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1.  Molecular sources of residual cardiovascular risk, clinical signals, and innovative solutions: relationship with subclinical disease, undertreatment, and poor adherence: implications of new evidence upon optimizing cardiovascular patient outcomes 
Residual risk, the ongoing appreciable risk of major cardiovascular events (MCVE) in statin-treated patients who have achieved evidence-based lipid goals, remains a concern among cardiologists. Factors that contribute to this continuing risk are atherogenic non-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles and atherogenic processes unrelated to LDL cholesterol, including other risk factors, the inherent properties of statin drugs, and patient characteristics, ie, genetics and behaviors. In addition, providers, health care systems, the community, public policies, and the environment play a role. Major statin studies suggest an average 28% reduction in LDL cholesterol and a 31% reduction in relative risk, leaving a residual risk of about 69%. Incomplete reductions in risk, and failure to improve conditions that create risk, may result in ongoing progression of atherosclerosis, with new and recurring lesions in original and distant culprit sites, remodeling, arrhythmias, rehospitalizations, invasive procedures, and terminal disability. As a result, identification of additional agents to reduce residual risk, particularly administered together with statin drugs, has been an ongoing quest. The current model of atherosclerosis involves many steps during which disease may progress independently of guideline-defined elevations in LDL cholesterol. Differences in genetic responsiveness to statin therapy, differences in ability of the endothelium to regenerate and repair, and differences in susceptibility to nonlipid risk factors, such as tobacco smoking, hypertension, and molecular changes associated with obesity and diabetes, may all create residual risk. A large number of inflammatory and metabolic processes may also provide eventual therapeutic targets to lower residual risk. Classically, epidemiologic and other evidence suggested that raising high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol would be cardioprotective. When LDL cholesterol is aggressively lowered to targets, low HDL cholesterol levels are still inversely related to MCVE. The efflux capacity, or ability to relocate cholesterol out of macrophages, is believed to be a major antiatherogenic mechanism responsible for reduction in MCVE mediated in part by healthy HDL. HDL cholesterol is a complex molecule with antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, antiplatelet, and vasodilatory properties, among which is protection of LDL from oxidation. HDL-associated paraoxonase-1 has a major effect on endothelial function. Further, HDL promotes endothelial repair and progenitor cell health, and supports production of nitric oxide. HDL from patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and autoimmune disease may fail to protect or even become proinflammatory or pro-oxidant. Mendelian randomization and other clinical studies in which raising HDL cholesterol has not been beneficial suggest that high plasma levels do not necessarily reduce cardiovascular risk. These data, coupled with extensive preclinical information about the functional heterogeneity of HDL, challenge the “HDL hypothesis”, ie, raising HDL cholesterol per se will reduce MCVE. After the equivocal AIM-HIGH (Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome With Low HDL/High Triglycerides: Impact on Global Health Outcomes) study and withdrawal of two major cholesteryl ester transfer protein compounds, one for off-target adverse effects and the other for lack of efficacy, development continues for two other agents, ie, anacetrapib and evacetrapib, both of which lower LDL cholesterol substantially. The negative but controversial HPS2-THRIVE (the Heart Protection Study 2-Treatment of HDL to Reduce the Incidence of Vascular Events) trial casts further doubt on the HDL cholesterol hypothesis. The growing impression that HDL functionality, rather than abundance, is clinically important is supported by experimental evidence highlighting the conditional pleiotropic actions of HDL. Non-HDL cholesterol reflects the cholesterol in all atherogenic particles containing apolipoprotein B, and has outperformed LDL cholesterol as a lipid marker of cardiovascular risk and future mortality. In addition to including a measure of residual risk, the advantages of using non-HDL cholesterol as a primary lipid target are now compelling. Reinterpretation of data from the Treating to New Targets study suggests that better control of smoking, body weight, hypertension, and diabetes will help lower residual risk. Although much improved, control of risk factors other than LDL cholesterol currently remains inadequate due to shortfalls in compliance with guidelines and poor patient adherence. More efficient and greater use of proven simple therapies, such as aspirin, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers, combined with statin therapy, may be more fruitful in improving outcomes than using other complex therapies. Comprehensive, intensive, multimechanistic, global, and national programs using primordial, primary, and secondary prevention to lower the total level of cardiovascular risk are necessary.
doi:10.2147/VHRM.S37119
PMCID: PMC3808150  PMID: 24174878
cardiovascular prevention; low-density lipoprotein; high-density lipoprotein; statin drugs; metabolic syndrome; obesity; diabetes; niacin; AIM-HIGH study; cholesteryl ester transfer protein; endothelial progenitor cells; fibrate drugs
2.  Lipid measures for prediction of incident cardiovascular disease in diabetic and non-diabetic adults: results of the 8.6 years follow-up of a population based cohort study 
Background
Diabetes is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD).The relative role of various lipid measures in determining CVD risk in diabetic patients is still a subject of debate. We aimed to compare performance of different lipid measures as predictors of CVD using discrimination and fitting characteristics in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus from a Middle East Caucasian population.
Methods
The study population consisted of 1021 diabetic (men = 413, women = 608) and 5310 non-diabetic (men = 2317, women = 2993) subjects, aged ≥ 30 years, free of CVD at baseline. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD were calculated for a 1 standard deviation (SD) change in total cholesterol (TC), log-transformed triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-C and log-transformed TG/HDL-C using Cox proportional regression analysis. Incident CVD was ascertained over a median of 8.6 years of follow-up.
Results
A total of 189 (men = 91, women = 98) and 263(men = 169, women = 94) CVD events occurred, in diabetic and non-diabetic population, respectively. The risk factor adjusted HRs to predict CVD, except for HDL-C, TG and TG/HDL-C, were significant for all lipid measures in diabetic males and were 1.39, 1.45, 1.36 and 1.16 for TC, LDL-C, non- HDL-C and TC/HDL-C respectively. In diabetic women, using multivariate analysis, only TC/HDL-C had significant risk [adjusted HR1.31(1.10-1.57)].Among non-diabetic men, all lipid measures, except for TG, were independent predictors for CVD however; a 1 SD increase in HDL-C significantly decreased the risk of CVD [adjusted HR 0.83(0.70-0.97)].In non-diabetic women, TC, LDL-C, non-HDL-C and TG were independent predictors.
There was no difference in the discriminatory power of different lipid measures to predict incident CVD in the risk factor adjusted models, in either sex of diabetic and non-diabetic population.
Conclusion
Our data according to important test performance characteristics provided evidence based support for WHO recommendation that along with other CVD risk factors serum TC vs. LDL-C, non-HDL-C and TC/HDL-C is a reasonable lipid measure to predict incident CVD among diabetic men. Importantly, HDL-C did not have a protective effect for incident CVD among diabetic population; given that the HDL-C had a protective effect only among non- diabetic men.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-9-6
PMCID: PMC2835707  PMID: 20096127
3.  Achieving Secondary Prevention Low-Density Lipoprotein Particle Concentration Goals Using Lipoprotein Cholesterol-Based Data 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(3):e33692.
Background
Epidemiologic studies suggest that LDL particle concentration (LDL-P) may remain elevated at guideline recommended LDL cholesterol goals, representing a source of residual risk. We examined the following seven separate lipid parameters in achieving the LDL-P goal of <1000 nmol/L goal for very high risk secondary prevention: total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio, TC/HDL, <3; a composite of ATP-III very high risk targets, LDL-C<70 mg/dL, non-HDL-C<100 mg/dL and TG<150 mg/dL; a composite of standard secondary risk targets, LDL-C<100, non-HDL-C<130, TG<150; LDL phenotype; HDL-C≥40; TG<150; and TG/HDL-C<3.
Methods
We measured ApoB, ApoAI, ultracentrifugation lipoprotein cholesterol and NMR lipoprotein particle concentration in 148 unselected primary and secondary prevention patients.
Results
TC/HDL-C<3 effectively discriminated subjects by LDL-P goal (F = 84.1, p<10−6). The ATP-III very high risk composite target (LDL-C<70, nonHDL-C<100, TG<150) was also effective (F = 42.8, p<10−5). However, the standard secondary prevention composite (LDL-C<100, non-HDL-C<130, TG<150) was also effective but yielded higher LDL-P than the very high risk composite (F = 42.0, p<10−5) with upper 95% confidence interval of LDL-P less than 1000 nmol/L. TG<150 and TG/HDL-C<3 cutpoints both significantly discriminated subjects but the LDL-P upper 95% confidence intervals fell above goal of 1000 nmol/L (F = 15.8, p = 0.0001 and F = 9.7, p = 0.002 respectively). LDL density phenotype neared significance (F = 2.85, p = 0.094) and the HDL-C cutpoint of 40 mg/dL did not discriminate (F = 0.53, p = 0.47) alone or add discriminatory power to ATP-III targets.
