9-Alkyladenine derivatives and ribose-modified N6-benzyladenosine derivatives were synthesized in an effort to identify selective ligands for the rat A3 adenosine receptor and leads for the development of antagonists. The derivatives contained structural features previously determined to be important for A3 selectivity in adenosine derivatives, such as an N6-(3-iodobenzyl) moiety, and were further substituted at the 2-position with halo, amino, or thio groups. Affinity was determined in radioligand binding assays at rat brain A3 receptors stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, using [125I]AB-MECA (N6-(4-amino-3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5′-(N-methyluronamide)), and at rat brain A1 and A2a receptors using [3H]-N6-PIA ((R)-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine) and [3H]CGS 21680 (2-[[[4-(2-carboxyethyl)-phenyl]ethyl]amino]-5′-(N-ethylcarbamoyl)adenosine), respectively. A series of N6-(3-iodobenzyl) 2-amino derivatives indicated that a small 2-alkylamino group, e.g., methylamino, was favored at A3 receptors. N6-(3-Iodobenzyl)-9-methyl-2-(methylthio)adenine was 61-fold more potent than the corresponding 2-methoxy ether at A3 receptors and of comparable affinity at A1 and A2a receptors, resulting in a 3–6-fold selectivity for A3 receptors. A pair of chiral N6-(3-iodobenzyl) 9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) derivatives showed stereoselectivity, with the R-enantiomer favored at A3 receptors by 5.7-fold. 2-Chloro-9-(β-d-erythrofuranosyl)-N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenine had a Ki value at A3 receptors of 0.28 µM. 2-Chloro-9-[2-amino-2,3-dideoxy-β-d-5-(methylcarbamoyl)-arabinofuranosyl]-N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenine was moderately selective for A1 and A3 vs A2a receptors. A 3′-deoxy analogue of a highly A3-selective adenosine derivative retained selectivity in binding and was a full agonist in the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase mediated via cloned rat A3 receptors expressed in CHO cells. The 3′-OH and 4′-CH2OH groups of adenosine are not required for activation at A3 receptors. A number of 2′,3′-dideoxyadenosines and 9-acyclic-substituted adenines appear to inhibit adenylyl cyclase at the allosteric “P” site.
Adenosine derivatives bearing an N6-(3-iodobenzyl) group, reported to enhance the affinity of adenosine-5′-uronamide analogues as agonists at A3 adenosine receptors (J. Med. Chem.
37, 636–646), were synthesized starting from methyl β-d-ribofuranoside in 10 steps. Binding affinities at A1 and A2a receptors in rat brain membranes and at cloned rat A3 receptors from stably transfected CHO cells were compared. N6-(3-Iodobenzyl)adenosine was 2-fold selective for A3 vs A1 or A2a receptors; thus it is the first monosubstituted adenosine analogue having any A3 selectivity. The effects of 2-substitution in combination with modifications at the N6- and 5′-positions were explored. 2-Chloro-N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine had a Ki value of 1.4 nM and moderate selectivity for A3 receptors. 2-Chloro-N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5′-N-methyluronamide, which displayed a Ki value of 0.33 nM, was selective for A3 vs A1 and A2a receptors by 2500- and 1400-fold, respectively. It was 46,000-fold selective for A3 receptors vs the Na+-independent adenosine transporter, as indicated in displacement of [3H]N6-(4-nitrobenzyl)-thioinosine binding in rat brain membranes. In a functional assay in CHO cells, it inhibited adenylate cyclase via rat A3 receptors with an IC50 of 67 nM. 2-(Methylthio)-N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5′-N-methyluronamide and 2-(methylamino)-N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5′-N-methyluronamide were less potent, but nearly as selective for A3 receptors. Thus, 2-substitution (both small and sterically bulky) is well-tolerated at A3 receptors, and its A3 affinity-enhancing effects are additive with effects of uronamides at the 5′-position and a 3-iodobenzyl group at the N6-position.
