Recent advances in neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) suggest that sophisticated techniques can exercise and train people aerobically. However, the limits of this exercise modality would be of interest to sportspeople, trainers and rehabilitation experts. Additionally, there are physical and other barriers which prevent many from undertaking aggressive voluntary exercise. Maximum voluntary and peak NMES efforts were assessed for 1) maximal heart rate and oxygen consumption, 2) excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), 3) lactate and 4) time-to-fatigue while exercising at 65% of predicted maximal heart rate (maximum voluntary versus peak NMES efforts). Heart rates: 195 bpm and 194 bpm; Oxygen consumption: 52 ml/kg/min and 39 ml/kg/min. EPOC: 110.5 kcal and 96.5 kcal; Lactate: 15.0 mmol/l and 15.3 mmol/l; Time-to-fatigue: 4 h and over 6 h. Sophisticated NMES compares well to voluntary exercise with potential applications for sportspeople and some who cannot exercise due to disease or injury.
Twenty girls, aged 11-15 years, with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were studied before spinal fusion was performed. Each underwent a range of lung function tests and a standardised progressive exercise test on a bicycle ergometer. The resting lung function tests showed reduced peak flow rates, lung volumes, and maximum voluntary ventilation. The maximum oxygen uptake was slightly diminished but maximum exercise ventilation was normal. The latter was achieved by using a greater than normal fraction of the vital capacity in tidal breathing while exercising. Mild hyperventilation during submaximal exercise and a trend towards an exercise tachycardia with increasing body weight were observed.
Repeated episodes of ischemia followed by reperfusion, commonly referred to as ischemic preconditioning (IPC), represent an endogenous protective mechanism that delays cell injury. IPC also increases blood flow and improves endothelial function. We hypothesize that IPC will improve physical exercise performance and maximal oxygen consumption. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of ischemic preconditioning in leg skeletal muscles on cycling exercise performance in healthy individuals. Fifteen healthy, well-trained subjects performed two incremental maximal exercise tests on a bicycle ergometer. Power output, oxygen consumption, ventilation, respiratory quotient, and heart rate were measured continuously. Blood pressure and blood lactate were measured before and after the test. One exercise test was performed after the application of ischemic preconditioning, using a protocol of three series of 5-min ischemia at both legs with resting periods of 5 min in between. The other maximal cycling test served as a control. Tests were conducted in counterbalanced order, at least 1 week apart, at the same time of the day. The repeated ischemic periods significantly increased maximal oxygen consumption from 56.8 to 58.4 ml/min per kg (P = 0.003). Maximal power output increased significantly from 366 to 372 W (P = 0.05). Ischemic preconditioning had no effect on ventilation, respiratory quotient, maximal heart rate, blood pressure or on blood lactate. Repeated short-term leg ischemia prior to an incremental bicycle exercise test improves maximal oxygen consumption by 3% and power output by 1.6%. This protocol, which is suggested to mimic the effects of ischemic preconditioning, may have important implications for exercise performance.
Ischemia; Reperfusion; Oxygen uptake; Performance; Workload
The role of the perception of breathing effort in the regulation of performance of maximal exercise remains unclear.
To determine whether the perceived effort of ventilation is altered through substituting a less dense gas for normal ambient air and whether this substitution affects performance of maximal incremental exercise in trained athletes.
Eight highly trained cyclists (mean SD) maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) = 69.9 (7.9) (mlO2/kg/min) performed two randomised maximal tests in a hyperbaric chamber breathing ambient air composed of either 35% O2/65% N2 (nitrox) or 35% O2/65% He (heliox). A ramp protocol was used in which power output was incremented at 0.5 W/s. The trials were separated by at least 48 h. The perceived effort of breathing was obtained via Borg Category Ratio Scales at 3‐min intervals and at fatigue. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and minute ventilation (VE) were monitored continuously.
Breathing heliox did not change the sensation of dyspnoea: there were no differences between trials for the Borg scales at any time point. Exercise performance was not different between the nitrox and heliox trials (peak power output = 451 (58) and 453 (56) W), nor was VO2max (4.96 (0.61) and 4.88 (0.65) l/min) or maximal VE (157 (24) and 163 (22) l/min). Between‐trial variability in peak power output was less than either VO2max or maximal VE.
Breathing a less dense gas does not improve maximal performance of exercise or reduce the perception of breathing effort in highly trained athletes, although an attenuated submaximal tidal volume and VE with a concomitant reduction in VO2 suggests an improved gas exchange and reduced O2 cost of ventilation when breathing heliox.
