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1.  Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Stem Cell Markers in Patients with HER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer 
Molecular cancer therapeutics  2012;11(11):2526-2534.
Currently, there is extensive information about circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and their prognostic value; however, little is known about other characteristics of these cells. In this prospective study, we assessed the gene transcripts of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition inducing transcription factors (EMT-TFs) and cancer stem cell features in HER2+ metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients. Epithelial cells were enriched from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using antibody-coated anti-CD326 antibody (CD326+) magnetic beads, and the residual CD326− PBMCs were further depleted of leukocytes using anti-CD45 antibody-coated magnetic beads (CD326−CD45−). RNA was extracted from all cell fractions, reverse transcribed to cDNA, and subjected to quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to detect EMT-TFs (TWIST1, SNAIL1, ZEB1, and TG2) as a measure of CTCs undergoing EMT (EMT-CTCs). Additionally, PBMCs were analyzed using multi-parameter flow cytometry for ALDH activity and cancer stem cells (CSCs) that express CD24, CD44, and CD133. Twenty-eight patients were included in this study. At least one EMT-TF mRNA was elevated in the CTCs of 88.2% of patients and in the CD326−CD45− cell fraction of 60.7% of patients. The CD326−CD45− fraction of patients with elevated SNAIL1 and ZEB1 transcripts also had a higher percentage of ALDH+/CD133+ cells in their blood than did patients with normal SNAIL1 and ZEB1 expression (P=0.038). Our data indicate that HER2+ MBC patients have EMT-CTCs. Moreover, an enrichment of cancer stem cells was found in CD326−CD45− cells. Additional studies are needed to determine whether EMT-CTCs and CSCs have prognostic value in HER2+ MBC patients treated with trastuzumab-based therapy.
PMCID: PMC3500676  PMID: 22973057
circulating tumor cells; epithelial to mesenchymal transition; stem cells; HER2; CD133; metastatic breast cancer
2.  Circulating Tumor Cells Following First Chemotherapy Cycle: An Early and Strong Predictor of Outcome in Patients With Metastatic Breast Cancer 
The Oncologist  2013;18(8):917-923.
This study investigated the prognostic significance of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) determined immediately before the second cycle of chemotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). The data indicate that CTCs determined immediately before the second cycle of chemotherapy is an early and strong predictor of treatment outcome in MBC patients.
Learning Objectives
Explain the prognostic value of baseline CTCs.Describe the predictive value of CTCs at day 21 after chemotherapy.Explain the meaning of the change of CTCs from baseline to day 21 after chemotherapy.
We investigated the prognostic significance of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) determined immediately before the second cycle of chemotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). The CTC counts were taken at baseline, before the first cycle of chemotherapy (CTC-0), and on day 21 before commencing the second cycle of chemotherapy (CTC-21) in consecutive MBC patients. The study's primary objectives were to analyze relationships between CTC-21 count and overall survival (OS). Based on the current literature, the CTC measurements were dichotomized as 0–4 versus ≥5 CTCs. Of 117 patients recruited, 99 were evaluable. Patients with 0–4 CTCs on day 21 had a significantly better OS than those with ≥5 CTCs (median OS: 38.5 months vs. 8.7 months). They also had a significantly better progression-free survival (PFS; median: 9.4 months vs. 3.0 months) and clinical benefit rate (77% vs. 44%). The OS of patients whose baseline CTCs were ≥5 but dropped to <5 on day 21 was apparently similar to those who had <5 CTCs at baseline. In a Cox regression analysis, CTC-21 was the only independent variable significantly predicting OS and PFS. Our data indicate that CTCs determined immediately before the second cycle of chemotherapy is an early and strong predictor of treatment outcome in MBC patients.
PMCID: PMC3755928  PMID: 23873719
Circulating tumor cells; Outcome prediction; Metastatic breast cancer
3.  Expression of stem cell and epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers in primary breast cancer patients with circulating tumor cells 
The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in breast cancer might be associated with stem cell-like tumor cells which have been suggested to be the active source of metastatic spread in primary tumors. Furthermore, to be able to disseminate and metastasize, CTC must be able to perform epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We studied the expression of three EMT markers and the stem cell marker ALDH1 in CTC from 502 primary breast cancer patients. Data were correlated with the presence of disseminated tumor cells (DTC) in the bone marrow (BM) and with clinicopathological data of the patients.
A total of 2 × 5 ml of blood was analyzed for CTC with the AdnaTest BreastCancer (AdnaGen AG) for the detection of EpCAM, MUC-1, HER2 and beta-Actin transcripts. The recovered c-DNA was additionally multiplex tested for three EMT markers [TWIST1, Akt2, phosphoinositide kinase-3 (PI3Kα)] and separately for the tumor stem cell marker ALDH1. The identification of EMT markers was considered positive if at least one marker was detected in the sample. Two BM aspirates from all patients were analyzed for DTC by immunocytochemistry using the pan-cytokeratin antibody A45-B/B3.
Ninety-seven percent of 30 healthy donor samples investigated were negative for EMT and 95% for ALDH1 transcripts, respectively. CTC were detected in 97/502 (19%) patients. At least one of the EMT markers was expressed in 29% and ALDH1 was present in 14% of the samples, respectively. Interestingly, 5% of the ALDH1-positive and 18% of the EMT-positive patients were CTC-negative based on the cut-off level determined for CTC-positivity applying the AdnaTest BreastCancer. DTC in the BM were detected in 107/502 (21%) patients and no correlation was found between BM status and CTC positivity (P = 0.41). The presence of CTC, EMT and ALDH1 expression was not correlated to any of the prognostic clinical markers.
Our data indicate that (1) a subset of primary breast cancer patients shows EMT and stem cell characteristics and (2) the currently used detection methods for CTC are not efficient to identify a subtype of CTC which underwent EMT. (3) The clinical relevance on prognosis and therapy response has to be further evaluated in a prospective trial.
PMCID: PMC3496132  PMID: 22264265
4.  Serial enumeration of circulating tumor cells predicts treatment response and prognosis in metastatic breast cancer: a prospective study in 393 patients 
BMC Cancer  2014;14:512.
