The endothelin B receptor (ETBR) promotes tumorigenesis and melanoma progression through activation by endothelin (ET)-1, thus representing a promising therapeutic target. The stability of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is essential for melanomagenesis and progression, and is controlled by site-specific hydroxylation carried out by HIF-prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) and subsequent proteosomal degradation.
Here we found that in melanoma cells ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3 through ETBR, enhance the expression and activity of HIF-1α and HIF-2α that in turn regulate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in response to ETs or hypoxia. Under normoxic conditions, ET-1 controls HIF-α stability by inhibiting its degradation, as determined by impaired degradation of a reporter gene containing the HIF-1α oxygen-dependent degradation domain encompassing the PHD-targeted prolines. In particular, ETs through ETBR markedly decrease PHD2 mRNA and protein levels and promoter activity. In addition, activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent integrin linked kinase (ILK)-AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is required for ETBR-mediated PHD2 inhibition, HIF-1α, HIF-2α, and VEGF expression. At functional level, PHD2 knockdown does not further increase ETs-induced in vitro tube formation of endothelial cells and melanoma cell invasiveness, demonstrating that these processes are regulated in a PHD2-dependent manner. In human primary and metastatic melanoma tissues as well as in cell lines, that express high levels of HIF-1α, ETBR expression is associated with low PHD2 levels. In melanoma xenografts, ETBR blockade by ETBR antagonist results in a concomitant reduction of tumor growth, angiogenesis, HIF-1α, and HIF-2α expression, and an increase in PHD2 levels.
In this study we identified the underlying mechanism by which ET-1, through the regulation of PHD2, controls HIF-1α stability and thereby regulates angiogenesis and melanoma cell invasion. These results further indicate that targeting ETBR may represent a potential therapeutic treatment of melanoma by impairing HIF-1α stability.
The prolyl-hydroxylase domain family of enzymes (PHD1-3) plays an important role in the cellular response to hypoxia by negatively regulating HIF-α proteins. Disruption of this process can lead to up-regulation of factors that promote tumorigenesis. We observed decreased basal expression of PHD3 in prostate cancer tissue and tumor cell lines representing diverse tissues of origin. Furthermore, some cancer lines displayed a failure of PHD3 mRNA induction when introduced to a hypoxic environment. This study explores the mechanism by which malignancies neither basally express PHD3 nor induce PHD3 under hypoxic conditions.
Using bisulfite sequencing and methylated DNA enrichment procedures, we identified human PHD3 promoter hypermethylation in prostate, breast, melanoma and renal carcinoma cell lines. In contrast, non-transformed human prostate and breast epithelial cell lines contained PHD3 CpG islands that were unmethylated and responded normally to hypoxia by upregulating PHD3 mRNA. Only treatment of cells lines containing PHD3 promoter hypermethylation with the demethylating drug 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine significantly increased the expression of PHD3.
We conclude that expression of PHD3 is silenced by aberrant CpG methylation of the PHD3 promoter in a subset of human carcinoma cell lines of diverse origin and that this aberrant cytosine methylation status is the mechanism by which these cancer cell lines fail to upregulate PHD3 mRNA. We further show that a loss of PHD3 expression does not correlate with an increase in HIF-1α protein levels or an increase in the transcriptional activity of HIF, suggesting that loss of PHD3 may convey a selective advantage in some cancers by affecting pathway(s) other than HIF.
The heterodimeric hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) are central regulators of the response to low oxygenation. HIF-α subunits are constitutively expressed but rapidly degraded under normoxic conditions. Oxygen-dependent hydroxylation of two conserved prolyl residues by prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain-containing enzymes (PHDs) targets HIF-α for proteasomal destruction. We identified the peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase FK506-binding protein 38 (FKBP38) as a novel interactor of PHD2. Yeast two-hybrid, glutathione S-transferase pull-down, coimmunoprecipitation, colocalization, and mammalian two-hybrid studies confirmed specific FKBP38 interaction with PHD2, but not with PHD1 or PHD3. PHD2 and FKBP38 associated with their N-terminal regions, which contain no known interaction motifs. Neither FKBP38 mRNA nor protein levels were regulated under hypoxic conditions or after PHD inhibition, suggesting that FKBP38 is not a HIF/PHD target. Stable RNA interference-mediated depletion of FKBP38 resulted in increased PHD hydroxylation activity and decreased HIF protein levels and transcriptional activity. Reconstitution of FKBP38 expression abolished these effects, which were independent of the peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity. Downregulation of FKBP38 did not affect PHD2 mRNA levels but prolonged PHD2 protein stability, suggesting that FKBP38 is involved in PHD2 protein regulation.
Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in kidney epithelial cells plays a key role in renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in chronic kidney diseases. As hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is found to mediate TGF-β1-induced signaling pathway, we tested the hypothesis that HIF-1α and its upstream regulator prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing proteins (PHDs) are involved in TGF-β1-induced EMT using cultured renal tubular cells. Our results showed that TGF-β1 stimulated EMT in renal tubular cells as indicated by the significant decrease in epithelial marker P-cadherin, and the increase in mesenchymal markers α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP-1). Meanwhile, we found that TGF-β1 time-dependently increased HIF-1α and that HIF-1α siRNA significantly inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT, suggesting that HIF-1α mediated TGF-β1 induced-EMT. Real-time PCR showed that PHD1 and PHD2, rather than PHD3, could be detected, with PHD2 as the predominant form of PHDs (PHD1:PHD2 = 0.21:1.0). Importantly, PHD2 mRNA and protein, but not PHD1, was decreased by TGF-β1. Furthermore, over-expression of PHD2 transgene almost fully prevented TGF-β1-induced HIF-1α accumulation and EMT marker changes, indicating that PHD2 is involved in TGF-β1-induced EMT. Finally, Smad2/3 inhibitor SB431542 prevented TGF-β1-induced PHD2 decrease, suggesting that Smad2/3 may mediate TGF-β1-induced EMT through PHD2/HIF-1α pathway. It is concluded that TGF-β1 decreased PHD2 expression via a Smad-dependent signaling pathway, thereby leading to HIF-1α accumulation and then EMT in renal tubular cells. The present study suggests that PHD2/HIF-1α is a novel signaling pathway mediating the fibrogenic effect of TGF-β1, and may be a new therapeutic target in chronic kidney diseases.
Prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing proteins; Smad signaling pathway; renal fibrosis
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) accounts for more than 80% of the cases of renal cell carcinoma. In ccRCC deactivation of Von-Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene contributes to the constitutive expression of hypoxia inducible factors 1 and 2 alpha (HIF-α), transcriptional regulators of several genes involved in tumor angiogenesis, glycolysis and drug resistance. We have demonstrated inhibition of HIF-1α by Se-Methylselenocysteine (MSC) via stabilization of prolyl hydroxylases 2 and 3 (PHDs) and a significant therapeutic synergy when combined with chemotherapy. This study was initiated to investigate the expression of PHDs, HIF-α, and VEGF-A in selected solid cancers, the mechanism of HIF-α inhibition by MSC, and to document antitumor activity of MSC against human ccRCC xenografts.
Tissue microarrays of primary human cancer specimens (ccRCC, head & neck and colon) were utilized to determine the incidence of PHD2/3, HIF-α, and VEGF-A by immunohistochemical methods. To investigate the mechanism(s) of HIF-α inhibition by MSC, VHL mutated ccRCC cells RC2 (HIF-1α positive), 786–0 (HIF-2α positive) and VHL wild type head & neck cancer cells FaDu (HIF-1α) were utilized. PHD2 and VHL gene specific siRNA knockdown and inhibitors of PHD2 and proteasome were used to determine their role in the degradation of HIF-1α by MSC.
We have demonstrated that ccRCC cells express low incidence of PHD2 (32%), undetectable PHD3, high incidence of HIF-α (92%), and low incidence of VEGF-A compared to head & neck and colon cancers. This laboratory was the first to identify MSC as a highly effective inhibitor of constitutively expressed HIF-α in ccRCC tumors. MSC did not inhibit HIF-1α protein synthesis, but facilitated its degradation. The use of gene knockdown and specific inhibitors confirmed that the inhibition of HIF-1α was PHD2 and proteasome dependent and VHL independent. The effects of MSC treatment on HIF-α were associated with significant antitumor activity against ccRCC xenograft.
Our results show the role of PHD2/3 in stable expression of HIF-α in human ccRCC. Furthermore, HIF-1α degradation by MSC is achieved through PHD2 dependent and VHL independent pathway which is unique for HIF-α regulation. These data provide the basis for combining MSC with currently used agents for ccRCC.
Prolyl hydroxylases; Hypoxia-inducible factor; Clear cell renal cell carcinoma; Selenium
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common and comprehensively studied malignancies. Hypoxic conditions during formation of CRC may support the development of more aggressive cancers. Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), a major player in cancerous tissue adaptation to hypoxia, is negatively regulated by the family of prolyl hydroxylase enzymes (PHD1, PHD2, PHD3) and asparaginyl hydroxylase, called factor inhibiting HIF (FIH).
PHD1, PHD2, PHD3 and FIH gene expression was evaluated using quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting in primary colonic adenocarcinoma and adjacent histopathologically unchanged colonic mucosa from patients who underwent radical surgical resection of the colon (n = 90), and the same methods were used for assessment of PHD3 gene expression in HCT116 and DLD-1 CRC cell lines. DNA methylation levels of the CpG island in the promoter regulatory region of PHD1, PHD2, PHD3 and FIH were assessed using bisulfite DNA sequencing and high resolution melting analysis (HRM) for patients and HRM analysis for CRC cell lines.