The responses of six healthy male subjects to submaximal and maximal exercise on a stationary bicycle ergometer have been investigated over a 24-hour period. Measurements were made on each subject at approximately three-hourly intervals and they included minute ventilation at a carbon dioxide output of 1-5 1 min-minus 1 (VE 1-5), tidal volume at a fixed VE of 30 1 min-minus 1 (VT 30), oxygen intake (VO2) at a work load (W) of 150 W (VO2 150), tympanic temperature (Tty) and cardiac frequency at a VO2 of 1-5 1 min-minus 1 (fH 1-5). The experiments were conducted in three parts: on the first occasion two subjects were measured during exercise; on the second occasion a further four subjects were observed in a similar way but starting from a baseline of zero load, and the measurements also included an estimate of cardiac output (Q) using a rebreathing technique. Finally the maximum aerobic power output (VO2max) was measured in three of the subjects in early morning and late evening. Diet and habitual physical activity were held constant between the exercise test on all three occasions. The results show that in the first two subjects fH 1-5 and Tty had a rhythmic pattern of variation with time of day whereas VE 1-5, VT30, and VO2 150 remained fairly constant. The variation in fH 1-5 was associated with Tty; the two variables reached a minimum at similar to 0500 hr and a maximum at similar 1200 hr. These results were confirmed on the remaining subjects but the changes in fH 1-5 and Tty were shown to be more variable and reduced in magnitude. Further, if the changes were calculated from a baseline of zero load, it was shown that the absolute changes observed in fH 1-5 and Tty were not due to the exercise per se but to changes in the basal level from which each subject operated. In addition it was shown that VO2 max and Q remained constant and were independent of the time of day. It is concluded that provided the exercise test conditions are rigidly standardized and subjects exercise from a controlled baseline there is no evidence for circadian variation in the change of responses to work at submaximal or maximal effort.
The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is an important physiological investigation that can aid clinicians in their evaluation of exercise intolerance and dyspnea. Maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max) is the gold-standard measure of aerobic fitness and is determined by the variables that define oxygen delivery in the Fick equation (V˙O2 = cardiac output × arterial-venous O2 content difference). In healthy subjects, of the variables involved in oxygen delivery, it is the limitations of the cardiovascular system that are most responsible for limiting exercise, as ventilation and gas exchange are sufficient to maintain arterial O2 content up to peak exercise. Patients with lung disease can develop a pulmonary limitation to exercise which can contribute to exercise intolerance and dyspnea. In these patients, ventilation may be insufficient for metabolic demand, as demonstrated by an inadequate breathing reserve, expiratory flow limitation, dynamic hyperinflation, and/or retention of arterial CO2. Lung disease patients can also develop gas exchange impairments with exercise as demonstrated by an increased alveolar-to-arterial O2 pressure difference. CPET testing data, when combined with other clinical/investigation studies, can provide the clinician with an objective method to evaluate cardiopulmonary physiology and determination of exercise intolerance.
BACKGROUND--The inability to match lung perfusion to ventilation because of a reduced cardiac output on exercise contributes to reduced exercise capacity in chronic heart failure. OBJECTIVE--To quantify ventilation to perfusion matching at rest and at peak exercise in patients with chronic heart failure and relate this to haemodynamic and ventilatory variables of exercise capacity. DESIGN--Eight men in New York Heart Association class II underwent maximal bicycle ergometry with expired gas analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--On separate days, ventilation and perfusion gamma camera imaging was performed at rest, and at 80% of previous peak exercise heart rate during bicycle ergometry. The vertical distribution of mismatch between ventilation and perfusion (V/Q) was estimated from subtracted profiles of activity (ventilation and perfusion) to derive a numerical index of global mismatch. RESULTS--Maximal mean (SD) oxygen consumption on bicycle ergometry was 16.0 (4.5) ml min-1 kg-1. There was a reduction in the global V/Q mismatch index from 23.96 (5.90) to 14.88 (7.90) units (p < 0.01) at rest and at peak exercise. Global V/Q mismatch index at peak exercise correlated negatively with maximal minute ventilation (R = -0.90, p < 0.01) and with maximal mean arterial pressure (R = -0.79, p < 0.05), although no relation was seen with maximal oxygen consumption. The reduction in global V/Q mismatch index from rest to peak exercise correlated with maximal oxygen consumption (R = 0.88, p < 0.01), and with maximal minute ventilation (R = 0.87, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS--During exercise in patients with chronic heart failure, there is a reduction in the global V/Q mismatch index. A lower global V/Q mismatch index at peak exercise is associated with higher maximal ventilation. The reduction in global V/Q mismatch index on exercise correlates well with maximal exercise capacity. This may imply that the inability to perfuse adequately all regions of lung on exercise and match this to ventilation is a factor determining exercise capacity in chronic heart failure.