To prospectively assess circulating tumor cell (CTC) status at baseline (CTCBL) and after one cycle of a new line of systemic therapy (CTC1C), and changes from CTCBL to CTC1C (CTC kinetics, CTCKIN) for their utility in predicting response, progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in metastatic breast cancer (MBC).
CTCBL and CTC1C status was determined as negative (-) or positive (+) for < 5 or ≥ 5 CTCs/7.5 ml blood using CellSearch™ (Veridex). CTCKIN was categorized as favorable (CTC1C-) or unfavorable (CTC1C+). Tumor response was to be assessed every 2–3 months using the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria. Statistical analysis focused on the relation between CTC status and CTCKIN, and response, PFS, and OS.
133/393 (34%) patients enrolled were CTCBL+. CTC1C status after one cycle and radiological tumor response were assessed after median (range) periods of 1.2 (0.5–3.2) and 2.9 (0.5–4.8) months, respectively. 57/201 (28%) were CTC1C+. Median [95% confidence interval] PFS and OS (months) were significantly reduced in CTCBL+ vs. CTCBL- patients (PFS 4.7 [3.7–6.1] vs. 7.8 [6.4–9.2]; OS 10.4 [7.9–15.0] vs. 27.2 [22.3–29.9]), and for CTC1C+ vs. CTC1C- patients (PFS 4.3 [3.6–6.0] vs. 8.5 [6.6–10.4]; OS 7.7 [6.4–13.9] vs. 30.6 [22.6–not available]). Unfavorable CTCKIN was significantly associated with progressive disease. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed prognostic factors for shorter PFS (CTCBL+, persistent CTCs after one cycle, ≥ 3rd-line therapy, and triple-negative receptor status) and shorter OS (CTCBL+, persistent CTCs after one cycle, bone-and-visceral/local metastases, ≥ 3rd-line therapy, and triple-negative receptor status).
CTCBL, CTC1C, and CTCKIN are predictive of outcome in MBC. Serial CTC enumeration is useful in tailoring systemic treatment of MBC.
Trial registration
Not applicable.
PMCID: PMC4226959  PMID: 25015676
Metastatic breast cancer; Circulating tumor cells; Systemic therapy; Treatment response; Survival
5.  Co-expression of putative stemness and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers on single circulating tumour cells from patients with early and metastatic breast cancer 
BMC Cancer  2014;14(1):651.
The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood (PB) of patients with breast cancer predicts poor clinical outcome. Cancer cells with stemness and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) features display enhanced malignant and metastatic potential. A new methodology was developed in order to investigate the co-expression of a stemness and an EMT marker (ALDH1 and TWIST, respectively) on single CTCs of patients with early and metastatic breast cancer.
Triple immunofluorescence using anti-pancytokeratin (A45-B/B3), anti-ALDH1 and anti-TWIST antibodies was performed in cytospins prepared from hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells and SKBR-3, MCF-7 and MDA.MB.231 breast cancer cell lines. Evaluation of ALDH1 expression levels (high, low or absent) and TWIST subcellular localization (nuclear, cytoplasmic or absent) was performed using the ARIOL system. Cytospins prepared from peripheral blood of patients with early (n = 80) and metastatic (n = 50) breast cancer were analyzed for CTC detection (based on pan-cytokeratin expression and cytomorphological criteria) and characterized according to ALDH1 and TWIST.
CTCs were detected in 13 (16%) and 25 (50%) patients with early and metastatic disease, respectively. High ALDH1 expression (ALDH1high) and nuclear TWIST localization (TWISTnuc) on CTCs was confirmed in more patients with metastatic than early breast cancer (80% vs. 30.8%, respectively; p = 0.009). In early disease, ALDH1low/neg CTCs (p = 0.006) and TWISTcyt/neg CTCs (p = 0.040) were mainly observed. Regarding co-expression of these markers, ALDH1high/TWISTnuc CTCs were more frequently evident in the metastatic setting (76% vs. 15.4% of patients, p = 0.001; 61.5% vs. 12.9% of total CTCs), whereas in early disease ALDH1low/neg/TWISTcyt/neg CTCs were mainly detected (61.5% vs. 20% of patients, p = 0.078; 41.9% vs. 7.7% of total CTCs).
A new assay is provided for the evaluation of ALDH1 and TWIST co-expression at the single CTC-level in patients with breast cancer. A differential expression pattern for these markers was observed both in early and metastatic disease. CTCs expressing high ALDH1, along with nuclear TWIST were more frequently detected in patients with metastatic breast cancer, suggesting that these cells may prevail during disease progression.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-651) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4161777  PMID: 25182808
6.  Circulating tumor cells in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients: a valuable prognostic and predictive biomarker 
BMC Cancer  2013;13:202.
This study was initiated to investigate the prognostic significance of circulating tumor cell (CTC) enumeration and the predictive value of CTC HER2 expression for efficient anti-HER2 therapy in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients.
Sixty HER2-positive MBC patients were enrolled in the present study. Before the initiation of systemic treatment, CTCs from 7.5 ml of blood were analyzed using the CellSearch system. The progression-free survival (PFS) of the patients was estimated using Kaplan-Meier survival curves.
CTCs were detected in 45% (27/60) of the patients, who had shorter median PFS than those without CTCs (2.5 vs. 7.5 months, P = 0.0125). Furthermore, referring to the standard HER2 testing that uses immunohistochemistry (IHC), we proposed a CTC HER2-positive criterion, defined as >30% of CTCs over-expressing HER2. Among patients undergoing anti-HER2 therapy, those with HER2-positive CTCs had longer PFS (8.8 vs. 2.5 months, P = 0.002). Among patients with HER2-positive CTCs, the median PFS for those receiving anti-HER2 therapy was significantly longer than those who were not (8.8 vs. 1.5 months, P = 0.001). Notably, up to 52% (14/27) of the HER2-positive patients were CTC HER2-negative, and anti-HER2 therapy did not significantly improve the median PFS in these patients (2.5 vs. 0.9 months, P = 0.499).
Our findings underscore the necessity of a comprehensive CTC analysis, which may provide valuable prognostic and predictive information for optimizing individually tailored therapies in HER2-positive MBC patients. To test this idea, additional large cohort, multi-center and prospective clinical trials are needed.