Conclusions
A simple composite of ATP-III very high risk lipoprotein cholesterol based treatment targets or TC/HDL-C ratio <3 most effectively identified subjects meeting the secondary prevention target level of LDL-P<1000 nmol/L, providing a potential alternative to advanced lipid testing in many clinical circumstances.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033692
PMCID: PMC3315574  PMID: 22479428
4.  Clinical Usefulness of Different Lipid Measures for Prediction of Coronary Heart Disease in Type 2 Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2011;34(9):2095-2100.
OBJECTIVE
We assessed the association between different blood lipid measures and risk of fatal/nonfatal coronary heart disease (CHD).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We conducted an observational study of patients with type 2 diabetes from the Swedish National Diabetes Register. Baseline LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, ratio of non-HDL to HDL cholesterol (non-HDL:HDL), and ratio of triacylglycerol to HDL cholesterol (TG:HDL) was measured in 18,673 patients aged 30–70 years, followed for a mean of 4.8 years from 2003 to 2007.
RESULTS
Hazard ratios (HRs) for CHD per 1-SD increment in lipid measures were 1.23 with non-HDL:HDL, 1.20 with non-HDL cholesterol, 1.17 with LDL cholesterol, and 1.15 with TG:HDL (all P < 0.001 when adjusted for clinical characteristics and nonlipid risk factors). The best global model fit was found with non-HDL:HDL. When patients within the lowest tertile of a lipid measure were compared with those with all lipid measures within the highest tertile, the adjusted HR for CHD was 0.62 with non-HDL:HDL <3.5 mmol/L, 0.65 with non-HDL cholesterol <3.3 mmol/L, and 0.70 with LDL cholesterol <2.5 mmol/L (all P < 0.001). The lowest tertile of LDL and non-HDL cholesterol corresponded with treatment targets according to U.S. and European guidelines. HRs for CHD were 0.52, 0.62, and 0.66 with the lowest deciles of non-HDL:HDL, non-HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol ≤1.8 mmol/L (all P < 0.001). Mean TG:HDL was considerably lower in patients within the lowest tertile of non-HDL:HDL, 0.82 ± 0.47, than in those within the lowest tertile of LDL cholesterol (<2.5 mmol/L), 1.49 ± 1.03.
CONCLUSIONS
Non-HDL:HDL had a stronger effect on CHD risk than LDL cholesterol, and low TG:HDL values were more often seen within the lowest non-HDL:HDL tertile than within the lowest LDL cholesterol tertile. LDL cholesterol was not the best predictor of CHD risk in type 2 diabetes.
doi:10.2337/dc11-0209
PMCID: PMC3161275  PMID: 21775750
5.  Relationship of Glycemia Control to Lipid and Blood Pressure Lowering and Atherosclerosis: the SANDS Experience 
Objectives
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention for patients with type 2 diabetes is accomplished through hypertension and dyslipidemia management. Although studies have established strategies for lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and blood pressure (BP), none have examined whether glycemia influences ability to achieve lipid and BP targets. This post-hoc analysis from the Stop Atherosclerosis in Native Diabetics Study (SANDS) examines the role of baseline glycemia in achieving standard and aggressive targets and outcomes after 36 months.
Methods
Diabetic individuals >age 40 with no cardiovascular events (N=499) were randomized to aggressive versus standard targets for LDL-C, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), and systolic BP (SBP). Management algorithms were used for both groups. Carotid ultrasound and echocardiography were performed at baseline and after 36 months.
Results
No differences were observed in baseline hemoglobin A1c between treatment groups nor any significant change in A1c after 36 months in either group. Baseline A1c, however, was significantly and negatively related to achieving LDL-C (p=0.007), non-HDL-C (p=0.03), and SBP targets (p=0.007) and to changes in LDL-C (p=0.007), non-HDL-C (p=0.03), and SBP (p=0.001) in both groups. Baseline A1c failed to predict progression of carotid intima medial thickness (CIMT) (p=0.42) or left ventricular mass index (LVMI) (p=0.10), nor was it related to the effects of lipid and BP lowering on CIMT and LVMI over 36 months.
Conclusions
In diabetic adults with no CVD events, A1c was negatively associated with ability to achieve LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and SBP goals but was not independently related to treatment-associated changes in CIMT or LVMI over 36 months.
doi:10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2011.04.001
PMCID: PMC3222781  PMID: 21775166
LDL-C; A1c; cardiovascular disease; carotid arteries; diabetes
6.  The weight lowering effect of sibutramine and its impact on serum lipids in cardiovascular high risk patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus - an analysis from the SCOUT lead-in period 
Background
Obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and unhealthy blood lipid profile are strongly associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined whether blood lipid changes with short term administration of the weight lowering drug, sibutramine and lifestyle modification in obese and overweight high-risk patients was associated with T2D status at screening.
Methods
The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial included obese and overweight patients at increased risk of cardiovascular events. All patients received guidance on diet and exercise plus once-daily 10 mg sibutramine during the 6-week, single blind lead-in period. Multivariable regression models were used to investigate factors associated with changes in lipid levels during the first four weeks of treatment.
Results
A total of 10 742 patients received at least one dose of sibutramine during the 6-week lead-in period of SCOUT. After four weeks, patients experienced mean reductions in low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) 0.19 mmol/L, high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) 0.019 mmol/L, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C) 0.08 mmol/L, total cholesterol (TC) 0.31 mmol/L and triglycerides 0.24 mmol/L (p < 0.0001 for each). Four week changes in LDL-C, HDL-C and total cholesterol for patients without vs. with T2D were: LDL-C:-0.25 mmol/L vs. -0.18 mmol/L, P = 0.0004; HDL-C: -0.03 mmol/L vs. -0.02 mmol/L, P = 0.0014; total cholesterol: -0.37 mmol/l vs. -0.29 mmol/l, P = 0.0009. Multivariable regression analysis showed that similar decreases in body mass index (BMI) affected lipid changes differently according to diabetes status. A 1 kg/m2 decrease in BMI in patients with T2D was associated with -0.09 mmol/L in LDL-C (P < 0.0001) and -0.01 mmol/L in HDL-C (P = 0.0001) but larger changes of -0.16 mmol/L LDL-C and -0.03 mmol/L in HDL-C (P < 0.0001 for both) in patients without T2D.
Conclusion
Short term weight management with sibutramine therapy in obese or overweight high-risk patients induced significant mean reductions for all lipids. Those without T2D benefited most. Patients with hyperlipidaemia and the less obese patients also had greater falls in LDL-C and TC during weight loss. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrial.gov number: NCT00234832.
doi:10.1186/1472-6823-10-3
PMCID: PMC2848038  PMID: 20184783
7.  Ezetimibe/simvastatin vs simvastatin in coronary heart disease patients with or without diabetes 
Background
Treatment guidelines recommend LDL-C as the primary target of therapy in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Moreover, combination therapies with lipid-lowering drugs that have different mechanisms of action are recommended when it is not possible to attain LDL-C targets with statin monotherapy. Understanding which treatment or patient-related factors are associated with attaining a target may be clinically relevant.
Methods
Data were pooled from two multicenter, randomized, double-blind studies. After stabilization on simvastatin 20 mg, patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) alone and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were randomized to ezetimibe 10 mg/simvastatin 20 mg (EZ/Simva) or simvastatin 40 mg. The change from baseline in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), TC/HDL-C ratio, triglycerides, and the proportion of patients achieving LDL-C < 2.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL) after 6 weeks of treatment were assessed, and factors significantly correlated with the probability of achieving LDL-C < 2.6 mmol/L in a population of high cardiovascular risk Italian patients were identified. A stepwise logistic regression model was conducted with LDL-C < 2.6 mmol/L at endpoint as the dependent variable and study, treatment, gender, age (≥65 years or < 65 years), as independent variables and baseline LDL-C (both as continuous and discrete variable).