The net exchange of glucose and lactate across the leg and the splanchnic bed and the arterialdeep venous (A-DV) differences for these substrates in the forearm were determined in healthy subjects during 3-3.5 h of leg exercise (bicycle ergometer) at 58% maximum O2 uptake and during a 40-min post-exercise recovery period.
Leg glucose uptake rose 16-fold during exercise and throughout the exercise period exceeded splanchnic glucose output. The latter reached a peak increment (3.5 times basal) at 90 min and fell by 60% during the third hour. As a result, blood glucose declined 40%, reaching frank hypoglycemia (blood glucose, <45 mg/dl) in 50% of subjects at 3.5 h.
Splanchnic lactate uptake rose progressively during exercise to values four times the basal rate at 3 h in association with a rise in arterial lactate to 1.5 mM. There was, however, no significant net output of lactate from the legs beyond 90 min of exercise. In contrast, the A-DV lactate difference in the forearm became progressively more negative throughout exercise, reaching values three times the basal level at 3.5 h. The rise in arterial lactate during exercise was proportional to the elevation in plasma epinephrine, which rose ninefold.
During recovery, splanchnic lactate uptake rose further to values six times the basal rate, whereas lactate output by the legs was no greater than in the basal state. The A-DV lactate difference in the forearm became even more negative than during exercise, reaching values four times basal. During exercise as well as recovery, forearm uptake of blood glucose could account for no more than 25-67% of forearm lactate release. Leg glucose uptake during recovery was threefold to fivefold higher than in the basal state in the face of plasma insulin concentrations that were 60% below basal and in association with a respiratory exchange ratio of 0.7.
We conclude that (a) during prolonged leg exercise at 58% maximum O2 uptake an imbalance between splanchnic glucose production and leg glucose utilization results in a fall in blood glucose that may reach hypoglycemic levels in healthy subjects; (b) there is a marked increase in the uptake of lactate by the splanchnic bed that cannot be attributed to increased output of lactate from the exercising legs; (c) lactate is released by forearm muscle and, together with other relatively inactive muscle, may be an important source of the increased lactate turnover during and after prolonged leg exercise; (d) the increasingly negative A-DV lactate difference in the forearm cannot be accounted for by uptake of blood glucose, suggesting the breakdown of glycogen in forearm muscle during and after leg exercise; (e) increased glucose uptake by the legs in association with hypoinsulinemia during recovery suggests an increase in insulin sensitivity that permits glycogen repletion in previously exercising muscle in the absence of food ingestion; and (f) the evidence for increased lactate output in the forearm and augmented glucose uptake in the legs during recovery raises the possibility that after leg exercise glycogen stores are decreasing in muscle that was relatively inactive (e.g., that of the forearm) while increasing in the previously exercising leg muscles.
To investigate the impact of low‐intensity isocapnic hyperpnoea (IH) on blood lactate disappearance after exhaustive arm exercise in comparison with passive and active recovery using the previously loaded muscle group.
Randomised, crossover trial.
Institute for Sports Medicine.
18 healthy non‐smoking and physically active male subjects.
Subjects performed three arm cranking tests to volitional exhaustion on 3 different days at least 48 h apart. Arm exercise was randomly followed by 30 min of passive recovery (PR), active arm cranking (AC) at 30% of peak power output or ventilatory recovery (VR) by means of IH at 30% of 12 s maximal voluntary ventilation. Blood lactate concentrations were measured every 2 min during recovery.
Main outcome measurements
Blood lactate disappearance during the three different recovery strategies.
No significant differences in blood lactate concentrations were found between interventions PR, AC and VR during the whole measurement period. Mean (SD) peak lactate concentrations were 11.09 (1.98) mmol/l for PR, 11.13 (1.44) mmol/l for AC and 11.25 (1.93) mmol/l for VR. At the end of the recovery period measured lactate concentrations were 4.35 (1.56) mmol/l for PR, 3.77 (1.60) mmol/l for AC and 4.09 (1.35) mmol/l for VR. Moreover, all other variables measured were not significantly different, with the exception of higher average recovery heart rates during AC (116 (9) bpm) and VR (111 (17) bpm) compared with PR (93 (11) bpm).
