Cyclin D1 regulates cell proliferation and is a candidate molecular target for breast cancer therapy. The current work addresses whether Cyclin D1 is indispensable for ErbB2-associated mammary tumor initiation and progression using a breast cancer model in which this cell cycle regulator can be genetically ablated prior to or after neoplastic transformation. Deficiency in Cyclin D1 delayed tumor onset but did not prevent the occurrence of mammary cancer in mice overexpressing wildtype ErbB2. The lack of Cyclin D1 was associated with a compensatory upregulation of Cyclin D3, which explains why the targeted downregulation of Cyclin D1 in established mammary tumors had no effect on cancer cell proliferation. Cyclin D1 and D3 are overexpressed in human breast cancer cell lines and primary invasive breast cancers, and Cyclin D3 frequently exceeded the expression of Cyclin D1 in ErbB2-positive cases. The simultaneous inhibition of both cyclins in mammary tumor cells reduced cancer cell proliferation in vitro and decreased the tumor burden in vivo. Collectively, the results of this study suggest that only the combined inhibition of Cyclin D1 and D3 might be a suitable strategy for breast cancer prevention and therapy.
Cyclin D; Gene Targeting; Tetracycline Transactivator; ErbB2; Mammary Gland Development; Breast Cancer
Leptin, an adipose secreted cytokine, is implicated in mammary cancer stem cell self-renewal and tumor growth in Murine Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV)-Wnt-1 transgenic mice. In vitro studies indicate that leptin induces expression of Cyclin D1, a cell-cycle control protein necessary for mammary tumor development. The aim of the present study was to assess Cyclin D1 expression in spontaneous tumors that develop in the MMTV-Wnt-1 transgenic mice and interrogate the in vivo effect of leptin.
Materials and methods
Cells derived from spontaneous MMTV-Wnt-1 tumors were orthotopically transplanted into wild type, leptin-deficient, and hyperleptinemic mice. After 6 weeks, the tumors were collected and formalin fixed. Immunoflurescence staining was used to assess Cyclin D1, keratin 8, α-SMA, phospho-AKT expression.
Cyclin D1 is expressed exclusively in luminal keratin 8 immunoreactive tumor cells and is dependent on the adipose secreted hormone leptin. Tumor cell transplant into leptin-deficient mice resulted in approximately an 80% reduction of Cyclin D1 immunoreactivity in keratin 8 cells and this was independent of Akt activation.
Collectively, these data and our previous findings indicate that inhibition of leptin signaling provides an excellent therapeutic target for breast cancer. The current data indicate that in luminal mammary tumors, leptin antagonists would potentially inhibit growth in a Cyclin D1-dependent mechanism. In contrast, in basal mammary tumors, leptin antagonists would inhibit growth in an Akt-dependent manner leading to reduction in CSC self-renewal. Thus, leptin therapeutics may inhibit breast cancer via distinct mechanisms dependent on the tumor type.
Cyclin E is aberrantly expressed in many types of cancer including breast cancer. High levels of the full length as well as the low molecular weight isoforms of cyclin E are associated with poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. Notably, cyclin E overexpression is also correlated with triple-negative basal-like breast cancers, which lack specific therapeutic targets. In this study, we used siRNA to target cyclin E overexpression and assessed its ability to suppress breast cancer growth in nude mice. Our results revealed that cyclin E siRNA could effectively inhibit overexpression of both full length and low molecular weight isoforms of cyclin E. We found that depletion of cyclin E promoted apoptosis of cyclin E-overexpressing cells and blocked their proliferation and transformation phenotypes. Significantly, we further demonstrated that administration of cyclin E siRNA could inhibit breast tumor growth in nude mice. In addition, we found that cyclin E siRNA synergistically enhanced the cell killing effects of doxorubicin in cell culture and this combination greatly suppressed the tumor growth in mice. In conclusion, our results indicate that cyclin E, which is overexpressed in 30% of breast cancer, may serve as a novel and effective therapeutic target. More importantly, our study clearly demonstrates a very promising therapeutic potential of cyclin E siRNA for treating the cyclin E-overexpressing breast cancers, including the very malignant triple-negative breast cancers.