Results
EZ/Simva treatment (N = 93) resulted in significantly greater reductions in LDL-C, TC, and TC/HDL-C ratio and higher attainment of LDL-C < 2.6 mmol/L vs doubling the simvastatin dose to 40 mg (N = 106). Study [including diabetic patients (OR = 2.9, p = 0.003)], EZ/Simva treatment (OR = 6.1, p < 0.001), and lower baseline LDL-C (OR = 0.9, p = 0.001) were significant positive predictors of LDL-C target achievement. When baseline LDL-C was expressed as a discrete variable, the odds of achieving LDL-C < 2.6 mmol/L was 4.8 in favor of EZ/Simva compared with Simva 40 mg (p < 0.001), regardless of baseline LDL-C level.
Conclusion
EZ/Simva is an effective therapeutic option for patients who have not achieved recommended LDL-C treatment targets with simvastatin 20 mg monotherapy.
Trial Registration
Clinical trial registration numbers: NCT00423488 and NCT00423579
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-9-80
PMCID: PMC2918617  PMID: 20663203
8.  A six-month, multicenter, open-label, noncomparative, prospective, observational study of the efficacy and tolerability of atorvastatin in the primary care setting(estudio del control de las hiperlipidemiasen atención primaria): the cheap study☆ 
Background: A close relationship exists between high levels of total cholesterol (TC) (particularly low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), which is associated with an increased risk for arteriosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Evidence shows that atorvastatin produces significantly greater reductions in LDL-C and TC than other hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors. However, the results achieved in clinical studies could be different from those found in general clinical practice, where patient follow-up is less thorough and poorer compliance may reduce the effectiveness of the lipid-lowering therapy.
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of atorvastatin in achieving the LDL-C levels recommended by several Spanish scientific societies, as well as its tolerability in standard clinical use.
Methods: This 6-month, open-label, noncomparative, prospective, observational study was conducted in 1351 primary care centers in Spain. All patients were aged 18 to 80 years and had primary hypercholesterolemia (TC >200 mg/dL and triglycerides [TG] 200 mg/dL and fasting TG 200–400 mg/dL). All patients also had LDL-C levels higher than those established by the Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis (Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis [SEA]) according to baseline cardiovascular risk and previous use of lipid-lowering therapy (for patients with low, moderate, or high cardiovascular risk, the recommended LDL-C goals are ≤175 mg/dL, ≤155 mg/dL, and ≤135 mg/dL, respectively; for patients with CVD, the LDL-C goal is ≤100 mg/dL). None of the patients had creatine kinase activity ≥540 U/L or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels ≥60 U/L. Study visits occurred at months 0, 2, and 6 of treatment. Patients received atorvastatin calcium 10 mg/d for 2 months. The dosage was then doubled to 20 mg/d in patients who did not achieve the SEA LDL-C goal and also in those patients whose primary care physicians (PCPs) deemed this higher dosage necessary; this dosage was continued for at least 4 additional months, to complete at least a 6-month course of treatment. The percentage of patients who achieved their goals was used to measure atorvastatin effectiveness. Percentages of change in LDL-C, TC, TG, and HDL-C from baseline to the final study visit also were used as measures of effectiveness. The incidence of adverse events (AEs) per 10,000 patient-months was used for the primary tolerability analysis. A secondary tolerability analysis was performed in all patients treated with atorvastatin who had some recorded follow-up, regardless of whether the patient met inclusion criteria. Information was obtained from data recorded in the case-report forms.
Results: A total of 5317 outpatients (2715 women, 2598 men, 4 sex unknown; mean [SD] age, 58.7 [10.5] years) were enrolled. Among patients receiving known dosages of atorvastatin, 1580 of 4033 (39.2%) and 2378 of 3585 (66.3%) patients met the SEA LDL-C goal after 2 and 6 months of therapy, respectively (P
Conclusions: In this study population, the use of atorvastatin in the primary care setting was associated with high achievement rates of the SEA LDL-C goals and with a substantial decrease in TG levels. In addition, a considerable increase in HDL-C levels occurred. Tolerability with atorvastatin was reported to be excellent or good by most of the patients and PCPs. The incidence of serious AEs was minimal, as reported by both patients and PCPs.
doi:10.1016/S0011-393X(03)00090-0
PMCID: PMC4053009  PMID: 24944383
atorvastatin; hyperlipidemia; hypercholesterolemia; primary care
Objectives
Previous studies have demonstrated gaps in achievement of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) goals among patients at very high cardiovascular risk. We aimed to investigate lipid treatment patterns, rates and predictors of lipid targets attainment, in such outpatients in an urban area of Greece.
Methods
This was a prospective observational study, conducted in 19 outpatient clinics of Western Greece. We recruited patients with established cardiovascular disease (CVD) and/or diabetes mellitus (DM), previously (at least 3 months before baseline assessment) untreated with any lipid lowering medication. Lipid profile assessment was performed at baseline (prior to lipid-lowering treatment initiation) and at follow-up. Lipid lowering treatment choice was at physicians’ discretion and was kept constant until follow-up.
Results
We recruited 712 patients with a mean age 61.4 ± 10.4 years, 68.0% males, 43.0% with DM, 64.7% with prior coronary artery disease-CAD. In total, 237/712 (33.3%) of prescribed regimens were of high or very high LDL-C lowering efficacy and out of them 113/237 (47.7%) comprised a combination of statin and ezetimibe. At follow-up the primary target of LDL-C < 70 mg/dL (1.8 mmol/L) was achieved in 71(10.0%) patients. The secondary target of non-HDL-C < 100 mg/dL (2.6 mmol/L) in the subgroup of patients with DM or increased triglycerides levels (>150 mg/dl or 1.7 mmol/L) was achieved in 45(11.6%) of patients. In multivariate logistic regression analysis (AUC = 0.71, 95% CIs 0.65-0.77, p < 0.001) male gender, smoking, baseline LDL-C and very high potency LDL-C lowering regimen emerged as independent predictors of LDL-C goal attainment (OR = 1.88, 95% CIs 1.03-3.44, p = 0.04, OR = 0.57, 95% CIs 0.33-0.96, p = 0.04, OR = 0.98, 95% CIs 0.98-0.99, p < 0.001 and OR = 2.21, 95% CIs 1.15-4.24, p = 0.02 respectively).
Conclusions
First-line management of dyslipidemia among very-high cardiovascular risk outpatients in Western Greece is unsatisfactory, with the majority of treated individuals failing to attain the LDL-C and non-HDL-C targets. This finding points out the need for intensification of statin treatment in such patients.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-12-170
PMCID: PMC3833456  PMID: 24209409
Statin; LDL-C target attainment; Non-HDL-C target attainment; Very high cardiovascular risk
Disturbances in the metabolism of lipoprotein profiles and oxidative stress in hemodialyzed (HD) and post-renal transplant (Tx) patients are proatherogenic, but elevated concentrations of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the concentrations of lipid, lipoprotein, HDL particle, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and anti-ox-LDL, and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activity in HD (n=33) and Tx (n=71) patients who were non-smokers without active inflammatory disease, liver disease, diabetes, or malignancy. HD patients had moderate hypertriglyceridemia, normocholesterolemia, low HDL-C, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and HDL particle concentrations as well as PON-1 activity, and increased ox-LDL and anti-ox-LDL levels. Tx patients had hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, moderately decreased HDL-C and HDL particle concentrations and PON-1 activity, and moderately increased ox-LDL and anti-ox-LDL levels as compared to the reference, but ox-LDL and anti-ox-LDL levels and PON-1 activity were more disturbed in HD patients. However, in both patient groups, lipid and lipoprotein ratios (total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, triglyceride (TG)/HDL-C, HDL-C/non-HDL-C, apoA-I/apoB, HDL-C/apoA-I, TG/HDL) were atherogenic. The Spearman’s rank coefficient test showed that the concentration of ox-LDL correlated positively with HDL particle level (R=0.363, P=0.004), and negatively with TC (R=−0.306, P=0.012), LDL-C (R=−0.283, P=0.020), and non-HDL-C (R=−0.263, P=0.030) levels in Tx patients. Multiple stepwise forward regression analysis in Tx patients demonstrated that ox-LDL concentration, as an independent variable, was associated significantly positively with HDL particle level. The results indicated that ox-LDL and decreased PON-1 activity in Tx patients may give rise to more mildly-oxidized HDLs, which are less stable, easily undergo metabolic remodeling, generate a greater number of smaller pre-β-HDL particles, and thus accelerate reverse cholesterol transport, which may be beneficial for Tx patients. Further studies are necessary to confirm this.
doi:10.1631/jzus.B1000348
PMCID: PMC3087092  PMID: 21528490
Lipids; Lipoproteins; Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activity; Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL); High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles; Post-renal transplant; Hemodialysis
Background
Diabetic dyslipidemia is characterized by greater triglyceridation of all lipoproteins and low levels of plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). In this condition, the serum level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is only slightly elevated. The central role of decreased serum HDL-C level in diabetic cardiovascular disease has prompted the establishment of a target of ≥50 mg/dL in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM).