Low‐intensity IH seems not to enhance blood lactate disappearance after exhaustive arm exercise compared with passive or active recovery using the previously loaded muscle group. The magnitude of the involved muscle mass appears critical to effective active recovery.
exercise; active recovery; lactate kinetics; respiratory muscles; training
The relationship of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) with dihydrogenated ergot alkaloids was investigated in twelve young men. They were subjected to graded bicycle exercise with work loads corresponding to 75% and 120% of the load necessary to elicit VO2 max. The exercise tests were performed after intravenous administration of 2 mg dihydroergostin (DE-145) as well as after saline as control, both preparations were given double-blind. VO2 max averaged (SD) 3.36 (0.41) 1/min and no significant difference was disclosed between the DE-145 and the control situation. Normal relationships were observed between VO2 and work load, ventilation, heart rate, cardiac output, central venous pressure and acid-base data, and these relations were unaffected by DE-145 administration. Nausea was constantly seen in all subjects tested with DE-145. It is concluded, that the present dose of DE-145 has no influence on the functional capacity of the oxygen transporting system in sedentary young men.
Aim and Methods
The major aim of this study was to determine whether after 6 weeks of aerobic training adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) girls who suffer from mild scoliotic curvatures (n = 6) behaved in a similar way than healthy controls (n = 6) in different biochemical, anthropometric, and cardio respiratory parameters.
The maximal power output and the power output achieved at the anaerobic threshold (AT), during the maximal exercise test, were significantly increased in both experimental groups, when compared with resting conditions. The training program caused significant changes in body composition (i.e., a decrease in body fat %) only in the scoliotic group. Regarding the cardio respiratory measurements, VO2max was increased by 17% in AIS group and 10% in the healthy group.
Our results suggest that physical activity should be encouraged in scoliotic girls with mild curvatures.
Maximal oxygen consumption; Anaerobic threshold; Body fat; Life expectancy
Cardiac output (CO) is an important determinant of the hemodynamic state in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). We tested the hypothesis that CO can be estimated from the right ventricular (RV) pressure waveform in CHF patients using a pulse contour cardiac output algorithm that considers constant but patient specific RV outflow tract characteristic impedance.
In 12 patients with CHF, breath-by-breath Fick CO and RV pressure waveforms were recorded utilizing an implantable hemodynamic monitor during a bicycle exercise protocol. These data were analyzed retrospectively to assess changes in characteristic impedance of the RV outflow tract during exercise. Four patients that were implanted with an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) implementing the algorithm were studied prospectively. During a two staged sub-maximal bicycle exercise test conducted at 4 and 16 weeks of implant, COs measured by direct Fick technique and estimated by the ICD were recorded and compared.
At rest the total pulmonary arterial resistance and the characteristic impedance were 675 ± 345 and 48 ± 18 dyn.s.cm-5, respectively. During sub-maximal exercise, the total pulmonary arterial resistance decreased (Δ 91 ± 159 dyn.s.cm-5, p < 0.05) but the characteristic impedance was unaffected (Δ 3 ± 9 dyn.s.cm-5, NS). The algorithm derived cardiac output estimates correlated with Fick CO (7.6 ± 2.5 L/min, R2 = 0.92) with a limit of agreement of 1.7 L/min and tracked changes in Fick CO (R2 = 0.73).
The analysis of right ventricular pressure waveforms continuously recorded by an implantable hemodynamic monitor provides an estimate of CO and may prove useful in guiding treatment in patients with CHF.
Ventricle; Pressure; Cardiac Output; Exercise; Pulmonary Artery
Carnitine metabolism has been previously shown to change with exercise in normal subjects, and in patients with ischemic muscle diseases. To characterize carnitine metabolism further during exercise, six normal male subjects performed constant-load exercise on a bicycle ergometer on two separate occasions. Low-intensity exercise was performed for 60 min at a work load equal to 50% of the lactate threshold, and high-intensity exercise was performed for 30 min at a work load between the lactate threshold and maximal work capacity for the individual. Low-intensity exercise was not associated with a change in muscle (vastus lateralis) carnitine metabolism. In contrast, from rest to 10 min of high-intensity exercise, muscle short-chain acylcarnitine content increased 5.5-fold while free carnitine content decreased 66%, and muscle total carnitine content decreased by 19% (all P less than 0.01). These changes in skeletal muscle carnitine metabolism were present at the completion of 30 min of high-intensity exercise, and persisted through a 60-min recovery period. With 30 min of high-intensity exercise, plasma short-chain and long-chain acylcarnitine concentrations increased by 46% and 23%, respectively. Neither exercise state was associated with a change in the urine excretion rates of free carnitine or acylcarnitines. Thus, alterations in skeletal muscle carnitine metabolism, characterized by an increase in acylcarnitines and a decrease in free and total carnitine, are dependent on the work load and, therefore, the metabolic state associated with the exercise, and are poorly reflected in the plasma and urine carnitine pools.
