, increased platelet surface GPIb on circulating platelets and expression of activated GPIIb/IIIa and GPIb on ex vivo activated platelets correlated with a higher IPF. Whereas platelet reactivity was higher for AML/MDS patients with bleeding than those with no bleeding, platelet reactivity was lower for ITP patients with bleeding than those with no bleeding.
AML/MDS patients have lower in vivo platelet activation and ex vivo platelet reactivity than patients with ITP. The proportion of newly-produced platelets correlates with the expression of platelet surface markers of activation. These differences might contribute to differences in bleeding tendency between AML/MDS and ITP. This study is the first to define differences in platelet function between AML/MDS patients and ITP patients with equivalent degrees of thrombocytopenia.
Autoimmunity; bleeding; flow cytometry; haemorrhage; thrombocytopenia; thrombopoiesis
Highly reactive oxygen species rapidly inactivate nitric oxide (NO), and endothelial product which inhibits platelet activation. We studied platelet inhibition by NO in two brothers with a cerebral thrombotic disorder. Both children had hyperreactive platelets, as determined by whole blood platelet aggregometry and flow cytometric analysis of the platelet surface expression of P-selectin. Mixing experiments showed that the patients'platelets behaved normally in control plasma; however, control platelets suspended in patient plasma were not inhibited by NO. As determined by flow cytometry, in the presence of plasma from either patient there was normal inhibition of the thrombin-induced expression of platelet surface P-selectin by prostacyclin, but not NO. Using a scopoletin assay, we measured a 2.7-fold increase in plasma H2O2 generation in one patient and a 3.4-fold increase in the second patient, both compared woth control plasma. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was decreased in the patients' plasmas compared with control plasma. The addition of exogenous GSH-Px led to restoration of platelet inhibition by NO. These data show that, in these patients' plasmas, impaired metabolism of reactive oxygen species reduces the bioavailability of NO and impairs normal platelet inhibitory mechanisms. These findings suggest that attenuated NO-mediated platelet inhibition produced by increased reactive oxygen species or impaired antioxidant defense may cause a thrombotic disorder in humans.
Aims—To investigate in vitro the effect of amphotericin B on platelets in order to understand poor platelet recovery in patients receiving platelet transfusions and amphotericin B simultaneously.
Methods—Washed platelets were isolated from platelet concentrates and exposed to amphotericin B (4 μg/ml) for one hour. Platelet function was assessed by aggregation response to thrombin (0-0.6 U/ml), serotonin release, response to hypotonic stress, and mean platelet volume. The expression of surface membrane glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX complex, GPIIb-IIIa complex and CD62P (P-selectin) was examined by flow cytometry using fluorescence labelled monoclonal antibodies. Heterotypic cell adhesion was measured in amphotericin B treated platelets coincubated with isolated, autologous polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) by flow cytometric analysis.
Results—Amphotericin B induced platelet dysfunction. The rate of aggregation by thrombin, serotonin uptake and thrombin induced release of serotonin, and the response of platelets to hypotonic stress were inhibited. There was up to a two-fold increase in the mean platelet volume. The expression of platelet surface GPIb-IX and GPIIb-IIIa was not affected. P-selectin, normally expressed only on the surface of activated platelets, was also expressed on unactivated platelets. Amphotericin B increased platelet adherence to PMN and the number of platelets bound per PMN.
Conclusions—In vitro, amphotericin B induces P-selectin expression on the surface of unactivated platelets and increases platelet adhesion to PMN, which is exacerbated by storage. Platelet dysfunction resulting from exposure to amphotericin B may contribute to poor platelet recovery in vivo when amphotericin B is administered concomitantly with platelet transfusion.
amphotericin B; platelets; surface membrane glycoprotein; flow cytometry
The effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for reduced platelet aggregation and thromboxane A2 synthesis has been well documented. However, the influence on platelet function is not fully explained. Aim of this study was to examine the influence of the COX-1 inhibiting NSAIDs, diclofenac and metamizol on platelet activation and leukocyte-platelet complexes, in vitro. Surface expression of GPIIb/IIIa and P-selectin on platelets, and the percentage of platelet-leukocyte complexes were investigated.
Whole blood was incubated with three different concentrations of diclofenac and metamizol for 5 and 30 minutes, followed by activation with TRAP-6 and ADP. Rates of GPIIb/IIIa and P-selectin expression, and the percentage of platelet-leukocyte complexes were analyzed by a flow-cytometric assay.
