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1.  Structure–Activity Relationships and Molecular Modeling of 3,5-Diacyl-2,4-dialkylpyridine Derivatives as Selective A3 Adenosine Receptor Antagonists 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  1998;41(17):3186-3201.
The structure-activity relationships of 6-phenyl-1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives as selective antagonists at human A3 adenosine receptors have been explored (Jiang et al. J. Med. Chem. 1997, 39, 4667-4675). In the present study, related pyridine derivatives have been synthesized and tested for affinity at adenosine receptors in radioligand binding assays. Ki values in the nanomolar range were observed for certain 3,5-diacyl-2,4-dialkyl-6-phenylpyridine derivatives in displacement of [125I]AB-MECA (N6-(4-amino-3-iodobenzyl)-5′-N-methylcarbamoyladenosine) at recombinant human A3 adenosine receptors. Selectivity for A3 adenosine receptors was determined vs radioligand binding at rat brain A1 and A2A receptors. Structure–activity relationships at various positions of the pyridine ring (the 3- and 5-acyl substituents and the 2- and 4-alkyl substituents) were probed. A 4-phenylethynyl group did not enhance A3 selectivity of pyridine derivatives, as it did for the 4-substituted dihydropyridines. At the 2-and 4-positions ethyl was favored over methyl. Also, unlike the dihydropyridines, a thioester group at the 3-position was favored over an ester for affinity at A3 adenosine receptors, and a 5-position benzyl ester decreased affinity. Small cycloalkyl groups at the 6-position of 4-phenylethynyl-1,4-dihydropyridines were favorable for high affinity at human A3 adenosine receptors, while in the pyridine series a 6-cyclopentyl group decreased affinity. 5-Ethyl 2,4-diethyl-3-(ethylsulfanylcarbonyl)-6-phenylpyridine-5-carboxylate, 38, was highly potent at human A3 receptors, with a Ki value of 20 nM. A 4-propyl derivative, 39b, was selective and highly potent at both human and rat A3 receptors, with Ki values of 18.9 and 113 nM, respectively. A 6-(3-chlorophenyl) derivative, 44, displayed a Ki value of 7.94 nM at human A3 receptors and selectivity of 5200-fold. Molecular modeling, based on the steric and electrostatic alignment (SEAL) method, defined common pharmacophore elements for pyridine and dihydropyridine structures, e.g., the two ester groups and the 6-phenyl group. Moreover, a relationship between affinity and hydrophobicity was found for the pyridines.
PMCID: PMC3474377  PMID: 9703464
2.  Structure–Activity Relationships of N6-Benzyladenosine-5′-uronamides as A3-Selective Adenosine Agonists† 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  1994;37(5):636-646.
Adenosine analogues modified at the 5′-position as uronamides and/or as N6-benzyl derivatives were synthesized. These derivatives were examined for affinity in radioligand binding assays at the newly discovered rat brain A3 adenosine receptor and at rat brain A1 and A2a receptors. 5′-Uronamide substituents favored A3 selectivity in the order N-methyl > N-ethyl ∞ unsubstituted carboxamide > N-cyclopropyl. 5′-(N-Methylcarboxamido)-N6-benzyladenosine was 37–56-fold more selective for A3 receptors. Potency at A3 receptors was enhanced upon substitution of the benzyl substituent with nitro and other groups. 5′-N-Methyluronamides and N6-(3-substituted-benzyl)adenosines are optimal for potency and selectivity at A3 receptors. A series of 3-(halobenzyl)-5′-N-ethyluronamide derivatives showed the order of potency at A1 and A2a receptors of I ~ Br > Cl > F. At A3 receptors the 3-F derivative was weaker than the other halo derivatives. 5′-N-Methyl-N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine displayed a Ki value of 1.1 nM at A3 receptors and selectivity versus A1 and A2a receptors of 50-fold. A series of methoxybenzyl derivatives showed that a 4-methoxy group best favored A3 selectivity. A 4-sulfobenzyl derivative was a specific ligand at A3 receptors of moderate potency. An aryl amino derivative was prepared as a probe for radioiodination and receptor cross-linking.
PMCID: PMC4474279  PMID: 8126704
3.  Xanthine Functionalized Congeners as Potent Ligands at A2-Adenosine Receptors†,‡ 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  1987;30(1):211-214.
Amide derivatives of a carboxylic acid congener of 1,3-dialkylxanthine, having a 4-[(carboxymethyl)oxy]phenyl substituent at the 8-position, have been synthesized in order to identify potent antagonists at A2-adenosine receptors stimulatory to adenylate cyclase in platelets. Distal structural features of amide-linked chains and the size of the 1,3-dialkyl groups have been varied. 1,3-Diethyl groups, more than 1,3-dimethyl or 1,3-dipropyl groups, favor A2 potency, even in the presence of extended chains attached at the 8-(p-substituted-phenyl) position. Polar groups, such as amines, on the chain simultaneously enhance water solubility and A2 potency. Among the most potent A2 ligands are an amine congener, 8-[4-[[[[(2-aminoethyl)amino]carbonyl]methyl]oxy]phenyl]-1,3-diethylxanthine, and its D-lysyl conjugate, which have KB values of 21 and 23 nM, respectively, for the antagonism of N-ethyl-adenosine-5′-uronamide-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in human platelet membranes. Strategies for the selection and tritiation of new radioligands for use in competitive binding assays at A2-adenosine receptors have been considered.
PMCID: PMC3433718  PMID: 3806597
4.  Structure–Activity Relationships of 9-Alkyladenine and Ribose-Modified Adenosine Derivatives at Rat A3 Adenosine Receptors† 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  1995;38(10):1720-1735.