How an individual’s sex and genetic background modify cardiac adaptation to increased workload is a topic of great interest. We systematically evaluated morphological and physiological cardiac adaptation in response to voluntary and forced exercise. We found that sex/gender is a dominant factor in exercise performance (in two exercise paradigms and two mouse strains) and that females of one of these strains have greater capacity to increase their cardiac mass in response to similar amounts of exercise. To explore the biochemical mechanisms for these differences, we examined signaling pathways previously implicated in cardiac hypertrophy. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) activity was significantly greater in males compared with females and increased after voluntary cage-wheel exposure in both sexes, but the proportional increase in CaMK activity was twofold higher in females compared with males. Phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) was evident after 7 days of cage-wheel exposure in both sexes and remained elevated in females only by 21 days of exercise. Despite moderate increases in myocyte enhancer factor-2 (a downstream effector of CaMK) transcriptional activity and phosphorylation of Akt with exercise, there were no sex differences. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling components (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular regulated kinase 1/2) were not different between male and female mice and were not affected by exercise. We conclude that females have increased exercise capacity and increased hypertrophic response to exercise. We have also identified sex-specific differences in hypertrophic signaling within the cardiac myocyte that may contribute to sexual dimorphism in exercise and cardiac adaptation to exercise.
hypertrophy; myocyte signaling; workload; glycogen; calmodulin
The purpose of this study was to assess the metabolic profile and nutrient intake data in Korean adolescents according to exercise regularity using the forth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 data. A total of 834 Korean adolescents (440 boys, 394 girls) aged 12 to 18 years were classified into exercising male (EM), non-exercising male (NM), exercising female (EF), and non-exercising female (NF) groups. EM exhibited significantly higher weight (P < 0.001), waist circumference (WC) (P < 0.01) and body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.001) than NM. EF showed significantly greater height (P < 0.01), weight (P<0.001), WC (P < 0.001), and BMI (P < 0.001) than NF. Although ratios of macronutrient intake were within the appropriate range in all groups, energy, riboflavin, vitamin C and calcium were assessed as in adequate by the nutritional adequacy ratio (NAR) in all groups. Moreover, EF and NF had inadequate intake of vitamin A and iron according to NAR, respectively. There were significant correlations between height and NAR protein (r = 0.249, P < 0.001), and mean adequacy ratio (MAR) (r = 0.177, P < 0.01), and between weight and NAR protein (r = 0.180, P < 0.01), and MAR(r = 0.136, P < 0.05) in EM. On the other hand, there were significant correlations between weight and NAR protein (r = 0.270, P < 0.01), WC and NAR protein (r = 0.271, P < 0.01), and BMI and NAR protein (r = 0.326, P < 0.01) in NM. There were significant correlations height and NAR Fe (r = 0.153, P < 0.05) in EF. However, there were no significant correlations between metabolic factors and nutritional adequacy in NF. Although we noted no significant differences in MAR between the groups, the exercising groups showed higher MAR values than the non-exercising groups. Therefore, practicing of ideal dietary behaviors appears to be induced through physical activity and regular exercise in Korean adolescents.
Metabolic factor; nutritional adequacy; regular exercise; 2008 KNHNES; Korean adolescent
The literature on childhood and adolescent obesity is vast. In addition to producing a general overview, this paper aims to highlight gender differences or similarities, an area which has tended not to be the principal focus of this literature.
Databases were searched using the terms 'obesity' and 'child', 'adolescent', 'teenager', 'youth', 'young people', 'sex', 'gender', 'masculine', 'feminine', 'male', 'female', 'boy' and 'girl' (or variations on these terms). In order to limit the potential literature, the main focus is on other reviews, both general and relating to specific aspects of obesity.
The findings of genetic studies are similar for males and females, and differences in obesity rates as defined by body mass index are generally small and inconsistent. However, differences between males and females due to biology are evident in the patterning of body fat, the fat levels at which health risks become apparent, levels of resting energy expenditure and energy requirements, ability to engage in certain physical activities and the consequences of obesity for the female reproductive system. Differences due to society or culture include food choices and dietary concerns, overall physical activity levels, body satisfaction and the long-term psychosocial consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity.