We have previously demonstrated that ras-mediated skin tumorigenesis depends on signaling pathways that act preferentially through cyclin D1 and D2. Interestingly, the expression of cyclin D3 inhibits skin tumor development, an observation that conflicts with the oncogenic role of D-type cyclins in the mouse epidermis. Here, we show that simultaneous up and downregulation of particular members of the D-type cyclin family is a valuable approach to reduce skin tumorigenesis. We developed the K5D3/cyclin D1−/− compound mouse, which overexpresses cyclin D3 but lacks expression of cyclin D1 in the skin. Similar to K5D3 transgenic mice, keratinocytes from K5D3/cyclin D1−/− compound mice show a significant reduction of cyclin D2 levels. Therefore, this model allows us to determine the effect of cyclin D3 expression when combined with reduced or absent expression of the remaining two members of the D-type cyclin family in mouse epidermis. Our data show that induced expression of cyclin D3 compensates for the reduced level of cyclin D1 and D2, resulting in normal keratinocyte proliferation. However, simultaneous ablation of cyclin D1 and downregulation of cyclin D2 via cyclin D3 expression resulted in a robust reduction in ras-mediated skin tumorigenesis. We conclude that modulation of the levels of particular members of the D-type cyclin family could be useful to inhibit tumor development and, in particular, ras-mediated tumorigenesis.
cell cycle; D-type cyclins; skin; carcinogenesis; epidermis
D-cyclins represent components of cell cycle machinery. To test the efficacy of targeting D-cyclins in cancer treatment, we engineered mouse strains which allow acute and global ablation of individual D-cyclins in a living animal. Ubiquitous shutdown of cyclin D1 or inhibition of cyclin D-associated kinase activity in mice bearing ErbB2-driven mammary carcinomas triggered tumor cell senescence, without compromising the animals’ health. Ablation of cyclin D3 in mice bearing Notch1-driven T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALL) triggered tumor cell apoptosis. Such selective killing of leukemic cells can also be achieved by inhibiting cyclin D-associated kinase activity in mouse and human T-ALL models. Inhibition of cyclin D-kinase activity represents a highly-selective anti-cancer strategy that specifically targets cancer cells without significantly affecting normal tissues.
Cyclin E is the normal inducer of S phase in G1 cells of Drosophila embryos. Stable G1 quiescence requires the downregulation both of cyclin E and of other factors that can bypass the normal regulation of cell cycle progression.
High-level expression of cyclin A triggered the G1/S transition in wild-type embryos and in mutant embryos lacking cyclin E. Three types of control downregulated this activity of cyclin A. First, cyclin destruction limited the accumulation of cyclin A protein in G1. Second, inhibitory phosphorylation of cdc2, the kinase partner of cyclin A, reduced the S-phase promoting activity of cyclin A in G1. Third, rux, a protein with unknown biochemical function, limited cyclin A function in G1. Overexpression of rux blocked S phase induction by coexpressed cyclin A and promoted the degradation of cyclin A. Rux also prevented a stable cyclin A mutant from inducing S phase, indicating that inhibition does not require cyclin destruction, and drove the nuclear localization of cyclin A.
Cyclin A can drive the G1/S transition, but this function is suppressed by three types of control: cyclin A destruction, inhibitory phosphorylation of cdc2, and inhibition by rux. The partly redundant contributions of these three inhibitory mechanisms safeguard the stability of G1 quiescence until the induction of cyclin E. The action of rux during G1 resembles the action of inhibitors of mitotic kinases present during G1 in yeast, although no obvious sequence similarity exists.