4-Phenylethynyl-6-phenyl-1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives are selective antagonists at human A3 adenosine receptors, with Ki values in a radioligand binding assay vs [125I]AB-MECA [N6-(4-amino-3-iodobenzyl)-5′-N-methylcarbamoyl-adenosine] in the submicromolar range. In this study, functionalized congeners of 1,4-dihydropyridines were designed as chemically reactive adenosine A3 antagonists, for the purpose of synthesizing molecular probes for this receptor subtype. Selectivity of the new analogues for cloned human A3 adenosine receptors was determined in radioligand binding in comparison to binding at rat brain A1 and A2A receptors. Benzyl ester groups at the 3- and/or 5-positions and phenyl groups at the 2- and/or 6-positions were introduced as potential sites for chain attachment. Structure–activity analysis at A3 adenosine receptors indicated that 3,5-dibenzyl esters, but not 2,6-diphenyl groups, are tolerated in binding. Ring substitution of the 5-benzyl ester with a 4-fluorosulfonyl group provided enhanced A3 receptor affinity resulting in a Ki value of 2.42 nM; however, a long-chain derivative containing terminal amine functionalization at the 4-position of the 5-benzyl ester showed only moderate affinity. This sulfonyl fluoride derivative appeared to bind irreversibly to the human A3 receptor (1 h incubation at 100 nM resulting in the loss of 56% of the specific radioligand binding sites), while the binding of other potent dihydropyridines and other antagonists was generally reversible. At the 3-position of the dihydropyridine ring, an amine-functionalized chain attached at the 4-position of a benzyl ester provided higher A3 receptor affinity than the corresponding 5-position isomer. This amine congener was also used as an intermediate in the synthesis of a biotin conjugate, which bound to A3 receptors with a Ki value of 0.60 μM.
A newly synthesized, chemically reactive adenosine derivative, N6-(3-isothiocyanatobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide, was found to bind selectively to A3 receptors. Ki values for this isothiocyanate derivative in competition binding at rat brain A1, A2a, and A3 receptors were 145, 272 and 10.0 nM, respectively. A preincubation with this derivative resulted in irreversible inhibition of radioligand binding at rat A3 receptors in membranes of transfected CHO cells or RBL-2H3 mast cells, but not at rat A1 or A2a receptors. The loss of binding sites for 0.1 nM [125I]N6-(4-aminobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide, a high affinity A3 receptor radioligand, in transfected CHO cell membranes was concentration-dependent with an IC50 of 50 nM. No change was observed in the Kd value of the remaining A3 receptor sites. The inhibition was also insensitive to theophylline (1 mM), consistent with the pharmacology of rat A3 receptors. Structurally similar adenosine analogues lacking the chemically reactive isothiocyanate group failed to irreversibly inhibit A3-binding.
Amide derivatives of a carboxylic acid congener of 1,3-dialkylxanthine, having a 4-[(carboxymethyl)oxy]phenyl substituent at the 8-position, have been synthesized in order to identify potent antagonists at A2-adenosine receptors stimulatory to adenylate cyclase in platelets. Distal structural features of amide-linked chains and the size of the 1,3-dialkyl groups have been varied. 1,3-Diethyl groups, more than 1,3-dimethyl or 1,3-dipropyl groups, favor A2 potency, even in the presence of extended chains attached at the 8-(p-substituted-phenyl) position. Polar groups, such as amines, on the chain simultaneously enhance water solubility and A2 potency. Among the most potent A2 ligands are an amine congener, 8-[4-[[[[(2-aminoethyl)amino]carbonyl]methyl]oxy]phenyl]-1,3-diethylxanthine, and its D-lysyl conjugate, which have KB values of 21 and 23 nM, respectively, for the antagonism of N-ethyl-adenosine-5′-uronamide-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in human platelet membranes. Strategies for the selection and tritiation of new radioligands for use in competitive binding assays at A2-adenosine receptors have been considered.
The structure-activity relationships of 6-phenyl-1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives as selective antagonists at human A3 adenosine receptors have been explored (Jiang et al. J. Med. Chem.
1997, 39, 4667-4675). In the present study, related pyridine derivatives have been synthesized and tested for affinity at adenosine receptors in radioligand binding assays. Ki values in the nanomolar range were observed for certain 3,5-diacyl-2,4-dialkyl-6-phenylpyridine derivatives in displacement of [125I]AB-MECA (N6-(4-amino-3-iodobenzyl)-5′-N-methylcarbamoyladenosine) at recombinant human A3 adenosine receptors. Selectivity for A3 adenosine receptors was determined vs radioligand binding at rat brain A1 and A2A receptors. Structure–activity relationships at various positions of the pyridine ring (the 3- and 5-acyl substituents and the 2- and 4-alkyl substituents) were probed. A 4-phenylethynyl group did not enhance A3 selectivity of pyridine derivatives, as it did for the 4-substituted dihydropyridines. At the 2-and 4-positions ethyl was favored over methyl. Also, unlike the dihydropyridines, a thioester group at the 3-position was favored over an ester for affinity at A3 adenosine receptors, and a 5-position benzyl ester decreased affinity. Small cycloalkyl groups at the 6-position of 4-phenylethynyl-1,4-dihydropyridines were favorable for high affinity at human A3 adenosine receptors, while in the pyridine series a 6-cyclopentyl group decreased affinity. 5-Ethyl 2,4-diethyl-3-(ethylsulfanylcarbonyl)-6-phenylpyridine-5-carboxylate, 38, was highly potent at human A3 receptors, with a Ki value of 20 nM. A 4-propyl derivative, 39b, was selective and highly potent at both human and rat A3 receptors, with Ki values of 18.9 and 113 nM, respectively. A 6-(3-chlorophenyl) derivative, 44, displayed a Ki value of 7.94 nM at human A3 receptors and selectivity of 5200-fold. Molecular modeling, based on the steric and electrostatic alignment (SEAL) method, defined common pharmacophore elements for pyridine and dihydropyridine structures, e.g., the two ester groups and the 6-phenyl group. Moreover, a relationship between affinity and hydrophobicity was found for the pyridines.