We found significantly lower levels of PHD1, PHD2 and PHD3 transcripts (p = 0.00026; p < 0.00001; p < 0.00001) and proteins (p = 0.004164; p = 0.0071; p < 0.00001) in primary cancerous than in histopathologically unchanged tissues. Despite this, we did not observe statistically significant differences in FIH transcript levels between cancerous and histopathologically unchanged colorectal tissue, but we found a significantly increased level of FIH protein in CRC (p = 0.0169). The reduced PHD3 expression was correlated with significantly increased DNA methylation in the CpG island of the PHD3 promoter regulatory region (p < 0.0001). We did not observe DNA methylation in the CpG island of the PHD1, PHD2 or FIH promoter in cancerous and histopathologically unchanged colorectal tissue. We also showed that 5-Aza-2’-deoxycytidine induced DNA demethylation leading to increased PHD3 transcript and protein level in HCT116 cells.
We demonstrated that reduced PHD3 expression in cancerous tissue was accompanied by methylation of the CpG rich region located within the first exon and intron of the PHD3 gene. The diminished expression of PHD1 and PHD2 and elevated level of FIH protein in cancerous tissue compared to histopathologically unchanged colonic mucosa was not associated with DNA methylation within the CpG islands of the PHD1, PHD2 and FIH genes.
Hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-prolyl hydroxylases domain (PHD-1–3) are oxygen sensors that regulate the stability of the HIFs in an oxygen-dependent manner. Suppression of PHD enzymes leads to stabilization of HIFs and offers a potential treatment option for many ischemic disorders, such as peripheral artery occlusive disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Here, we show that homozygous disruption of PHD-1 (PHD-1−/−) could facilitate HIF-1α-mediated cardioprotection in ischemia/reperfused (I/R) myocardium. Wild-type (WT) and PHD-1−/− mice were randomized into WT time-matched control (TMC), PHD-1−/− TMC (PHD1TMC), WT I/R, and PHD-1−/− I/R (PHD1IR). Isolated hearts from each group were subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. TMC hearts were perfused for 2 h 30 min without ischemia. Decreased infarct size (35% ± 0.6% vs. 49% ± 0.4%) and apoptotic cardiomyocytes (106 ± 13 vs. 233 ± 21 counts/100 high-power field) were observed in PHD1IR compared to wild-type ischemia/reperfusion (WTIR). Protein expression of HIF-1α was significantly increased in PHD1IR compared to WTIR. mRNA expression of β-catenin (1.9-fold), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (1.9-fold), p65 (1.9-fold), and Bcl-2 (2.7-fold) were upregulated in the PHD1IR compared with WTIR, which was studied by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Further, gel-shift analysis showed increased DNA binding activity of HIF-1α and nuclear factor-kappaB in PHD1IR compared to WTIR. In addition, nuclear translocation of β-catenin was increased in PHD1IR compared with WTIR. These findings indicated that silencing of PHD-1 attenuates myocardial I/R injury probably by enhancing HIF-1α/β-catenin/endothelial nitric oxide synthase/nuclear factor-kappaB and Bcl-2 signaling pathway. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 1789–1797.
Prion diseases are a family of progressive neurodegenerative disorders, which are fatal in the majority of cases and affect both humans and domestic animals. Prion protein (PrP) (106–126) retains the neurotoxic properties of the entire pathological PrPsc and it is generally used as a reasonable model to study the mechanisms responsible for prion diseases. In our previous studies, we demonstrated that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is involved in the gingerol-mediated protection of neuronal cells. HIF mediates cellular adaptations to low oxygen. Prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein 2 (PHD2) is an oxygen sensor that hydroxylates the HIF-α-subunit, promoting its proteasomal degradation under normoxic conditions. Thus, in the present study we wished to determine whether gingerol inhibits the catalytic activity of PHD2 and prevents HIF-1α protein proteasomal degradation, thereby preventing the occurrence of PrP (106–126)-induced neuronal apoptosis. We used the pharmacological inhibition of PHD2 by dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) or deferoxamine (DFO) and the genetic inhibition of HIF-1α by HIF-1α small interfering RNA (siRNA) to block the effects of gingerol against PrP (106–126)-induced neurotoxicity. Our results demonstrated that gingerol prevented PrP (106–126)-induced neuronal apoptosis by upregulating HIF-1α and inhibiting the catalytic activity of PHD2 under normoxic conditions. Moreover, the protective effects of gingerol against PrP (106–126)-induced neuronal apoptosis were associated with the upregulation of the expression of cellular prion protein (PrPc). In conclusion, our results indicate that gingerol has therapeutic potential for use in the treatment or prevention of prion diseases, and its inhibitory effects on the catalytic activity of PHD2 may be of clinical benefit.
gingerol; prion protein 106-126; prion diseases; hypoxia-inducible factor 1α; prolyl hydroxylase 2
Transplantation of stem cells into damaged hearts has had modest success as a treatment for ischemic heart disease. One of the limitations is the poor stem cell survival in the diseased microenvironment. Prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2) is a cellular oxygen sensor that regulates two key transcription factors involved in cell survival and inflammation, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB).
We studied if and how PHD2 silencing in human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) enhances their cardioprotective effects after transplantation into infarcted hearts.