9-Alkyladenine derivatives and ribose-modified N6-benzyladenosine derivatives were synthesized in an effort to identify selective ligands for the rat A3 adenosine receptor and leads for the development of antagonists. The derivatives contained structural features previously determined to be important for A3 selectivity in adenosine derivatives, such as an N6-(3-iodobenzyl) moiety, and were further substituted at the 2-position with halo, amino, or thio groups. Affinity was determined in radioligand binding assays at rat brain A3 receptors stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, using [125I]AB-MECA (N6-(4-amino-3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5′-(N-methyluronamide)), and at rat brain A1 and A2a receptors using [3H]-N6-PIA ((R)-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine) and [3H]CGS 21680 (2-[[[4-(2-carboxyethyl)-phenyl]ethyl]amino]-5′-(N-ethylcarbamoyl)adenosine), respectively. A series of N6-(3-iodobenzyl) 2-amino derivatives indicated that a small 2-alkylamino group, e.g., methylamino, was favored at A3 receptors. N6-(3-Iodobenzyl)-9-methyl-2-(methylthio)adenine was 61-fold more potent than the corresponding 2-methoxy ether at A3 receptors and of comparable affinity at A1 and A2a receptors, resulting in a 3–6-fold selectivity for A3 receptors. A pair of chiral N6-(3-iodobenzyl) 9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) derivatives showed stereoselectivity, with the R-enantiomer favored at A3 receptors by 5.7-fold. 2-Chloro-9-(β-d-erythrofuranosyl)-N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenine had a Ki value at A3 receptors of 0.28 µM. 2-Chloro-9-[2-amino-2,3-dideoxy-β-d-5-(methylcarbamoyl)-arabinofuranosyl]-N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenine was moderately selective for A1 and A3 vs A2a receptors. A 3′-deoxy analogue of a highly A3-selective adenosine derivative retained selectivity in binding and was a full agonist in the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase mediated via cloned rat A3 receptors expressed in CHO cells. The 3′-OH and 4′-CH2OH groups of adenosine are not required for activation at A3 receptors. A number of 2′,3′-dideoxyadenosines and 9-acyclic-substituted adenines appear to inhibit adenylyl cyclase at the allosteric “P” site.
PMCID: PMC3445626  PMID: 7752196
5.  A Binding Site Model and Structure-Activity Relationships for the Rat A3 Adenosine Receptor 
Molecular pharmacology  1994;45(6):1101-1111.
A novel adenosine receptor, the A3 receptor, has recently been cloned. We have systematically investigated the hitherto largely unexplored structure-activity relationships (SARs) for binding at A3 receptors, using 125I-N6-2-(4-aminophenyl)ethyladenosine as a radioligand and membranes from Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with the rat A3-cDNA. As is the case for A1 and A2a, receptors, substitutions at the N6 and 5′ positions of adenosine, the prototypic agonist ligand, may yield fairly potent compounds. However, the highest affinity and A3 selectivity is found for N6,5′-disubstituted compounds, in contrast to A1 and A2a receptors. Thus, N6-benzyladenosine-5′-N-ethylcarboxamide is highly potent (Ki, 6.8 nM) and moderately selective (13- and 14-fold versus A1 and A2a). The N6 region of the A3 receptor also appears to tolerate hydrophilic substitutions, in sharp contrast to the other subtypes. Potencies of N6,5′-disubstituted compounds in inhibition of adenylate cyclase via A3 receptors parallel their high affinity in the binding assay. None of the typical xanthine or nonxanthine (A1/A2) antagonists tested show any appreciable affinity for rat A3 receptors. 1,3-Dialkylxanthines did not antagonize the A3 agonist-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase. A His residue in helix 6 that is absent in A3 receptors but present in A1/A2 receptors may be causal in this respect. In a molecular model for the rat A3 receptor, this mutation, together with an increased bulkiness of residues surrounding the ligand, make antagonist binding unfavorable when compared with a previously developed A1 receptor model. Second, this A3 receptor model predicted similarities with A1 and A2 receptors in the binding requirements for the ribose moiety and that xanthine-7-ribosides would bind to rat A3 receptors. This hypothesis was supported experimentally by the moderate affinity (Ki 6 μM) of 7-riboside of 1,3-dibutylxanthine, which appears to be a partial agonist at rat A3 receptors. The model presented here, which is consistent with the detailed SAR found in this study, may serve to suggest future chemical modification, site-directed mutagenesis, and SAR studies to further define essential characteristics of the ligand-receptor interaction and to develop even more potent and selective A3 receptor ligands.
PMCID: PMC3479652  PMID: 8022403
6.  Sulfur-Containing 1,3-Dialkylxanthine Derivatives as Selective Antagonists at A1-Adenosine Receptors 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  1989;32(8):1873-1879.
Sulfur-containing analogues of 8-substituted xanthines were prepared in an effort to increase selectivity or potency as antagonists at adenosine receptors. Either cyclopentyl or various aryl substituents were utilized at the 8-position, because of the association of these groups with high potency at A1-adenosine receptors. Sulfur was incorporated on the purine ring at positions 2 and/or 6, in the 8-position substituent in the form of 2- or 3-thienyl groups, or via thienyl groups separated from an 8-aryl substituent through an amide-containing chain. The feasibility of using the thienyl group as a prosthetic group for selective iodination via its Hg2+ derivative was explored. Receptor selectivity was determined in binding assays using membrane homogenates from rat cortex [[3H]-N6-(phenylisopropyl) adenosine as radioligand] or striatum [[3H]-5′-(N-ethylcarbamoyl)adenosine as radioligand] for A1- and A2-adenosine receptors, respectively. Generally, 2-thio-8-cycloalkylxanthines were at least as A1 selective as the corresponding oxygen analogue. 2-Thio-8-aryl derivatives tended to be more potent at A2 receptors than the oxygen analogue. 8-[4-[(Carboxymethyl)oxy]phenyl]-1,3-dipropyl-2-thioxanthine ethyl ester was >740-fold A1 selective.
PMCID: PMC3479653  PMID: 2754711
7.  2-Substitution of N6-Benzyladenosine-5′-uronamides Enhances Selectivity for A3 Adenosine Receptors 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  1994;37(21):3614-3621.