There were no significant differences in the expression of GPIIb/IIIa and P-selectin, and in the formation of platelet-leukocyte complexes after activation with ADP and TRAP-6, regarding both the time of incubation and the concentrations of diclofenac and metamizol.
Accordingly, the inhibitory effect of diclofenac and metamizol on platelet aggregation is not related to a reduced surface expression of P-selectin and GPIIb/IIIa on platelets.
diclofenac; metamizol; platelet; P-selectin; GPIIb/IIIa; flow cytometry
Albuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We investigated the correlation between albuminuria and spontaneous microaggregation of platelets (SMAP) formed under shear stress.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
The study subjects were 401 type 2 diabetic individuals (252 with normoalbuminuria and 149 with albuminuria) who were examined for SMAP under conditions of shear stress only (no agonist stimulation) and the reversibility of platelet microaggregation after stimulation with 1 μmol/l ADP, measured by a laser light-cattering method. Active glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) and P-selectin expression levels on platelets as an index of platelet activation were measured by whole-blood flow cytometry.
SMAP formation was noted in 53% of diabetic patients. All patients with SMAP showed an irreversible pattern of platelet microaggregates by a low dose of ADP. SMAP was observed in 75% of diabetic subjects with albuminuria and in 39% of those with normoalbuminuria. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified urinary albumin excretion rate and brachial-ankle pulse-wave velocity as independent factors associated with SMAP. The degree of SMAP correlated with active GPIIb/IIIa (γ = 0.59, P < 0.001) and P-selectin (γ = 0.55, P < 0.001) expression levels. These early-activated platelet profiles were significantly inhibited in albuminuric patients with aspirin intake, although the effect was incomplete.
Our study demonstrated an independent association between albuminuria and early changes in activated platelet profiles of type 2 diabetic patients. Further follow-up and intervention studies are needed to establish whether the inhibition of SMAP affects the course of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients.
Platelet concentrate transfusion is the standard treatment for hemato-oncology patients to compensate for thrombocytopenia. We have developed a novel platelet activation test in anticoagulated unprocessed blood (pac-t-UB) to determine platelet function in platelet concentrates and in blood of thrombocytopenic patients.
We have measured platelet activity in a platelet concentrate and in anticoagulated unprocessed blood of a post-transfusion thrombocytopenic patient.
Our data show time-dependent platelet activation by GPVI agonist (collagen related peptide; CRP), PAR-1 agonist (SFLLRN), P2Y12 agonist (ADP), and thromboxane receptor agonist (U46619) in a platelet concentrate. Furthermore, pac-t-UB showed time-dependent platelet activation in unprocessed blood of a post-transfusion patient with thrombocytopenia. Testing platelet function by different agonists in relation to storage show that 3-day-old platelet concentrates are still reactive to the studied agonists. This reactivity rapidly drops for each agonists during longer storage.
Pac-t-UB is a novel tool to estimate platelet function by different agonists in platelet concentrates and in unprocessed blood of thrombocytopenic patients. In the near future, we will validate whether pac-t-UB is an adequate test to monitor the quality of platelet concentrates and whether pac-t-UB predicts the bleeding risk of transfused thrombocytopenic patients.
Flow cytometry; Platelet, Platelet activation; Platelet concentrates; Platelet function; Platelet storage; Platelet transfusion; Platelets; Thrombocytopenia
Background. Platelet function analysis utilizing platelet-rich plasma and optical density based aggregometry fails to identify patients at risk for uremia associated complications. Methods. We employed whole blood platelet aggregation analysis based on impedance as well as determination of ATP release from platelet granules detected by a chemiluminescence method. Ten chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 4 or 5 predialysis patients underwent platelet evaluation. Our study aims to evaluate this platform in this patient population to determine if abnormalities could be detected. Results. Analysis revealed normal aggregation and ATP release to collagen, ADP, and high-dose ristocetin. ATP release had a low response to arachidonic acid (0.37 ± 0.26 nmoles, reference range: 0.6–1.4 nmoles). Platelet aggregation to low-dose ristocetin revealed an exaggerated response (20.9 ± 18.7 ohms, reference range: 0–5 ohms). Conclusions. Whole blood platelet analysis detected platelet dysfunction which may be associated with bleeding and thrombotic risks in uremia. Diminished ATP release to arachidonic acid (an aspirin-like defect) in uremic patients may result in platelet associated bleeding. An increased aggregation response to low-dose ristocetin (a type IIb von Willebrand disease-like defect) is associated with thrombus formation. This platelet hyperreactivity may be associated with a thrombotic diathesis as seen in some uremic patients.