PMCID: PMC3643882  PMID: 23617715
7.  Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in breast cancer: a diagnostic tool for prognosis and molecular analysis 
Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is characterized by a combination of tumor growth, proliferation and metastatic progression and is typically managed with palliative intent. The benefit of standard systemic therapies is relatively limited and the disease is considered incurable suggesting the need to investigate the biological drivers of the various phases of the metastatic process in order to improve the selection of molecularly driven therapies. The detection, enumeration and molecular analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) provide an intriguing opportunity to advance this knowledge. CTCs enumerated by the Food and Drugs Administration-cleared CellSearch® system are an independent prognostic factor of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in MBC patients. Several published papers demonstrated the poor prognosis for MBC patients that presented basal CTC count ≥5 in 7.5 mL of blood. Therefore, the enumeration of CTCs during treatment for MBC provides a tool with the ability to predict progression of disease earlier than standard timing of anatomical assessment using conventional radiological tests. During the metastatic process cancer cells exhibit morphological and phenotypic plasticity undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). This important phenomenon is associated with down regulation of epithelial marker (e.g., EpCAM) with potential limitations in the applicability of current CTCs enrichment methods. Such observations translated in a number of investigations aimed at improving our capabilities to enumerate and perform molecular characterization of CTCs. Theoretically, the phenotypic analysis of CTCs can represent a “liquid” biopsy of breast tumor that is able to identify a new potential target against the metastatic disease and advanced the development and monitoring of personalized therapies.
PMCID: PMC3551332  PMID: 23359451
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs); metastatic breast cancer (MBC); epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); cancer stem cells
8.  Epithelial to mesenchymal transition markers expressed in circulating tumour cells of early and metastatic breast cancer patients 
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is considered an essential process in the metastatic cascade. EMT is characterised by upregulation of vimentin, Twist, Snail, Slug and Sip1 among others. Metastasis is also associated with the presence of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and disseminated tumour cells in the blood and bone marrow, respectively, of breast cancer patients, but the expression of EMT markers in these cells has not been reported so far.
The expression of Twist and vimentin in CTCs of 25 metastatic and 25 early breast cancer patients was investigated by using double-immunofluorescence experiments in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytospins using anti-cytokeratin (anti-CK) anti-mouse (A45-B/B3) and anti-Twist or anti-vimentin anti-rabbit antibodies.
Among early breast cancer patients, vimentin-and Twist-expressing CK+ CTCs were identified in 77% and 73% of the patients, respectively, and in 100% of the patients with metastatic breast cancer for both markers (P = 0.004 and P = 0.037, respectively). Among patients with early disease, 56% and 53% of the CK+ CTCs were double-stained with vimentin and Twist, and the corresponding values for metastatic patients were 74% and 97%, respectively (P = 0.005 and P = 0.0001, respectively). The median expression of CK+vimentin+ and CK+Twist+ cells per patient in metastatic patients was 98% and 100%, and in an adjuvant chemotherapy setting the corresponding numbers were 56% and 40.6%, respectively. Triple-staining experiments revealed that all CK+Twist+ or CK+vimentin+ cells were also CD45-, confirming their epithelial origin. Immunomagnetic separation of CTCs and triple-immunofluorescence with anti-CK/anti-Twist/anti-vimentin antibodies demonstrated that both mesenchymal markers could be coexpressed in the same CK+ cell, since 64% of the total identified CTCs were triple-stained. There was a significant correlation (P = 0.005) between the number of CTCs expressing Twist and vimentin within the same setting.
CTCs expressing Twist and vimentin, suggestive of EMT, are identified in patients with breast cancer. The high incidence of these cells in patients with metastatic disease compared to early stage breast cancer strongly supports the notion that EMT is involved in the metastatic potential of CTCs.
PMCID: PMC3218948  PMID: 21663619
9.  Circulating tumor cells as prognostic and predictive markers in metastatic breast cancer patients receiving first-line systemic treatment 
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) represent an independent predictor of outcome in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). We assessed the prognostic impact of CTCs according to different first-line systemic treatments, and explored their potential predictive value in MBC patients.
We retrospectively evaluated 235 newly diagnosed MBC patients, treated at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. All patients had a baseline CTC assessment performed with CellSearch®. Progression-free survival and overall survival were compared with the log-rank test between groups, according to CTC count (< 5 vs. ≥ 5) and type of systemic therapy. We further explored the predictive value of baseline CTCs in patients receiving different treatments.
At a median follow-up of 18 months, the CTC count was confirmed to be a robust prognostic marker in the overall population (median progression-free survival 12.0 and 7.0 months for patients with CTC < 5 and ≥ 5, respectively; P < 0.001). Conversely, in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-overexpressed/amplified tumors receiving trastuzumab or lapatinib, the baseline CTC count was not prognostic (median progression-free survival 14.5 months for patients with CTC < 5 and 16.1 months for those with CTC ≥ 5; P = 0.947). Furthermore, in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 normal tumors, a baseline CTC count ≥ 5 identified subjects who derived benefit from more aggressive treatments, including combination chemotherapy and chemotherapy plus bevacizumab.
This analysis suggests that the prognostic information provided by CTC count may be useful in patient stratifications and therapeutic selection, particularly in the group with positive CTCs, in which various therapeutic choices may procure differential palliative benefit.
PMCID: PMC3218956  PMID: 21699723
10.  Stem cell and epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers are frequently overexpressed in circulating tumor cells of metastatic breast cancer patients 
The persistence of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in breast cancer patients might be associated with stem cell like tumor cells which have been suggested to be the active source of metastatic spread in primary tumors. Furthermore, these cells also may undergo phenotypic changes, known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which allows them to travel to the site of metastasis formation without getting affected by conventional treatment. Here we evaluated 226 blood samples of 39 metastatic breast cancer patients during a follow-up of palliative chemo-, antibody – or hormonal therapy for the expression of the stem cell marker ALDH1 and markers for EMT and correlated these findings with the presence of CTC and response to therapy.
2 × 5 ml blood was analyzed for CTC with the AdnaTest BreastCancer (AdnaGen AG) for the detection of EpCAM, MUC-1 and HER2 transcripts. The recovered c-DNA was additionally multiplex tested for three EMT markers [Twist1, Akt2, PI3Kα] and separately for the tumor stem-cell markers ALDH1. The identification of EMT markers was considered positive if at least one marker was detected in the sample.