Adenosine derivatives bearing an N6-(3-iodobenzyl) group, reported to enhance the affinity of adenosine-5′-uronamide analogues as agonists at A3 adenosine receptors (J. Med. Chem. 1994, 37, 636–646), were synthesized starting from methyl β-d-ribofuranoside in 10 steps. Binding affinities at A1 and A2a receptors in rat brain membranes and at cloned rat A3 receptors from stably transfected CHO cells were compared. N6-(3-Iodobenzyl)adenosine was 2-fold selective for A3 vs A1 or A2a receptors; thus it is the first monosubstituted adenosine analogue having any A3 selectivity. The effects of 2-substitution in combination with modifications at the N6- and 5′-positions were explored. 2-Chloro-N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine had a Ki value of 1.4 nM and moderate selectivity for A3 receptors. 2-Chloro-N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5′-N-methyluronamide, which displayed a Ki value of 0.33 nM, was selective for A3 vs A1 and A2a receptors by 2500- and 1400-fold, respectively. It was 46,000-fold selective for A3 receptors vs the Na+-independent adenosine transporter, as indicated in displacement of [3H]N6-(4-nitrobenzyl)-thioinosine binding in rat brain membranes. In a functional assay in CHO cells, it inhibited adenylate cyclase via rat A3 receptors with an IC50 of 67 nM. 2-(Methylthio)-N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5′-N-methyluronamide and 2-(methylamino)-N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5′-N-methyluronamide were less potent, but nearly as selective for A3 receptors. Thus, 2-substitution (both small and sterically bulky) is well-tolerated at A3 receptors, and its A3 affinity-enhancing effects are additive with effects of uronamides at the 5′-position and a 3-iodobenzyl group at the N6-position.
PMCID: PMC3468333  PMID: 7932588
Biochemical pharmacology  1988;37(4):655-664.
A variety of non-xanthine heterocycles were found to be antagonists of binding of [3H]phenylisopropyladenosine to rat brain A1-adenosine receptors and of activation of adenylate cyclase via interaction of N-ethylcarboxarnidoadenosine with A2-adenosine receptors in human platelet and rat pheochromocytoma cell membranes. The pyrazolopyridines tracazolate, cartazolate and etazolate were several fold more potent than theophylline at both A1- and A2-adenosine receptors. The pyrazolopyridines, however, were still many fold less potent than 8-phenyltheophylline and other 8-phenyl-1,3-dialkylxanthines. A structurally related N6-substituted 9-methyladenine was also a potent adenosine antagonist with selectivity for A1 receptors. None of several aryl-substituted heterocycles, including a thiazolopyrimidine, imidazopyridines, benzimidazoles, a pyrazoloquinoline, a mesoionic xanthine analog and a triazolopyridazine exhibited the high potency typical of 8-phenyl-1,3-dialkylxanthines. A furyl-substituted triazoloquinazoline was very potent at both A1 and A2 receptors. A pteridin-2,4-dione, 1,3-dipropyllumazine, was somewhat less potent than theophylline at A1- and A2-adenosine receptors, whereas 1,3-dimethyllumazine was much less potent. A benzopteridin-2,4-dione, alloxazine, was somewhat more potent than theophylline. Other heterocycles with antagonist activity were the dibenzazepine carbamazepine and β-carboline-3-ethyl carboxylate. The phenylimidazoline clonidine had no activity, whereas a related dihydroxyphenylimidazoline was a weak non-competitive adenosine antagonist.
PMCID: PMC3445624  PMID: 2829919
Biochemical pharmacology  1988;37(19):3653-3661.
Two classes of 8-substituted analogs of theophylline (1,3-dialkylxanthines), having 8-cycloalkyl, 8-cycloalkenyl or 8-(para-substituted aryl) groups, were shown to be potent and, in some cases, receptor subtype selective antagonists at A1- and A2-adenosine receptors. New analogs based on a functionalized cogener approach and on classical medicinal chemical approaches were prepared. Affinity at A1-adenosine receptors was evaluated by inhibition of binding of [3H)N6-phenylisopropyladenosine to rat brain membranes. Activity at A2A-adenosine receptors was measured by the reversal of 5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA)-stimulated production of cyclic AMP in membranes from rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Cycloalkenyl analogs containing rigid olefinic bonds differed greatly in potency from the saturated analogs. The selectivity of phenylsulfonamide analogs depended on distal structural features. Novel xanthine analogs include diamino-, thiol-, aldehyde, and halogen-substituted derivatives, peptide conjugates of 8-[4-[2-aminoethylaminocarbonylmethyloxy]phenyl]1,3-dipropylxanthine (XAC), and a hydroxyethylamide analog of XAC.
PMCID: PMC3469272  PMID: 3178879
10.  Search for New Purine- and Ribose-Modified Adenosine Analogues as Selective Agonists and Antagonists at Adenosine Receptors† 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  1995;38(7):1174-1188.
The binding affinities at rat A1, A2a, and A3 adenosine receptors of a wide range of derivatives of adenosine have been determined. Sites of modification include the purine moiety (1-, 3-, and 7-deaza; halo, alkyne, and amino substitutions at the 2- and 8-positions; and N6-CH2-ring, -hydrazino, and -hydroxylamino) and the ribose moiety (2′-, 3′-, and 5′-deoxy; 2′- and 3′-O-methyl; 2′-deoxy 2′-fluoro; 6′-thio; 5′-uronamide; carbocyclic; 4′- or 3′-methyl; and inversion of configuration). (−)- and (+)-5′-Noraristeromycin were 48- and 21-fold selective, respectively, for A2a vs A1 receptors. 2-Chloro-6′-thioadenosine displayed a Ki value of 20 nM at A2a receptors (15-fold selective vs A1). 2-Chloroadenin-9-yl(β-L-2′-deoxy-6′-thiolyxofuranoside) displayed a Ki value of 8 μM at A1 receptors and appeared to be an antagonist, on the basis of the absence of a GTP-induced shift in binding vs a radiolabeled antagonist (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine). 2-Chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine and 2-chloroadenin-9-yl(β-D-6′-thioarabinoside) were putative partial agonists at A1 receptors, with Ki values of 7.4 and 5.4 μM, respectively. The A2a selective agonist 2-(1-hexynyl)-5′-(N-ethylcarbamoyl)adenosine displayed a Ki value of 26 nM at A3 receptors. The 4′-methyl substitution of adenosine was poorly tolerated, yet when combined with other favorable modifications, potency was restored. Thus, N6-benzyl-4′-methyladenosine-5′-(N-methyluronamide) displayed a Ki value of 604 nM at A3 receptors and was 103- and 88-fold selective vs A1 and A2a receptors, respectively. This compound was a full agonist in the A3-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase in transfected CHO cells. The carbocyclic analogue of N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5′-(N-methyluronamide) was 2-fold selective for A3 vs A1 receptors and was nearly inactive at A2a receptors.