Methods and Results
ADSCs were transduced with lentiviral shPHD2 to silence PHD2. ADSCs with or without shPHD2 were transplanted after myocardial infarction (MI) in mice. ADSCs reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, fibrosis and infarct size and improved cardiac function. shPHD2-ADSCs exerted significantly more protection. PHD2 silencing induced greater ADSCs survival, which was abolished by shHIF-1α. Conditioned medium (CM) from shPHD2-ADSCs decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels were significantly higher in the CM of shPHD2-ADSCs versus ADSCs, and depletion of IGF-1 attenuated the cardioprotective effects of shPHD2-ADSCs-CM. NF-κB activation was induced by shPHD2 to induce IGF-1 secretion via binding to IGF-1 gene promoter.
PHD2 silencing promotes ADSCs survival in MI hearts and enhances their paracrine function to protect cardiomyocytes. The pro-survival effect of shPHD2 on ADSCs is HIF-1α dependent and the enhanced paracrine function of shPHD2-ADSCs is associated with NF-κB-mediated IGF-1 up-regulation. PHD2 silencing in stem cells may be a novel strategy for enhancing the effectiveness of stem cell therapy after MI.
Myocardial infarction; stem cell; survival; paracrine effect; cardiomyocyte
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is regulated by the oxygen-dependent hydroxylation of proline residues by prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs). We recently developed a novel PHD inhibitor, TM6008, that suppresses the activity of PHDs, inducing continuous HIF-1α activation. In this study, we investigated how TM6008 affects cell survival after hypoxic conditions capable of inducing HIF-1α expression and how TM6008 regulates PHDs and genes downstream of HIF-1α. After SHSY-5Y cells had been subjected to hypoxia, TM6008 was added to the cell culture medium under normoxic conditions. Apoptotic cell death was significantly augmented just after the hypoxic conditions, compared with cell death under normoxic conditions. Notably, when TM6008 was added to the media after the cells had been subjected to hypoxia, the expression level of HIF-1α increased and the number of cell deaths decreased, compared with the results for cells cultured in media without TM6008 after hypoxia, during the 7-day incubation period under normoxic conditions. Moreover, the protein expression levels of heme oxygenase 1, erythropoietin, and glucose transporter-3, which were genes downstream of HIF-1α, were elevated in media to which TM6008 had been added, compared with media without TM6008, during the 7-day incubation period under normoxic conditions. However, the protein expression levels of PHD2 and p53 which suppressed cell proliferation were suppressed in the media to which TM6008 had been added. Thus, TM6008, which suppresses the protein expressions of PHD2 and p53, might play an important role in cell survival after hypoxic conditions, with possible applications as a new compound for treatment after ischemic stroke.
Prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor; Hypoxia; Hypoxia-inducible factor; p53; Prolyl hydroxylase 2
Prolyl-4-hydroxylation by the intracellular prolyl-4-hydroxylase enzymes (PHD1-3) serves as a master regulator of environmental oxygen sensing. The activity of these enzymes is tightly tied to tumorigenesis, as they regulate cell metabolism and angiogenesis through their control of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stability. PHD3 specifically, is gaining attention for its broad function and rapidly accumulating array of non-HIF target proteins. Data from several recent studies suggest a role for PHD3 in the regulation of cell morphology and cell migration. In this study, we aimed to investigate this role by closely examining the relationship between PHD3 expression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT); a transcriptional program that plays a major role in controlling cell morphology and migratory capacity. Using human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) cell lines and Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, we examined the correlation between several markers of EMT and PHD3 expression. We demonstrated that loss of PHD3 expression in PDA cell lines is highly correlated with a mesenchymal-like morphology and an increase in cell migratory capacity. We also found that induction of EMT in MDCK cells resulted in the specific downregulation of PHD3, whereas the expression of the other HIF-PHD enzymes was not affected. The results of this study clearly support a model by which the basal expression and hypoxic induction of PHD3 is suppressed by the EMT transcriptional program. This may be a novel mechanism by which migratory or metastasizing cells alter signaling through specific pathways that are sensitive to regulation by O2. The identification of downstream pathways that are affected by the suppression of PHD3 expression during EMT may provide important insight into the crosstalk between O2 and the migratory and metastatic potential of tumor cells.
Activation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), responsible for tumor angiogenesis and glycolytic switch, is regulated by reduced oxygen availability. Normally, HIF-α proteins are maintained at low levels, controlled by site-specific hydroxylation carried out by HIF prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs), and subsequent proteasomal degradation via the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) ubiquitin ligase. Using a yeast-two hybrid screen, we identified an interaction between MAGE-11 cancer-testis antigen and the major HIF-α hydroxylating enzyme PHD2. The interaction was confirmed by pull-down assay, co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, MAGE-9, the closest homolog of MAGE-11, was also found to interact with PHD2. MAGE-11 inhibited PHD activity without affecting protein levels. This inhibition was accompanied by stabilization of ectopic or endogenous HIF-1α protein. Knock-down of MAGE-11 by siRNA results in decreased hypoxic induction of HIF-1α and its target genes. Inhibition of PHD by MAGE-11 and following activation of hypoxia-inducible factors is a novel tumor associated HIF regulatory mechanism. This finding provides new insights into the significance of MAGE expression in tumors and may provide valuable tools for therapeutic intervention because of the restricted expression of the MAGE gene family in cancers but not in normal tissues.