97% of 30 healthy donor samples investigated were negative for EMT and 95% for ALDH1 transcripts. CTC were detected in 69/226 (31%) cancer samples. In the CTC (+) group, 62% were positive for at least one of the EMT markers and 69% for ALDH1, respectively. In the CTC (-) group the percentages were 7% and 14%, respectively. In non-responders, EMT and ALDH1 expression was found in 62% and 44% of patients, in responders the rates were 10% and 5%, respectively.
Our data indicate that a major proportion of CTC of metastatic breast cancer patients shows EMT and tumor stem cell characteristics. Further studies are needed to prove whether these markers might serve as an indicator for therapy resistant tumor cell populations and, therefore, an inferior prognosis.
PMCID: PMC2750105  PMID: 19589136
11.  Circulating tumour cells escape from EpCAM-based detection due to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:178.
Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) have shown prognostic relevance in metastatic breast, prostate, colon and pancreatic cancer. For further development of CTCs as a biomarker, we compared the performance of different protocols for CTC detection in murine breast cancer xenograft models (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and KPL-4). Blood samples were taken from tumour bearing animals (20 to 200 mm2) and analysed for CTCs using 1. an epithelial marker based enrichment method (AdnaTest), 2. an antibody independent technique, targeting human gene transcripts (qualitative PCR), and 3. an antibody-independent approach, targeting human DNA-sequences (quantitative PCR). Further, gene expression changes associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were determined with an EMT-specific PCR assay.
We used the commercially available Adna Test, RT-PCR on human housekeeping genes and a PCR on AluJ sequences to detect CTCs in xenografts models. Phenotypic changes in CTCs were tested with the commercially available “Human Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition RT-Profiler PCR Array”.
Although the AdnaTest detects as few as 1 tumour cell in 1 ml of mouse blood spiking experiments, no CTCs were detectable with this approach in vivo despite visible metastasis formation. The presence of CTCs could, however, be demonstrated by PCR targeting human transcripts or DNA-sequences - without epithelial pre-enrichment. The failure of CTC detection by the AdnaTest resulted from downregulation of EpCAM, whereas mesenchymal markers like Twist and EGFR were upregulated on CTCs. Such a change in the expression profile during metastatic spread of tumour cells has already been reported and was linked to a biological program termed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).
The use of EpCAM-based enrichment techniques leads to the failure to detect CTC populations that have undergone EMT. Our findings may explain clinical results where low CTC numbers have been reported even in patients with late metastatic cancers. These results are a starting point for the identification of new markers for detection or capture of CTCs, including the mesenchymal-like subpopulations.
PMCID: PMC3502112  PMID: 22591372
Circulating tumour cells; Breast cancer; Xenograft; Metastasis; Epithelial-mesenchymal transition
12.  Detection of circulating tumor cells in blood of metastatic breast cancer patients using a combination of cytokeratin and EpCAM antibodies 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:206.
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are detectable in peripheral blood of metastatic breast cancer patients (MBC). In this paper we evaluate a new CTC separation method based on a combination of anti-EpCAM- and anti-cytokeratin magnetic cell separation with the aim to improve CTC detection with low target antigen densities.
Blood samples of healthy donors spiked with breast cancer cell line HCC1937 were used to determine accuracy and precision of the method. 10 healthy subjects were examined to evaluate specificity. CTC counts in 59 patients with MBC were measured to evaluate the prognostic value on overall survival.
Regression analysis of numbers of recovered vs. spiked HCC1937 cells yielded a coefficient of determination of R2 = 0.957. The average percentage of cell recovery was 84%. The average within-run coefficient of variation for spiking of 185, 85 and 30 cells was 14%. For spiking of 10 cells the within-run CV was 30%. No CTCs were detected in blood of 10 healthy subjects examined.
A standard threshold of 5 CTC/7.5 ml blood as a cut-off point between risk groups led to a highly significant prognostic marker (p < 0.001). To assess the prognostic value of medium CTC levels we additionally considered a low (CTC-L: 0 CTC), a medium (CTC-M: 1–4 CTC) and a high risk group (CTC-H: ≥5 CTC). The effect of this CTC-LMH marker on overall survival was significant as well (p < 0.001). A log-ratio test performed to compare the model with 3 vs. the model with 2 risk groups rejected the model with 2 risk groups (p = 0.026). For CTC as a count variable, we propose an offset reciprocal transformation 1/(1 + x) for overall survival prediction (p < 0.001).
We show that our CTC detection method is feasible and leads to accurate and reliable results. Our data suggest that a refined differentiation between patients with different CTC levels is reasonable.
PMCID: PMC3404911  PMID: 22646670
13.  Isolation of rare circulating tumour cells in cancer patients by microchip technology 
Nature  2007;450(7173):1235-1239.
Viable tumour-derived epithelial cells (circulating tumour cells or CTCs) have been identified in peripheral blood from cancer patients and are probably the origin of intractable metastatic disease1–4. Although extremely rare, CTCs represent a potential alternative to invasive biopsies as a source of tumour tissue for the detection, characterization and monitoring of non-haematologic cancers5–8. The ability to identify, isolate, propagate and molecularly characterize CTC subpopulations could further the discovery of cancer stem cell biomarkers and expand the understanding of the biology of metastasis. Current strategies for isolating CTCs are limited to complex analytic approaches that generate very low yield and purity9. Here we describe the development of a unique microfluidic platform (the ‘CTC-chip’) capable of efficient and selective separation of viable CTCs from peripheral whole blood samples, mediated by the interaction of target CTCs with antibody (EpCAM)-coated microposts under precisely controlled laminar flow conditions, and without requisite pre-labelling or processing of samples. The CTC-chip successfully identified CTCs in the peripheral blood of patients with metastatic lung, prostate, pancreatic, breast and colon cancer in 115 of 116 (99%) samples, with a range of 5–1,281 CTCs per ml and approximately 50% purity. In addition, CTCs were isolated in 7/7 patients with early-stage prostate cancer. Given the high sensitivity and specificity of the CTC-chip, we tested its potential utility in monitoring response to anti-cancer therapy. In a small cohort of patients with metastatic cancer undergoing systemic treatment, temporal changes in CTC numbers correlated reasonably well with the clinical course of disease as measured by standard radiographic methods. Thus, the CTC-chip provides a new and effective tool for accurate identification and measurement of CTCs in patients with cancer. It has broad implications in advancing both cancer biology research and clinical cancer management, including the detection, diagnosis and monitoring of cancer10.