PMCID: PMC3457658  PMID: 7707320
11.  Functionalized Congeners of 1,3-Dialkylxanthines: Preparation of Analogues with High Affinity for Adenosine Receptors 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  1985;28(9):1334-1340.
A series of functionalized congeners of 1,3-dialkylxanthines has been prepared as adenosine receptor antagonists. On the basis of the high potency of 8-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3-dialkylxanthines, the parent compounds were 8-[4-[(carboxymethyl)oxy]phenyl] derivatives of theophylline and 1,3-dipropylxanthine. A series of analogues including esters of ethanol and N-hydroxysuccinimide, amides, a hydrazide, an acylurea, and anilides were prepared. The potency in blocking A1-adenosine receptors (inhibition of binding of N6-[3H]cyclohexyladenosine to brain membranes) and A2-adenosine receptors (inhibition of 2-chloroadenosine-elicited accumulations of cyclic AMP in brain slices) was markedly affected by structural changes distal to the primary pharmacophore (8-phenyl-1,3-dialkylxanthine). Potencies in the dipropyl series at the A1 receptor ranged from K1 values of 1.2 nM for a congener with a terminal amidoethyleneamine moiety to a K1 value of 58 nM for the parent carboxylic acid to a K1 of 96 nM for the bulky ureido congener. Certain congeners were up to 145-fold more active at A1 receptors than at A2 receptors. Various derivatives of the congeners should be useful as receptor probes and for radioidodination, avidin binding, and preparation of affinity columns.
PMCID: PMC3468300  PMID: 2993622
12.  Species differences in brain adenosine A1 receptor pharmacology revealed by use of xanthine and pyrazolopyridine based antagonists 
British Journal of Pharmacology  1997;122(6):1202-1208.
The pharmacological profile of adenosine A1 receptors in human, guinea-pig, rat and mouse brain membranes was characterized in a radioligand binding assay by use of the receptor selective antagonist, [3H]-8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine ([3H]-DPCPX).The affinity of [3H]-DPCPX binding sites in rat cortical and hippocampal membranes was similar. Binding site affinity was higher in rat cortical membranes than in membranes prepared from guinea-pig cortex and hippocampus, mouse cortex and human cortex. pKD values (M) were 9.55, 9.44, 8.85, 8.94, 8.67, 9.39 and 8.67, respectively. The binding site density (Bmax) was lower in rat cortical membranes than in guinea-pig or human cortical membranes.The rank order of potency of seven adenosine receptor agonists was identical in each species. With the exception of 5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), agonist affinity was 3.5–26.2 fold higher in rat cortical membranes than in human and guinea-pig brain membranes; affinity in rat and mouse brain membranes was similar. While NECA exhibited 9.3 fold higher affinity in rat compared to human cortical membranes, affinity in other species was comparable. The stable GTP analogue, Gpp(NH)p (100 μM) reduced 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) affinity 7–13.9 fold, whereas the affinity of DPCPX was unaffected.The affinity of six xanthine-based adenosine receptor antagonists was 2.2–15.9 fold higher in rat cortical membranes compared with human or guinea-pig membranes. The rank order of potency was species-independent. In contrast, three pyrazolopyridine derivatives, (R)-1-[(E)-3-(2-phenylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-3-yl) acryloyl]-2-piperidine ethanol (FK453), (R)-1-[(E)-3-(2-phenylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-3-yl) acryloyl]-piperidin-2-yl acetic acid (FK352) and 6-oxo-3-(2-phenylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-3-yl)-1(6H)-pyridazinebutyric acid (FK838) exhibited similar affinity in human, guinea-pig, rat and mouse brain membranes. pKi values (M) for [3H]-DPCPX binding sites in human cortical membranes were 9.31, 7.52 and 7.92, respectively.Drug affinity for adenosine A2A receptors was determined in a [3H]-2-[4-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino]-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine ([3H]-CGS 21680) binding assay in rat striatal membranes. The pyrazolopyridine derivatives, FK453, FK838 and FK352 exhibited pKi values (M) of 5.90, 5.92 and 4.31, respectively, compared with pKi values of 9.31, 8.18 and 7.57 determined in the [3H]-DPCPX binding assay in rat cortical membranes. These novel pyrazolopyridine derivatives therefore represent high affinity, adenosine A1 receptor selective drugs that, in contrast to xanthine based antagonists, exhibit similar affinity for [3H]-DPCPX binding sites in human, rat, mouse and guinea-pig brain membranes.
PMCID: PMC1565029  PMID: 9401787
Adenosine receptors; [3H]-DPCPX; [3H]-CGS 21680; radioligand binding; FK453; brain
13.  Methanocarba Analogues of Purine Nucleosides as Potent and Selective Adenosine Receptor Agonists 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  2000;43(11):2196-2203.