HIF; hypoxia; MAGE-11; PHD2
The central transcriptional response to hypoxia is mediated by the Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain protein (PHD):Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) pathway. In this pathway, PHD prolyl hydroxylates and thereby negatively regulates the α-subunit of the transcription factor HIF (HIF-α). An important HIF target gene is that for Erythropoietin (EPO), which controls red cell mass. Recent studies have identified PHD2 as the critical PHD isoform regulating the EPO gene. Other studies have shown that the inducibility of the HIF pathway diminishes as a function of age. Thus, an important question is whether the PHD2:EPO pathway is altered in the aging. Here, we employed a mouse line with a globally-inducible Phd2 conditional knockout allele to examine the integrity of the Phd2:Epo axis in young (six to eight month old) and aging (sixteen to twenty month old) mice. We find that acute global deletion of Phd2 results in a robust erythrocytosis in both young and aging mice, with both age groups showing marked extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen. Epo mRNA is dramatically upregulated in the kidney, but not in the liver, in both age groups. Conversely, other Hif targets, including Vegf, Pgk1, and Phd3 are upregulated in the liver but not in the kidney in both age groups. These findings have implications for targeting this pathway in the aging.
Erythropoietin; Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain protein; Hypoxia Inducible Factor; Prolyl hydroxylation; Gene regulation
Background: Hypoxia inducible factor-α (HIF-α) is the main transcription factor activated in low oxygen conditions.
Results: Single cell imaging reveals pulses in nuclear levels of HIF-α.
Conclusion: The transient nature of the HIF-α nuclear accumulation is required to avoid cell death.
Significance: The duration of HIF-α response depends on cellular oxygenation, and can encode information and dictate cell fate.
Intracellular signaling involving hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) controls the adaptive responses to hypoxia. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating that intracellular signals encode temporal information. Thus, the dynamics of protein levels, as well as protein quantity and/or localization, impacts on cell fate. We hypothesized that such temporal encoding has a role in HIF signaling and cell fate decisions triggered by hypoxic conditions. Using live cell imaging in a controlled oxygen environment, we observed transient 3-h pulses of HIF-1α and -2α expression under continuous hypoxia. We postulated that the well described prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) oxygen sensors and HIF negative feedback regulators could be the origin of the pulsatile HIF dynamics. We used iterative mathematical modeling and experimental analysis to scrutinize which parameter of the PHD feedback could control HIF timing and we probed for the functional redundancy between the three main PHD proteins. We identified PHD2 as the main PHD responsible for HIF peak duration. We then demonstrated that this has important consequences, because the transient nature of the HIF pulse prevents cell death by avoiding transcription of p53-dependent pro-apoptotic genes. We have further shown the importance of considering HIF dynamics for coupling mathematical models by using a described HIF-p53 mathematical model. Our results indicate that the tight control of HIF transient dynamics has important functional consequences on the cross-talk with key signaling pathways controlling cell survival, which is likely to impact on HIF targeting strategies for hypoxia-associated diseases such as tumor progression and ischemia.
Cell Death; Hypoxia; Hypoxia-inducible Factor; Imaging; Mathematical Modeling; Negative Feedback Loop; p53; Prolyl Hydroxylase
The human prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD) proteins 1–3 are known as cellular oxygen sensors, acting via the degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) α-subunits. PHD2 and PHD3 genes are inducible by HIFs themselves, suggesting a negative feedback loop that involves PHD abundance. To identify novel regulators of the PHD2 gene, an expression array of 704 transcription factors was screened by a method that allows distinguishing between HIF-dependent and HIF-independent promoter regulation. Among others, the E-twenty six transcription factor ETS translocation variant 4 (ETV4) was found to contribute to PHD2 gene expression particularly under hypoxic conditions. Mechanistically, complex formation between ETV4 and HIF-1/2α was observed by mammalian two-hybrid and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis. HIF-1α domain mapping, CITED2 overexpression and factor inhibiting HIF depletion experiments provided evidence for cooperation between HIF-1α and p300/CBP in ETV4 binding. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed ETV4 and HIF-1α corecruitment to the PHD2 promoter. Of 608 hypoxically induced transcripts found by genome-wide expression profiling, 7.7% required ETV4 for efficient hypoxic induction, suggesting a broad role of ETV4 in hypoxic gene regulation. Endogenous ETV4 highly correlated with PHD2, HIF-1/2α and several established markers of tissue hypoxia in 282 human breast cancer tissue samples, corroborating a functional interplay between the ETV4 and HIF pathways.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship of expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α-modifying enzymes prolyl hydroxylase (PHD)1, PHD2 and PHD3 to response of tumours and survival in breast cancer patients enrolled in a phase II trial of neoadjuvant anthracycline and tamoxifen therapy.
The expression of PHD1, PHD2 and PHD3 together with HIF-1α and the HIF-inducible genes vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) and carbonic anhydrase IX were assessed by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray approach in 211 patients with T2-4 N0-1 breast cancer enrolled in a randomised trial comparing single-agent epirubicin versus epirubicin and tamoxifen as the primary systemic treatment.