PMCID: PMC3090667  PMID: 18097410
14.  Matrix metalloproteinase 1 and circulating tumor cells in early breast cancer 
BMC Cancer  2014;14:472.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in cancer invasion and metastasis. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) play role in tumor dissemination and are an independent survival predictor in breast cancer (BC) patients. The aim of this study was to assess correlation between CTCs and tumor MMP1 in BC.
Study included 149 primary BC patients treated by surgery from March 2012 to March 2013. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were depleted of hematopoietic cells using RossetteSepTM selection kit. RNA extracted from CD45-depleted PBMC was interrogated for expression of EMT (TWIST1, SNAIL1, SLUG, ZEB1) and epithelial (CK19) gene transcripts by qRT-PCR. Patient samples with higher epithelial and/or mesenchymal gene transcripts than those of healthy donors (n = 60) were considered as CTC positive. Expression of MMP1 in surgical specimens was evaluated by immunohistochemistry.
CTCs were detected in 24.2% patients. CTCs exhibiting only epithelial markers were present in 8.7% patients, whereas CTCs with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers (CTC_EMT) were observed in 13.4% of patients and CTCs co-expressing both markers were detected in 2.0% patients. Patients with CTC_EMT in peripheral blood had significantly increased expression of MMP1 in tumor cells (p = 0.02) and tumor associated stroma (p = 0.05) than those of patients without CTC_EMT. In multivariate analysis, CTC_EMT and tumor grade were independently associated with MMP1 expression in cancer cells, while CTC_EMT and Ki67 were independently associated with MMP1 expression in cancer associated stroma.
Our data suggest link between MMP1 and CTCs with EMT phenotype and support role of MMPs and EMT in tumor dissemination.
PMCID: PMC4079912  PMID: 24972610
Circulating tumor cells; Matrix-metaloproteinase 1; Primary breast cancer
15.  Detection and prognostic significance of circulating tumour cells in patients with metastatic breast cancer according to immunohistochemical subtypes 
British Journal of Cancer  2013;110(2):375-383.
The enumeration of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) with the EpCAM-based CellSearch system has prognostic significance in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). The aim of this study was to explore potential differences in the detection and prognostic significance of CTCs in MBC according to immunohistochemical subtypes of breast cancer.
CellSearch CTC counts were obtained from 154 MBC patients before first-line systemic treatment between November 2007 and August 2012. Patients were categorised in five subgroups according to immunohistochemical surrogate definitions of intrinsic subtypes in breast cancer based on hormone receptor status, HER2/neu status and histological grade. Differences in progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed relative to the cut-off value of ⩾5 CTCs per 7.5 ml blood.
No significant differences were observed in the absolute CTC counts (P=0.120) or in CTC positivity rates according to ⩾1 and ⩾5 CTCs per 7.5 ml blood detection thresholds (P=0.165 and P=0.651, respectively) between immunohistochemical subtypes. However, very high CTC counts, defined as ⩾80 CTCs per 7.5 ml, were observed more frequently in patients with Luminal A and triple negative (TN) breast cancer (P=0.024). In the total study population, the presence of ⩾5 CTCs was the single most significant prognostic factor for both PFS and OS in multivariate analysis (P<0.001). A more limited prognostic impact, not reaching statistical significance, was observed in patients with HER2-positive disease as opposed to patients with Luminal A, Luminal B–HER2-negative and TN disease.
The detection of EpCAM+CTCs was not clearly associated with any of the immunohistochemical subtypes of breast cancer in patients with MBC before first-line treatment. Potentially clinically relevant differences were however observed at very high CTC counts. Furthermore, our data suggest a lower prognostic significance of CTC evaluation in HER2-positive patients with MBC.
PMCID: PMC3899770  PMID: 24366294
circulating tumour cells; metastatic breast cancer; immunohistochemical subtypes; CellSearch system; prognostic significance
16.  Clinical relevance of circulating CK-19mRNA-positive tumour cells before front-line treatment in patients with metastatic breast cancer 
British Journal of Cancer  2012;106(12):1917-1925.
To investigate the clinical relevance of CK-19mRNA-positive circulating tumour cells (CTCs) detected before the initiation of front-line treatment in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC).
The presence of CTCs was detected in 298 patients with MBC using a real-time PCR (RT-PCR assay. In 44 patients, the detection of CTCs was evaluated by both the CellSearch and the RT-PCR assay. Interaction with known prognostic factors and association of CTCs with clinical outcome were investigated.
There was a strong correlation between the detection of CTCs by both assays. CK-19mRNA-positive CTCs were detected in 201 (67%) patients and their detection was independent of various patients' clinico-pathological characteristics. The median progression-free survival (PFS; 9.2 vs 11.9 months (mo), P=0.003) and the overall survival (OS; 29.7 vs 38.9 mo, P=0.016) were significantly shorter in patients with detectable CK-19mRNA-positive CTCs compared with patients without detectable CTCs. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that oestrogen receptor status, performance status and detection of CTCs were emerged as independent prognostic factors associated with decreased PFS and OS.
The detection of CK-19mRNA-positive CTCs in patients with MBC before front-line therapy could define a subgroup of patients with dismal clinical outcome.
PMCID: PMC3388568  PMID: 22669159
breast cancer; CK-19mRNA; tumour cells
17.  Fluid biopsy for Circulating Tumor Cell identification in Patients with early and late stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; a glimpse into lung cancer biology 
Physical Biology  2012;9(1):016005.