Adenosine receptor agonists have cardioprotective, cerebroprotective, and antiinflammatory properties. We report that a carbocyclic modification of the ribose moiety incorporating ring constraints is a general approach for the design of A1 and A3 receptor agonists having favorable pharmacodynamic properties. While simple carbocyclic substitution of adenosine agonists greatly diminishes potency, methanocarba-adenosine analogues have now defined the role of sugar puckering in stabilizing the active adenosine receptor-bound conformation and thereby have allowed identification of a favored isomer. In such analogues a fused cyclopropane moiety constrains the pseudosugar ring of the nucleoside to either a Northern (N) or Southern (S) conformation, as defined in the pseudorotational cycle. In binding assays at A1, A2A, and A3 receptors, (N)-methanocarba-adenosine was of higher affinity than the (S)-analogue, particularly at the human A3 receptor (N/S affinity ratio of 150). (N)-Methanocarba analogues of various N6-substituted adenosine derivatives, including cyclopentyl and 3-iodobenzyl, in which the parent compounds are potent agonists at either A1 or A3 receptors, respectively, were synthesized. The N6-cyclopentyl derivatives were A1 receptor-selective and maintained high efficacy at recombinant human but not rat brain A1 receptors, as indicated by stimulation of binding of [35S]GTP-γ-S. The (N)-methanocarba-N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine and its 2-chloro derivative had Ki values of 4.1 and 2.2 nM at A3 receptors, respectively, and were highly selective partial agonists. Partial agonism combined with high functional potency at A3 receptors (EC50 < 1 nM) may produce tissue selectivity. In conclusion, as for P2Y1 receptors, at least three adenosine receptors favor the ribose (N)-conformation.
PMCID: PMC3471159  PMID: 10841798
14.  Functionalized Congeners of 1,4-Dihydropyridines as Antagonist Molecular Probes for A3 Adenosine Receptors 
Bioconjugate chemistry  1999;10(4):667-677.
4-Phenylethynyl-6-phenyl-1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives are selective antagonists at human A3 adenosine receptors, with Ki values in a radioligand binding assay vs [125I]AB-MECA [N6-(4-amino-3-iodobenzyl)-5′-N-methylcarbamoyl-adenosine] in the submicromolar range. In this study, functionalized congeners of 1,4-dihydropyridines were designed as chemically reactive adenosine A3 antagonists, for the purpose of synthesizing molecular probes for this receptor subtype. Selectivity of the new analogues for cloned human A3 adenosine receptors was determined in radioligand binding in comparison to binding at rat brain A1 and A2A receptors. Benzyl ester groups at the 3- and/or 5-positions and phenyl groups at the 2- and/or 6-positions were introduced as potential sites for chain attachment. Structure–activity analysis at A3 adenosine receptors indicated that 3,5-dibenzyl esters, but not 2,6-diphenyl groups, are tolerated in binding. Ring substitution of the 5-benzyl ester with a 4-fluorosulfonyl group provided enhanced A3 receptor affinity resulting in a Ki value of 2.42 nM; however, a long-chain derivative containing terminal amine functionalization at the 4-position of the 5-benzyl ester showed only moderate affinity. This sulfonyl fluoride derivative appeared to bind irreversibly to the human A3 receptor (1 h incubation at 100 nM resulting in the loss of 56% of the specific radioligand binding sites), while the binding of other potent dihydropyridines and other antagonists was generally reversible. At the 3-position of the dihydropyridine ring, an amine-functionalized chain attached at the 4-position of a benzyl ester provided higher A3 receptor affinity than the corresponding 5-position isomer. This amine congener was also used as an intermediate in the synthesis of a biotin conjugate, which bound to A3 receptors with a Ki value of 0.60 μM.
PMCID: PMC3446815  PMID: 10411465
A newly synthesized, chemically reactive adenosine derivative, N6-(3-isothiocyanatobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide, was found to bind selectively to A3 receptors. Ki values for this isothiocyanate derivative in competition binding at rat brain A1, A2a, and A3 receptors were 145, 272 and 10.0 nM, respectively. A preincubation with this derivative resulted in irreversible inhibition of radioligand binding at rat A3 receptors in membranes of transfected CHO cells or RBL-2H3 mast cells, but not at rat A1 or A2a receptors. The loss of binding sites for 0.1 nM [125I]N6-(4-aminobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide, a high affinity A3 receptor radioligand, in transfected CHO cell membranes was concentration-dependent with an IC50 of 50 nM. No change was observed in the Kd value of the remaining A3 receptor sites. The inhibition was also insensitive to theophylline (1 mM), consistent with the pharmacology of rat A3 receptors. Structurally similar adenosine analogues lacking the chemically reactive isothiocyanate group failed to irreversibly inhibit A3-binding.
PMCID: PMC3425636  PMID: 8074705
16.  Synthesis, biological activity and molecular modelling studies of tricyclic alkylimidazo-, pyrimido- and diazepinopurinediones 
Purinergic Signalling  2013;9(3):395-414.