This review suggests differences between males and females in exposure and vulnerability to obesogenic environments, the consequences of child and adolescent obesity, and responses to interventions for the condition. A clearer focus on gender differences is required among both researchers and policy makers within this field.
We examined maximal graded exercise test (GXT) results in 5,783 overweight/obese men and women, aged 45–76 years, with type 2 diabetes, who were entering the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study, to determine the prevalence and correlates of exercise-induced cardiac abnormalities.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Participants underwent symptom-limited maximal GXTs. Questionnaires and physical examinations were used to determine demographic, anthropometric, metabolic, and health status predictors of abnormal GXT results, which were defined as an ST segment depression ≥1.0 mm, ventricular arrhythmia, angina pectoris, poor postexercise heart rate recovery (<22 bpm reduction 2 min after exercise), or maximal exercise capacity less than 5.0 METs. Systolic blood pressure response to exercise was examined as a continuous variable, without a threshold to define abnormality.
Exercise-induced abnormalities were present in 1,303 (22.5%) participants, of which 693 (12.0%) consisted of impaired exercise capacity. ST segment depression occurred in 440 (7.6%), abnormal heart rate recovery in 206 (5.0%), angina in 63 (1.1%), and arrhythmia in 41 (0.7%). Of potential predictors, only greater age was associated with increased prevalence of all abnormalities. Other predictors were associated with some, but not all, abnormalities. Systolic blood pressure response decreased with greater age, duration of diabetes, and history of cardiovascular disease.
We found a high rate of abnormal GXT results despite careful screening for cardiovascular disease symptoms. In this cohort of overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes, greater age most consistently predicted abnormal GXT. Long-term follow-up of these participants will show whether these abnormalities are clinically significant.
To determine whether women with mitral valve prostheses can improve their physical fitness without suffering cardiac dysfunction or hemolysis, 10 women (mean age 47 years) who had undergone mitral valve replacement (an average of 3.7 years earlier) were enrolled in an 8-week program of exercise on a bicycle ergometer. They exercised three times a week, starting at 60% and increasing to 80% of their maximal heart rate achieved during stress testing. Nine other women with similar clinical characteristics (mean age 48 years) constituted a control group. Exercise produced significant cardiovascular improvement, as evidenced by a mean decrease of 12 beats/min in the heart rate at steady-state work load (p less than or equal to 0.01), a mean increase of 121 kpm in the maximal tolerated work load (p less than or equal to 0.01), and a mean increase of 4 ml/kg X min-1 in the peak oxygen consumption (p less than or equal to 0.01). There was a small increase in the mean plasma hemoglobin level (15 to 29 mg/dl) and the mean reticulocyte count (1.8% to 2.4%) after the program (p less than or equal to 0.05). There were no significant changes in any of the variables studied in the control group. There were no changes in the clinical, electrocardiographic or echocardiographic findings in the experimental group. Although slightly increased hemolysis may occur, women with mitral valve replacement can improve their cardiovascular condition by exercising.
Previous literature has shown that sedentary older women rely on peripheral adaptations to improve cardiorespiratory fitness with endurance training i.e. they show minimal increases in central parameters (cardiac output, Q) in response to endurance training. The purpose of this study therefore was to determine whether endurance trained older women were able to preserve maximal exercise Q and were characterized by a high stroke volume (SV) when compared to physically inactive older women. Trained (n = 7) and untrained (n = 1 0) women attended two maximal and one submaximal laboratory session. Breath-by-breath analysis was conducted using mass spectrometry and Q was assessed using acetylene open circuit inert gas wash-in. Multivariate analysis of variance and paired samples t-tests were used to determine between and within group differences. Trained women had a significantly higher VO2max (37.5 vs. 24.1 ml-1·kg·min-1) compared to untrained women. There were no differences for peripheral oxygen extraction (VO2/Q) at either submaximal or maximal work rates; however trained women had a significantly higher SV at maximal (119.3 vs. 94.6 ml) exercise compared to untrained women. In both trained and untrained women, SV did not rise significantly between submaximal and maximal exercise. Conclusion: Highly fit, endurance trained older women are able to preserve central parameters of VO2max. Peripheral oxygen extraction is similar between older trained and untrained women.
Older women are able to preserve stroke volume with high volumes of endurance training.
Stroke volume of endurance trained older women does not continue to rise until maximal exercise, as is the case in young endurance trained adults.