Knockout and transgenic studies in mice demonstrate that normal somatic tissues redundantly express 3 cyclin D proteins, whereas tumor cells seem dependent on a single overexpressed cyclin D. Thus, selective suppression of the individual cyclin D deregulated in a tumor represents a biologically valid approach to targeted cancer therapy. In multiple myeloma, overexpression of 1 of the cyclin D proteins is a ubiquitous feature, unifying at least 7 different initiating genetic events. We demonstrate here that RNAi of genes encoding cyclin D1 and cyclin D2 (CCND1 and CCND2, respectively) inhibits proliferation and is progressively cytotoxic in human myeloma cells. By screening a chemical library using a cell-based assay for inhibition of CCND2 trans-activation, we identified the plant cytokinin kinetin riboside as an inhibitor of CCND2 trans-activation. Kinetin riboside induced marked suppression of CCND2 transcription and rapidly suppressed cyclin D1 and D2 protein expression in primary myeloma cells and tumor lines, causing cell-cycle arrest, tumor cell–selective apoptosis, and inhibition of myeloma growth in xenografted mice. Mechanistically, kinetin riboside upregulated expression of transcription repressor isoforms of cAMP-response element modulator (CREM) and blocked both trans-activation of CCND2 by various myeloma oncogenes and cis-activation of translocated CCND1, suggesting induction of an overriding repressor activity that blocks multiple oncogenic pathways targeting cyclin D genes. These data support targeted repression of cyclin D genes as a therapeutic strategy for human malignancies.
Cyclin D1 is an important regulator of cell cycle progression and can function as a transcriptionl co-regulator. The overexpression of cyclin D1 has been linked to the development and progression of cancer. Deregulated cyclin D1 degradation appears to be responsible for the increased levels of cyclin D1 in several cancers. Recent findings have identified novel mechanisms involved in the regulation of cyclin D1 stability. A number of therapeutic agents have been shown to induce cyclin D1 degradation. The therapeutic ablation of cyclin D1 may be useful for the prevention and treatment of cancer. In this review, current knowledge on the regulation of cyclin D1 degradation is discussed. Novel insights into cyclin D1 degradation are also discussed in the context of ablative therapy. A number of unresolved questions regarding the regulation of cellular cyclin D1 levels are also addressed.
The cyclin D1 gene encodes a regulatory subunit of the holoenzyme that phosphorylates and inactivates the pRb tumor suppressor to promote nuclear DNA synthesis. cyclin D1 is overexpressed in human breast cancers and is sufficient for the development of murine mammary tumors. Herein, cyclin D1 is shown to perform a novel function, inhibiting mitochondrial function and size. Mitochondrial activity was enhanced by genetic deletion or antisense or small interfering RNA to cyclin D1. Global gene expression profiling and functional analysis of mammary epithelial cell-targeted cyclin D1 antisense transgenics demonstrated that cyclin D1 inhibits mitochondrial activity and aerobic glycolysis in vivo. Reciprocal regulation of these genes was observed in cyclin D1-induced mammary tumors. Cyclin D1 thus integrates nuclear DNA synthesis and mitochondrial function.
Andrographolide is one of the major diterpene lactones found in Andrographis paniculata Nees and exhibits remarkable inhibitory effects on various cancers. In this study, the antipulmonary cancer effects of andrographolide were studied in a lung tumor mouse model induced by human vascular endothelial growth factor A165 (hVEGF-A165). These results demonstrated that andrographolide significantly reduced the expression of hVEGF-A165 compared with a mock group in the Clara cells of the lungs. In addition, andrographolide also decreased tumor formation by reducing VEGF, EGFR, Cyclin A, and Cyclin B expression on the transcriptional and translational levels. These results indicated that andrographolide treatment on the overexpression of VEGF can arrest the cell cycle, which induced pulmonary tumors in transgenic mice. In conclusion, the antiangiogenesis and chemotherapeutic potential of andrographolide may provide a cure for pulmonary tumors in the future.