Syntheses and biological activities of imidazo-, pyrimido- and diazepino[2,1-f]purinediones containing N-alkyl substituents (with straight, branched or unsaturated chains) are described. Tricyclic derivatives were synthesized by the cyclization of 8-bromo-substituted 7-(2-bromoethyl)-, 7-(3-chloropropyl)- or 7-(4-bromobutyl)-theophylline with primary amines under various conditions. Compound 22 with an ethenyl substituent was synthesized by dehydrohalogenation of 9-(2-bromoethyl)-1,3-dimethyltetrahydropyrimido[2,1-f]purinedione. The obtained derivatives (5–35) were initially evaluated for their affinity at rat A1 and A2A adenosine receptors (AR), showing moderate affinity for both adenosine receptor subtypes. The best ligands were diazepinopurinedione 28 (Ki = 0.28 μM) with fivefold A2A selectivity and the non-selective A1/A2A AR ligand pyrimidopurinedione 35 (Ki A1 = 0.28 μM and Ki A2A = 0.30 μM). The compounds were also evaluated for their affinity at human A1, A2A, A2B and A3 ARs. All of the obtained compounds were docked to the A2A AR X-ray structure in complex with the xanthine-based, potent adenosine receptor antagonist—XAC. The likely interactions of imidazo-, pyrimido- and diazepino[2,1-f]purinediones with the residues forming the A2A binding pocket were discussed. Furthermore, the new compounds were tested in vivo as anticonvulsants in maximal electroshock, subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (ScMet) and TOX tests in mice (i.p.). Pyrimidopurinediones showed anticonvulsant activity mainly in the ScMet test. The best derivative was compound 11, showing 100 % protection at a dose of 100 mg/kg without symptoms of neurotoxicity. Compounds 6, 7, 8 and 14 with short substituents showed neurotoxicity and caused death. In rat tests (p.o.), 9 was characterized by a high protection index (>13.3). AR affinity did not apparently correlate with the antiepileptic potency of the compounds.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11302-013-9358-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC3757144  PMID: 23543220
Tricyclic xanthine derivatives; Adenosine A1, A2A, A2B and A3 receptor affinity; Anticonvulsant activity; Molecular modelling studies
We recently reported that 2-substitution of N6-benzyladenosine-5'-uronamides greatly enhances selectivity of agonists for rat A3 adenosine receptors J. Med. Chem. 1994, 37, 3614–3621). Specifically, 2-Chloro-N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (2-CI-IB-MECA), which displayed a K1 value of 0.33 nM, is the most selective for A3 receptors yet reported with selectivity versus A1 and A2a receptors of 2500- and 1400-fold, respectively. In order to obtain pharmacological tools for the study of A3 adenosine receptors, two routes for radiolabeling of 2-CI-IB-MECA through incorporation of tritium at the 5'-methylamido group were compared. One route formed a 2',3'-protected nucleoside 5'-carboxylic acid (9), which was condensed with methylamine and deprotected. The more efficient synthesis started from D-ribose and provided 2-CI-IB-MECA (12) in six steps with an overall yield of 5.6 %. Tritium was introduced in the penultimate step by heating N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-2-chloro-2',3'-di-O-acetyl-5'-(methoxycarbonyl)adenosine (17) with [3H]methylamine in methanol at 60 °C for 2 h. The specific activity of [3H]2-CI-IB-MECA was 29 Ci/mmol with a radiochemical purity of 99%.
PMCID: PMC3572746  PMID: 23598401
Adenosine Derivatives; Radioligands; Adenosine Receptors; Tritium; Nucleosides
18.  Binding of the radioligand [3H]-SCH 58261, a new non-xanthine A2A adenosine receptor antagonist, to rat striatal membranes. 
British Journal of Pharmacology  1996;117(7):1381-1386.
1. The present study describes the binding to rat striatal A2A adenosine receptors of the new potent and selective antagonist radioligand, [3H]-5-amino-7-(2-phenylethyl)-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazol o [1,5-c] pyrimidine, [3H]-SCH 58261. 2. [3H]-SCH 58261 specific binding to rat striatal membranes ( > 90%) was saturable, reversible and dependent upon protein concentration. Saturation experiments revealed that [3H]-SCH 58261 labelled a single class of recognition sites with high affinity (Kd = 0.70 nM) and limited capacity (apparent Bmax = 971 fmol mg-1 of protein). The presence of 100 microM GTP in the incubation mixture did not modify [3H]-SCH 58261 binding parameters. 3. Competition experiments showed that [3H]-SCH 58261 binding is consistent with the labelling of A2A striatal receptors. Adenosine receptor agonists competed with the binding of 0.2 nM [3H]-SCH 58261 with the following order of potency: 2-hexynyl-5'-N-ethyl carboxamidoadenosine (2HE-NECA) > 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) > 2-[4-(2-carboxyethyl)-phenethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosi ne (CGS 21680) > 2-phenylaminoadenosine (CV 1808) > R-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA) > N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA) = 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) > S-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine (S-PIA). 4. Adenosine antagonists inhibited [3H]-SCH 58261 binding with the following order: 5-amino-9-chloro-2-(2-furyl)-[1,2,4]-triazolo[1,5-c] quinazoline (CGS 15943) > 5-amino-8-(4-fluorobenzyl)-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo [4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo [1,5-c] pyrimidine (8FB-PTP) = SCH 58261 > xanthine amine congener (XAC) = (E,18%-Z,82%)7-methyl-8-(3,4-dimethoxystyryl)-1,3-dipropylxanthine (KF 17837S) > 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) > or = 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT). 5. The Ki values for adenosine antagonists were similar to those labelled with the A2A agonist [3H]-CGS 21680. Affinities of agonists were generally lower. The A1-selective agonist, R-PIA, was found to be about 9 fold more potent than its stereoisomer, S-PIA, thus showing the stereoselectivity of [3H]-SCH 58261 binding. Except for 8-PT, the adenosine agonists and antagonists examined inhibited [3H]-SCH 58261 binding with Hill coefficients not significantly different from unity. 6. The present results indicate that [3H]-SCH 58261 is the first non-xanthine adenosine antagonist radioligand which directly labels A2A striatal receptors. High receptor affinity, good selectivity and very low non-specific binding make [3H]-SCH 58261 an excellent probe for studying the A2A adenosine receptor subtype in mammalian brain.
PMCID: PMC1909468  PMID: 8730729
19.  Click Modification in the N6 Region of A3 Adenosine Receptor-Selective Carbocyclic Nucleosides for Dendrimeric Tethering that Preserves Pharmacophore Recognition 
Bioconjugate Chemistry  2012;23(2):232-247.
Adenosine derivatives were modified with alkynyl groups on N6 substituents for linkage to carriers using Cu(I)-catalyzed click chemistry. Two parallel series, both containing a rigid North-methanocarba (bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane) ring system in place of ribose, behaved as A3 adenosine receptor (AR) agonists: (5′-methyluronamides) or partial agonists (4′-truncated). Terminal alkynyl groups on a chain at the 3 position of a N6-benzyl group or simply through a N6–propargyl group were coupled to azido derivatives, which included both small molecules and G4 (fourth-generation) multivalent poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers, to form 1,2,3-triazolyl linkers. The small molecular triazoles probed the tolerance in A3AR binding of distal, sterically bulky groups such as 1-adamantyl. Terminal 4-fluoro-3-nitrophenyl groups anticipated nucleophilic substitution for chain extension and 18F radiolabeling. N6-(4-Fluoro-3-nitrophenyl)-triazolylmethyl derivative 32 displayed a Ki of 9.1 nM at A3AR with ~1000-fold subtype selectivity. Multivalent conjugates additionally containing click-linked water-solubilizing polyethylene glycol groups potently activated A3AR in the 5′-methyluronamide, but not 4′ truncated series. N6-Benzyl nucleoside conjugate 43 (apparent Ki 24 nM) maintained binding affinity of the monomer better than a N6-triazolylmethyl derivative. Thus, the N6 region of 5′-methyluronamide derivatives, as modeled in receptor docking, is suitable for functionalization and tethering by click chemistry to achieve high A3AR agonist affinity and enhanced selectivity.