The adenosine agonist 2-(4-(2-carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino)-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS21680) was recently reported to be selective for the A2A adenosine receptor subtype, which mediates its hypotensive action. To investigate structurelactivity relationships at a distal site, CGS21680 was derivatized using a functionalized congener approach. The carboxylic group of CGS21680 has been esterified to form a methyl ester, which was then treated with ethylenediamine to produce an amine congener. The amine congener was an intermediate for acylation reactions, in which the reactive acyl species contained a reported group, or the precursor for such. For radioiodination, derivatives of p-hydroxyphenylpropionic, 2-thiophenylacetic, and p-aminophenylacetic acids were prepared. The latter derivative (PAPA-APEC) was iodinated electrophilically using [125I]iodide resulting in a radioligand which was used for studies of competition of binding to striatal A, adenosine receptors in bovine brain. A biotin conjugate and an aryl sulfonate were at least 350-fold selective for A, receptors. For spectroscopic detection, a derivative of the stable free radical tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) was prepared. For irreversible inhibition of receptors, meta- and para-phenylenediisothiocyanate groups were incorporated in the analogs. We have demonstrated that binding at A2A receptors is relatively insensitive to distal structural changes at the 2-position, and we report high affinity molecular probes for receptor characterization by radioactive, spectroscopic and affinity labelling methodology.
A series of functionalized congeners of 1,3-dialkylxanthines has been prepared as adenosine receptor antagonists. On the basis of the high potency of 8-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3-dialkylxanthines, the parent compounds were 8-[4-[(carboxymethyl)oxy]phenyl] derivatives of theophylline and 1,3-dipropylxanthine. A series of analogues including esters of ethanol and N-hydroxysuccinimide, amides, a hydrazide, an acylurea, and anilides were prepared. The potency in blocking A1-adenosine receptors (inhibition of binding of N6-[3H]cyclohexyladenosine to brain membranes) and A2-adenosine receptors (inhibition of 2-chloroadenosine-elicited accumulations of cyclic AMP in brain slices) was markedly affected by structural changes distal to the primary pharmacophore (8-phenyl-1,3-dialkylxanthine). Potencies in the dipropyl series at the A1 receptor ranged from K1 values of 1.2 nM for a congener with a terminal amidoethyleneamine moiety to a K1 value of 58 nM for the parent carboxylic acid to a K1 of 96 nM for the bulky ureido congener. Certain congeners were up to 145-fold more active at A1 receptors than at A2 receptors. Various derivatives of the congeners should be useful as receptor probes and for radioidodination, avidin binding, and preparation of affinity columns.
Sulfur-containing analogues of 8-substituted xanthines were prepared in an effort to increase selectivity or potency as antagonists at adenosine receptors. Either cyclopentyl or various aryl substituents were utilized at the 8-position, because of the association of these groups with high potency at A1-adenosine receptors. Sulfur was incorporated on the purine ring at positions 2 and/or 6, in the 8-position substituent in the form of 2- or 3-thienyl groups, or via thienyl groups separated from an 8-aryl substituent through an amide-containing chain. The feasibility of using the thienyl group as a prosthetic group for selective iodination via its Hg2+ derivative was explored. Receptor selectivity was determined in binding assays using membrane homogenates from rat cortex [[3H]-N6-(phenylisopropyl) adenosine as radioligand] or striatum [[3H]-5′-(N-ethylcarbamoyl)adenosine as radioligand] for A1- and A2-adenosine receptors, respectively. Generally, 2-thio-8-cycloalkylxanthines were at least as A1 selective as the corresponding oxygen analogue. 2-Thio-8-aryl derivatives tended to be more potent at A2 receptors than the oxygen analogue. 8-[4-[(Carboxymethyl)oxy]phenyl]-1,3-dipropyl-2-thioxanthine ethyl ester was >740-fold A1 selective.