The ErbB2 (Her2/neu epidermal growth receptor family) oncogene is overexpressed in 30% to 40% of human breast cancers. Cyclin D1 is the regulatory subunit of the holoenzyme that phosphorylates and inactivates the retinoblastoma (pRb) tumor suppressor and is an essential downstream target of ErbB2-induced tumor growth. Herein, we demonstrate that ErbB2 induces the activity of the Notch signaling pathway. ErbB2 induction of DNA synthesis, contact-independent growth, and mammosphere induction required Notch1. ErbB2-induced cyclin D1 and cyclin D1 expression was sufficient to induce Notch1 activity, and conversely, genetic deletion of Notch1 in mammary epithelial cells using floxed Notch (Notchfl/fl ) mice demonstrated that cyclin D1 is induced by Notch1. Genetic deletion of cyclin D1 or small interfering RNA (siRNA) to cyclin D1-reduced Notch1 activity and reintroduction of cyclin D1 into cyclin D1-deficient cells restored Notch1 activity through the inhibition of Numb, an endogenous inhibitor of Notch1 activity. Thus, cyclin D1 functions downstream as a genetic target of Notch1, amplifies Notch1 activity by repressing Numb, and identifies a novel pathway by which ErbB2 induces Notch1 activity via the induction of cyclin D1.
cancer biology; oncogenes; signal transduction
Cyclin D1 and cyclin E are the mammalian G1 cydins that are both required and rate limiting for entry into S phase. Alterations in cell cycle regulators and subsequent deregulation of the cell cycle are frequently involved in tumorigenesis and/or tumor progression. We investigated the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E protein in 84 gastric carcinoma by immunohistochemical staining and also the relevance of each cyclin expression to the clinical outcomes. Overexpression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E was noted in 21 of 84 (25.0%) and 34 of 84 (40.5%) gastric cancer tissues, respectively. There was a significant correlation between overexpression of cyclin E and lymph node metastasis (p=0.003), recurrence (p=0.043), disease free survival (p=0.0378) and overall survival (p=0.0319), but no correlation was noted between overexpression of cyclin D1 and other clinicopathologic variables. These findings suggest that overexpression of cyclin E and cyclin D1 is a frequent finding in gastric cancer and immunohistochemical analysis for cell cycle regulators, especially cyclin E might be a useful prognostic indicator in gastric cancer.
Cyclin E activates Cdk2, controls centrosome duplication and regulates histone gene transcription. Cyclin E is deregulated in cancer and appears as low molecular weight (LMW) isoforms that correlate strongly with decreased survival in breast cancer patients. Transgenic mice overexpressing LMW cyclin E have increased incidence of mammary tumors and distant metastasis when compared to full length cyclin E. To specifically test the requirement for Cdk2 in LMW-cyclin E mediated mammary tumorigenesis, we generated transgenic mice, which expressed LMW-cyclin E in a Cdk2 deficient background. We found that mammary gland development proceeds relatively normally in these animals, indicating that Cdk2 kinase activity is largely dispensable for this process. However, Cdk2 deficient mice were completely resistant to LMW-cyclin E mediated mammary tumors. Cdk2 wild-type or heterozygous mice succumbed to mammary tumors with mean latencies of 16 and 19.5 months, respectively, but Cdk2 nullizygous littermates did not display tumors through 24 months. Similarly, continuous administration of two different Cdk inhibitors significantly delayed LMW-cyclin E induced mammary tumor progression. Triple transgenic mice generated in a p53 heterozygous background also displayed no tumors. We also found that Cdk2 silencing induced cell death in LMW-overexpressing breast cancer cell lines, but not in cell lines lacking LMW expression. Our findings establish a requirement for Cdk2 in LMW-cyclin E mediated mammary tumorigenesis, arguing that human breast tumors overexpressing LMW-cyclin E are prime candidates for anti-Cdk2 therapy.
Low molecular weight cyclin E; Cdk2; transgenic mice; breast cancer; roscovitine; meriolin
Lung cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Galectin-3 is multifunctional protein, which is involved in regulation of cell growth, cell adhesion, cell proliferation, angiogenesis and apoptosis. Cyclin D1 together with other cyclin plays an important role in cell cycle control. Cyclin D1 regulates the G1-to-S phase transition. The aim of this study was the evaluation of correlations between clinicopathological findings and cyclin D1 and galectin-3 expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We wanted also to analyze the prognostic value of cyclin D1 and galectin-3 expression. Moreover we tried to evaluate the correlations between galectin-3 and cyclin D1 expression in tumor tissue.