The role of fibrinogen as a cofactor for platelet aggregation was examined by measuring the binding of 125I-labeled human fibrinogen to gel-filtered human platelets both before and after platelet stimulation by ADP and epinephrine. Platelet stimulation by ADP resulted in the rapid, reversible binding of fibrinogen to receptors on the platelet surface. Fibrinogen binding increased as the concentration of ADP was increased from 0.1 to 2 microM, reaching a plateau at higher ADP concentrations. Binding occurred only after platelet stimulation and in the presence of divalent cations. However, fibrinogen binding did not occur to ADP-stimulated platelets from three patients with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia. Analysis of fibrinogen binding as a function of increasing fibrinogen concentration demonstrated that maximal platelet stimulation exposed approximately or equal to 45,000 binding sites per platelet with a dissociation constant of 80--170 nM. These fibrinogen binding parameters were essentially the same whether ADP or epinephrine was the platelet-stimulating agent. Thus, these studies demonstrate that platelet stimulation by ADP and epinephrine exposes a limited number of fibrinogen receptors on the platelet surface. Furthermore, these data suggest that the fibrinogen molecules bound to the platelet as a consequence of platelet stimulation are directly involved in the platelet aggregation response.
To provide a molecular mechanism that explains the association of the antiretroviral guanosine analogue, abacavir, with an increased risk of myocardial infarction.
Drug effects were studied with biochemical and cellular assays.
Human platelets were incubated with nucleoside analogue drugs ex vivo. Platelet activation stimulated by ADP was studied by measuring surface P-selectin with flow cytometry. Inhibition of purified soluble guanylyl cyclase was quantified using an ELISA to measure cGMP production.
Pre-incubation of platelets in abacavir significantly increased activation in response to ADP in a time and dose-dependent manner. The active anabolite of abacavir, carbovir triphosphate, competitively inhibited soluble guanylyl cyclase activity with a Ki of 55 μmol/l.
Abacavir competitively inhibits guanylyl cyclase, leading to platelet hyper-reactivity. This may explain the observed increased risk of myocardial infarction in HIV patients taking abacavir.
abacavir; blood platelets; guanylate cyclase; myocardial infarction; P-selectin
Platelet activation is central to the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndromes. Surface expression of P‐selectin on activated platelets induces formation of platelet–monocyte aggregates and promotes vascular inflammation and thrombosis. P‐selectin antagonism may represent a novel therapeutic strategy in vascular disease. We aimed to investigate the effects of the novel P‐selectin antagonist PSI‐697 on platelet–monocyte aggregate formation in humans.
Methods and Results
In a double‐blind, randomized, placebo‐controlled crossover study, healthy smokers were randomized to receive either oral PSI‐697 600 mg or matched placebo. The sequence of treatment was also randomized, with all subjects receiving both PSI‐697 and placebo. Platelet–monocyte aggregates were measured by flow cytometry at 4 and 24 hours in the presence and absence of thrombin receptor‐activating peptide (TRAP; 0.1 to 1.0 μm/L). The ex vivo addition of TRAP caused a concentration‐dependent increase in platelet–monocyte aggregates from 8.2% to 94.8% (P<0.001). At 4 and 24 hours, plasma concentrations of PSI‐697 increased to 1906 and 83 ng/mL, respectively (P<0.001). PSI‐697 had no demonstrable effect on either stimulated or unstimulated platelet–monocyte aggregates at 4 or 24 hours (P>0.05). P‐selectin‐blocking antibody (CLB‐Thromb6), but not PSI‐697, inhibited both stimulated and unstimulated platelet–monocyte aggregate formation in vitro (P<0.001).
The novel small‐molecule P‐selectin antagonist PSI‐697 did not inhibit basal or stimulated platelet–monocyte aggregate formation in humans at the dose tested. Its clinical efficacy remains to be established.