PMCID: PMC3291892  PMID: 22175234
G protein-coupled receptor; PAMAM dendrimer; purines; structure activity relationship; molecular modeling; adenylate cyclase
Biochemical Pharmacology  1987;36(10):1697-1707.
Derivatives of adenosine receptor agonists (N6-phenyladenosines) and antagonists (1,3-dialkyl-8-phenylxanthines) bearing functionalized chains suitable for attachment to other molecules have been reported [Jacobson et al., J. med. Chem. 28, 1334 and 1341 (1985)]. The “functionalized congener” approach has been extended to the synthesis of spectroscopic and other probes for adenosine receptors that retain high affinity (Ki ~ 10−9 −10−8 M) in A1-receptor binding. The probes have been synthesized from an antagonist xanthine amine congener (XAC) and an adenosine amine congener (ADAC). [3H]ADAC has been synthesized and found to bind highly specifically to A1-adenosine receptors of rat and calf cerebral cortical membranes with KD values of 1.4 and 0.34 nM respectively. The higher affinity in the bovine brain, seen also with many of the probes derived from ADAC and XAC, is associated with phenyl substituents. The spectroscopic probes contain a reporter group attached at a distal site of the functionalized chain. These bifunctional ligands may contain a spin label (e.g. the nitroxyl radical TEMPO) for electron spin resonance spectroscopy, or a fluorescent dye, including fluorescein and 4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD), or labels for 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Potential applications of the spectroscopic probes in characterization of adenosine receptors are discussed.
PMCID: PMC3388543  PMID: 3036153
21.  Structural determinants of efficacy at A3 adenosine receptors: modification of the ribose moiety 
Biochemical pharmacology  2004;67(5):893-901.
We have found previously that structural features of adenosine derivatives, particularly at the N6- and 2-positions of adenine, determine the intrinsic efficacy as A3 adenosine receptor (AR) agonists. Here, we have probed this phenomenon with respect to the ribose moiety using a series of ribose-modified adenosine derivatives, examining binding affinity and activation of the human A3 AR expressed in CHO cells. Both 2′- and 3′-hydroxyl groups in the ribose moiety contribute to A3 AR binding and activation, with 2′-OH being more essential. Thus, the 2′-fluoro substitution eliminated both binding and activation, while a 3′-fluoro substitution led to only a partial reduction of potency and efficacy at the A3 AR. A 5′-uronamide group, known to restore full efficacy in other derivatives, failed to fully overcome the diminished efficacy of 3′-fluoro derivatives. The 4′-thio substitution, which generally enhanced A3 AR potency and selectivity, resulted in 5′-CH2OH analogues (10 and 12) which were partial agonists of the A3 AR. Interestingly, the shifting of the N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenine moiety from the 1′- to 4′-position had a minor influence on A3 AR selectivity, but transformed 15 into a potent antagonist (16) (Ki = 4.3 nM). Compound 16 antagonized human A3 AR agonist-induced inhibition of cyclic AMP with a KB value of 3.0 nM. A novel apio analogue (20) of neplanocin A, was a full A3 AR agonist. The affinities of selected, novel analogues at rat ARs were examined, revealing species differences. In summary, critical structural determinants for human A3 AR activation have been identified, which should prove useful for further understanding the mechanism of receptor activation and development of more potent and selective full agonists, partial agonists and antagonists for A3 ARs.
PMCID: PMC3150582  PMID: 15104242
Nucleosides; A3 adenosine receptor agonist; A3 adenosine receptor antagonist; Adenylyl cyclase; Phospholipase C; Partial agonist
22.  Mutagenesis Reveals Structure–Activity Parallels between Human A2A Adenosine Receptors and Biogenic Amine G Protein-Coupled Receptors 
Journal of medicinal chemistry  1997;40(16):2588-2595.
Structure–affinity relationships for ligand binding at the human A2A adenosine receptor have been probed using site-directed mutagenesis in the transmembrane helical domains (TMs). The mutant receptors were expressed in COS-7 cells and characterized by binding of the radioligands [3H]CGS21680, [3H]NECA, and [3H]XAC. Three residues, at positions essential for ligand binding in other G protein-coupled receptors, were individually mutated. The residue V(3.32) in the A2A receptor that is homologous to the essential aspartate residue of TM3 in the biogenic amine receptors, i.e., V84(3.32), may be substituted with L (present in the A3 receptor) but not with D (in biogenic amine receptors) or A. H250(6.52), homologous to the critical N507 of rat m3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, may be substituted with other aromatic residues or with N but not with A (Kim et al. J. Biol. Chem. 1995, 270, 13987–13997). H278(7.43), homologous to the covalent ligand anchor site in rhodopsin, may not be substituted with either A, K, or N. Both V84L(3.32) and H250N(6.52) mutant receptors were highly variable in their effect on ligand competition depending on the structural class of the ligand. Adenosine-5′-uronamide derivatives were more potent at the H250N(6.52) mutant receptor than at wild type receptors. Xanthines tended to be close in potency (H250N(6.52)) or less potent (V84L-(3.32)) than at wild type receptors. The affinity of CGS21680 increased as the pH was lowered to 5.5 in both the wild type and H250N(6.52) mutant receptors. Thus, protonation of H250-(6.52) is not involved in this pH dependence. These data are consistent with a molecular model predicting the proximity of bound agonist ligands to TM3, TM5, TM6, and TM7.
PMCID: PMC3449164  PMID: 9258366
23.  Characterization of human A2A adenosine receptors with the antagonist radioligand [3H]-SCH 58261 
British Journal of Pharmacology  1997;121(3):353-360.