Circulating tumor cell (CTC) counts are an established prognostic marker in metastatic prostate, breast, and colorectal cancer, and recent data suggests a similar role in late stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, due to sensitivity constraints in current enrichment-based CTC detection technologies, there is little published data about CTC prevalence rates and morphologic heterogeneity in early stage NSCLC, or the correlation of CTCs with disease progression and their usability for clinical staging. We investigated CTC counts, morphology, and aggregation in early stage, locally advanced, and metastatic NSCLC patients by using a fluid phase biopsy approach that identifies CTCs without relying on surface receptor-based enrichment and presents them in sufficiently high definition (HD) to satisfy diagnostic pathology image quality requirements. HD-CTCs were analyzed in blood samples from 78 chemotherapy-naïve NSCLC patients. 73% of the total population had a positive HD-CTC count (> 0 CTC in 1 mL of blood) with a median of 4.4 HD-CTCs/mL (range 0–515.6) and a mean of 44.7 (±95.2) HD-CTCs/mL. No significant difference in the medians of HD-CTC counts was detected between stage IV (n=31, range 0–178.2), stage III (n=34, range 0–515.6) and stages I/II (n=13, range 0–442.3). Furthermore, HD-CTCs exhibited a uniformity in terms of molecular and physical characteristics such as fluorescent cytokeratin intensity, nuclear size, frequency of apoptosis and aggregate formation across the spectrum of staging.
Our results demonstrate that, despite stringent morphologic inclusion criteria for the definition of HD-CTCs, the HD-CTC assay shows high sensitivity in the detection and characterization of both early and late stage lung cancer CTCs. Larger studies are warranted to investigate the prognostic value of CTC profiling in early stage lung cancer. This finding has implications for the design of larger studies examining screening, therapy, and surveillance in lung cancer patients.
PMCID: PMC3387995  PMID: 22307026
18.  Prognostic value of HER2-positive circulating tumor cells in patients with metastatic breast cancer 
International journal of clinical oncology  2011;17(2):10.1007/s10147-011-0260-0.
The presence of ≥5 circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in 7.5 ml blood is a poor prognostic marker in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). However, the role of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status in CTCs is not known.
We prospectively assessed the prognostic value of this parameter for patients with MBC who started a new line of systemic therapy. The CTC count (≥5 or <5) and the HER2 status in CTCs at the initiation of the therapy and 3–4 weeks later (first follow-up) were determined.
The median follow-up time of the 52 enrolled patients was 655.0 days (18–1,275 days). HER2-positive CTCs were present in 14 of the 52 patients (26.9%) during the study period. Eight of 33 patients (24.2%) with HER2-negative primary tumors had HER2-positive CTCs during the study period. At first follow-up, patients with HER2-positive CTCs had significantly shorter progression-free (n = 6; P = 0.001) and overall (P = 0.013) survival than did patients without HER2-positive CTCs (n = 43) in log-rank analysis. In multivariate analysis, HER2-positive CTCs at first follow-up (P = 0.029) and the number of therapies patients received before this study (P = 0.006) were independent prognostic factors in terms of progression-free survival. The number of therapies (P = 0.001) and a count of ≥5 CTCs (P = 0.043) at baseline were independent prognostic factors in terms of overall survival.
We showed that HER2 status in CTCs may be a prognostic factor for MBC. Well-powered prospective studies are necessary to determine the potential role of HER2-targeted therapies for patients with HER2-positive CTCs and HER2-negative primary tumors.
PMCID: PMC3860324  PMID: 21671160
Circulating tumor cell; Breast neoplasm; HER2; Metastasis
19.  Expected clinical applications of circulating tumor cells in breast cancer 
Tumor cell invasion and intravascular filtration lead to the presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood. CTCs have, thus, been counted in patients with cancer to analyze metastatic mechanisms or in the hope of developing clinical applications for diagnosis and therapy; various CTC-related studies have been performed. However, the clinical significance of CTCs remains to be established because of the extremely small number of CTCs in peripheral blood as compared with the number of blood cells. Technical problems (e.g. reproducibility and reliability) in the detection of CTCs also remain to be solved. The use of flow cytometric analysis, which can be performed with tumor-cell markers such as anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule antibodies and anti-cytokeratin antibodies and non-tumor-cell markers such as anti-CD45 antibodies has enhanced specificity for the detection of tumor cells. The CellSearch System® can detect 1 CTC in 7.5 mL of peripheral blood, with high reproducibility. Its detection rate and accuracy for CTCs have been confirmed. In the United States, clinical trials have used this system to detect CTCs in patients with metastatic breast cancer, metastatic colorectal cancer, and metastatic prostate cancer, and CTCs have been confirmed to be a useful prognostic factor. This system was also suggested to be useful for monitoring treatment response in patients with metastatic breast cancer and was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2004. Measuring CTC counts can facilitate the early prediction of treatment response and thereby avoid unnecessary therapy. CTCs may also be a useful biomarker for molecular targeted agents, enabling the identification of patients most likely to respond to a given treatment and facilitating treatment selection. However, the widespread use of CTC monitoring as a routine examination requires a further improvement in measurement sensitivity, the establishment of criteria for quantitative and qualitative evaluations, and additional clear-cut evidence supporting the clinical significance of CTCs. We expect that CTCs will be established to be a new diagnostic and therapeutic index for breast cancer.
PMCID: PMC3163258  PMID: 21876851
Breast cancer; Circulating tumor cells
20.  Circulating Tumor Cells Predict Survival in Early Average-to-High Risk Breast Cancer Patients 
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been shown to predict reduced survival outcomes in metastatic breast cancer.