Two classes of 8-substituted analogs of theophylline (1,3-dialkylxanthines), having 8-cycloalkyl, 8-cycloalkenyl or 8-(para-substituted aryl) groups, were shown to be potent and, in some cases, receptor subtype selective antagonists at A1- and A2-adenosine receptors. New analogs based on a functionalized cogener approach and on classical medicinal chemical approaches were prepared. Affinity at A1-adenosine receptors was evaluated by inhibition of binding of [3H)N6-phenylisopropyladenosine to rat brain membranes. Activity at A2A-adenosine receptors was measured by the reversal of 5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA)-stimulated production of cyclic AMP in membranes from rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Cycloalkenyl analogs containing rigid olefinic bonds differed greatly in potency from the saturated analogs. The selectivity of phenylsulfonamide analogs depended on distal structural features. Novel xanthine analogs include diamino-, thiol-, aldehyde, and halogen-substituted derivatives, peptide conjugates of 8-[4-[2-aminoethylaminocarbonylmethyloxy]phenyl]1,3-dipropylxanthine (XAC), and a hydroxyethylamide analog of XAC.
The effects of putative A3 adenosine receptor antagonists of three diverse chemical classes (the flavonoid MRS 1067, the 6-phenyl-1,4-dihydropyridines MRS 1097 and MRS 1191, and the triazoloquinazo-line MRS 1220) were characterized in receptor binding and functional assays. MRS1067, MRS 1191 and MRS 1220 were found to be competitive in saturation binding studies using the agonist radioligand [125I]AB-MECA (N6-(4-amino-3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide) at cloned human brain A3 receptors expressed in HEK-293 cells. Antagonism was demonstrated in functional assays consisting of agonist-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase and the stimulation of binding of [35S]guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) ([35S]GTP-γ-S) to the associated G-proteins. MRS 1220 and MRS 1191, with KB values of 1.7 and 92 nM, respectively, proved to be highly selective for human A3 receptor vs human A1 receptor-mediated effects on adenylate cyclase. In addition, MRS 1220 reversed the effect of A3 agonist-elicited inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α formation in the human macrophage U-937 cell line, with an IC50 value of 0.3 μM. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.
Dihydropyridine; flavonoid; triazoloquinazoline; adenylate cyclase; tumor necrosis factor; guanine nucleotides; adenosine A3 receptor; adenosine
The objective of this study was to create constitutively active mutant human A3 adenosine receptors (ARs) using single amino acid replacements, based on findings from other G protein-coupled receptors. A3 ARs mutated in transmembrane helical domains (TMs) 1, 3, 6, and 7 were expressed in COS-7 cells and subjected to agonist radioligand binding and phospholipase C (PLC) and adenylyl cyclase (AC) assays. Three mutant receptors, A229E in TM6 and R108A and R108K in the DRY motif of TM3, were found to be constitutively active in both functional assays. The potency of the A3 agonist Cl-IB-MECA (2–chloro-N6-(3–iodobenzyl)adenosine-5′-N-methyluronamide) in PLC activation was enhanced by at least an order of magnitude over wild type (EC50 951 nM) in R108A and A229E mutant receptors. Cl-IB-MECA was much less potent (>10-fold) in C88F, Y109F and Y282F mutants or inactive following double mutation of the DRY motif. The degree of constitutive activation was more pronounced for the AC signaling pathway than for the PLC signaling pathway. The results indicated that specific locations within the TMs proximal to the cytosolic region were responsible for constraining the receptor in a G protein-uncoupled conformation.
purines; G protein-coupled receptor; phospholipase C; adenylyl cyclase; radioligand binding; nucleosides
We recently reported that 2-substitution of N6-benzyladenosine-5'-uronamides greatly enhances selectivity of agonists for rat A3 adenosine receptors J. Med. Chem.
1994, 37, 3614–3621). Specifically, 2-Chloro-N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (2-CI-IB-MECA), which displayed a K1 value of 0.33 nM, is the most selective for A3 receptors yet reported with selectivity versus A1 and A2a receptors of 2500- and 1400-fold, respectively. In order to obtain pharmacological tools for the study of A3 adenosine receptors, two routes for radiolabeling of 2-CI-IB-MECA through incorporation of tritium at the 5'-methylamido group were compared. One route formed a 2',3'-protected nucleoside 5'-carboxylic acid (9), which was condensed with methylamine and deprotected. The more efficient synthesis started from D-ribose and provided 2-CI-IB-MECA (12) in six steps with an overall yield of 5.6 %. Tritium was introduced in the penultimate step by heating N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-2-chloro-2',3'-di-O-acetyl-5'-(methoxycarbonyl)adenosine (17) with [3H]methylamine in methanol at 60 °C for 2 h. The specific activity of [3H]2-CI-IB-MECA was 29 Ci/mmol with a radiochemical purity of 99%.