Clinical Trial Registration
URL: http://EudraCT.ema.europa.eu Unique identifier: 2007‐005695‐14.
platelets; P‐selectin; thrombosis
The results of the Coulter counter S plus II platelet volume analysis were studied in 100 patients with reactive thrombocytosis (platelet count greater than 500 X 10(9)/l), in 30 patients with myeloproliferative thrombocytosis, and in 32 patients with chronic myeloproliferative disease and a platelet count less than 500 X 10(9)/l. Patients with reactive thrombocytosis had considerably lower mean platelet volumes than those with myeloproliferative thrombocytosis, or normal subjects. The opposite was true for the platelet distribution width. This index for platelet heterogeneity was normal in reactive, but increased in myeloproliferative thrombocytosis. There were no differences in mean platelet volume or platelet distribution width between patients with myeloproliferative disease and a high or normal platelet count. The increased platelet heterogeneity in myeloproliferative disease was caused by an increase of both small and large platelets. The platelet distribution width seemed to be the best variable for the differential diagnosis of thrombocytosis. A platelet distribution width greater than 17 was found in 26 of the 30 patients with myeloproliferative thrombocytosis but in only five of the 100 patients with reactive thrombocytosis. A normal platelet distribution width in a patient with a high platelet count strongly suggests reactive thrombocytosis.
Objective. In this work we studied the correlation between platelet count, platelet activation, and systemic inflammation in overweight, obese, and morbidly obese individuals.
Methods and subjects. A total of 6319 individuals participated in the study. Complete blood counts, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) serum levels, and body mass index (BMI) were measured during routine checkups. Platelet activation markers were studied among 30 obese (BMI = 41 ± 8 kg/m2) and 35 nonobese (BMI = 24 ± 3 kg/m2) individuals. Platelet activation status was evaluated by flow cytometry using specific antibodies against the activated platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, p-selectin (CD-62 p), and binding of Annexin-V to platelet anionic phospholipids.
Results. Overweight, obese, and morbidly obese females had significantly elevated platelet counts (
P < .0001) compared with normal-weight females. No significant elevation of platelet counts was observed in the male subgroups. A significant age adjusted correlation between BMI and platelet counts (
P < .0001) was found among females. This correlation was attenuated (P = .001) after adjustment for hs-CRP concentrations. The flow cytometry analysis of platelets showed no significant differences in activation marker expression between nonobese and obese individuals.
Discussion. Obesity may be associated with elevated platelet counts in females with chronic inflammation. Obesity is not associated with increased platelet activation.
Aims: To evaluate effects of diltiazem on platelet hyper-reactivity in situations associated with endothelial injury and their possible relationship to cytosolic calcium concentration.
Methods: Blood samples were collected at seven time points from 35 patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) who received combined diltiazem and aspirin/ticlopidine therapy or aspirin/ticlopidine therapy alone. Platelet expression of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and P-selectin, production of thromboxane B2, and cytosolic calcium concentration were measured, respectively, by whole blood flow cytometry, radioimmunoassay, and fluorospectrophotometry. The effects of diltiazem of different concentrations on expression of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and P-selectin were also studied in vitro in blood samples from patients with chronic stable angina.
Results: Of the two treatments, aspirin/ticlopidine therapy did not prevent an acute increase of expression of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and P-selectin and plasma thromboxane B2 five minutes and 10 minutes after first inflation and 10 minutes after PTCA, whereas combined diltiazem and aspirin/ticlopidine therapy had a significant inhibitory effect. In the group receiving aspirin/ticlopidine therapy, there was a short term increase of platelet [Ca2+]i immediately after PTCA which was significantly reduced by diltiazem treatment. Expression of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and P-selectin was significantly inhibited in vitro by diltiazem in the concentration of 200 ng/ml or higher, but not 50 ng/ml.
Conclusions: Combined diltiazem and aspirin/ticlopidine therapy significantly inhibited platelet activation that continued in the presence of conventional aspirin/ticlopidine treatment. Antiplatelet effects of diltiazem were probably a consequence of reduction of platelet [Ca2+]i and may only be achieved in higher than therapeutic concentrations.
Platelet activation requires rapid remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton which is regulated by small GTP-binding proteins. By using the Rac1-specific inhibitor NSC23766, we have recently found that Rac1 is a central component of a signaling pathway that regulates dephosphorylation and activation of the actin-dynamising protein cofilin, dense and α-granule secretion, and subsequent aggregation of thrombin-stimulated washed platelets.
To study whether NSC23766 inhibits stimulus-induced platelet secretion and aggregation in blood.
Human platelet aggregation and ATP-secretion were measured in hirudin-anticoagulated blood and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) by using multiple electrode aggregometry and the Lumi-aggregometer. Platelet P-selectin expression was quantified by flow cytometry.