CTCs were analyzed in 2026 patients with early breast cancer before adjuvant chemotherapy and in 1492 patients after chemotherapy using the CellSearch System. After immuno-magnetic enrichment for cells expressing the epithelial-cell adhesion molecule, CTCs were defined as nucleated cells expressing cytokeratin and lacking CD45. The patients were followed for a median of 35 months (range = 0–54). Kaplan–Meier analyses and the log-rank test were used for survival analyses. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Before chemotherapy, CTCs were detected in 21.5% of patients (n = 435 of 2026), with 19.6% (n = 136 of 692) of node-negative and 22.4% (n = 299 of 1334) of node-positive patients showing CTCs (P < .001). No association was found with tumor size, grading, or hormone receptor status. After chemotherapy, 22.1% of patients (n = 330 of 1493) were CTC positive. The presence of CTCs was associated with poor disease-free survival (DFS; P < .0001), distant DFS (P < .001), breast cancer-specific survival (P = .008), and overall survival (OS; P = .0002). CTCs were confirmed as independent prognostic markers in multivariable analysis for DFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49 to 2.99; P < .0001) and OS (HR = 2.18; 95% CI = 1.32 to 3.59; P = .002). The prognosis was worst in patients with at least five CTCs per 30mL blood (DFS: HR = 4.51, 95% CI = 2.59 to 7.86; OS: HR = 3.60, 95% CI = 1.56 to 8.45). The presence of persisting CTCs after chemotherapy showed a negative influence on DFS (HR = 1.12; 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.25; P = .02) and on OS (HR = 1.16; 95% CI = 0.99 to 1.37; P = .06)
These results suggest the independent prognostic relevance of CTCs both before and after adjuvant chemotherapy in a large prospective trial of patients with primary breast cancer.
PMCID: PMC4112925  PMID: 24832787
21.  Microenvironmental Influences on Metastasis Suppressor Expression and Function during a Metastatic Cell’s Journey 
Cancer Microenvironment  2014;7(3):117-131.
Metastasis is the process of primary tumor cells breaking away and colonizing distant secondary sites. In order for a tumor cell growing in one microenvironment to travel to, and flourish in, a secondary environment, it must survive a series of events termed the metastatic cascade. Before departing the primary tumor, cells acquire genetic and epigenetic changes that endow them with properties not usually associated with related normal differentiated cells. Those cells also induce a subset of bone marrow-derived stem cells to mobilize and establish pre-metastatic niches [1]. Many tumor cells undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), where they transiently acquire morphologic changes, reduced requirements for cell-cell contact and become more invasive [2]. Invasive tumor cells eventually enter the circulatory (hematogenous) or lymphatic systems or travel across body cavities. In transit, tumor cells must resist anoikis, survive sheer forces and evade detection by the immune system. For blood-borne metastases, surviving cells then arrest or adhere to endothelial linings before either proliferating or extravasating. Eventually, tumor cells complete the process by proliferating to form a macroscopic mass [3].
Up to 90 % of all cancer related morbidity and mortality can be attributed to metastasis. Surgery manages to ablate most primary tumors, especially when combined with chemotherapy and radiation. But if cells have disseminated, survival rates drop precipitously. While multiple parameters of the primary tumor are predictive of local or distant relapse, biopsies remain an imperfect science. The introduction of molecular and other biomarkers [4, 5] continue to improve the accuracy of prognosis. However, the invasive procedure introduces new complications for the patient. Likewise, the heterogeneity of any tumor population [3, 6, 7] means that sampling error (i.e., since it is impractical to examine the entire tumor) necessitates further improvements.
In the case of breast cancer, for example, women diagnosed with stage I diseases (i.e., no evidence of invasion through a basement membrane) still have a ~30 % likelihood of developing distant metastases [8]. Many physicians and patients opt for additional chemotherapy in order to “mop up“ cells that have disseminated and have the potential to grow into macroscopic metastases. This means that ~ 70 % of patients receive unnecessary therapy, which has undesirable side effects. Therefore, improving prognostic capability is highly desirable.
Recent advances allow profiling of primary tumor DNA sequences and gene expression patterns to define a so-called metastatic signature [9–11], which can be predictive of patient outcome. However, the genetic changes that a tumor cell must undergo to survive the initial events of the metastatic cascade and colonize a second location belie a plasticity that may not be adequately captured in a sampling of heterogeneous tumors. In order to tailor or personalize patient treatments, a more accurate assessment of the genetic profile in the metastases is needed. Biopsy of each individual metastasis is not practical, safe, nor particularly cost-effective. In recent years, there has been a resurrection of the notion to do a ‘liquid biopsy,’ which essentially involves sampling of circulating tumor cells (CTC) and/or cell free nucleic acids (cfDNA, including microRNA (miRNA)) present in blood and lymph [12–16].
The rationale for liquid biopsy is that tumors shed cells and/or genetic fragments into the circulation, theoretically making the blood representative of not only the primary tumor but also distant metastases. Logically, one would predict that the proportion of CTC and/or cfDNA would be proportionate to the likelihood of developing metastases [14]. While a linear relationship does not exist, the information within CTC or cfDNA is beginning to show great promise for enabling a global snapshot of the disease. However, the CTC and cfDNA are present at extremely low levels. Nonetheless, newer technologies capture enough material to enrich and sequence the patient’s DNA or quantification of some biomarkers.
Among the biomarkers showing great promise are metastasis suppressors which, by definition, block a tumor cell’s ability to complete the metastatic process without prohibiting primary tumor growth [17]. Since the discovery of the first metastasis suppressor, Nm23, more than 30 have been functionally characterized. They function at various stages of the metastatic cascade, but their mechanisms of action, for the most part, remain ill-defined. Deciphering the molecular interactions of functional metastasis suppressors may provide insights for targeted therapies when these regulators cease to function and result in metastatic disease.
In this brief review, we summarize what is known about the various metastasis suppressors and their functions at individual steps of the metastatic cascade (Table 1). Some of the subdivisions are rather arbitrary in nature, since many metastasis suppressors affect more than one step in the metastatic cascade. Nonetheless what emerges is a realization that metastasis suppressors are intimately associated with the microenvironments in which cancer cells find themselves [18].
PMCID: PMC4275500  PMID: 24938990
BRMS1; CD44; CRMP4; DCC; DLC1; GSN; LIFR; LSD1; MTBP; OGR1; RKIP; SSeCKS; Stefin A; RhoGDI2; RRM1; Caspase 8; Gas1. KAI1; Regulatory RNA; miRNA; KISS1; NDRG1; NME1; MKK4; MKK7; p38; CADM1; TSLC1; FXR; Invasion; Motility; Metastasis suppressor; Colonization; Cell-free DNA; Circulating tumor cell; CTC; DTC; cfDNA
22.  Circulating Tumor Cells from Patients with Advanced Prostate and Breast Cancer Display Both Epithelial and Mesenchymal Markers 
Molecular cancer research : MCR  2011;9(8):997-1007.