PHD1, PHD2 and PHD3 were detected in 47/179 (26.7%), 85/163 (52.2%) and 69/177 (39%) of tumours at baseline. PHD2 and PHD3 expression was moderate/strong whereas PHD1 expression was generally weak. There was a significant positive correlation between HIF-1α and PHD1 (P = 0.002) and PHD3 (P < 0.05) but not PHD2 (P = 0.41). There was a significant positive relationship between VEGF and PHD1 (P < 0.008) and PHD3 (P = 0.001) but not PHD2 (P = 0.09). PHD1, PHD2 and PHD3 expression was significantly increased after epirubicin therapy (all P < 0.000) with no significant difference in PHD changes between the treatment arms. There was no significant difference in response in tumours that expressed PHDs and PHD expression was not associated with survival.
Although expression of the PHDs was not related to response or survival in patients receiving neoadjuvant epirubicin, our data provide the first evidence that these enzymes are upregulated on therapy in breast cancer and that the biological effects independent of HIF make them therapeutic targets.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), a major mediator of tumor physiology, is activated during tumor progression, and its abundance is correlated with therapeutic resistance in a broad range of solid tumors. The accumulation of HIF-1α is mainly caused by hypoxia or through the mutated succinate dehydrogenase A (SDHA) or fumarate hydratase (FH) expression to inhibit its degradation. However, its activation under normoxic conditions, termed pseudohypoxia, in cells without mutated SDHA or FH is not well documented. Here, we show that dimethyl-2-ketoglutarate (DKG), a cell membrane-permeable precursor of a key metabolic intermediate, α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), known for its ability to rescue glutamine deficiency, transiently stabilized HIF-1α by inhibiting activity of the HIF prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein, PHD2. Consequently, prolonged DKG-treatment under normoxia elevated HIF-1α abundance and up-regulated the expression of its downstream target genes, thereby inducing a pseudohypoxic condition. This HIF-1α stabilization phenotype is similar to that from treatment of cells with desferrioxamine (DFO), an iron chelator, or dimethyloxalyglycine (DMOG), an established PHD inhibitor, but was not recapitulated with other α-KG analogues, such as Octyl-2KG, MPTOM001 and MPTOM002. Our study is the first example of an α-KG precursor to increase HIF-1α abundance and activity. We propose that DKG acts as a potent HIF-1α activator, highlighting the potential use of DKG to investigate the contribution of PHD2-HIF-1α pathway to tumor biology.
Prolyl hydroxylase domain 2 (PHD2) has been implicated in several pathways of cell signaling, most notably in its regulation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α stability. In normoxia, PHD2 hydroxylates proline residues on HIF-1α, rendering it inactive. However in hypoxia, PHD2 is inactive, HIF-1α is stabilized and downstream effectors such as VEGF and FGF-2 are produced to promote angiogenesis. In the present study we utilize RNAi to PHD2 to promote therapeutic angiogenesis in a diabetic wound model, presumably by the stabilization of HIF-1α.
Stented wounds were created on the dorsum of diabetic Lpr db/db mice. Mice were treated with PHD2 siRNA or nonsense siRNA. Wounds were measured photometrically on days 0–28. Wounds were harvested for histology, protein, and RNA analysis.
Diabetic wounds treated with siRNA closed within 21 +/−1.2 days; sham treated closed in 28 +/−1.5 days. By day 7, Western blot revealed near complete suppression of PHD protein and corresponding increased HIF-1α. Angiogenic mediators VEGF and FGF-2 were elevated, corresponding to increased CD31 staining in the treated groups.
siRNA-mediated silencing of PHD2 increases HIF-1α and several mediators of angiogenesis. This corresponded to improved time to closure in diabetic wounds compared to sham treated wounds. These findings suggest that impaired wound healing in diabetes can be ameliorated with therapeutic angiogenesis.
diabetic wound; PHD2; HIF-1
Cellular O2 sensing enables physiological adjustments to variations in tissue pO2. Under basal conditions, cells are adjusted to an O2 environment biologically read as normoxia. Any sharp departure from that state of normoxia triggers O2-sensitive biological responses. The stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signifies a robust biological read-out of hypoxia. In the presence of sufficient O2, HIF is hydroxylated and degraded. HIF prolyl hydroxylation is catalyzed by prolyl hydroxylase isoenzymes PHD1, 2 and 3. Using HT22 neurons stably transfected with a HIF reporter construct, we tested a novel hypothesis postulating that biological cells are capable of resetting their normoxic set-point by O2-sensitive changes in PHD expression. Results of this study show that the pO2 of the mouse brain cortex was 35 mm Hg or 5% O2. Exposure of HT22, adjusted to growing in 20% O2, to 5% O2 resulted in HIF-driven transcription. However, cells adjusted to growing in 5% O2 did not report hypoxia. Cells adjusted to growing in 30% O2 reported hypoxia when acutely exposed to room air culture conditions. When grown under high O2 conditions, cells reset their normoxic set-point upwards by down-regulating the expression of PHD1–3. When grown under low O2 conditions, cells reset their normoxic set-point downwards by inducing the expression of PHD1–3. Exposure of mice in vivo to a hypoxic 10% O2 environment lowered blood as well as brain pO2. Such hypoxic exposure induced PHD1–3. Exposure of mice to a hyperoxic 50% O2 ambience repressed the expression of PHD1–3 indicating that O2-sensitive regulation of PHD expression is effective in the brain in vivo. siRNA dependent knock-down of PHD expression revealed that O2-sensitive regulation of PHD may contribute to tuning the normoxic set-point in biological cells.