NSC23766 (300 μM) inhibited TRAP-, collagen-, atherosclerotic plaque-, and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in blood by 95.1%, 93.4%, 92.6%, and 70%, respectively. The IC50 values for inhibition of TRAP-, collagen-, and atherosclerotic plaque-, were 50 ± 18 μM, 64 ± 35 μM, and 50 ± 30 μM NSC23766 (mean ± SD, n = 3-7), respectively. In blood containing RGDS to block integrin αIIbβ3-mediated platelet aggregation, NSC23766 (300 μM) completely inhibited P-selectin expression and reduced ATP-secretion after TRAP and collagen stimulation by 73% and 85%, respectively. In ADP-stimulated PRP, NSC23766 almost completely inhibited P-selectin expression, in contrast to aspirin, which was ineffective. Moreover, NSC23766 (300 μM) decreased plaque-stimulated platelet adhesion/aggregate formation under arterial flow conditions (1500s-1) by 72%.
Rac1-mediated signaling plays a central role in secretion-dependent platelet aggregation in blood stimulated by a wide array of platelet agonists including atherosclerotic plaque. By specifically inhibiting platelet secretion, the pharmacological targeting of Rac1 could be an interesting approach in the development of future antiplatelet drugs.
Two ADP receptors have been identified on human platelets: P2Y1 and P2Y12. The P2Y12 receptor blocker clopidogrel is widely used to reduce the risks in acute coronary syndromes, but, currently, there is no P2Y1 blocker in clinical use. Evidence for variable responses to clopidogrel has been described in several reports. The mechanistic explanation for this phenomenon is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to examine mechanisms responsible for variability of 2MeS-ADP, a stable ADP analogue, induced platelet reactivity in clopidogrel-treated patients. Platelet reactivity was assessed by flow cytometry measurements of P-selectin (CD62P) and activated GpIIb/IIIa complex (PAC-1). Residual 2MeS-ADP activation via the P2Y12 and P2Y1 receptors was determined by co-incubation with the selective antagonists AR-C69931 and MRS2179 in vitro. P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptor expression on both RNA and protein level were determined, as well as the P2Y12 H1 or H2 haplotypes. Our data suggest that the residual platelet activation of 2MeS-ADP after clopidogrel treatment is partly due to an inadequate antagonistic effect of clopidogrel on the P2Y12 receptor and partly due to activation of the P2Y1 receptor, which is unaffected by clopidogrel. Moreover, a correlation between increased P2Y12 protein expression on platelets and decreased response to clopidogrel was noticed, r2=0.43 (P<0.05). No correlation was found between P2Y12 mRNA levels and clopidogrel resistance, indicating post-transcriptional mechanisms. To achieve additional ADP inhibition in platelets, antagonists directed at the P2Y1 receptor could be more promising than the development of more potent P2Y12 receptor antagonists.
AR-C 69931; clopidogrel; MRS 2179; P2Y1; P2Y12; platelets
To define and characterize the subpopulation of platelets capable of regulating the functional interactions of factors Va (FVa) and Xa (FXa) on the thrombin-activated platelet surface.
Methods and Results
Flow cytometric analyses were used to define and characterize platelet subpopulations. At a concentration of thrombin known to elicit maximal platelet activation, platelet-derived FVa release, and prothrombinase assembly/function, only a subpopulation of platelets were positive for FVa and FXa binding. An additional subpopulation bound lower levels of FVa, but little, if any, FXa. Fluorescence microscopy analyses confirmed these data. Phenotypically, platelets capable of binding FXa were more highly reticulated and demonstrated significantly increased expression of several key adhesion molecules, including P-selectin, GPIbα, and integrins αIIb and β3. This platelet subpopulation was also defined by the expression of a non-dissociable, membrane-bound pool of functional platelet-derived FVa which comprised ~35–50% of the total membrane-bound cofactor.
The ability of activated platelets to support thrombin generation is defined by a subpopulation of platelets expressing a non-dissociable pool of platelet-derived FVa and increased adhesive receptor density. This subpopulation is hypothesized to play a significant role in regulating both normal hemostasis and pathological thrombus formation since the adherent properties of platelets and their ability to mount and sustain a procoagulant response are crucial steps in both of these processes.
platelets; thrombin; factor V; adhesion molecules; coagulation
HIV-1 infected patients have an increased risk for atherothrombosis and cardiovascular disease, but the mechanism behind these risks is poorly understood. We have previously reported that expression of tissue factor (TF) on circulating monocytes is increased in persons with HIV infection and that TF expression is related to immune activation, to levels of HIV in plasma, and to indices of microbial translocation. In this study, we explore the activation state of platelets in HIV disease.