Materials and methods
We used the immunochemistry method to investigate the expression of galectin-3 and cyclin D1 in the paraffin-embedded tumor tissue of 47 patients (32 men and 15 women; mean age 59.34 ± 8.90). years. We used monoclonal antibodies to cyclin D1 (NCL-L-cyclin D1-GM clone P2D11F11 NOVO CASTRA) and to galectin-3 (mouse monoclonal antibody NCL-GAL3 NOVO CASTRA).
Galectin-3 expression was positive in 18 cases (38.29%) and cyclin D1 in 39 (82.97%). We showed only weak trend, that galectin-3 expression was lower in patients without lymph node involvement (p = 0.07) and cyclin D1 expression was higher in this group (p = 0.080). We didn't reveal differences in cyclin D1 and galectin-3 expression in SCC and adenocarcinoma patients. We didn't demonstrated also differences in galectin-3 and cyclin D1 expression depending on disease stage. Moreover we analyzed the prognostic value of cyclin D1 expression and galectin-3 in all examinated patients and separately in SCC and in adenocarcinoma and in all stages, but we didn't find any statistical differences. We demonstrated that in galectin-3 positive tumors cyclin D1 expression was higher (96.55% vs 61.11%, Chi2 Yatesa 7.53, p = 0.0061) and we revealed negative correlation between cyclin D1 and galectin-3 expression (R Spearman -0.458, p = 0.0011). In squamous cell lung cancer we didn't observed correlations between these both examinated markers (R = -0.158, p = 0.460), and in adenocarcinoma the negative correlation was very strong (R = -0.829 p = 0.000132).
We didn't reveal any important correlations between clinicopathological findings and galectin-3 and cyclin D1 expression and in non small cell lung cancer. We didn't observed also prognostic value of cyclin D1 or galectin-3 expression. But we showed higher cyclin D1 expression in galectin-3 negative tumor tissues. We revealed also differences in correlations between galectin-3 and cyclin D1 expression in two main histopathological types of NSCLC.
galectin-3; cyclin D1; non-small cell lung cancer; prognostic factor
Cell cycle progression is regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases (cdk's), which in turn are regulated by their interactions with stoichiometric inhibitors, such as p27Kip1. Although p27 associates with cyclin D-cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4) constitutively, whether or not it inhibits this complex is dependent on the absence or presence of a specific tyrosine phosphorylation that converts p27 from a bound inhibitor to a bound noninhibitor under different growth conditions. This phosphorylation occurs within the 3-10 helix of p27 and may dislodge the helix from cdk4's active site to allow ATP binding. Here we show that the interaction of nonphosphorylated p27 with cdk4 also prevents the activating phosphorylation of the T-loop by cyclin H-cdk7, the cdk-activating kinase (CAK). Even though the cyclin H-cdk7 complex is present and active in contact-arrested cells, p27's association with cyclin D-cdk4 prevents T-loop phosphorylation. When p27 is tyrosine phosphorylated in proliferating cells or in vitro with the tyrosine Y kinase Abl, phosphorylation of cdk4 by cyclin H-cdk7 is permitted, even without dissociation of p27. This suggests that upon release from the contact-arrested state, a temporal order for the reactivation of inactive p27-cyclin D-cdk4 complexes must exist: p27 must be Y phosphorylated first, directly permitting cyclin H-cdk7 phosphorylation of residue T172 and the consequent restoration of kinase activity. The non-Y-phosphorylated p27-cyclin D-cdk4 complex could be phosphorylated by purified Csk1, a single-subunit CAK from fission yeast, but was still inactive due to p27's occlusion of the active site. Thus, the two modes by which p27 inhibits cyclin D-cdk4 are independent and may reinforce one another to inhibit kinase activity in contact-arrested cells, while maintaining a reservoir of preformed complex that can be activated rapidly upon cell cycle reentry.