Peripheral oxygen extraction does not differ between endurance trained and physically inactive older women.
cardiac output; aging; exercise; running; VO2max
To characterize the potential sexual dimorphism of bone in response to exercise.
Young male and female Wistar rats were either submitted to 12 weeks of exercise or remained sedentary. The training load was adjusted at the mid-trial (week 6) by the maximal speed test. A mechanical test was performed to measure the maximal force, resilience, stiffness, and fracture load. The bone structure, formation, and resorption were obtained by histomorphometric analyses. Type I collagen (COL I) mRNA expression and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) mRNA expression were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR).
The male and female trained rats significantly improved their maximum speed during the maximal exercise test (main effect of training; p<0.0001). The male rats were significantly heavier than the females, irrespective of training (main effect of sex; p<0.0001). Similarly, both the weight and length of the femur were greater for the male rats when compared with the females (main effect of sex; p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively). The trabecular volume was positively affected by exercise in male and female rats (main effect of training; p = 0.001), whereas the trabecular thickness, resilience, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate increased only in the trained males (within-sex comparison; p<0.05 for all parameters), demonstrating the sexual dimorphism in response to exercise. Accordingly, the number of osteocytes increased significantly only in the trained males (within-sex comparison; p<0.05). Pearson’s correlation analyses revealed that the COL I mRNA expression and TRAP mRNA expression were positively and negatively, respectively, related to the parameters of bone remodeling obtained from the histomorphometric analysis (r = 0.59 to 0.85; p<0.05).
Exercise yielded differential adaptations with respect to bone structure, biomechanical proprieties, and molecular signaling in male and female rats.
The study compared five treadmill protocols (four utilising a motorised, and one a non-motorised, treadmill) on maximum oxygen uptake. The five male and five female subjects, all actively engaged in training, were assigned the tests in random order. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the five protocols for maximal oxygen uptake, maximum ventilation, maximum heart rate and blood lactate inflection point, relative to maximal oxygen uptake. Significant differences were observed between the 3' protocol with incline increments of 1.5% and all other protocols on time to exhaustion (p = less than 0.01) and maximum blood lactate levels (HLA, p = less than 0.05). The results indicate that the protocols used in this study did not significantly influence the maximum oxygen uptake attained.
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) has become increasingly important as a routine procedure in daily clinical work. So far, it is generally accepted that an individualized exercise protocol with exercise duration of 6 to 12 minutes is preferable to assess maximal exercise performance. The aim of this study was to compare an individualized NYHA adapted exercise protocol with a fixed standard protocol in patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Twenty-two patients (17 female, 5 male; mean age 49 ± 14 yrs) underwent symptom limited CPET on a bicycle. On two consecutive days each subject performed a stepwise CPET according to a modified Jones protocol (16 Watt per minute stages) as well as an individualized NYHA adapted protocol with 5 or 10 Watt/min stages in a randomized order. Oxygen uptake at peak exercise (peakVO2) and anaerobic threshold (VO2AT), maximal ventilation (VE), breathing reserve (VE/MVV), ventilatory efficiency (VE vs. VCO2 slope), exercise time, maximal power and work rate were assessed and compared between both protocols.
Comparing both, adapted NYHA protocol and standardized Jones protocol, we found significant differences in maximal power (56.7 ± 19 W vs. 74 ± 18 W; p < 0.001) and exercise time (332 ± 107 sec. vs. 248 ± 72 sec.; p < 0.001). In contrast, no significant differences were obvious comparing both protocols concerning work rate, VE, VE/MVV, peakVO2, VO2AT and VE vs. VCO2 slope.
Variations of incremental step size during CPET significantly affect exercise time and maximal power, whereas relevant parameters for clinical judgement and prognosis such as oxygen uptake, ventilation and ventilatory efficiency remain unchanged. These findings have practical implications for the exercise evaluation of patients with pulmonary hypertension. To reach maximal results for ventilation, oxygen uptake and gas exchange an individualization of incremental step size appears not to be mandatory.