Here, using flow cytometry-based assays, we measured platelet and platelet microparticle (PMP) activation in samples from HIV-1 infected donors and controls.
Platelets and PMPs from HIV-1 infected patients are activated (as reflected by expression of CD62 P-selectin) and also more frequently expressed the procoagulant tissue factor (TF) than did platelets and PMPs obtained from controls. Expression of these proteins was directly related to expression of TF on monocytes, to markers of T cell activation (CD38 and HLA-DR) and to plasma levels of soluble CD14, the coreceptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharride. Platelet and microparticle expression of TF was not related to plasma levels of HIV but expression of P-selectin was; neither TF nor P-selectin expression was related to CD4 T cell count.
Platelets and microparticles are activated in HIV infection and this activated phenotype may contribute to the increased risk for cardiovascular and thrombotic events in this population although a role for other confounding cardiovascular risks cannot be completely excluded.
tissue factor; platelets; HIV-1; immune activation
Although it has been reported that activated platelets can adhere to intact endothelium, the receptors involved have not been fully characterized. Also, it is not clear whether activated platelets bind primarily to matrix proteins at sites of endothelial cell denudation or directly to endothelial cells. Thus, this study was designed to further clarify the mechanisms of activated platelet adhesion to endothelium. Unstimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers were incubated with washed, stained, and thrombin-activated human platelets. To exclude matrix involvement, HUVEC were harvested mechanically and platelet binding was measured by flow cytometry. Before the adhesion assay, platelets or HUVEC were treated with different receptor antagonists. Whereas blockade of platelet β1 integrins, GPIbα, GPIV, P-selectin, and platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1 did not reduce platelet adhesion to HUVEC, blockade of platelet GPIIbIIIa by antibodies or Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides markedly decreased adhesion. Moreover, when platelets were treated with blocking antibodies to GPIIbIIIa-binding adhesive proteins, including fibrinogen and fibronectin, and von Willebrand factor (vWF), platelet binding was also reduced markedly. Addition of fibrinogen, fibronectin, or vWF further increased platelet adhesion, indicating that both endogenous platelet-exposed and exogenous adhesive proteins can participate in the binding process. Evaluation of the HUVEC receptors revealed predominant involvement of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and αvβ3 integrin. Blockade of these two receptors by antibodies decreased platelet binding significantly. Also, there was evidence that a component of platelet adhesion was mediated by endothelial GPIbα. Blockade of β1 integrins, E-selectin, P-selectin, PECAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 and different matrix proteins on HUVEC did not affect platelet adhesion. In conclusion, we show that activated platelet binding to HUVEC monolayers is mediated by a GPIIbIIIa-dependent bridging mechanism involving platelet-bound adhesive proteins and the endothelial cell receptors ICAM-1, αvβ3 integrin, and, to a lesser extent, GPIbα.
Epidemiological evidence indicates that inflammation accompanies the progression of atherosclerosis. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to define relationships between platelet activation and inflammation in patients with mild to severe (stages II to IV) peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) and matched controls. The effect of chronic administration of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid was investigated.
Subjects were studied on a single occasion. C-reactive protein (CRP) and two indexes of in vivo platelet activation were measured – the urinary excretion of 11-dehydrothromboxane (TX) B2 by immunoassay and circulating platelet-monocyte aggregates (PMAs) by flow cytometry.
Plasma PMAs and urinary 11-dehydro-TXB2 were significantly increased in PAOD patients compared with controls (P<0.01 for all). A positive correlation between 11-dehydro-TXB2 and CRP was found in the study population (rs=0.63, P<0.001). Using logistic regression analysis, CRP was the only independent correlate of 11-dehydro-TXB2 (βCRP=11.9, P<0.01), whereas only the presence of PAOD was an independent predictor of high PMA levels (βPAOD=13.7, P=0.001). Chronic administration of acetylsalicylic acid reduced 11-dehydro-TXB2, but not PMA and CRP.
There is evidence that platelet activation in patients with PAOD is related to the vascular disease and is dependent on the severity of inflammation.
11-dehydrothromboxane B2; Acetylsalicylic acid; Inflammation; Peripheral arterial occlusive disease; Platelet activation; Platelet-monocyte aggregates
OBJECTIVE—To determine whether there is evidence of platelet activation following in vivo cocaine administration in humans, as cocaine abuse is associated with myocardial infarction and stroke, and platelet activation leading to thrombosis is a possible mechanism.