During cancer progression malignant cells undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) and mesenchymal-epithelial transitions (METs) as part of a broad invasion and metastasis program. We previously observed MET events among lung metastases in a preclinical model of prostate adenocarcinoma that suggested a relationship between epithelial plasticity and metastatic spread. We thus sought to translate these findings into clinical evidence by examining the existence of EMT in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from patients with progressive metastatic solid tumors, with a focus on men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and women with metastatic breast cancer (BC). We show that the majority (>80%) of these CTCs in patients with metastatic CRPC co-express epithelial proteins such as EpCAM, CK, and E-cadherin, mesenchymal proteins, including vimentin, N-cadherin, and O-cadherin, and the stem cell marker CD133. Equally, we find that over 75% of CTCs from women with metastatic BC co-express cytokeratin, vimentin, and N-cadherin. The existence and high frequency of these CTCs co-expressing epithelial, mesenchymal, and stem-cell markers in patients with progressive metastases has important implications for the application and interpretation of approved methods to detect CTCs.
PMCID: PMC3157566  PMID: 21665936
metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC); epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT); mesenchymal epithelial transition (MET); circulating tumor cells (CTCs); metastatic breast cancer; N-Cadherin; CD133; O-Cadherin; EpCAM
23.  Circulating tumor cells in non-metastatic triple-negative breast cancer 
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be identified in approximately 25 % of stage I-III breast cancer patients; CTCs presence is a predictor of poor outcome in metastatic breast cancer, but little is known regarding the prognostic significance of CTCs in non-metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether CTCs predict worse outcome in non-metastatic TNBC patients. We evaluated CTCs in 113 patients with stages I-III TNBC at the time of definitive surgery. CTCs were assessed using the CellSearch System®. Progression-free and overall survival were defined as time elapsed between date of diagnosis and either date of clinical disease progression, death, or last follow-up. Log-rank test and Cox regression analysis were used to determine associations of CTCs with progression-free and overall survival. The median follow-up was 40 months. CTCs were identified in 23/113 (20 %) of patients. No primary tumor characteristic or lymph node status predicted the presence of CTCs. The identification of ≥2 CTCs predicted shorter progression-free (log rank P ≤ 0.001; hazard ratio 8.30, 95 % CI 2.61–26.37) and overall survival (log rank P = 0.0004; hazard ratio 7.19, 95 % CI 1.98–26.06) versus survival for patients with <2 CTCs. Two or more CTCs predict shorter progression-free and overall survival in TNBC patients. Larger studies are needed to determine whether CTC assessment provides beneficial information that could be used in stratifying TNBC patients at increased risk for disease progression. Finally, CTCs characterization could facilitate the development of novel treatment approaches for TNBC.
PMCID: PMC4149877  PMID: 25164970
Circulating tumor cells; Triple-negative breast cancer; Non-metastatic breast cancer; Progression-free survival; Overall survival
24.  Consolidative high-dose chemotherapy after conventional-dose chemotherapy as first salvage treatment for male patients with metastatic germ cell tumours 
Some men with metastatic germ cell tumours that have progressed after response to initial cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy are cured with conventional dose first salvage chemotherapy (CDCT) – however, many are not. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue (HDCT) may be of value in these patients. Prognosis has recently been better defined by International Prognostic Factor Study Group (IPFSG) prognostic factors. HDCT after response to CDCT has been offered at our institution over the past two decades. We retrospectively assessed the validity of the IPFSG prognostic factors in our patients and evaluated the value of HDCT.
We identified eligible men with metastatic germ cell tumour progressed after at least 3 cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and treated with cisplatin-based CDCT alone or with carboplatin-based HDCT. We also collected their clinical data. Patients were classified into risk groups using IPFSG factors, and progression-free and overall survival factors were analyzed and compared in patients treated with CDCT alone and with HDCT.
We identified 38 eligible first salvage patients who had received a median of 4 cycles (range, 1 to 7 cycles) of CDCT. Twenty patients received CDCT alone and 18 patients received CDCT plus HDCT. The overall median progression- free survival was 24.6 months (95%CI, 7.3 to 28.7 months) and overall median overall survival was 34.6 months (95%CI, 17.2 to 51.3 months). Distribution by IPFSG category and 2-year progression- free survival and 3-year overall survival rates within each risk category were very similar to the IPFSG results. There were two toxic deaths with CDCT and none with HDCT. Overall, patients treated with CDCT plus HDCT had improved progression- free survival and overall survival.
The IPFSG prognostic risk factors appeared valid in our patient population. The safety of HDCT with etoposide and carboplatin was confirmed. HDCT was associated with improved progression- free survival and overall survival outcomes, consistent with observations of the IPFSG group. Ideally, the value of optimal HDCT should be determined in comparison to optimal CDCT as first salvage therapy in men with metastatic germ cell tumour with a randomized trial.
PMCID: PMC3328550  PMID: 22511417
25.  Circulating tumour cells in the central and the peripheral venous compartment in patients with metastatic breast cancer 
British Journal of Cancer  2011;104(9):1472-1477.
The enumeration of circulating tumour cells (CTC) has prognostic significance in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and monitoring of CTC levels over time has considerable potential to guide treatment decisions. However, little is known on CTC kinetics in the human bloodstream.
In this study, we compared the number of CTC in both 7.5 ml central venous blood (CVB) and 7.5 ml peripheral venous blood (PVB) from 30 patients with MBC starting with a new line of chemotherapy.
The number of CTC was found to be significantly higher in CVB (median: 43.5; range: 0–4036) than in PVB (median: 33; range: 0–4013) (P=0.001). When analysing samples pairwise, CTC counts were found to be significantly higher in CVB than in PVB in 12 out of 26 patients with detectable CTC. In contrast, only 2 out of 26 patients had higher CTC counts in PVB as compared with CVB, whereas in 12 remaining patients no significant difference was seen. The pattern of CTC distribution was independent of the sites of metastatic involvement.
A substantial difference in the number of CTC was observed between CVB and PVB of patients with MBC. Registration of the site of blood collection is warranted in studies evaluating the role of CTC assessment in these patients.
PMCID: PMC3101936  PMID: 21468046
circulating tumour cells; metastatic breast cancer; CellSearch system; peripheral venous blood; central venous blood

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