Overexpression of cyclin D1 is frequently found in various types of human tumours and results from clonal rearrangement and/or amplification involving chromosomal region 11q13. In order to evaluate the pathological relevance of cyclin D1 overexpression in human breast cancer, we generated a polyclonal antiserum against the carboxy-terminal part of the cyclin D1 protein. After affinity purification, the antiserum specifically detected overexpression of cyclin D1 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumour material also. The intensity of the nuclear stainings was, in general, proportional to the degree of cyclin D1 amplification. We did not encounter significant variability of staining within individual tumours with overexpression of cyclin D1. Overexpression of cyclin D1 appeared to be associated with oestrogen receptor-positive breast tumours, but not with any other clinicopathological parameter tested. Overexpression of cyclin D1 was not prognostic value for recurrence of survival in a consecutive series of 248 operable breast cancer patients (stage I and II). Overexpression of p53 was also not of prognostic significance in this series, but was associated with undifferentiated histology and oestrogen receptor-negative breast tumours, as has been reported previously by others. A high proportion of breast tumours with a low grade of malignancy in this series of operable breast cancer patients may explain discrepancies concerning the prognostic value of amplification and of overexpression of cyclin D1.
PTEN is a tumor suppressor frequently inactivated in brain, prostate, and uterine cancers that acts as a phosphatase on phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate, antagonizing the activity of the phosphatidylinositol 3′-OH kinase. PTEN manifests its tumor suppressor function in most tumor cells by inducing G1-phase cell cycle arrest. To study the mechanism of cell cycle arrest, we established a tetracycline-inducible expression system for PTEN in cell lines lacking this gene. Expression of wild-type PTEN but not of mutant forms unable to dephosphorylate phosphoinositides reduced the expression of cyclin D1. Cyclin D1 reduction was accompanied by a marked decrease in endogenous retinoblastoma (Rb) protein phosphorylation on cyclin D/CDK4-specific sites, showing an early negative effect of PTEN on Rb inactivation. PTEN expression also prevented cyclin D1 from localizing to the nucleus during the G1- to S-phase cell cycle transition. The PTEN-induced localization defect and the cell growth arrest could be rescued by the expression of a nucleus-persistent mutant form of cyclin D1, indicating that an important effect of PTEN is at the level of nuclear availability of cyclin D1. Constitutively active Akt/PKB kinase counteracted the effect of PTEN on cyclin D1 translocation. The data are consistent with an oncogenesis model in which a lack of PTEN fuels the cell cycle by increasing the nuclear availability of cyclin D1 through the Akt/PKB pathway.
We examined the expression of cyclins D1, D2, D3, and E in mouse B-lymphocytic tumors. Cyclin D2 mRNA was consistently elevated in plasmacytomas, which characteristically contain Myc-activating chromosome translocations and constitutive c-Myc mRNA and protein expression. We examined the nature of cyclin D2 overexpression in plasmacytomas and other tumors. Human and mouse tumor cell lines that exhibited c-Myc dysregulation displayed instability of the cyclin D2 gene, detected by Southern blot, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and in extrachromosomal preparations (Hirt extracts). Cyclin D2 instability was not seen in cells with low levels of c-Myc protein. To unequivocally demonstrate a role of c-Myc in the instability of the cyclin D2 gene, a Myc-estrogen receptor chimera was activated in two mouse cell lines. After 3 to 4 days of Myc-ERTm activation, instability at the cyclin D2 locus was seen in the form of extrachromosomal elements, determined by FISH of metaphase and interphase nuclei and of purified extrachromosomal elements. At the same time points. Northern and Western blot analyses detected increased cyclin D2 mRNA and protein levels. These data suggest that Myc-induced genomic instability may contribute to neoplasia by increasing the levels of a cell cycle-regulating protein, cyclin D2, via intrachromosomal amplification of its gene or generation of extrachromosomal copies.