Adenosine Derivatives; Radioligands; Adenosine Receptors; Tritium; Nucleosides
The affinity and efficacy at four subtypes (A1, A2A, A2B and A3) of human adenosine receptors (ARs) of a wide range of 2-substituted adenosine derivatives were evaluated using radioligand binding assays and a cyclic AMP functional assay in intact CHO cells stably expressing these receptors. Similar to previous studies of the N6-position, several 2-substituents were found to be critical structural determinants for the A3AR activation. The following adenosine 2-ethers were moderately potent partial agonists (Ki, nM): benzyl (117), 3-chlorobenzyl (72), 2-(3-chlorophenyl)ethyl (41), and 2-(2-naphthyl)ethyl (130). The following adenosine 2-ethers were A3AR antagonists: 2,2-diphenylethyl, 2-(2-norbornan)ethyl, R- and S-2-phenylbutyl, and 2-(2-chlorophenyl)ethyl. 2-(S-2-Phenylbutyloxy)a-denosine as an A3AR antagonist right-shifted the concentration–response curve for the inhibition by NECA of cyclic AMP accumulation with a KB value of 212 nM, which is similar to its binding affinity (Ki = 175 nM). These 2-substituted adenosine derivatives were generally less potent at the A1AR in comparison to the A3AR, but fully efficacious, with binding Ki values over 100 nM. The 2-phenylethyl moiety resulted in higher A3AR affinity (Ki in nM) when linked to the 2-position of adenosine through an ether group (54), than when linked through an amine (310) or thioether (1960). 2-[2-(l-Naphthyl)ethyloxy]adenosine (Ki = 3.8 nM) was found to be the most potent and selective (>50-fold) A2A agonist in this series. Mixed A2A/A3AR agonists have been identified. Interestingly, although most of these compounds were extremely weak at the A2BAR, 2-[2-(2-naphthyl)ethyloxy]adenosine (EC50 = 1.4 µM) and 2-[2-(2-thienyl)-ethyloxy]adenosine (EC50 = 1.8 (M) were found to be relatively potent A2B agonists, although less potent than NECA (EC50 = 140 nM).
Adenosine receptors; Purines; Nucleosides; GPCR; Efficacy; Structure–activity relationships
A series of 2-phenylethynyladenosine (PEAdo) derivatives substituted in the N6- and 4′position was synthesised and the new derivatives were tested at the four human adenosine receptors stably transfected into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, using radioligand binding studies (A1, A2A, A3) or adenylyl cyclase activity assay (A2B). Binding studies showed that the presence of a phenyl ethynyl group in the 2 position of adenosine favoured the interaction with A3 receptors, resulting in compounds endowed with high affinity and selectivity for the A3 subtype. Additional substitution of the N6- and 4′position increases both A3 affinity and selectivity. The results showed that the new compounds have a good affinity for the A3 receptor and in particular, the N6-methoxy-2-phenylethynyl-5′N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine, with a Ki at A3 of 1.9 nM and a selectivity A1/A3 and A2A/A3 of 4,800- and 8,600-fold, respectively. Therefore, it is one of the most potent and selective agonists at the human A3 adenosine receptor subtype reported so far. Furthermore, functional assays of inhibition of 10 μM forskolin-stimulated cAMP production via the adenosine A3 receptor revealed that the new trisubstituted adenosine derivatives behave as full agonist of this receptor subtype. Docking analysis of these compounds was performed at a homology model of the human A3 receptor based on the bovine rhodopsin crystal structure as template, and the results are in accordance with the biological data.
adenosine; adenosine agonists; adenosine receptors; agonists; G-protein-coupled receptors; homology modelling; signal transduction
We studied the structural determinants of binding affinity and efficacy of adenosine receptor (AR) agonists. Substituents at the 2-position of adenosine were combined with N6-substitutions known to enhance human A3AR affinity. Selectivity of binding of the analogues and their functional effects on cAMP production were studied using recombinant human A1, A2A, A2B, and A3ARs. Mainly sterically small substituents at the 2-position modulated both the affinity and intrinsic efficacy at all subtypes. The 2-cyano group decreased hA3AR affinity and efficacy in the cases of N6-(3-iodobenzyl) and N6-(trans-2-phenyl-1-cyclopropyl), for which a full A3AR agonist was converted into a selective antagonist; the 2-cyano-N6-methyl analogue was a full A3AR agonist. The combination of N6-benzyl and various 2-substitutions (chloro, trifluoromethyl, and cyano) resulted in reduced efficacy at the A1AR. The environment surrounding the 2-position within the putative A3AR binding site was explored using rhodopsin-based homology modeling and ligand docking.