In this study, we target the hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1-alpha) pathway by short hairpin RNA interference therapy targeting prolyl hydroxylase-2 (shPHD2). We use the minicircle (MC) vector technology as an alternative for conventional nonviral plasmid (PL) vectors in order to improve neovascularization after unilateral hindlimb ischemia in a murine model. Gene expression and transfection efficiency of MC and PL, both in vitro and in vivo, were assessed using bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and firefly luciferase (Luc) reporter gene. C57Bl6 mice underwent unilateral electrocoagulation of the femoral artery and gastrocnemic muscle injection with MC-shPHD2, PL-shPHD2, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as control. Blood flow recovery was monitored using laser Doppler perfusion imaging, and collaterals were visualized by immunohistochemistry and angiography. MC-Luc showed a 4.6-fold higher in vitro BLI signal compared with PL-Luc. BLI signals in vivo were 4.3×105±3.3×105 (MC-Luc) versus 0.4×105±0.3×105 (PL-Luc) at day 28 (p=0.016). Compared with PL-shPHD2 or PBS, MC-shPHD2 significantly improved blood flow recovery, up to 50% from day 3 until day 14 after ischemia induction. MC-shPHD2 significantly increased collateral density and capillary density, as monitored by alpha-smooth muscle actin expression and CD31+ expression, respectively. Angiography data confirmed the histological findings. Significant downregulation of PHD2 mRNA levels by MC-shPHD2 was confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Finally, Western blot analysis confirmed significantly higher levels of HIF-1-alpha protein by MC-shPHD2, compared with PL-shPHD2 and PBS. This study provides initial evidence of a new potential therapeutic approach for peripheral artery disease. The combination of HIF-1-alpha pathway targeting by shPHD2 with the robust nonviral MC plasmid improved postischemic neovascularization, making this approach a promising potential treatment option for critical limb ischemia.
Under normoxic conditions, hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) is rapidly degraded by two hydroxylases, prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) and factor inhibiting HIF-1 (FIH). Because HIF-1α mediates the cardioprotective response to ischemic injury, its up-regulation may be an effective therapeutic option for ischemic heart failure.
Methods and Results
PHD and FIH were cloned from mouse embryonic stem cells. The best candidate short hairpin sequences for inhibiting PHD isoenzyme 2 (shPHD2) and FIH (shFIH) were inserted into novel non-viral minicircle vectors. In vitro studies after cell transfection of mouse C2C12 myoblasts, HL-1 atrial myocytes, and c-kit+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) demonstrated higher expression of angiogenesis factors in the double knockdown group compared to the single knockdown and shScramble control groups. To confirm in vitro data, shRNA minicircle vectors were injected intramyocardially following LAD ligation in adult FVB mice (n=60). Functional studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), echocardiography, and pressure-volume (PV) loops showed greater improvement in cardiac function in the double knockdown group. To assess mechanism(s) of this functional recovery, we performed a cell trafficking experiment, which demonstrated significantly greater recruitment of bone marrow cells to the ischemic myocardium in the double knockdown group. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) showed significantly higher activation of endogenous c-kit+ cardiac progenitor cells. Immunostaining showed increased neovascularization and decreased apoptosis in areas of injured myocardium. Finally, western blots and laser capture microdissection (LCM) analysis confirmed up-regulation of HIF-1α protein and angiogenesis genes, respectively.
We demonstrated that HIF-1α up-regulation by double knockdown of PHD and FIH synergistically increases stem cell mobilization and myocardial angiogenesis, leading to improved cardiac function.
hypoxia inducible factor; prolyl hydroxylases; factor inhibiting HIF; RNA interference; minicircle; ischemic heart disease; laser capture microdissection; “mousenized” mouse model
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, part of the heterodimeric transcription factor that mediates the cellular response to hypoxia, is critical for the expression of multiple angiogenic growth factors, cell motility, and the recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells. Inhibition of the oxygen-dependent negative regulator of HIF-1α, prolyl hydroxylase domain-2 (PHD-2), leads to increased HIF-1α and mimics various cellular and physiological responses to hypoxia. The roles of PHD-2 in the epidermis and dermis have not been clearly defined in wound healing.