Objective
The aim of the study was to assess the effects of once-daily administration of fluvastatin extended release (XL) 80 mg or atorvastatin 20 mg on serum HDL-C levels in patients with type 2 DM and low levels of serum HDL-C.
Methods
This 4-month, prospective, open-label, randomized, blinded—end point (PROBE) trial was conducted at Endocrinology and Diabetology Service, L. Sacco-Polo University Hospital (Milan, Italy). Patients aged 45 to 71 years with type 2 DM receiving standard oral antidiabetic therapy, with serum HDL-C levels <50 mg/dL, and with moderately high serum levels of LDL-C and triglycerides (TG) were enrolled. After 1 month of lifestyle modification and dietary intervention, patients who were still showing a decreased HDL-C level were randomized, using a 1:1 ratio, to receive fluvastatin XL 80-mg tablets or atorvastatin 20-mg tablets, for 3 months. Lipoprotein metabolism was assessed by measuring serum levels of LDL-C, HDL-C, TG, apolipoprotein (apo) A-I (the lipoprotein that carries HDL), and apo B (the lipoprotein that binds very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, intermediate-density lipoprotein, and LDL on a molar basis). Patients were assessed every 2 weeks for treatment compliance and subjective adverse events. Serum creatine phosphokinase and liver enzymes were assessed before the run-in period, at the start of the trial, and at 1 and 3 months during the study.
Results
One hundred patients were enrolled (50 patients per treatment group; fluvastatin XL group: 33 men, 17 women; mean [SD] age, 58 [12] years; atorvastatin group: 39 men, 11 women; mean [SD] age, 59 [11] years). In the fluvastatin group after 3 months of treatment, mean (SD) LDL-C decreased from 149 (33) to 95 (25) mg/dL (36%; P < 0.01), TG decreased from 437 (287) to 261 (164) mg/dL (40%; P < 0.01), and HDL-C increased from 41 (7) to 46 (10) mg/dL (12%; P < 0.05). In addition, apo A-I increased from 118 (18) to 124 (15) mg/dL (5%; P < 0.05) and apo B decreased from 139 (27) to 97 (19) mg/dL (30%; P < 0.05). In the atorvastatin group, LDL-C decreased from 141 (25) to 84 (23) mg/dL (40%; P < 0.01) and TG decreased from 411 (271) to 221 (87) mg/dL (46%; P < 0.01). Neither HDL-C (41 [7] vs 40 [6] mg/dL; 2%) nor apo A-I (117 [19] vs 114 [19] mg/dL; 3%) changed significantly. However, apo B decreased significantly, from 131 (20) to 92 (17) mg/dL (30%; P < 0.05). Mean changes in HDL-C (+5 [8] vs −1 [2] mg/dL; P < 0.01) and apo A-I (+6 [18] mg/dL vs −3 [21] mg/dL; P < 0.01) were significantly greater in the fluvastatin group than in the atorvastatin group, respectively. However, the decreases in LDL-C (54 [31] vs 57 [32] mg/ dL), TG (177 [219] vs 190 [65] mg/dL), and apo B (42 [26] vs 39 [14] mg/dL) were not significantly different between the fluvastatin and atorvastatin groups, respectively. No severe adverse events were reported.
Conclusions
Fluvastatin XL 80 mg and atorvastatin 20 mg achieved mean serum LDL-C (≤ 100 mg/dL) and apo B target levels (≤ 100 mg/dL) in the majority of this population of patients with type 2 DM, but mean serum HDL-C level was increased significantly only with fluvastatin—16 patients (32%) in the fluvastatin group compared with none in the atorvastatin group achieved HDL-C levels ≥50 mg/dL. The increase in HDL-C in the fluvastatin-treated patients was associated with an increase in apo A-I, suggesting a potential pleiotropic and selective effect in patients with low HDL-C levels.
doi:10.1016/j.curtheres.2004.06.004
PMCID: PMC3964538  PMID: 24672088
fluvastatin XL; atorvastatin; type 2 DM; HDL; LDL; triglycerides; apo A-I; apo B
Clinical Research in Cardiology  2010;99(11):723-733.
Background
In line with current guideline recommendations, patients at high cardiovascular risk are usually treated with statins for secondary as well as for primary prevention. While many studies investigated treatment goal achievement with regards to low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) there is paucity of data regarding high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), and/or triglycerides (TG).
Setting
Prospective, cross-sectional study (Dyslipidemia International Survey, DYSIS) with data provided by 748 office-based physicians throughout Germany.
Methods
Consecutive patients were eligible for participation, if they were at least 45 years old, currently treated with a statin and had had a documented lipid profile (at least 1 parameter) within the last 6 months. Besides descriptive analyses, logistic regression was performed with backward selection to assess predictors for lipid abnormalities (non-attainment of goals for TC, LDL-C, low HDL-C or elevated TG) classified according to current European Society of Cardiology guidelines.
Results
The 4,282 documented patients (98.6% Caucasian, 56.4% male; 86.6% at high cardiovascular risk) were predominantly treated with simvastatin (83.9%), pravastatin (7.7%) or atorvastatin (3.9%), usually with doses equivalent to simvastatin 20–40 mg daily. Non-statins were used in at most 12% of patients. No lipid abnormalities were found in 21.0% of patients, one abnormality in 38.5%, two in 31.9%, and all three in 8.5%. LDL-C goals were not attained in 58.1%, elevated TC was found in 66.6%, low HDL-C in 22.7%, and elevated TG in 47.3%. In the multivariate logistic regression model, non-attainment of LDL-C levels was predicted by hypertension (odds ratio, OR 1.4), current smoking (OR 1.3), sedentary lifestyle (OR 1.3), and female gender (OR 1.3). On the other hand, a reduced risk for missing LDL-C targets was noted in the presence of ischemic heart disease (OR 0.6), diabetes (0.5), higher statin doses, ezetimibe treatment, or specialist care, respectively.
Conclusion
A substantial proportion of statin-treated patients not only missed targets for LDL-C, but also did not attain the normal levels for HDL-C and/or TG. There is a large disconnect between high prevalence of HDL and/or TG disorders, with or without elevated LDL-C, and utilization of therapies targeting these lipids. Particularly in high-risk patients, additional efforts should be made to improve their lipid profile.
doi:10.1007/s00392-010-0177-z
PMCID: PMC2959161  PMID: 20521058
Dyslipidemia; High density lipoprotein cholesterol; Statins; Treatment targets; Primary care
Background
The prevalence of dyslipidaemia and the risk of cardiovascular disease are elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes. This analysis compared the effects of insulin glargine versus thiazolidinediones (TZDs) on lipid profiles.
Methods
Patient-level data were pooled from two randomized clinical studies. The population included 552 men and women aged >18 years, diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for at least 6 months, on metformin and/or sulphonylurea, and with A1C ≥7.5% and <12.0% at screening. Lipid outcome measures included change from baseline in lipid levels [low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), total cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids] and attainment of lipid goals for LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and triglycerides.
Results
Both insulin glargine and TZDs improved lipid profiles from baseline values. Compared with TZDs, treatment with insulin glargine led to 7.9% greater reduction in LDL-C (p < 0.0003), 7.5% greater reduction in non-HDL-C (p < 0.0001), and 7.8% greater reduction in total cholesterol (p < 0.0001), whereas the HDL-C increase with TZD was 7.6% greater than that with insulin glargine (p < 0.0001). The percentage of patients attaining the lipid goals was comparable between insulin glargine and pioglitazone, but lower for rosiglitazone. Insulin glargine improved glycaemic control more than TZDs; however, insulin glargine caused more hypoglycaemia. Treatment with TZDs caused more weight gain and peripheral oedema.
Conclusion
These findings suggest that the favourable effects of insulin glargine on plasma lipid profiles should be considered among the advantages of treatment with insulin glargine as they are for TZDs. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
doi:10.1002/dmrr.1305
PMCID: PMC3380564  PMID: 22081557
insulin glargine; lipids; thiazolidinediones; type 2 diabetes
Journal of clinical lipidology  2010;4(5):435-443.