Purines; Cyclic AMP; Binding; Antagonists; Agonists; GPCR; Molecular modeling
The activation of the human A3 adenosine receptor (AR) by a wide range of N6-substituted adenosine derivatives was studied in intact CHO cells stably expressing this receptor. Selectivity of binding at rat and human ARs was also determined. Among N6-alkyl substitutions, small N6-alkyl groups were associated with selectivity for human A3ARs vs. rat A3ARs, and multiple points of branching were associated with decreased hA3AR efficacy. N6-Cycloalkyl-substituted adenosines were full (≤5 carbons) or partial (≥6 carbons) hA3AR agonists. N6-(endo-Norbornyl)adenosine 13 was the most selective for both rat and human A1ARs. Numerous N6-arylmethyl analogues, including substituted benzyl, tended to be more potent in binding to A1 and A3 vs. A2AARs (with variable degrees of partial to full A3AR agonisms). A chloro substituent decreased the efficacy depending on its position on the benzyl ring. The A3AR affinity and efficacy of N6-arylethyl adenosines depended highly on stereochemistry, steric bulk, and ring constraints. Stereoselectivity of binding was demonstrated for N6-(R-1-phenylethyl)adenosine vs. N6-(S-1-phenylethyl)adenosine, as well as for the N6-(1-phenyl-2-pentyl)adenosine, at the rat, but not human A3AR. Interestingly, DPMA, a potent agonist for the A2AAR (Ki = 4 nM), was demonstrated to be a moderately potent antagonist for the human A3AR (Ki = 106 nM). N6-[(1S,2R)-2-Phenyl-1-cyclopropyl]adenosine 48 was 1100-fold more potent in binding to human (Ki = 0.63 nM) than rat A3ARs. Dual acting A1/A3 agonists (N6-3-chlorobenzyl- 29, N6-(S-1-phenylethyl)- 39, and 2-chloro-N6-(R-phenylisopropyl)adenosine 53) might be useful for cardioprotection.
Purines; Nucleosides; GPCR; Cyclic AMP; Receptor binding; Structure–activity relationships
A variety of non-xanthine heterocycles were found to be antagonists of binding of [3H]phenylisopropyladenosine to rat brain A1-adenosine receptors and of activation of adenylate cyclase via interaction of N-ethylcarboxarnidoadenosine with A2-adenosine receptors in human platelet and rat pheochromocytoma cell membranes. The pyrazolopyridines tracazolate, cartazolate and etazolate were several fold more potent than theophylline at both A1- and A2-adenosine receptors. The pyrazolopyridines, however, were still many fold less potent than 8-phenyltheophylline and other 8-phenyl-1,3-dialkylxanthines. A structurally related N6-substituted 9-methyladenine was also a potent adenosine antagonist with selectivity for A1 receptors. None of several aryl-substituted heterocycles, including a thiazolopyrimidine, imidazopyridines, benzimidazoles, a pyrazoloquinoline, a mesoionic xanthine analog and a triazolopyridazine exhibited the high potency typical of 8-phenyl-1,3-dialkylxanthines. A furyl-substituted triazoloquinazoline was very potent at both A1 and A2 receptors. A pteridin-2,4-dione, 1,3-dipropyllumazine, was somewhat less potent than theophylline at A1- and A2-adenosine receptors, whereas 1,3-dimethyllumazine was much less potent. A benzopteridin-2,4-dione, alloxazine, was somewhat more potent than theophylline. Other heterocycles with antagonist activity were the dibenzazepine carbamazepine and β-carboline-3-ethyl carboxylate. The phenylimidazoline clonidine had no activity, whereas a related dihydroxyphenylimidazoline was a weak non-competitive adenosine antagonist.
On the basis of a bioisosteric rationale, 4′-thionucleoside analogues of IB-MECA, which is a potent and selective A3 adenosine receptor agonist (AR), were synthesized from d-gulonic acid γ-lactone. The 4′-thio analogue (5h) of IB-MECA showed extremely high binding affinity (Ki = 0.25 nM) at the human A3AR and was more potent than IB-MECA (Ki = 1.4 nM). Bulky substituents at the 5′-uronamide position, such as cyclohexyl and 2- methylbenzyl, in this series of 2-H nucleoside derivatives were tolerated in A3AR binding, although small alkyl analogues were more potent.