Myc; cyclin D2; genomic instability; expression; extrachromosomal elements
Cyclin D1 is one of the G1 cyclins that control cell cycle progression by allowing G1 to S transition. Overexpression of cyclin D1 has been postulated to play an important role in the development of human cancers. We have investigated the correlation between cyclin D1 overexpression and known clinicopathological factors and also its prognostic implication on resected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumour tissues resected from 69 NSCLC patients between stages I and IIIa were immunohistochemically examined to detect altered cyclin D1 expression. Twenty-four cases (34.8%) revealed positive immunoreactivity for cyclin D1. Cyclin D1 overexpression is significantly higher in patients with lymph node metastasis (50.0% vs 14.4%, P = 0.002) and with advanced pathological stages (I, 10%; II, 53.8%; IIIa, 41.7%, P = 0.048; stage I vs II, IIIa, P = 0.006). Twenty-four patients with cyclin D1-positive immunoreactivity revealed a significantly shorter overall survival than the patients with negativity (24.0 ± 3.9 months vs 50.1 ± 6.4 months, P = 0.0299). Among 33 patients between stages I and II, nine patients with cyclin D1-positive immunoreactivity had a much shorter overall survival (29.7 ± 6.1 months vs 74.6 ± 8.6 months, P = 0.0066). These results suggest that cyclin D1 overexpression is involved in tumorigenesis of NSCLCs from early stage and could be a predictive molecular marker for poor prognosis in resectable NSCLC patients, which may help us to choose proper therapeutic modalities after resection of the tumor. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign
non-small-cell lung cancer; cyclin D1; immunohistochemistry; progression; prognosis
In a previous study, we reported that overexpression of CDK4 in mouse epidermis results in epidermal hyperplasia, hypertrophy and severe dermal fibrosis. In this study, we have investigated the susceptibility to skin tumor formation by forced expression of CDK4. Skin tumors from transgenic mice showed a dramatic increase in the rate of malignant progression to squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) in an initiation-promotion protocol. Histopathological analysis of papillomas from transgenic mice showed an elevated number of premalignant lesions characterized by dysplasia and marked atypia. Interestingly, transgenic mice also developed tumors in initiated but not promoted skin, demonstrating that CDK4 replaced the action of tumor promoters. These results suggest that expression of cyclin D1 upon ras activation synergizes with CDK4 overexpression. However, cyclin D1 transgenic mice and double transgenic mice for cyclin D1 and CDK4 did not show increased malignant progression in comparison to CDK4 transgenic mice. Biochemical analysis of tumors showed that CDK4 sequesters the CDK2 inhibitors p27Kip1 and p21Cip1 suggesting that indirect activation of CDK2 plays an important role in tumor development. These results indicate that, contrary to the general assumption, the catalytic subunit, CDK4, has higher oncogenic activity than cyclin D1, revealing a potential use of CDK4 as therapeutic target.
Cancers of diverse cell lineages express high levels of cyclin E, and in various studies, cyclin E overexpression correlates with increased tumor aggression. One way that normal control of cyclin E expression is disabled in cancer cells is via loss-of-function mutations sustained by FBXW7. This gene encodes the Fbw7 tumor suppressor protein that provides substrate specificity for a ubiquitin ligase complex that targets multiple oncoproteins for degradation. Numerous other mechanisms besides Fbw7 mutations can deregulate cyclin E expression and activity in cancer cells. Recent reports demonstrate that inappropriate cyclin E expression may have far-reaching biological consequences for cell physiology, including altering gene expression programs governing proliferation, differentiation, survival and senescence. In this Perspective, we discuss the function of mammalian cyclin E in the context of these new data as well as the complex network that connects cyclin E functions to the cellular controls regulating its expression and activity.