Background
Although lipid management in diabetes is standard practice, goals often are neither met nor maintained. Strategies for achieving lower targets have not been explored. The Stop Atherosclerosis in Native Diabetics Study (SANDS) randomized patients with diabetes to standard versus aggressive lipid and blood pressure goals for 36 months.
Objective
To report strategies used to achieve and maintain lipid goals and to report adverse events (AEs).
Methods
Adults with type 2 diabetes and no history of cardiovascular disease (N=499) were randomized to standard (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]≤100 mg/dL, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [non-HDL-C]≤130 mg/dL) or aggressive (LDL-C≤70 mg/dL, non-HDL-C≤100 mg/dL) targets. An algorithm started with statin monotherapy, adding intestinally acting agents as required to reach LDL-C targets. Triglyceride [TG]-lowering agents were next used to reach non-HDL-C goals. Lipid management was performed by mid-level practitioners, with physician consultation, using point-of-care lipid determinations.
Results
On average, both groups achieved the LDL-C and non-HDL-C goals within 12 months and maintained them throughout the study. At 36 months, mean (SD) LDL-C and non-HDL-C were 72 (24) and 102 (29) mg/dL in the aggressive group (AGG) and 104 (20) and 138 (26) mg/dL, respectively, in the standard group (STD); systolic blood pressure targets were 115 and 130 mmHg, respectively. 68% of participants reached target LDL-C for >50% of the visits and 46% for >75% of visits. At 36 months, the AGG averaged 1.5 lipid lowering medications and the STD 1.2. Statins were used in 91% and 68% of the AGG and STD; ezetimibe by 31% and 10%; fibrates by 8% and 18%. No serious adverse events (SAEs) were observed; AEs occurred in 18% of the AGG and 14% of the STD.
Conclusion
Standard and aggressive lipid targets can be safely maintained in diabetic patients. Standardized algorithms, point-of-care lipid testing, and non-physician providers facilitate care delivery.
doi:10.1016/j.jacl.2010.07.007
PMCID: PMC2976563  PMID: 21076630
lipids; blood pressure; carotid artery intima media thickness; cardiovascular disease; American Indians
Executive Summary
Objective
To assess the effectiveness and safety of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis performed with the heparin-induced extracorporeal LDL precipitation (HELP) system for the treatment of patients with refractory homozygous (HMZ) and heterozygous (HTZ) familial hypercholesterolemia (FH).
Background on Familial Hypercholesterolemia
Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic autosomal dominant disorder that is caused by several mutations in the LDL-receptor gene. The reduced number or absence of functional LDL receptors results in impaired hepatic clearance of circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) particles, which results in extremely high levels of LDL-C in the bloodstream. Familial hypercholesterolemia is characterized by excess LDL-C deposits in tendons and arterial walls, early onset of atherosclerotic disease, and premature cardiac death.
Familial hypercholesterolemia occurs in both HTZ and HMZ forms.
Heterozygous FH is one of the most common monogenic metabolic disorders in the general population, occurring in approximately 1 in 500 individuals1. Nevertheless, HTZ FH is largely undiagnosed and an accurate diagnosis occurs in only about 15% of affected patients in Canada. Thus, it is estimated that there are approximately 3,800 diagnosed and 21,680 undiagnosed cases of HTZ FH in Ontario.
In HTZ FH patients, half of the LDL receptors do not work properly or are absent, resulting in plasma LDL-C levels 2- to 3-fold higher than normal (range 7-15mmol/L or 300-500mg/dL). Most HTZ FH patients are not diagnosed until middle age when either they or one of their siblings present with symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD). Without lipid-lowering treatment, 50% of males die before the age of 50 and 25% of females die before the age of 60, from myocardial infarction or sudden death.
In contrast to the HTZ form, HMZ FH is rare (occurring in 1 case per million persons) and more severe, with a 6- to 8-fold elevation in plasma LDL-C levels (range 15-25mmol/L or 500-1000mg/dL). Homozygous FH patients are typically diagnosed in infancy, usually due to the presence of cholesterol deposits in the skin and tendons. The main complication of HMZ FH is supravalvular aortic stenosis, which is caused by cholesterol deposits on the aortic valve and in the ascending aorta. The average life expectancy of affected individuals is 23 to 25 years. In Ontario, it is estimated that there are 13 to 15 cases of HMZ FH. An Ontario clinical expert confirmed that 9 HMZ FH patients have been identified to date.
Diagnosis
There are 2 accepted clinical diagnostic criterion for the diagnosis of FH: the Simon Broome FH Register criteria from the United Kingdom and the Dutch Lipid Network criteria from the Netherlands. The criterion supplement cholesterol levels with clinical history, physical signs and family history. DNA-based-mutation-screening methods permit a definitive diagnosis of HTZ FH to be made. However, given that there are over 1000 identified mutations in the LDL receptor gene and that the detection rates of current techniques are low, genetic testing becomes problematic in countries with high genetic heterogeneity, such as Canada.
Treatment
The primary aim of treatment in both HTZ and HMZ FH is to reduce plasma LDL-C levels in order to reduce the risk of developing atherosclerosis and CAD.
The first line of treatment is dietary intervention, however it alone is rarely sufficient for the treatment of FH patients. Patients are frequently treated with lipid-lowering drugs such as resins, fibrates, niacin, statins and cholesterol absorption-inhibiting drugs (ezetimibe). Most HTZ FH patients require a combination of drugs to achieve or approach target cholesterol levels.
A small number of HTZ FH patients are refractory to treatment or intolerant to lipid-lowering medication. According to clinical experts, the prevalence of refractory HTZ FH in Ontario is between 1 to 5%. Using the mean of 3%, it is estimated that there are approximately 765 refractory HTZ FH patients in Ontario, of which 115 are diagnosed and 650 are undiagnosed.
Drug therapy is less effective in HMZ FH patients since the effects of the majority of cholesterol-lowering drugs are mediated by the upregulation of LDL receptors, which are often absent or function poorly in HMZ FH patients. Some HMZ FH patients may still benefit from drug therapy, however this rarely reduces LDL-C levels to targeted levels.
Existing Technology: Plasma Exchange
An option currently available in Ontario for FH patients who do not respond to standard diet and drug therapy is plasma exchange (PE). Patients are treated with this lifelong therapy on a weekly or biweekly basis with concomitant drug therapy.
Plasma exchange is nonspecific and eliminates virtually all plasma proteins such as albumin, immunoglobulins, coagulation factors, fibrinolytic factors and HDL-C, in addition to acutely lowering LDL-C by about 50%. Blood is removed from the patient, plasma is isolated, discarded and replaced with a substitution fluid. The substitution fluid and the remaining cellular components of the blood are then returned to the patient.
The major limitation of PE is its nonspecificity. The removal of HDL-C prevents successful vascular remodeling of the areas stenosed by atherosclerosis. In addition, there is an increased susceptibility to infections, and costs are incurred by the need for replacement fluid. Adverse events can be expected to occur in 12% of procedures.
Other Alternatives
Surgical alternatives for FH patients include portocaval shunt, ileal bypass and liver transplantation. However, these are risky procedures and are associated with a high morbidity rate. Results with gene therapy are not convincing to date.
The Technology Being Reviewed: LDL Apheresis
An alternative to PE is LDL apheresis. Unlike PE, LDL apheresis is a selective treatment that removes LDL-C and other atherogenic lipoproteins from the blood while minimally impacting other plasma components such as HDL-C, total serum protein, albumin and immunoglobulins. As with PE, FH patients require lifelong therapy with LDL apheresis on a weekly/biweekly basis with concomitant drug therapy.
Heparin-Induced Extracorporeal LDL Precipitation
Heparin-induced extracorporeal LDL precipitation (HELP) is one of the most widely used methods of LDL apheresis. It is a continuous closed-loop system that processes blood extracorporeally. It operates on the principle that at a low pH, LDL and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] bind to heparin and fibrinogen to form a precipitate which is then removed by filtration. In general, the total duration of treatment is approximately 2 to 3 hours.
Results from early trials indicate that LDL-C concentration is reduced by 65% to 70% immediately following treatment in both HMZ and HTZ FH and then rapidly begins to rise. Typically patients with HTZ FH are treated every 2 weeks while patients with HMZ FH require weekly therapy. Heparin-induced extracorporeal LDL precipitation also produces small transient decreases in HDL-C, however levels generally return to baseline within 2 days. After several months of therapy, long-term reductions in LDL-C and increases in HDL-C have been reported.