A3 adenosine receptor; 4’-thionucleosides; agonist; binding affinity
A variety of adenosine analogs activate phosphoinositide breakdown in a rat RBL-2H3 mast cell line. It is presumed that an A3-adenosine receptor is involved, since the phosphoinositide response is insensitive to xanthines. However, the very potent A3- receptor agonist 2-chloro-N6-iodobenzyl-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine (2-CI-IBMECA) with an EC50 of 4.1 µM is about twofold less potent (and less efficacious) than N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) with an EC50 of 2.1 µM. The other agents consisting of N6-p-aminophenylethyladenosine (APNEA), N6-iodobenzylMECA (IB-MECA), N6-R- phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA), 2-chloroadenosine, N6-benzyladenosine, N6- cyclohexyladenosine (CHA), N6-cyclohexylNECA (CHNECA), 2-(p- carboxyethylphenyl-ethylaminoNECA (CGS 21680), 1,3-dibutylxanthine 7-riboside-5′-N-methylcarboxamide (DBXRM), adenosine, and 8-bromoadenosine are all nearly equipotent with EC50 values of 5.5-13.9 µM. The rank order of potencies of the analogs in causing an elevation of intracellular calcium is quite different. The potent A3 receptor agonists 2-CI-IBMECA and IB-MECA with EC50 values of 0.07 and 0.11 µM, respectively, are about fourfold more potent than N6-cyclohexylNECA and about 15-fold more potent than NECA. The other analogs are comparable or somewhat less potent than NECA, some are less efficacious, and 8-bromoadenosine is inactive. The results suggest that stimulation of phosphoinositide breakdown by adenosine analogs in RBL-2H3 cells as measured by IP1 accumulation is not predictive of IP3-mediated elevations of intracellular calcium. Rank order of potency for the calcium response is consonant with intermediacy of A3-adenosine receptors, while the former, as measured by [3H]IP1-formation, probably reflects contributions from both an A3-mediated response and some other mechanism. Combinations of subthreshold concentrations of 2-CI-IBMECA with either the A1-selective agonist CHA or the A2A-selective agonist CGS 21680 caused a marked stimulation of phosphoinositide breakdown, providing further evidence for dual mechanisms. The selective A3-adenosine receptor antagonist 3,6-dichloro-2′-(isopropyloxy)-4′-methylflavone (MRS 1067) inhibits 2-CI-IBMECA- and NECA-elicited elevation of calcium levels, and had differential effects on phosphoinositide breakdown, blocking [3H]IP3 accumulation and either blocking (NECA) or having no effect (2-CI-IBMECA) on [3H]IP1 accumulation.
adenosine receptors; phosphoinositides; calcium; xanthines
The highly selective agonists of the A3 adenosine receptor (AR), Cl-IB-MECA (2-chloro-N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-5′-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine) and its 4′-thio analogue, were successfully converted into selective antagonists simply by appending a second N-methyl group on the 5′-uronamide position. The 2-chloro-5′-(N,N-dimethyl)uronamido analogues bound to, but did not activate the human A3AR, with Ki values of 29 nM (4′-O) and 15 (4′-S) nM, showing >100-fold selectivity over A1, A2A, and A2BARs. Competitive antagonism was demonstrated by Schild analysis. The 2-(dimethylamino)-5′-(N,N-dimethyl)uronamido substitution also retained A3AR selectivity but lowered affinity.
nucleoside; G protein-coupled receptor; adenylyl cyclase; molecular modeling; radioligand binding; AR, adenosine receptor; CGS21680, 2-[p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino]-5′-N-ethylcarboxamido-adenosine; CHO, Chinese hamster ovary; Cl-IB-MECA, 2-chloro-N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-5′-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine; CPA, N6-cyclopentyladenosine; DMEM, Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium; I-AB-MECA, N6-(4-amino-3-iodobenzyl)-5′-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine; NECA, 5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine; PIA, N6-(phenylisopropyl)adenosine; PTLC, preparative thin layer chromatography
A series of functionalized congeners of adenosine based on N6-phenyladenosine, a potent A1-adenosine receptor agonist, was synthesized. Derivatives of the various congeners should be useful as receptor and histochemical probes and for the preparation of radioligands and affinity columns or as targeted drugs. N6-[4-(Carboxymethyl)phenyl]adenosine served as the starting point for synthesis of the methyl ester, the methyl amide, the ethyl glycinate, and various substituted anilides. One of the latter, N6-[4-[[[4-(carbomethoxymethyl)anilino]carbonyl]methyl]phenyl]adenosine, served as the starting point for the synthesis of another series of congeners including the methyl amide, the hydrazide, and the aminoethyl amide. The terminal amino function of the last congener was acylated to provide further analogues. The various congeners were potent competitive antagonists of binding of N6-[3H]cyclohexyladenosine to A1-adenosine receptors in rat cerebral cortical membranes. The affinity of the congener for the A1 receptor was highly dependent on the nature of the spacer group and the terminal moiety with Ki values ranging 1–100 nM. A biotinylated analogue had a Ki value of 11 nM. A conjugate derived from the Bolton–Hunter reagent had a Ki value of 4.5 nM. The most potent congener contained a terminal [(aminoethyl)amino]carbonyl function and had a Ki value of less than 1 nM.