We have characterized the binding of the new potent and selective antagonist radioligand [3H]-5-amino-7-(2-phenylethyl)-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine, [3H]-SCH 58261, to human cloned A2A adenosine receptors.In Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with the human cloned A2A receptor, [3H]-SCH 58261 specific binding (about 70%) was rapid, saturable, reversible and proportional to protein concentration. The kinetic KD value was 0.75 nM. Saturation experiments showed that [3H]-SCH 58261 labelled a single class of recognition sites with high affinity (KD=2.3 nM) and limited capacity (apparent Bmax=526 fmol mg−1 protein).Competition experiments revealed that binding of 0.5 nM [3H]-SCH 58261 was displaced by adenosine receptor agonists with the following order of potency: 2-hexynyl-5′-N-ethylcarboxamido-adenosine (2HE-NECA)>5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA)=2-phenylaminoadenosine (CV 1808)>2-[4-(2-carboxyethyl)-phenethylamino]-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680)>R-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA)⩾N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA)>S-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine (S-PIA).Adenosine receptor antagonists inhibited [3H]-SCH 58261 binding with the following order: 5-amino-9-chloro-2-(2-furyl)-[1,2,4]-triazolo[1,5-c] quinazoline (CGS 15943)>SCH 58261>xanthine amine congener (XAC)>(E,18%-Z,82%)7-methyl-8-(3,4-dimethoxystyryl)-1,3-dipropylxanthine (KF 17837S)> 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX)>theophylline.Affinity values and rank order of potency of both receptor agonists and antagonists were similar to those previously obtained in human platelet and rat striatal membranes, except for CV 1808 which was more potent than CGS 21680. SCH 58261 was a competitive antagonist at inhibiting NECA-induced adenosine 3′ : 5′-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) accumulation in CHO cells transfected with human A2A receptors. Good agreement was found between binding and functional data.Thus, the new antagonist radioligand is preferable to the receptor agonist radioligand [3H]-CGS 21680 hitherto used to examine the pharmacology of human cloned A2A adenosine receptors.
PMCID: PMC1564691  PMID: 9179373
Adenosine receptors; human A2A receptors; A2A receptor antagonists; non-xanthine adenosine receptor antagonists; [3H]-SCH 58261
24.  Partial Agonists for A3 Adenosine Receptors 
Selective agonists for A3 adenosine receptors (ARs) could potentially be therapeutic agents for a variety of disorders, including brain and heart ischemic conditions, while partial agonists may have advantages over full agonists as a result of an increased selectivity of action. A number of structural determinants for A3AR activation have recently been identified, including the N6-benzyl group, methanocarba substitution of ribose, 2-chloro and 2-fluoro substituents, various 2’- and 3’-substitutions and 4’-thio substitution of oxygen. The 2-chloro substitution of CPA and R-PIA led to A3 antagonism (CCPA) and partial agonism (Cl-R-PIA). 2-Chloroadenosine was a full agonist, while 2-fluoroadenosine was a partial agonist. Both 2’- and 3’- substitutions have a pronounced effect on its efficacy, although the effect of 2’-substitution was more dramatic. The 4-thio substitution of oxygen may also diminish efficacy, depending on other substitutions. Both N6-methyl and N6-benzyl groups may contribute to the A3 affinity and selectivity; however, an N6-benzyl group but not an N6-methyl group diminishes A3AR efficacy. N6-benzyl substituted adenosine derivatives have similar potency for human and rat A3ARS while N6-methyl substitution was preferable for the human A3AR. The combination of 2-chloro and N6-benzyl substitutions appeared to reduce efficacy further than either modification alone. The A2AAR agonist DPMA was shown to be an antagonist for the human A3AR. Thus, the efficacy of adenosine derivatives at the A3AR appears to be more sensitive to small structural changes than at other subtypes. Potent and selective partial agonists for the A3AR could be identified by screening known adenosine derivatives and by modifying adenosine and the adenosine derivatives.
PMCID: PMC3425644  PMID: 15078216
25.  Use of the Triazolotriazine [3H]ZM 241385 as a Radioligand at Recombinant Human A2B Adenosine Receptors 
Drug design and discovery  1999;16(3):217-226.
Radiolabeled ZM 241385 (4-(2-[7-amino-2-{furyl){1,2,4)triazolo{2,3-a}{1,3,5}triazin-5-ylaminoethyl)phenol), has previously been used as a high affinity radioligand for the labeling of A2A adenosine receptors in cell membranes. Anoiher subtype, the A2B receptor, is the least well-defined subtype of adenosinc receptors and lacks selective pharmacological probes. In the present study, we have used [3H]ZM 241385 as a radioligand to label recombinant human A2B adenosine receptors in HEK-293 cell membranes, that do not express A2A adenosine receptors, and found that the phannacological profile is consislent with the SAR of A2B receplors. Saturable, specific binding (Kd 33.6 nM, Bmax 4.48 pmol/mg protein) that was best described by a one-site model was found, and specific binding was approximately 75% of total binding. [3H]ZM 241385 binding was displaceable by a large number of compounds known to interact with A2B receptors; thus, this method has promise as a tool in the search for agonists and antagonists selective for this subtype. Xanthine analogs, which are antagonists, proved to be the most potent displacers. The Ki of XAC, xanthine amine congener, was 12.3 nM, while CPX (8-cyclopcmyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine) was less potent. The non-selective triazoloquinazoline antagonist CGS 15943 (Ki 16.4 nM), which is similar in structure to ZM 241385, was slightly less potent than XAC, The non-xanthine A2B-antagonist alloxazine displaced [3H]ZM 241385-binding with a Ki of 462 nM, similar to its affinity in funct ional assays. Adenosine derivatives known to activate this receptor subtype, such as NECA (5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadcnosine) and R-PIA (N6-phenylisopropyladenosine), were considerably less potent than the 8-substituted xanthines examined.
PMCID: PMC3425640  PMID: 10624567
G protein-coupled receptors; radioligand binding; purines; xanthines; adenosine analogues

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