In addition to having an impact on plasma cholesterol concentrations, HELP lowers plasma fibrinogen, a risk factor for atherosclerosis, and reduces concentrations of cellular adhesion molecules, which play a role in early atherogenesis.
In comparison with PE, HELP LDL apheresis does not have major effects on essential plasma proteins and does not require replacement fluid, thus decreasing susceptibility to infections. One study noted that adverse events were documented in 2.9% of LDL apheresis treatments using the HELP system compared with 12% using PE. As per the manufacturer, patients must weigh at least 30kgs to be eligible for treatment with HELP.
Regulatory Status
The H.E.L.P.® System (B.Braun Medizintechnologie GmbH, Germany) has been licensed by Health Canada since December 2000 as a Class 3 medical device (Licence # 26023) for performing LDL apheresis to acutely remove LDL from the plasma of 3 high-risk patient populations for whom diet has been ineffective and maximum drug therapy has either been ineffective or not tolerated. The 3 patient groups are as follows:
Functional hypercholesterolemic homozygotes with LDL-C >500 mg/dL (>13mmol/L);
Functional hypercholesterolemic heterozygotes with LDL-C >300 mg/dL (>7.8mmol/L);
Functional hypercholesterolemic heterozygotes with LDL-C >200 mg/dL (>5.2mmol/L) and documented CAD
No other LDL apheresis system is currently licensed in Canada.
Review Strategy
The Medical Advisory Secretariat systematically reviewed the literature to assess the effectiveness and safety of LDL apheresis performed with the HELP system for the treatment of patients with refractory HMZ and HTZ FH. A standard search methodology was used to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases.
The GRADE approach was used to systematically and explicitly make judgments about the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations.
Summary of Findings
The search identified 398 articles published from January 1, 1998 to May 30, 2007. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Five case series, 2 case series nested within comparative studies, and one retrospective review, were included in the analysis. A health technology assessment conducted by the Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research, and a review by the United States Food and Drug Administration were also included.
Large heterogeneity among the studies was observed. Studies varied in inclusion criteria, baseline patient characteristics and methodology.
Overall, the mean acute1 relative decrease in LDL-C with HELP LDL apheresis ranged from 53 to 77%. The mean acute relative reductions ranged as follows: total cholesterol (TC) 47 to 64%, HDL-C +0.4 to -29%, triglycerides (TG) 33 to 62%, Lp(a) 55 to 68% and fibrinogen 56 to 65%.
The mean chronic2 relative decreases in LDL-C and TC with HELP LDL apheresis ranged from 9 to 46% and 5 to 34%, respectively. Familial hypercholesterolemia patients treated with HELP did not achieve the target LDL-C value set by international guidelines (LDL-C < 2.5mmol/L, 100mg/dL). The chronic mean relative increase in HDL-C ranged from 12 to 27%. The ratio of LDL:HDL and the ratio of TC:HDL are 2 measures that have been shown to be important risk factors for cardiac events. In high-risk patients, the recommended target LDL:HDL ratio is less than or equal to 2, and the target TC:HDL ratio is less than 4. In the studies that reported chronic lipid changes, the LDL:HDL and TC:HDL ratios exceeded targeted values.
Three studies investigated the effects of HELP on coronary outcomes and atherosclerotic changes. One noted that twice as many lesions displayed regression in comparison to those displaying progression. The second study found that there was a decrease in Agatston scores3 and in the volume of coronary calcium. The last study noted that 2 of 5 patients showed regression of coronary atherosclerosis, and 3 of the 5 patients showed no change as assessed by a global change score.
Adverse effects were typically mild and transient, and the majority of events were related to problems with vascular access. Of the 3 studies that provided quantitative information, the proportion of adverse events ranged from 2.9 to 5.1%.
GRADE Quality of Evidence
In general, studies were of low quality, i.e., case series studies (Tables 1-3). No controlled studies were identified and no studies directly compared the effectiveness of the HELP system with PE or with diet and drug therapy. Conducting trials with a sufficiently large control group would not have been feasible or acceptable given that HELP represents a last alternative in these patients who are resistant to conventional therapeutic strategies.
A major limitation is that there is limited evidence on the effectiveness and safety of HELP apheresis in HMZ FH patients. However, it is unlikely that better-quality evidence will become available, given that HMZ FH is rare and LDL apheresis is a last therapeutic option for these patients.
Lastly, there is limited data on the long-term effects of LDL apheresis in FH patients. No studies with HELP were identified that examined long-term outcomes such as survival and cardiovascular events. The absence of this data may be attributed to the rarity of the condition, and the large number of subjects and long duration of follow-up that would be needed to conduct such trials.
Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia - Lipid Outcomes
Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia - Lipid Outcomes
Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia - Coronary Artery Disease Outcomes
Economic Analysis
A budget-impact analysis was conducted to forecast future costs for PE and HELP apheresis in FH patients. All costs are reported in Canadian dollars. Based on epidemiological data of 13 HMZ, 115 diagnosed HTZ and 765 cases of all HTZ patients (diagnosed + undiagnosed), the annual cost of weekly treatment was estimated to be $488,025, $4,332,227 and $24,758,556 respectively for PE. For HELP apheresis, the annual cost of weekly treatment was estimated to be $1,025,338, $9,156,209 and $60,982,579 respectively. Costs for PE and HELP apheresis were halved with a biweekly treatment schedule.
The cost per coronary artery disease death avoided over a 10-year period in HTZ FH-diagnosed patients was also calculated and estimated to be $37.5 million and $18.7 million for weekly and biweekly treatment respectively, when comparing HELP apheresis with PE and with no intervention. Although HELP apheresis costs twice as much as PE, it helped to avoid 12 deaths compared with PE and 22 deaths compared with no intervention, over a period of 10 years.
Ontario Health System Impact Analysis
Low-density lipoprotein apheresis using the HELP system is currently being funded by the provinces of Quebec and Alberta. The program in Quebec has been in operation since 2001 and is limited to the treatment of HMZ FH patients. The Alberta program is relatively new and is currently treating HMZ FH patients, but it is expanding to include refractory HTZ FH patients.
Low-density lipoprotein apheresis is a lifelong treatment and requires considerable commitment on the part of the patient, and the patient’s family and physician. In addition, the management of FH continues to evolve. With the advent of new more powerful cholesterol-lowering drugs, some HTZ patients may be able to sufficiently control their hypercholesterolemia. Nevertheless, according to clinical experts, HMZ patients will likely always require LDL apheresis.
Given the substantial costs associated with LDL apheresis, treatment has been limited to HMZ FH patients. However, LDL apheresis could be applied to a much larger population, which would include HTZ FH patients who are refractory to diet and drug therapy. HTZ FH patients are generally recruited in a more advanced state, demonstrate a longer natural survival than HMZ FH patients and are older.
Conclusions
For HMZ FH patients, the benefits of LDL apheresis clearly outweigh the risks and burdens. According to GRADE, the recommendation would be graded as strong, with low- to very low-quality evidence (Table 4).
In both HMZ and HTZ FH patients, there is evidence of overall clinical benefit of LDL apheresis from case series studies. Low-density lipoprotein apheresis has several advantages over the current treatment of PE, including decreased exposure to blood products, decreased risk of adverse events, conservation of nonatherogenic and athero-protective components, such as HDL-C and lowering of other atherogenic components, such as fibrinogen.
In contrast to HMZ FH patients, there remains a lot of uncertainty in the social/ethical acceptance of this technology for the treatment of refractory HTZ FH patients. In addition to the substantial costs, it is unknown whether the current health care system could cope with the additional demand. There is uncertainty in the estimates of benefits, risks and burdens. According to GRADE, the recommendation would be graded as weak with low- to very-low-quality evidence (Table 5).
GRADE Recommendation - Homozygous Patients
GRADE of recommendation: Strong recommendation, low-quality or very-low-quality evidence
Benefits clearly outweigh risk and burdens
Case series study designs
Strong, but may change when higher-quality evidence becomes available
GRADE Recommendation - Heterozygous Patients
GRADE of recommendation: Weak recommendation, low-quality or very-low-quality evidence
Uncertainty in the estimates of benefits, risks and burden, which these may be closely balanced
Case series study designs
Very weak; other alternatives may be equally reasonable
PMCID: PMC3377562  PMID: 23074505
Background
A residual risk of cardiovascular disease tends to persist despite standard prevention therapy with statins. This may stem partly from increased oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. However, how oxidized LDL can be further reduced beyond statin therapy in high-risk diabetes patients remains unclear. We aimed to clarify the clinical factors associated with oxidized LDL levels in statin-treated high-risk diabetes patients.