This study continues our earlier findings on the hematopoiesis-modulating effects of adenosine A1 and A3 receptor agonists that were performed on committed hematopoietic progenitor and precursor cell populations. In the earlier experiments, N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), an adenosine A1 receptor agonist, was found to inhibit proliferation in the above-mentioned hematopoietic cell systems, whereas N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5′-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA), an adenosine A3 receptor agonist, was found to stimulate it. The topic of this study was to evaluate the possibility that the above-mentioned adenosine receptor agonists modulate the behavior of early hematopoietic progenitor cells and hematopoietic stem cells. Flow cytometric analysis of hematopoietic stem cells in mice was employed, as well as a functional test of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). These techniques enabled us to study the effect of the agonists on both short-term repopulating ability and long-term repopulating ability, representing multipotent progenitors and hematopoietic stem cells, respectively. In a series of studies, we did not find any significant effect of adenosine agonists on HSPCs in terms of their numbers, proliferation, or functional activity. Thus, it can be concluded that CPA and IB-MECA do not significantly influence the primitive hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell pool and that the hematopoiesis-modulating action of these adenosine receptor agonists is restricted to more mature compartments of hematopoietic progenitor and precursor cells.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11302-012-9340-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Adenosine receptor agonists; CPA; IB-MECA; Hematopoietic stem cells; Long-term repopulating ability
Pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine derivatives such as SCH 442416 display high affinity and selectivity as antagonists for the human A2A adenosine receptor (AR). We extended ether-linked chain substituents at the p-position of the phenyl group using optimized O-alkylation. The conjugates included an ester, carboxylic acid and amines (for amide condensation), an alkyne (for click chemistry), a fluoropropyl group (for 18F incorporation), and fluorophore reporter groups (e.g. BODIPY conjugate 14, Ki 15 nM). The potent and A2AAR-selective N-aminoethylacetamide 7 and N-[2-(2-aminoethyl)-aminoethyl]acetamide 8 congeners were coupled to polyamidoamine (PAMAM) G3.5 dendrimers, and the multivalent conjugates displayed high A2AAR affinity. Theoretical docking of an AlexaFluor conjugate to the receptor X-ray structure highlighted the key interactions between the heterocyclic core and the binding pocket of the A2AAR as well as the distal anchoring of the fluorophore. In conclusion, we have synthesized a family of high affinity functionalized congeners as pharmacological probes for studying the A2AAR.
SCH 442416; G protein-coupled receptor; fluorescence; dendrimer; radioligand binding
(N)-Methanocarba nucleosides containing bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane replacement of the ribose ring previously demonstrated selectivity as A3 adenosine receptor (AR) agonists (5′-uronamides) or antagonists (5′-truncated). Here, these two series were modified in parallel at the adenine C2 position. N6-3-Chlorobenzyl-5′-N-methyluronamides derivatives with functionalized 2-alkynyl chains of varying length terminating in a reactive carboxylate, ester, or amine group were full, potent human A3AR agonists. Flexibility of chain substitution allowed the conjugation with a fluorescent cyanine dye (Cy5) and biotin, resulting in binding Ki values of 17 and 36 nM, respectively. The distal end of the chain was predicted by homology modeling to bind at the A3AR extracellular regions. Corresponding l-nucleosides were nearly inactive in AR binding. In the 5′-truncated nucleoside series, 2-Cl analogues were more potent at A3AR than 2-H and 2-F, functional efficacy in adenylate cyclase inhibition varied, and introduction of a 2-alkynyl chain greatly reduced affinity. SAR parallels between the two series lost stringency at distal positions. The most potent and selective novel compounds were amine congener 15 (Ki = 2.1 nM) and truncated partial agonist 22 (Ki = 4.9 nM).