Epidermal and dermal specific PHD-2 knockout (KO) mice were developed in a C57BL/6J (wild type) background by crossing homozygous floxed PHD-2 mice with heterozygous K14-Cre mice and heterozygous Col1A2-Cre-ER mice to get homozygous floxed PHD-2/heterozygous K14-Cre and homozygous floxed PHD-2/heterozygous floxed Col1A2-Cre-ER mice, respectively. Ten to twelve-week-old PHD-2 KO and wild type (WT) mice were subjected to wounding and ischemic pedicle flap model. The amount of healing was grossly quantified with ImageJ software. Western blot and qRT-PCR was run on protein and RNA from primary cells cultured in
qRT-PCR demonstrated a significant decrease of PHD-2 in keratinocytes and fibroblasts derived from tissue specific KO mice relative to control mice (*p<0.05). Western blot analysis showed a significant increase in HIF-1α and VEGF protein levels in PHD-2 KO mice relative to control mice (*p<0.05). PHD-2 KO mice showed significantly accelerated wound closure relative to WT (*p<0.05). When ischemia was analyzed at day nine post-surgery in a flap model, the PHD-2 tissue specific knockout mice showed significantly more viable flaps than WT (*p<0.05).
PHD-2 plays a significant role in the rates of wound healing and response to ischemic insult in mice. Further exploration shows PHD-2 KO increases cellular levels of HIF-1α and this increase leads to the transcription of downstream angiogenic factors such as VEGF.
Originally identified as the enzymes responsible for catalysing the oxidation of specific, conserved proline residues within hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), the additional roles for the prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) proteins have remained elusive. Of the four identified PHD enzymes, PHD2 is considered to be the key oxygen sensor, as knockdown of PHD2 results in elevated HIF protein. Several recent studies have highlighted the importance of PHD2 in tumourigenesis. However, there is conflicting evidence as to the exact role of PHD2 in tumour angiogenesis. The divergence seems to be because of the contribution of stromal-derived PHD2, and in particular the involvement of endothelial cells, vs tumour-derived PHD2. This review summarises our current understanding of PHD2 and tumour angiogenesis, focusing on the influences of PHD2 on vascular normalisation and neovascularisation.
PHD2; tumour angiogenesis; HIF
Signaling initiated by hypoxia and insulin powerfully alters cellular metabolism. The protein stability of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (Hif-1α) and Hif-2α is regulated by three prolyl hydroxylase domain–containing protein isoforms (Phd1, Phd2 and Phd3). Insulin receptor substrate-2 (Irs2) is a critical mediator of the anabolic effects of insulin, and its decreased expression contributes to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and diabetes1. Although Hif regulates many metabolic pathways2, it is unknown whether the Phd proteins regulate glucose and lipid metabolism in the liver. Here, we show that acute deletion of hepatic Phd3, also known as Egln3, improves insulin sensitivity and ameliorates diabetes by specifically stabilizing Hif-2α, which then increases Irs2 transcription and insulin-stimulated Akt activation. Hif-2α and Irs2 are both necessary for the improved insulin sensitivity, as knockdown of either molecule abrogates the beneficial effects of Phd3 knockout on glucose tolerance and insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. Augmenting levels of Hif-2α through various combinations of Phd gene knockouts did not further improve hepatic metabolism and only added toxicity. Thus, isoform-specific inhibition of Phd3 could be exploited to treat type 2 diabetes without the toxicity that could occur with chronic inhibition of multiple Phd isoforms.
Hypertension induces cardiovascular hypertrophy and fibrosis. Infiltrated macrophages are critically involved in this process. We recently reported that inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2), which hydroxylates the proline residues of hypoxia‐inducible factor‐α (HIF‐α) and thereby induces HIF‐α degradation, suppressed inflammatory responses in macrophages. We examined whether myeloid‐specific Phd2 deletion affects hypertension‐induced cardiovascular remodeling.
Methods and Results
Myeloid‐specific PHD2‐deficient mice (MyPHD2KO) were generated by crossing Phd2‐floxed mice with LysM‐Cre transgenic mice, resulting in the accumulation of HIF‐1α and HIF‐2α in macrophage. Eight‐ to ten‐week‐old mice were given NG‐nitro‐L‐arginine methyl ester (L‐NAME), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, and Angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion. L‐NAME/Ang II comparably increased systolic blood pressure in control and MyPHD2KO mice. However, MyPHD2KO mice showed less aortic medial and adventitial thickening, and macrophage infiltration. Cardiac interstitial fibrosis and myocyte hypertrophy were also significantly ameliorated in MyPHD2KO mice. Transforming growth factor‐β and collagen expression were decreased in the aorta and heart from MyPHD2KO mice. Echocardiographic analysis showed that left ventricular hypertrophy and reduced ejection fraction induced by L‐NAME/Ang II treatment in control mice were not observed in MyPHD2KO mice. Administration of digoxin that inhibits HIF‐α synthesis to L‐NAME/Ang II‐treated MyPHD2KO mice reversed these beneficial features.
Phd2 deletion in myeloid lineage attenuates hypertensive cardiovascular hypertrophy and fibrosis, which may be mediated by decreased inflammation‐ and fibrosis‐associated gene expression in macrophages. PHD2 in myeloid lineage plays a critical role in hypertensive cardiovascular remodeling.
fibrosis; hypertrophy; hypoxia; macrophages; migration