DESIGN AND SUBJECTS—Following a randomised, double blind crossover design, 14 healthy volunteers were studied twice, receiving cocaine (2 mg/kg intranasally) once and placebo once. Flow cytometric analysis of P-selectin expression (an α granule membrane protein found on the surface of activated platelets), quantification of the platelet specific proteins platelet factor 4 and β thromboglobulin, and measurement of platelet containing microaggregate and platelet microparticle (fragment) formation were used to assess platelet activation. Circulating von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF) was measured to evaluate a possible role of endothelial stimulation concurrent with platelet activation.
RESULTS—There was an increase in both platelet factor 4 (mean (SD), 16 (7) to 39 (22) IU/ml, p = 0.04) and β thromboglobulin (70 (20) to 98 (26) IU/ml, p < 0.01) at 120 minutes following cocaine administration. Platelet containing microaggregate formation was increased at 40 minutes (from 47 (3.2)% to 54 (2.0)%, p < 0.001) and 80 minutes (55 (2.5)%, p = 0.04). Bleeding time decreased following cocaine from 10 (1) to 9 (1) minutes (p = 0.07). No changes in any of the measured variables were noted following placebo administration.
CONCLUSIONS—Cocaine exposure causes platelet activation, α granule release, and platelet containing microaggregate formation. These data support the view that cocaine, even at the relatively low doses commonly self administered by occasional abusers, may promote thrombosis and predispose healthy individuals to ischaemic events. Platelet inhibitors should be considered early in any patient with suspected cocaine related ischaemia.
Keywords: platelets; cocaine; flow cytometry; myocardial infarction
Brazilin, isolated from the heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan L., has been shown to possess multiple pharmacological properties.
In this study, platelet aggregation, flow cytometry, immunoblotting analysis, and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry were used to investigate the effects of brazilin on platelet activation ex vivo. Moreover, fluorescein sodium-induced platelet thrombi of mesenteric microvessels was also used in in vivo study.
We demonstrated that relatively low concentrations of brazilin (1 to 10 μM) potentiated platelet aggregation induced by collagen (0.1 μg/ml) in washed human platelets. Higher concentrations of brazilin (20 to 50 μM) directly triggered platelet aggregation. Brazilin-mediated platelet aggregation was slightly inhibited by ATP (an antagonist of ADP). It was not inhibited by yohimbine (an antagonist of epinephrine), by SCH79797 (an antagonist of thrombin protease-activated receptor [PAR] 1), or by tcY-NH2 (an antagonist of PAR 4). Brazilin did not significantly affect FITC-triflavin binding to the integrin αIIbβ3 in platelet suspensions. Pretreatment of the platelets with caffeic acid phenethyl ester (an antagonist of collagen receptors) or JAQ1 and Sam.G4 monoclonal antibodies raised against collagen receptor glycoprotein VI and integrin α2β1, respectively, abolished platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen or brazilin. The immunoblotting analysis showed that brazilin stimulated the phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC)γ2 and Lyn, which were significantly attenuated in the presence of JAQ1 and Sam.G4. In addition, brazilin did not significantly trigger hydroxyl radical formation in ESR analysis. An in vivo mouse study showed that brazilin treatment (2 and 4 mg/kg) significantly shortened the occlusion time for platelet plug formation in mesenteric venules.
To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence that brazilin acts a novel collagen receptor agonist. Brazilin is a plant-based natural product, may offer therapeutic potential as intended anti-thrombotic agents for targeting of collagen receptors or to be used a useful tool for the study of detailed mechanisms in collagen receptors-mediated platelet activation.
Brazilin; Collagen receptors; Lyn phosphorylation; Occlusion time; Platelet activation
To determine whether obesity increases platelet reactivity and thrombin activity in patients with type 2 diabetes plus stable coronary artery disease.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We assessed platelet reactivity and markers of thrombin generation and activity in 193 patients from nine clinical sites of the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D). Blood taken at the time of enrollment was used for assay of the concentration of prothrombin fragment 1.2 (PT1.2, released when prothrombin is activated) and fibrinopeptide A (FPA, released when fibrinogen is cleaved). Platelet activation was identified with the use of flow cytometry in response to 0, 0.2, and 1 μmol/l adenosine diphosphate (ADP).