Methods
This cross-sectional observational study included 210 diabetes patients with coronary artery diseases (CAD) who were treated with statins. We determined serum malondialdehyde-modified LDL (MDA-LDL), LDL cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), remnant lipoprotein cholesterol, hemoglobin (Hb) A1c, adiponectin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and investigated the factors influencing the MDA-LDL level.
Results
In univariate analysis, the MDA-LDL level was significantly correlated with LDL cholesterol (p < 0.0001), TG (p < 0.0001), HDL cholesterol (p = 0.017), and adiponectin (p = 0.001) levels but not with age, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, or HbA1c levels. Even after adjusting for the LDL cholesterol level, the correlations between the MDA-LDL level and the TG, HDL cholesterol, and adiponectin levels were still significant. Among these significant factors, multivariate analysis revealed that the MDA-LDL level was independently associated with the LDL cholesterol, TG, and HDL cholesterol but not with adiponectin levels. The MDA-LDL level was also significantly associated with the CRP level (p = 0.014) and the remnant lipoprotein cholesterol level (p < 0.0001) independently of the LDL cholesterol level. The number of metabolic syndrome (MS) components was significantly associated with the MDA-LDL/LDL cholesterol ratio (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the use of metformin and α-glucosidase inhibitors was inversely associated with high MDA-LDL levels (p = 0.033 and 0.018, respectively).
Conclusion
In statin-treated diabetes patients with CAD, the MDA-LDL level was significantly correlated with TG and HDL cholesterol levels. Adiponectin level was also significantly associated with the MDA-LDL level, but not independent of the above-mentioned factors. The management of dyslipidemic MS components, including the use of metformin or α-glucosidase inhibitors, may be important for reducing the oxidized LDL levels beyond statin therapy in high-risk diabetes patients.
doi:10.1186/1758-5996-5-77
PMCID: PMC4029151  PMID: 24314067
MDA-LDL; Metabolic syndrome; Triglycerides; HDL cholesterol; Adiponectin; Diabetes mellitus; Coronary artery disease; Statins
Journal of clinical lipidology  2009;3(5):322-331.
Background
Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with statins reduces atherosclerosis. LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) are commonly measured by their cholesterol content, but non-HDL cholesterol, LDL particle number (LDL-P), or total apolipoprotein B (apoB) may better predict cardiovascular risk. Few studies have examined relations among lipoprotein levels and composition before and after interventions to lower LDL-C and non-HDL-C.
Objective
To measure changes in carotid artery intimal media thickness (CIMT) and lipid concentration and composition during 36 months of statin therapy.
Methods
Analyses were conducted on 418 diabetic individuals, with complete data and no prior cardiovascular events, who were randomized to aggressive (AG) versus standard (STD) treatment for LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) as part of the Stop Atherosclerosis in Native Diabetics Study (SANDS).
Results
The AG group achieved average LDL-C and non-HDL-C of 71mg/dL and 100mg/dL and a decrease in CIMT. No significant interactions were observed between treatment effect and initial levels of LDL-C, non-HDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apoB, or LDL-P. Decreases in LDL-C (p<.005) and non-HDL-C (p<.001) were independently correlated with CIMT regression in the AG group. Changes in apoB and LDL-P showed borderline correlations with CIMT regression (p=.07 and p=.09).
Conclusions
In diabetic adults with no prior cardiovascular events, treatment to current targets for lipids and SBP reduces atherosclerosis progression and when more aggressive targets are met, atherosclerosis regresses. The aggressive targets for LDL-C and non-HDL-C appeared to be the main determinants of CIMT regression and were more predictive of this outcome than changes in LDL-P or apoB.
doi:10.1016/j.jacl.2009.09.001
PMCID: PMC2805908  PMID: 20161568
atherosclerosis; cardiovascular disease; carotid arteries; cholesterol; lipoproteins
Objective
The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy of adding fenofibric acid to moderate-dose statin therapy in patients at goal for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) but with persistent hypertriglyceridemia.
Methods
This is a post hoc analysis of a subset of patients (N = 92) with mixed dyslipidemia treated with moderate-dose statin (rosuvastatin 20 mg, simvastatin 40 mg, or atorvastatin 40 mg) for 12 weeks in three controlled trials who had achieved LDL-C <100 mg/dL but whose triglycerides remained >200 mg/dL, and had fenofibric acid 135 mg added to the moderate-dose statin in a 52-week open-label extension study. Lipid and apolipoprotein (Apo) values and the proportion of patients meeting individual and combined treatment targets with combination therapy were determined at scheduled visits during the 52-week study and compared with baseline (start of extension study).
Results
Addition of fenofibric acid to moderate-dose statin for 52 weeks resulted in significant (P < 0.001) improvements in non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non–HDL-C; –9.0%), ApoB (–9.8%), HDL-C (14.9%), and triglycerides (–37.6%) compared with baseline. At final visit, greater proportions of patients achieved optimal levels of individual parameters as well as combined targets of LDL-C + non–HDL-C (60.0% vs 52.2%), LDL-C + non–HDL-C + ApoB (53.3% vs 37.8%, P = 0.007), and LDL-C + non–HDL-C + ApoB + HDL-C + triglycerides (25.6% vs 0.0%) than at baseline.
Conclusions
The addition of fenofibric acid to moderate-dose statin in patients whose LDL-C was optimal but whose triglycerides remained >200 mg/dL led to additional improvements in non–HDL-C, ApoB, HDL-C, and triglycerides that resulted in greater proportions of patients attaining optimal levels of the individual parameters as well as simultaneously achieving optimal levels of these parameters and LDL-C.
doi:10.1007/s10557-011-6280-1
PMCID: PMC3070075  PMID: 21416219
Dyslipidemia; Hypertriglyceridemia; Statin; Fenofibric acid
We investigated lipid profiles and lipoprotein modification after immuno-intervention in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA). Fifty-eight patients with ERA who met the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria were included in the study. These patients had disease durations of less than one year and had not had prior treatment for it. Smokers or patients suffering from diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, liver or kidney disease, Cushing's syndrome, obesity, familiar dyslipidemia and those receiving medications affecting lipid metabolism were excluded from the study. Sixty-three healthy volunteers (controls) were also included. Patients were treated with methotrexate and prednisone. Lipid profiles, disease activity for the 28 joint indices score (DAS-28) as well as ACR 50% response criteria were determined for all patients. The mean DAS-28 at disease onset was 5.8 ± 0.9. After a year of therapy, 53 (91.3%) patients achieved the ACR 20% response criteria, while 45 (77.6%) attained the ACR 50% criteria. In addition, a significant decrease in the DAS-28, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were observed. ERA patients exhibited higher serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides, whereas their serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were significantly lower compared to controls. As a consequence, the atherogenic ratio of TC/HDL-C as well as that of LDL-C/HDL-C was significantly higher in ERA patients compared to controls. After treatment, a significant reduction of the atherogenic ratio of TC/HDL-C as well as that of LDL-C/HDL-C was observed, a phenomenon primarily due to the increase of serum HDL-C levels. These changes were inversely correlated with laboratory changes, especially CRP and ESR. In conclusion, ERA patients are characterized by an atherogenic lipid profile, which improves after therapy. Thus, early immuno-intervention to control disease activity may reduce the risk of the atherosclerotic process and cardiovascular events in ERA patients.
doi:10.1186/ar1952
PMCID: PMC1526648  PMID: 16646989
Heart  2011;97(23):1943-1950.
Background
A low level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is strongly associated with cardiovascular events. However, the significance of HDL-C after statin therapy on the outcome of patients who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug eluting stents (DES) is unclear.
Objectives
To investigate the significance of HDL-C after statin therapy on cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease after DES implantation.
Methods
Patients who underwent PCI with DES from January 2004 to December 2009 were prospectively enrolled. The follow-up lipid panel of 2693 patients (median lab follow-up duration 225 days) who had continued using statins after PCI and who attained low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) <100 mg/dl was analysed. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularisation according to follow-up HDL-C level (40 mg/dl for men or 50 mg/dl for women) were compared with the use of propensity scores matching.
Results
Median follow-up duration was 832 days. 1585 (58.9%) patients had low follow-up HDL-C and 1108 had high follow-up HDL-C. The low follow-up HDL-C group had significantly higher rates of MACE. Low follow-up HDL-C was a significant independent predictor of MACE (adjusted HR 1.404, 95% CI 1.111 to 1.774, p=0.004). In further analysis with propensity scores matching, overall findings were consistent.