BACKGROUND--In patients with chronic heart failure there is no relation between cardiac output and symptom limited exercise tolerance measured on a bicycle or treadmill. Furthermore, the increase in cardiac output in response to treatment may not be matched by a similar increase in exercise tolerance. More important in determining exercise capability is blood flow to skeletal muscle. This implies that the reduction in skeletal muscle blood flow is not directly proportional to the reduction in cardiac output and that there are regional differences in blood flow in patients with heart failure. METHODS--Cardiac output and regional blood flow measured in 30 patients with chronic heart failure were compared with values obtained from 10 healthy controls. Measurements were made at rest and in response to treadmill exercise and were all made non-invasively. RESULTS--Cardiac output was lower in the patients at rest and during exercise. Blood flow in the superior mesenteric and renal arteries was also lower in the patients and represented a different proportion of cardiac output than in the controls. In response to exercise the increase in blood flow to the calf and therefore to skeletal muscle, was reduced in the patients. In the patients there was no correlation between resting cardiac output and blood flow in the superior mesenteric artery, renal artery, or calf. CONCLUSIONS--Because blood flow to skeletal muscle and to the kidneys is likely to be important in determining patients' symptoms this factor may explain why central haemodynamic variables do not correlate with the exercise tolerance in patients with chronic heart failure.
Studies on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis have well documented the differences between natural history of male and female patients. There are also differences in responses to nonoperative treatment, but the results of operative treatment in male patients compared with females have not been widely reported. Only few studies had compared the outcomes of operative treatment between male and female patients with different results.
We retrospectively reviewed the outcome of 150 (112 girls and 38 boys) consecutive patients with diagnosis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who were managed surgically between May 1996 and September 2005. Next, male radiographic parameters were compared with female ones pre- and postoperatively. Then, a subgroup of 38 matched girls was compared regarding the age, curve type, curve magnitude, and the instrumentation we used.
In comparing male patients with unmatched girls, the boys had greater mean age (17.3 ± 2.3 vs. 16.3 ± 2.9; p = 0.049), greater primary curve (71.4 ± 21.3° vs. 62.7 ± 17.5°; p = 0.013), less flexibility (30.1 ± 13.5% vs. 40.3 ± 17.8%; p = 0.01), and less correction percentage (51.3 ± 12.9% vs. 58.8 ± 16.5%; p = 0/013). The loss of correction was comparable between the two groups. In the matched comparison, the flexibility in boys was less than girls (30.1 ± 13.5% vs. 38.1 ± 17.5%; p = 0.027). Also, the boys had a smaller correction percentage compared to the girls, but this finding was not statistically significant.
There was similar distribution curve pattern between male and female patients with AIS. Males had more rigid primary curves compared to females but a similar degree of postoperative scoliosis correction. Male AIS patients were older at the time of surgery. These preoperative gender differences, however; did not compromise the radiological outcomes of surgical treatment and the results were comparable between the genders.
Greater diaphragm fatigue has been reported after hypoxic versus normoxic exercise, but whether this is due to increased ventilation and therefore work of breathing or reduced blood oxygenation per se remains unclear. Hence, we assessed the effect of different blood oxygenation level on isolated hyperpnoea-induced inspiratory and expiratory muscle fatigue.
Twelve healthy males performed three 15-min isocapnic hyperpnoea tests (85% of maximum voluntary ventilation with controlled breathing pattern) in normoxic, hypoxic (SpO2 = 80%) and hyperoxic (FiO2 = 0.60) conditions, in a random order. Before, immediately after and 30 min after hyperpnoea, transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi,tw ) was measured during cervical magnetic stimulation to assess diaphragm contractility, and gastric pressure (Pga,tw ) was measured during thoracic magnetic stimulation to assess abdominal muscle contractility. Two-way analysis of variance (time x condition) was used to compare hyperpnoea-induced respiratory muscle fatigue between conditions.
Hypoxia enhanced hyperpnoea-induced Pdi,tw and Pga,tw reductions both immediately after hyperpnoea (Pdi,tw : normoxia -22 ± 7% vs hypoxia -34 ± 8% vs hyperoxia -21 ± 8%; Pga,tw : normoxia -17 ± 7% vs hypoxia -26 ± 10% vs hyperoxia -16 ± 11%; all P < 0.05) and after 30 min of recovery (Pdi,tw : normoxia -10 ± 7% vs hypoxia -16 ± 8% vs hyperoxia -8 ± 7%; Pga,tw : normoxia -13 ± 6% vs hypoxia -21 ± 9% vs hyperoxia -12 ± 12%; all P < 0.05). No significant difference in Pdi,tw or Pga,tw reductions was observed between normoxic and hyperoxic conditions. Also, heart rate and blood lactate concentration during hyperpnoea were higher in hypoxia compared to normoxia and hyperoxia.
These results demonstrate that hypoxia exacerbates both diaphragm and abdominal muscle fatigability. These results emphasize the potential role of respiratory muscle fatigue in exercise performance limitation under conditions coupling increased work of breathing and reduced O2 transport as during exercise in altitude or in hypoxemic patients.