Concentrations of FPA, PT1.2, and platelet activation in the absence of agonist were low. Greater BMI was associated with higher platelet reactivity in response to 1 μm ADP as assessed by surface expression of P-selectin (r = 0.29, P < 0.0001) but not reflected by the binding of fibrinogen to activated glycoprotein IIb-IIIa. BMI was not associated with concentrations of FPA or PT1.2. Platelet reactivity correlated negatively with A1C (P < 0.04), was not related to the concentration of triglycerides in blood, and did not correlate with the concentration of C-reactive peptide.
Among patients enrolled in this substudy of BARI 2D, a greater BMI was associated with higher platelet reactivity at the time of enrollment. Our results suggest that obesity and insulin resistance that accompanies obesity may influence platelet reactivity in patients with type 2 diabetes.
The platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous biotherapy based on platelet-healing properties. Here, we developed a simple and reproducible PRP purification protocol based on two successive centrifugations. We evaluated different centrifugation speeds and time-storage durations on the platelet quantity and quality. Sterility and stability of our PRP homemade product were also performed. We prepared PRP from 54 healthy volunteers. We tested activation state, reactivity, and stability of platelets by flow cytometry using basal and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced P-selectin expression markers; growth factor release after platelet activation by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); platelet aggregation capacity by aggregrometry assays; clot formation and retraction by thromboelastography; and platelet morphology by ultrastructural analysis. About 130 and 250 g successive speed centrifugations further concentrated platelets while preserving their bioactivity during 6 h (after that, platelet functions were significantly altered). In these conditions, we obtained a highly concentrated pure PRP product (with a low leukocyte count) suitable to study platelet properties. To avoid the loss of efficacy, we recommend injecting PRP under 3 h after preparation.
Few treatments are available that can safely and effectively stimulate new platelet production for thrombocytopenic patients. Additionally, recipients of transfused platelets may experience an inflammatory response due to stored platelets becoming unnecessarily activated, thus creating the need for suitable agents that will dampen undesirable platelet activation. We investigated the effect of the feverfew plant-derived compound, parthenolide on platelet production and platelet activation because of its well-studied ability to induce apoptosis or differentiation in some types of cancer.
Parthenolide was used to treat human megakaryoblastic cell lines, primary human and mouse megakaryocytes. Resulting platelet production and function was measured via flow cytometry. The two most common parthenolide signaling mechanisms, oxidative stress and nuclear factor-κB inhibition, were assessed within the megakaryocytes using reactive oxygen species, glutathione and luciferase reporter assays. The influence of parthenolide on ex vivo platelet activation was tested with parthenolide pretreatment followed by collagen or thrombin activation. The resulting P-selectin surface expression and released soluble CD40 ligand was measured.
Parthenolide stimulates functional platelet production from human megakaryocyte cell lines, and from primary mouse and human megakaryocytes in vitro. Parthenolide enhances platelet production via inhibition of nuclear factor-κB signaling in megakaryocytes and is independent of the parthenolide-induced oxidative stress response. Additionally, parthenolide treatment of human peripheral blood platelets attenuated activation of stimulated platelets.
Overall, these data reveal that parthenolide has strong potential as a candidate to enhance platelet production and to dampen undesirable platelet activation.
thrombopoiesis; parthenolide; platelet activation
In the present study, the influence of bacterial infection, lipopolysacharides (LPS) and hydroxyethyl starch (HES) on platelet function in a parallel plate flow chamber were measured. Experiments were performed with non-activated and protease-activating-receptor (PAR) 4 agonist activated platelets. Comparative measurements were in vivo capillary bleeding time, platelet function analyzer and impedance aggregometry.
PAR 4 agonist did not increase platelet adhesion of platelets from dogs with bacterial inflammation in the flow chamber in contrast to platelets of healthy dogs. Except from impedance aggregometry with lower sensitivity and specificity, PFA did not detect platelet dysfunctions in dogs with infection. In vitro addition of LPS or HES significantly reduced platelet covered area after PAR-activation.
The flow chamber detects platelet dysfunctions in dogs with inflammatory diseases. In vitro addition of LPS highlights the inhibiting effect of bacterial wall components on platelet function. Platelet dysfunction induced by infection could possibly also be diagnosed after treatment of sepsis with colloids has commenced. The flow chamber could be a useful tool to detect sepsis associated platelet dysfunction given that larger prospective trials confirm these findings from a proof of concept study.
Dog; Flow chamber; Inflammation; PAR 4 agonist