Conclusions
Raising HDL-C levels may be a subsequent goal after achieving target LDL-C levels in patients with DES implantation.
doi:10.1136/hrt.2011.225466
PMCID: PMC3210465  PMID: 21665885
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol; statin; percutaneous coronary intervention; drug eluting stents; coronary angioplasty; lipoproteins, coronary artery disease
ABSTRACT
Diabetes and urbanization are major contributors to increased risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Studying whether atherogenic dyslipidaemia increases with urbanization in type 2 diabetes mellitus is, therefore, important. The sample of the present study consisted of 400 subjects. They were categorized according to residential area and diabetes into four groups: urban diabetic group, urban non-diabetic control group (from a metropolitan city Delhi), rural non-diabetic diabetic group, and rural control group (from villages of Khanpur Kalan, Sonepat, Haryana). Differences in lipid levels and risk factors of emerging cardiovascular diseases between groups were evaluated with analysis of variance. Diabetic patients of both urban and rural areas had significantly higher total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), TC to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL) ratio, TG to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL) ratio, and atherogenic index (AI) compared to respective controls (p<0.05). The HDL concentrations in urban diabetics were significantly lower (p<0.05) than in urban non-diabetic group and rural diabetic group. Comparison between urban and rural diabetic groups showed significantly higher atherogenic dyslipidaemia (AD) in the urban patient-group (p<0.05). We evaluated significant relationships of diabetes and urbanization with AD by multiple regression analysis. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis showed high area under curve (AUC) for TG/HDL in urban diabetic group (0.776, p<0.0001) and in rural diabetic group (0.692, p<0.0001). It is concluded that diabetes was associated with higher AD parameters. Urbanization in diabetes is also associated with elevated levels of AD, indicating higher risk in urban population. This study suggests that TG/HDL may be particularly useful as atherogenic risk predictor in newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients.
PMCID: PMC4221455  PMID: 25395912
Atherogenic dyslipidaemia; Atherogenic index; Diabetes; Urbanization; India
Background & Objective
The relationship between lipid profile perturbation and diabetes associated complications has long been an area of interest. Dyslipidemia is a potent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. The aim of present study was to investigate relationship between aging and lipid profiles in diabetic and non-diabetic atherosclerotic patients.
Methods
Five hundred and seventy six individuals (45–75 year age) participated in this study. Among these, 192 were having history of diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Individuals are categorized on the base of health (normal, non-diabetic atherosclerosis, diabetic atherosclerosis) and age (45–55 years, 56–65 years, and 66–75 years). All the participants were subjected to the procedures like a detailed history, biochemical analysis for fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein-(LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). All these parameters were compared between diabetic and non-diabetic atherosclerotic patients of all three age groups. TC/HDL and LDL/HDL were also calculated.
Results
Diabetic atherosclerotic individuals (both males and females) had high level of TC, TG, LDL, VLDL and low level of HDL in comparison to non-diabetic atherosclerotic and normal control individuals. Among all three age groups, lipoprotein abnormality was observed to be more frequent in females than males. There was a significant increase in TC/HDL and LDL/HDL ratio in diabetic atherosclerotic subjects compared to age and sex matched non-diabetic atherosclerotic and normal control.
Conclusions
Degree of dyslipidemia increases with increase in age in both genders. Female are more prone to diabetic dyslipidemia and hence have more risk of developing atherosclerosis with increasing age.
doi:10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2015.01.005
PMCID: PMC4308457
Aging; Atherosclerosis; Diabetes; Dyslipidemia
Objective
The objective of this study was to assess the proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) attaining individual and combined targets of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), non-HDL-C, and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) after treatment with rosuvastatin (R) + fenofibric acid (FA) compared with corresponding-dose R monotherapy.
Methods
This post hoc analysis evaluated data from the T2DM subset of patients with mixed dyslipidemia (LDL-C ≥130 mg/dL, HDL-C <40/50 mg/dL in men/women, and TG ≥150 mg/dL) from 2 randomized studies. Patients included in the analysis (N = 456) were treated with R (5, 10, or 20 mg), FA 135 mg, or R (5, 10, or 20 mg) + FA 135 mg for 12 weeks. Attainment of LDL-C <100 mg/dL, HDL-C >40/50 mg/dL in men/women, TG <150 mg/dL, non-HDL-C <130 mg/dL, ApoB <90 mg/dL, and the combined targets of these parameters was assessed.
Results
Treatment with R + FA resulted in a significantly higher proportion of patients achieving optimal levels of HDL-C (46.8% vs. 20.8%, P = 0.009 for R 10 mg + FA), TG (60.0% vs. 34.0%, P = 0.02 for R 10 mg + FA; 54.0% vs. 26.4%, P = 0.005 for R 20 mg + FA), non-HDL-C (55.1% vs. 36.4%, P = 0.04 for R 5 mg + FA), ApoB (58.0% vs. 36.4%, P = 0.02 for R 5 mg + FA); and the combined targets of LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG (28.3% vs. 8.3%, P = 0.02 for R 10 mg + FA) and all 5 parameters (26.1% vs. 8.3%, P = 0.03 for R 10 mg + FA) than corresponding-dose R monotherapies.
Conclusions
A significantly greater proportion of T2DM patients achieved individual and combined lipid targets when treated with the combination of R + FA than corresponding-dose R monotherapies.
doi:10.1007/s10557-010-6273-5
PMCID: PMC3070080  PMID: 21174145
Fibrates; Statins; Dyslipidemia
Plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins were assessed in three groups of Nigerians at increased risk for atherosclerotic heart disease. The three patient groups, diabetes mellitus (n = 15), essential hypertension (n = 12), and hypertensive-diabetes mellitus (n = 11), were compared with age-matched, apparently healthy controls (n = 14). In subjects with diabetes mellitus, triglyceride and its related apolipoproteins CIII and CIII:NonB were significantly higher than controls. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly lower; its related ratios, total/HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/HDL-C were significantly higher than those for controls. Subjects with hypertension and hypertensive-diabetes mellitus had significantly higher values than controls for those lipids and lipid fractions considered atherogenic (total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride, and the total/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios) as well as apolipoproteins B, CIII, and lipoprotein particles Lp(a) and CIII:NonB. Only hypertensive-diabetes mellitus subjects had lower HDL-C levels, while hypertension patients had significantly higher apolipoprotein AI and LpAI concentrations than controls. Subjects with hypertensive-diabetes mellitus had significantly worse lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein profiles both in terms of increased atherogenic and reduced anti-atherogenic parameters compared with subjects with diabetes mellitus or hypertension only. These studies suggest that Nigerians with diabetes, hypertension, and especially both hypertension and diabetes need to be fully evaluated from a lipid and lipoprotein standpoint, and any abnormalities detected need to be taken into consideration during therapy of this group of high-risk patients.
PMCID: PMC2607772  PMID: 7897682
Background
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between obesity and lipid markers.
Material/Methods
We divided 66 non-diabetic adult obese patients (mean age: 55.8±11.6 years) into 3 groups according to body mass index (BMI). All patients were measured for waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body adiposity index (BAI), and visceral adiposity index (VAI). Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were determined, and lipid indices TC/HDL, LDL/HDL, and TG/HDL were also estimated.
Results
TC and LDL-C in Group III were lower than in Group I (5.0±1.0 vs. 6.0±1.0 mmol/L, and 2.9±0.9 vs. 3.8±1.2 mmol/L; p<0.05 for both). Negative correlations were found between: BMI and TC, LDL, and HDL (r=−0.291; r=−0.310, r=−0.240, respectively); and WC, WHR, VAI, and HDL (r=−0.371, r=−0.296, r=−0.376, respectively). Positive correlations were found between WC, WHR, and TG/HDL (r=0.279, r=0.244, respectively) and between VAI and: TC (r=0.327), TG (r=0.885), TC/HDL (r=0.618), LDL/HDL (r=0.480), and TG/HDL (r=0.927).
Conclusions
Obesity is associated with lipid disturbances, especially with HDL-C reduction, in obese non-diabetic patients. VAI is strongly related to lipid profile and thus may be the most valuable obesity index in obese patients with dyslipidemias.
doi:10.12659/MSM.890845
PMCID: PMC4271804  PMID: 25512170
Dyslipidemias; Obesity; Therapeutics

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