cell cycle; cyclin E; Cdk2; Fbw7; E2F; p21; p27; regulatory network
Activation of c-Met signaling and β-catenin mutations are frequent genetic events observed in liver cancer development. Recently, we demonstrated that activated β-catenin can cooperate with c-Met to induce liver cancer formation in a mouse model. Cyclin D1 is an important cell cycle regulator that is considered to be a downstream target of β-catenin. To determine the importance of cyclin D1 as a mediator of c-Met and β-catenin induced hepatocarcinogenesis, we investigated the genetic interactions between cyclin D1, β-catenin and c-Met in liver cancer development using mouse models. We co-expressed cyclin D1 with c-Met in mice and found cyclin D1 to cooperate with c-Met to promote liver cancer formation. Tumors induced by cyclin D1/c-Met had a longer latency period, formed at a lower frequency, and appeared to be more benign compared to those induced by β-catenin/c-Met. In addition, when activated β-catenin and c-Met were co-injected into cyclin D1 null mice, liver tumors developed despite the absence of cyclin D1. Intriguingly, we observed a moderate accelerated tumor growth and increased tumor malignancy in these cyclin D1 null mice. Molecular analysis demonstrated an up-regulation of cyclin D2 expression in cyclin D1 null tumor samples, indicating that cyclin D2 may replace cyclin D1 in hepatic tumorigenesis. Together, our results suggest that cyclin D1 functions as a mediator of β-catenin during HCC pathogenesis, although other molecules may be required to fully propagate β-catenin signaling. Moreover, our data suggest that cyclin D1 expression is not essential for liver tumor development induced by c-met and β-catenin.
HCC; Cyclin D1; Wnt pathway; β-catenin; c-Met
When mitosis is bypassed, as in some cancer cells or in natural endocycles, sister chromosomes remain paired and produce four-stranded diplochromosomes or polytene chromosomes. Cyclin/Cdk1 inactivation blocks entry into mitosis and can reset G2 cells to G1, allowing another round of replication . Reciprocally, persistent expression of Cyclin A/Cdk1 or Cyclin E/Cdk2 blocks Drosophila endocycles [2, 3]. Inactivation of Cyclin A/Cdk1 by mutation or overexpression of the Cyclin/Cdk1 inhibitor, Roughex (Rux), converts the 16th embryonic mitotic cycle to an endocycle [4–6]; however, we show that Rux expression fails to convert earlier cell cycles unless Cyclin E is also downregulated. Following induction of a Rux transgene in Cyclin E mutant embryos during G2 of cell cycle 14 (G214), Cyclins A, B, and B3 disappeared and cells reentered S phase. This rereplication produced diplochromosomes that segregated abnormally at a subsequent mitosis. Thus, like the yeast CKIs Rum1 and Sic1, Drosophila Rux can reset G2 cells to G1 [7–9]. The observed cyclin destruction suggests that cell cycle resetting by Rux was associated with activation of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), while the presence of diplochromosomes implies that this activation of APC outside of mitosis was not sufficient to trigger sister disjunction.
Cyclin D1 is one of the most commonly overexpressed oncogenes in breast cancer, with 45–50% of primary ductal carcinomas overexpressing this oncoprotein. Targeted deletion of the gene encoding cyclin D1 demonstrates an essential role in normal mammary gland development while transgenic studies provide evidence that cyclin D1 is a weak oncogene in mammary epithelium. In a recent exciting development, Yu et al. demonstrate that cyclin D1-deficient mice are resistant to mammary carcinomas induced by c-neu and v-Ha-ras, but not those induced by c-myc or Wnt-1. These findings define a pivotal role for cyclin D1 in a subset of mammary cancers in mice and imply a functional role for cyclin D1 overexpression in human breast cancer.
breast cancer; cyclin D1; oncogenes; transgenics
The cyclin D1 gene encodes the regulatory subunit of a holoenzyme that phosphorylates and inactivates the retinoblastoma protein, thereby promoting cell-cycle progression. Cyclin D1 is overexpressed in hematopoetic and epithelial malignancies correlating with poor prognosis and metastasis in several cancer types. Because tumor-associated macrophages have been shown to enhance malignant progression and metastasis, and cyclin D1-deficient mice are resistant to oncogene-induced malignancies, we investigated the function of cyclin D1-/- bone marrow-derived macrophages. Cyclin D1 deficiency increased focal complex formation at the site of substratum contact, and enhanced macrophage adhesion, yielding a flattened, circular morphology with reduced membrane ruffles. Migration in response to wounding, cytokine-mediated chemotaxis, and transendothelial cell migration of cyclin D1-/- bone marrow-derived macrophages were all substantially reduced. Thus, apart from proliferative and possible motility defects in the tumor cells themselves, the reduced motility and invasiveness of cyclin D1-/- tumor-associated macrophages may contribute to the tumor resistance of these mice.